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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van Well, Lisa
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Management & Organisation/Centre for International Business Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Gunn
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Farelius, Johanna
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Underlag till kontrollstation 2015 för anpassning till ett förändrat klimat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the climate changes, actors on all levels and in all sectors will be affected. Thus it is imperative that authorities, municipalities, businesses and individual property owners all take action.

    Flooding, heat waves, landslides and erosion are only a few examples of the challenges that that society faces and needs to prepare for. Sweden must adapt to the impacts of a changing climate, as well as the indirect effects of climate change impacts in other parts of the world.

    The costs of adaptation can be high, but the European Commission, among others, has deemed that it still pays to adapt in relation to the costs incurred if no action is taken.

    Climate adaptation initiatives in Sweden have advanced significantly in recent years. Notable examples include governmental missions for a national elevation database, landslide risk mapping in the Göta Älv River Valley, the Swedish drinking water investigation, the County Administrative Boards’ regional climate change action plans, and the establishment of the National Knowledge Centre for Climate Adaptation.

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute’s mission to survey, analyse and follow-up on climate adaptation work in Sweden has shown that there is still a considerable need for further measures. This report provides proposals for a road map for climate adaptation in Sweden and concludes that climate adaptation is best conducted in a long-term manner, that roles and responsibilities should be made more transparent, and that better coordination among the many actors involved in climate adaptation is necessary.

    The most important conclusions for continued work are:

    • Laws and regulations need to be adapted; roles and responsibilities as well as strategies and goals should be made clearer.
    • Priority and funding should be given to research and development measures that fill an identified knowledge-gap, including long-term monitoring.
    • Knowledge and decision support as well as prognoses and warning systems should be more accessible.
    • There is a need to outline how the costs of adaptation should be distributed among actors and how resources for prioritised measures can be guaranteed.

    This mission has compiled knowledge of the current and future risks and consequences for society of a changing climate, such as effects on vital societal functions and human health. The mission has also surveyed the work that has been done since the publication of the final report of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability in 2007. From this background material our goal has been to describe the gaps and challenges and provide suggestions for how adaptation can be approached in various sectors of society. The EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change has been an important point of departure. The work has been performed in cooperation with national and regional authorities, municipalities, researchers, sectoral organisations and representatives of the private sector.

    This report is comprised of a main report and 18 annexes. Chapter 3 of the main report is a synthesis of all of the proposals made throughout the document and as such can be seen as a road map to ensure that Sweden adapts to a changing climate.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alberth, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Vulnerability Assessment Concept: A Tool for Prioritization of the Most Relevant Issues for Macro-regional Cooperation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims at identifying potential issues for collaboration related to climate adaptation through application of a tool for assessing macro-regional risks. The tool is intended to assist decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in discussions on how climate adaptation related cooperation would benefit most from macro-regional cooperation. It is based on four criteria: 1) confidence, 2) speed (determined by Baltadapt climate modellers), 3) importance of impacts and 4) macro-regional coverage (based on a questionnaires answered by 3-8 stakeholders from each of the nine riparian BSR states). Based on equal weighting of these factors, impacts related to biodiversity/eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, as well and impacts related to agriculture were given the highest rankings, which demonstrates the importance to include these sectors and their interrelationship as an important focus in macro-regional cooperation on climate adaptation in the BSR. Impacts  related to biodiversity and agriculture have in common that they are caused by climate change that will occur or already has occurred with a high degree of certainty (e.g., linked to air and water temperatures and rising sea levels), as well as having a very large macro-regional spatial coverage, and being perceived as of high societal and/or environmental concern.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 5.
    Baker, Andrea
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Biomarker records of palaeoenvironmental variations in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene: Evidences from a coastal peatland2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 451, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa's unique global position has given rise to a dynamic climate influenced by large sea surface temperature gradients and seasonal fluctuations in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Due to the semi-arid climate of the region, terrestrial palaeorecords are rare and our understanding of the long-term sensitivity of Southern African terrestrial ecosystems to climatic drivers is ambiguous. A 810 cm continuous peat core was extracted from the Mfabeni peatland with a 14C basal age of c. 47 thousand years calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), positioning it as one of the oldest known sub-tropical coastal peatlands in Southern Africa. This peat core provides an opportunity to investigate palaeoenvironmental changes in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene. Biomarker (n-alkane, n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol) analysis, in conjunction with previously published bulk geochemical data, was employed to reconstruct organic matter (OM) sources, rates of OM remineralisation and peatland hydrology. Our results showed that the principal OM source into the peatland was emergent and terrestrial plants with exception of shallow lake conditions when submerged macrophytes dominated (c. 44.5–42.6, 29.7, 26.1–23.1, 16.7–7.1 and 2.2 kcal yr BP). n-Alkane proxies suggest that local plant assemblages were predominantly influenced by peatland hydrology. By incorporating temperature sensitive n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol proxies, it was possible to disentangle the local temperature and precipitation changes. We report large variations in precipitation intensities, but subdued temperature fluctuations during the late Pleistocene. The Holocene period was characterised by overall elevated temperatures and precipitation compared to the preceding glacial period, interspersed with a millennial scale cooling event. A close link between the Mfabeni archive and adjacent Indian Ocean marine core records was observed, suggesting the regional ocean surface temperatures to be the dominant climate driver in this region since the late Pleistocene.

  • 6.
    Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Morth, Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1760-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide-rich mine tailings in Adak that are exposed to weathering cause acid mine drainage characterized by low PH (2-4) and high SO4 (UP to 800 mg L-1). Surface water, sediment and soil samples collected in this study contain higher concentrations of As, Cu, Fe and Zn, compared to the target and/or intervention limits set by international regulatory agencies. In particular, high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g L- 1) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) are of concern. There is large variability in trace element concentrations, implying that both physical (grain size) and chemical factors (pH, secondary phases as sulfides, Al-oxides or clay minerals) play an important role in their distribution. The low PH keeps the trace elements dissolved, and they are transported farther downstream. Trace element partition coefficients are low (log K-d = 0.3-4.3), and saturation indices calculated with PHREEQC are < 0 for common oxide and sulfidic minerals. The sediment and soil samples indicate an enhanced pollution index (up to 17), and high enrichment factors for trace elements (As up to 38,300; Zn up to 800). Finally, leaves collected from different plant types indicate bioaccumulation of several elements (As, Al, Cu, Fe and Zn). However, some of the plants growing in this area (e.g., Salix, Equisetum) are generally resistant to metal toxicity, and hence, liming and phytoremediation could be considered as potential on-site remediation methods.

  • 7.
    Bohman, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöström, Åsa
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Förslag till en metod för uppföljning av det nationella klimatanpassningsarbetet: redovisning av ett regeringsuppdrag2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har fått i uppdrag att senast den 20 december 2016 redovisa ett förslag på hur det nationella arbetet med klimatanpassning fortlöpande kan följas upp. Uppföljningen ska bland annat ge svar på effekten av det nationella arbetet kopplat till identifierade problem och behov och kunna användas för rapportering till EU och andra internationella organisationer.

    Den föreslagna utvärderingsmodellen består av tre olika delar/block som kan användas var för sig i olika syften men som tillsammans ger en bredare helhetsbild av det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet. De tre olika delarna är avsedda att svara på tre olika typer av övergripande frågeställningar:

    1. Finns de processer som är nödvändiga för att kunna arbeta med klimatanpassning på plats? I vilken utsträckning har frågan om anpassning integrerats i det svenska förvaltningssystemet?
    1. Vilka åtgärder har implementerats för att minska de negativa effekterna/sårbarheten? Vilka sektorer har man arbetat med och vilka centrala utmaningar och klimateffekter har adresserats/har inte adresserats?
    1. Vilka framsteg kan vi se i arbetet med att minska de negativa effekterna?

    Dessa frågor besvaras med hjälp av processindikatorer, åtgärdsuppföljning och effektindikatorer. Data samlas in via enkäter riktade till nationella myndigheter, länsstyrelser och kommuner. Ett omfattande utvecklingsarbete återstår för att ta fram effektindikatorer för olika sektorer/verksamheter. SMHI föreslår därför att uppdrag utdelas till nationella myndigheter att i samverkan med berörda aktörer utarbeta förslag på effektindikatorer för dessas respektive verksamheter.

    Det är vår slutsats att ett strategiskt nationellt ramverk för klimatanpassning, som sätter uppföljningsprocessen i ett sammanhang, krävs för att säkerställa effektivitet och kontinuitet i det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet. SMHI föreslår därför, i linje med EU:s klimatanpassningsstrategi, att en nationell policycykel för det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet etableras. Ett exempel på hur ett sådant ramverk skulle kunna se ut presenteras.

  • 8.
    Buhr, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stigson, Peter
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Gode, Jenny
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Oklar framtid för svensk lagring av koldioxid2012In: Upplyst eller utfryst: En antologi om elmarknaden / [ed] Mats Bergstrand, E.ON Sverige , 2012, p. 131-142Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Burauskaite-Harju, Agne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    A test for network-wide trends in rainfall extremes2012In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, ISSN 0899-8418, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in meteorological extremes are often examined by first reducing daily data to annual index values, such as the 95th or 99th percentiles. Here, we report how this idea can be elaborated to provide an efficient test for trends at a network of stations. The initial step is to make separate estimates of tail probabilities of precipitation amounts for each combination of station and year by fitting a generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) to data above a user-defined threshold. The resulting time series of annual percentile estimates are subsequently fed into a multivariate Mann-Kendall (MK) test for monotonic trends. We performed extensive simulations using artificially generated precipitation data and noted that the power of tests for temporal trends was substantially enhanced when ordinary percentiles were substituted for GPD percentiles. Furthermore, we found that the trend detection was robust to misspecification of the extreme value distribution. An advantage of the MK test is that it can accommodate non-linear trends, and it can also take into account the dependencies between stations in a network. To illustrate our approach, we used long time series of precipitation data from a network of stations in The Netherlands.

  • 10.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate governance after Copenhagen : research trends and policy practice: Introduction2015In: Research handbook on climate governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. xvii-xxxChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lövbrand, EvaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Research Handbook on Climate Governance2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Das, Supriyo K.
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Klump, J. Val
    Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Geosciences, Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA.
    Elemental (C, N, H and P) and stable isotope (del15 N and del13C) signatures in sediments from Zeekoevlei, South Africa: a record of human intervention in the lake2007In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 349-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used elemental carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and hydrogen ratios (C/N, N/P and H/C) with total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP) as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to investigate the source and depositional conditions of organic matter in sediments from Zeekoevlei, the largest freshwater lake in South Africa. Typical C/N (10–12), H/C ratios (≥1.7) and δ13Corganic values (−22 to −19‰) together with the increase in TOC concentration indicate elevated primary productivity in lower middle (18–22 cm) and top (0–8 cm) sections of the sediment cores. Seepage of nutrients from a nearby waste water treatment plant, rapid urbanization and heavily fertilized farming in the catchments are responsible for the increased productivity. Consistent with this, measured δ15Norganic values (∼11‰) indicate increased raw sewage input towards the top-section of the core. Although cyanobacterial blooms are evident from the low δ15N values (∼3‰) in mid-section of the core, they did not outnumber the phytoplankton population. Low N/P ratio (∼0) and high TP (100–2,200 mg l−1) support cyanobacterial growth under N limited condition, and insignificant input of macrophytes towards the organic matter pool. Dredging in 1983, caused sub-aerial exposure of the suspended and surface sediments, and affected organic matter preservation in the upper mid-section (12–14 cm) of the core.

  • 13.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ricao Canelhas, Monica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eiler, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Constraints on methane oxidation in ice-covered boreal lakes2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, no 7, p. 1924-1933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal lakes can be ice covered for a substantial portion of the year at which time methane (CH4) can accumulate below ice. The amount of CH4 emitted at ice melt is partially determined by the interplay between CH4 production and CH4 oxidation, performed by methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Yet the balance between oxidation and emission and the potential for CH4 oxidation in various lakes during winter is largely unknown. To address this, we performed incubations at 2 degrees C to screen for wintertime CH4 oxidation potential in seven lakes. Results showed that CH4 oxidation was restricted to three lakes, where the phosphate concentrations were highest. Molecular analyses revealed that MOB were initially detected in all lakes, although an increase in type I MOB only occurred in the three lake water incubations where oxidation could be observed. Accordingly, the increase in CO2 was on average 5 times higher in these three lake water incubations. For one lake where no oxidation was measured, we tested if temperature and CH4 availability could trigger CH4 oxidation. However, regardless of incubation temperatures and CH4 concentrations, ranging from 2 to 20 degrees C and 1-500M, respectively, no oxidation was observed. Our study indicates that some lakes with active wintertime CH4 oxidation may have low emissions during ice melt, while other and particularly nutrient poor lakes may accumulate large amounts of CH4 below ice that, in the absence of CH4 oxidation, will be emitted following ice melt. This variability in CH4 oxidation rates between lakes needs to be accounted for in large-scale CH4 emission estimates.

  • 14.
    Dubash, Navroz K.
    et al.
    Centre for Policy Research, India.
    Hagemann, Markus
    Ecofys Germany, Germany and Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Höhne, Niklas
    Ecofys Germany, Germany and Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Upadhyaya, Prabhat
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy2013In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 649-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (rather than international pledges), and on the use of objective metrics rather than normative criteria. The focus of the data is limited to national climate legislation and strategies and does not cover subnational or sectoral measures. Climate legislation and strategies are important because they can: enhance incentives for climate mitigation; provide mechanisms for mainstreaming; and provide a focal point for actors. Three broad findings emerge. First, there has been a substantial increase in climate legislation and strategies between 2007 and 2012: 67% of global GHG emissions are now under national climate legislation or strategy compared to 45% in 2007. Second, there are substantial regional effects to the patterns, with most increases in non-Annex I countries, particularly in Asia and Latin America. Third, many more countries have adopted climate strategies than have adopted climate legislation between 2007 and 2012. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.Policy relevance The increase in climate legislation and strategy is significant. This spread suggests that, at the national level, there is some movement in reshaping climate governance despite the relatively slow pace of global negotiations, although the exact implications of this spread require further research on stringency of actions and their implementation. Asia and Latin America represent the biggest improvements, while OECD countries, which start from a high base, remain relatively stagnant. Implications of regional patterns are further refined by an analysis by emissions, which shows that some areas of low levels of legislation and strategy are also areas of relatively low emissions. A broad trend toward an emphasis on strategies rather than legislation, with the significant exception of China, calls for enhanced research into the practical impact of national non-binding climate strategies versus binding legislation on countries' actual emissions over time.

  • 15.
    Genero, Magalí Martí
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Microbial Communities in Boreal Peatlands: Responses to Climate Change and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Depositions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands play a substantial role in regulating the global carbon balance and concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, and are thus of utmost importance from a climate change perspective. Any changes of peatland functions due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations may result in changes in these ecosystem services. Soil microbial communities are essential drivers of biogeochemical processes, including the carbon cycle. In order to fully understand the effect of environmental perturbations on peatland functions, it is essential to understand how microbial communities are affected. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate the responses of the peat microbial communities to climate change and increased precipitation of nitrogen(N) and sulfur (S) compounds. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and functional composition of microbial communities, and quantitative PCR was used to specifically target the methanogen community. Two field studies including three ombrotrophic peatlands each that differed in climatological conditions and atmospheric N and S depositions, were used to investigate and compare the effect of large- and local-scale environmental conditions on microbial communities. The results show that the variation in geo-climatological (temperature and precipitation) and atmospheric deposition conditions along the latitudinal gradient modulate the peat microbial community composition and the abundance of active methanogens to a greater extent thansite-related microhabitats. Furthermore, a tight coupling between the plant community composition of a site and the composition of its microbial community was observed, and was found to be mainly driven by plants rather than microorganisms. These co-occurrence networks are strongly affected by seasonal climate variability and the interactions between species in colder areas are more sensitive to climate change. The long-term effects of warming and increased N and S depositions on the peat microbial communities were further investigated using an 18-year in-situ peatland experiment simulating these perturbations. The impacts of each of these perturbations on the microbial community were found to either multiply or counteract one another, with enhanced N deposition being the most important factor. While the long-term perturbations resulted in a substantial shift in the taxonomic composition of microbial communities, only minor changes occurred in genome-encoded functional traits, indicating a functional redundancy. This could act as a buffer maintaining ecosystem functioning when challenged by multiple stressors, and could limit future changes in greenhouse gases and carbonexchange.

    List of papers
    1. Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 81, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ombrotrophic raised bogs are nutrient poor acidic peatlands accumulating organic matter. They are widely spread on northern latitudes and are substantial sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere being of great concern from a climate change perspective. We investigated the methanogen community composition along microtopographic gradients within three bogs in Scandinavia, receiving different amounts of nitrogen precipitation. Methanogenic community analyses by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mcrA gene showed different profiles among the three sites, while no in- fluence of the microtopographic gradients was observed. Peat temperature and dissolved organic carbon were the major edaphic variables explaining 38% of the variation of the methanogenic community di- versity among the bogs. The family Methanoregulaceae (hydrogenotrophic methanogens) showed the largest relative proportion and highest activity in all three sites. Quantitative PCR of the mcrA gene and transcripts showed that the most northern site, receiving the lowest atmospheric nitrogen load, had significantly lower abundance and activity of methanogens (4.7 106 and 2.4 104 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), compared to the most southern site (8.2 107 and 4.6 105 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), receiving the highest nitrogen load. No patterns of the mcrA gene and tran- script abundances were observed along the microtopography. The results indicated that the difference in occurrence of methanogens is mainly due to geoclimatological conditions rather than site intrinsic microtopographic variation. The study further suggests that environmental changes on the site intrinsic topography will not affect the methanogenic activity, while increasing average temperatures in Scan- dinavian ombrotrophic raised bogs might contribute to an increase of the methanogenic archaeal activity resulting in an increase of methane production. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Methanogenic arhcaea, mcrA gene, peatland, microtopography, T-RFLP, qPCR
    National Category
    Ecology Microbiology Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113846 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.11.016 (DOI)000350524700024 ()
    Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Ghosh, Devanita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Integrative Taxonomy and Microbial Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India.
    Bhadury, Punyasloke
    Integrative Taxonomy and Microbial Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Coping with arsenic stress: Adaptations of arsenite-oxidizing bacterial membrane lipids to increasing arsenic levels2018In: Open Microbiology Journal, ISSN 1874-2858, E-ISSN 1874-2858, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e00594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Elevated levels of arsenic (As) in aquifers of South East Asia have caused diverse health problems affecting millions of people who drink As-rich groundwater and consume various contaminated agriculture products. The biogeochemical cycling and mobilization/immobilization of As from its mineral-bound phase is controlled by pH, oxic/anoxic conditions, and different microbial processes. The increased As flux generated from ongoing biogeochemical processes in the subsurface in turn affects the in situ microbial communities. This study analyzes how the indigenous arsenite-oxidizing bacteria combat As stress by various biophysical alterations and self-adaptation mechanisms. Fifteen arsenite-oxidizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified using a polyphasic approach. The bacterial strains isolated from these aquifers belong predominantly to arsenite-oxidizing bacterial groups. Of these, the membrane-bound phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were characterized in seven selected bacterial isolates grown at different concentrations of As(III) in the medium. One of the significant findings of this study is how the increase in external stress can induce alteration of membrane PLFAs. The change in fatty acid saturation and alteration of their steric conformation suggests alteration of membrane fluidity due to change in As-related stress. However, different bacterial groups can have different degrees of alteration that can affect sustainability in As-rich aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain.

  • 17.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Neset, Tina Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) Norrköping, Sweden.
    Almås, Anders-Johan
    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Oslo, Norway.
    Increasing house owners adaptive capacity: Compliancebetween climate change risks and adaptation guidelines in Scandinavia2015In: Urban Climate, ISSN 2212-0955, E-ISSN 2212-0955, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to intensify weather related risks affecting the existing buildingstock. To increase the understanding of how the capacity among individual house ownersto mitigate such risks can be improved, this study analyses the compliance between anticipatedclimate risks and existing adaptation guidelines to house owners in Denmark,Norway and Sweden. The assessment of climate risks is based on a review of climatechange and building research literature. The compilation of available guidelines is basedon an assessment of information from government authorities, municipalities as well asinsurance companies and organizations. Results reveal a high compliance between availableguidelines and risks for already experienced weather risks, while somewhat new risksfrom anticipated climate change impacts are less covered. To better facilitate adaptiveresponses, further adaptation guidelines would earn from explicitly targeting house owners,as well as highlighting relationships between anticipated climate impacts, existingweather risks and individual management practices. Public–private cooperation is identifiedas an important means for making information more accessible and easily available.

  • 18.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making methane visible2016In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, p. 426-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, and an important energy carrier in biogas and natural gas. Its large-scale emission patterns have been unpredictable and the source and sink distributions are poorly constrained. Remote assessment of CH4 with high sensitivity at a m2 spatial resolution would allow detailed mapping of the near-ground distribution and anthropogenic sources in landscapes but has hitherto not been possible. Here we show that CH4gradients can be imaged on the <m2 scale at ambient levels (~1.8 ppm) and filmed using optimized infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging. Our approach allows both spectroscopic confirmation and quantification for all pixels in an imaged scene simultaneously. It also has the ability to map fluxes for dynamic scenes. This approach to mapping boundary layer CH4 offers a unique potential way to improve knowledge about greenhouse gases in landscapes and a step towards resolving source–sink attribution and scaling issues.

  • 19.
    Haglund, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Klingmyr, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Spatial variability of aquatic carbon dioxide and methane concentrations: A study of a hemi-boreal stream2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waters such as streams and lakes have recently been found to be supersaturated with both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) – the high concentrations resulting in significant natural emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Previous studies have shown that streams emit particularly large amounts of GHGs per area covered, but the spatial variability is very high and has rarely been studied in detail. This study focuses on the variability of aquatic CO2 and CH4 concentrations with high spatial resolution in a hemi-boreal stream. The study area is a 7 km2 catchment in Skogaryd in southwest Sweden. 131 samples were collected and the stream was divided into groups depending on slope gradient and geographical placement. The results show that the concentrations had high spatial variability, especially regarding CH4, and that the concentrations are higher and more variable at lower slope gradients, which possibly indicates an increased gas exchange at higher slopes. The results also showed that concentrations can increase or decrease sharply over short distances in relation to changing slope gradient. This shows that frequent spatial sampling is needed to more accurately represent streams than what is often the case in many studies. A general distance between sampling locations could not be found due to the high variability of concentrations. Instead, the authors suggest that future studies of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in streams use a stratified random sampling strategy based on slope gradients.

  • 20.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Martin
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Land-use change emissions embodied in exports of agricultural forest-risk commodities from Brazil and IndonesiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial agriculture producing for international markets is increasingly important in driving tropical deforestation and global land‐use change. The geographic separation of consumption and production locations through international trade creates distant links and feedback effects that can induce land clearing in some locations. Such indirect linkages, or teleconnections, are difficult to quantify in general, and particularly in the case of emissions from land‐use change. In this paper we quantify carbon emissions from land‐use changes arising from the expansion of agricultural production of soy and beef in Brazil and oil palm plantations in Indonesia, and trace export flows of these commodities to the consumer countries. We find a steady increase of emissions embodied in exports of both countries since 1990, indicating that export production is gaining importance as a driver of land clearing. In 2010, total emissions embodied in exports reached 89 MtCO2 for Brazil and 118 MtCO2 for Indonesia. The main consuming countries included the EU as main importer of all three commodities since the 1990s, and since the 2000s exports to emerging economies have been rising; mainly of soy to China; beef to Russia and China; and palm oil to India and Malaysia. Results advance the understanding of deforestation teleconnections and can contribute to the design of forest conservation policies or demand‐side policies that address global demand and consumption levels of forest‐risk commodities.

  • 21.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brink, Ebba
    Wamsler, Christine
    Svensk forskning om klimatanpassning inom styrning och planering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan klimat- och sårbarhetsutredningen presenterade sitt betänkande år 2007 har omfattande samhällsvetenskapliga forskningsinsatser riktats mot hur offentliga aktörer och myndigheter styr, planerar och arbetar med klimatanpassning och klimatomställning. Analytisk kompetens inom flera för klimatanpassning centrala områden har byggts upp vid ett flertal lärosäten och inom flera sektorsmyndigheter.

    Det   är   alltför  tidskrävande  att   göra   en   heltäckande  och   rättvisande  bild   av   dessa forskningsaktiviteter, men denna inlaga från Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR, vid Linköpings universitet i samarbete med Lunds universitets centrum för studier av uthållig samhällsutveckling, LUCSUS, gör valda nedslag inom tre huvudområden i vilka kunskapen ökats genom svensk anpassningsforskning. De tre huvudområdena för kunskapsökning är: Klimatanpassning  på  offentliga  aktörers  agenda,  Verktyg  för  att  stimulera  och  stödja klimatanpassning och Klimatanpassning och stadsplanering.

    Det är vår förhoppning att detta ger en tillräckligt god bild av hur kunskapsläget ökar snabbt och att vi ser tecken på att ökningstakten tilltar. Vi vill också på förhand be om ursäkt för de texter och den forskning som vi på grund av begränsade resurser inte fick med i vår framställning.

  • 22.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schauser, Inke
    Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Germany.
    Alberth, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guideline on the System Vulnerability: Analysis of the Baltic Sea Region Vulnerability to the Impact of Climate Change2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report elaborates an integrated vulnerability assessment concept, intended as a knowledge brokerage tool for decision-makers in the Baltic Sea Region. By developing an integrated vulnerability concept, in line with advances in regional and local vulnerability and adaptation research and based on the project’s review of the scope and quality of current vulnerability assessments, the report supports discussions on what is needed for a systematic assessment of vulnerability in the region. The report rearticulates five critical challenges that potentially hamper realizing the full potential of vulnerability assessments to support and contribute to strategic decisions on climate adaptation: Adequate scope and goals; Ability to reflect the context; Inclusion of socio-economic stress; Clear connection between vulnerability assessment and decision-making on responses (and integrating knowledge and policies across sectors and levels); and Ability to merge top-down and bottom-up approaches. For each challenge, a principle has been formulated, which may serve as a guide in the development of the Baltic Sea Region Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.

  • 23.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Practical guidance for vulnerability assessments at the regional and local scale (BalticClimate)2014In: Climate change adaptation manual: lessons learned from European and other industrialised countries / [ed] Andrea Prutsch, Torsten Grothmann, Sabine McCallum, Inke Schauser, Rob Swart, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 50-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Routh, Joyanto
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Permafrost Terrain – landscape scale analyses from the European Russian Arctic2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     1 INTRODUCTION

    Soils of high latitude terrestrial ecosystems are considered key components in the global carbon cycle and hold large stores of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC). The absolute and relative sizes of labile and recalcitrant SOC pools in periglacial terrain are mostly unknown (Kuhry et al. in prep.). Such data has important policy relevance because of its impact on climate change.

    We sampled soils representative of all major land cover and soil types in discontinuous permafrost terrain, European Russian Arctic. We analyzed the bulk soil characteristics including the soil humic fraction to assess the recalcitrance in organic matter quality in down-depth soil profiles.

    2 METHODS

    A comprehensive stratified random soil sampling program was carried out in the Seida area during late summer 2008. From these, we selected nine sites considered representative for the landscape. Active layer and permafrost free upland soils were sampled from dug soil pits with fixed volume corers. Peat plateaus were sampled near thermally eroding edges. Permafrost soils were cored using steel pipes hammered into the frozen peat. Permafrost free fens were sampled using fixed volume Russian corers.

    Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the SOC ages. The soils were analyzed for dry bulk density, elemental content, and stable isotope composition of organic C and N (δ13C, and δ15N). Further, humic acids were extracted, and the degree of humification of SOM assessed based on A600/C and ∆ log K (Ikeya and Watanabe, 2003).

    3 RESULTS

    Figure 1 shows soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics in a peat sequence from one of the nine described sites, a raised bog peat plateau.

    The peatland first developed as a permafrost-free fen during the Holocene Hypsithermal. Permafrost only aggraded in the late Holocene. Anoxic conditions in the fen and permafrost in peat plateau stages reduced decomposition rates and the degree of humification (A600/C) is relatively constant throughout the peat deposit.

    Botanical origin is a key factor in determining SOM quality, which is clearly reflected in the elemental ratio (C/N) and isotopic composition of C and N. There are sharp shifts in humification, C/N and isotopic composition at the peat/clay interface.

    REFERENCES

    Ikeya, K. and Watanabe, A., 2003, Direct expression of an index for the degree of humification of humic acids using organic carbon concentration. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 49: 47-53.

    Kuhry, P., Dorrepaal, E., Hugelius G., Schuur, E.A.G. and Tarnocai C., Potential remobilization of permafrost carbon under future global warming. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, Submitted.

  • 25.
    Huguet, Carme
    et al.
    Univ Los Andes, Colombia.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fietz, Susanne
    Stellenbosch Univ, South Africa.
    Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taiwan.
    Kalpana, M. S.
    CSIR, India.
    Ghosh, Prosenjit
    Indian Inst Sci, India.
    Mangini, Augusto
    Inst Umweltphys, Germany.
    Kumar, Vikash
    Natl Ctr Antarctic and Ocean Res, India.
    Rangarajan, Ravi
    Indian Inst Sci, India.
    Temperature and Monsoon Tango in a Tropical Stalagmite: Last Glacial-Interglacial Climate Dynamics2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 5386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-resolution paleoclimate data on stable isotopes in a stalagmite were coupled to glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) transitioned from limited rainfall during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to intense precipitation during early Holocene (22 to 6 ka). This was associated with changes in stalagmite growth, abundance of branched (br) and isoprenoid (iso) GDGTs, as well as delta O-18, delta C-13, Sr/Ca and GDGT-derived signals providing both temperature and moisture information. The reconstructed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of the most modern stalagmite sample at similar to 19 degrees C, matches the surface and cave MAAT, but was similar to 4 degrees C lower during LGM. Warming at the end of LGM occurred before ISM strengthened and indicate 6 ka lag consistent with sea surface temperature records. The isotope records during the Younger Dryas show rapid progressions to dry conditions and weak monsoons, but these shifts are not coupled to TEX86. Moreover, change to wetter and stronger ISM, along with warmer Holocene conditions are not continuous indicating a decoupling of local temperatures from ISM.

  • 26.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Goodsite, M.E.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Davis, M.
    Stockholm Environment Institute US Centre, USA.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Davídsdóttir, B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Atlason, R.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Landauer, Mia
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Neset, Tina Schmid
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Eskeland, Gunnar
    Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Gammelgaard Ballantyne, Anne
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Adaptation decision-making in the Nordic countries: assessing the potential for joint action2014In: Environment Systems and Decisions, ISSN 2194-5403, E-ISSN 2194-5411, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 600-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a global context, the outlook for the Nordic region is relatively favourable, given its relatively stronger resiliency to climate change impacts in comparison to many other geo-political regions of the world. Overall, the projected climatic changes include increases in mean temperatures and in precipitation, although regional variations can be significant. The countries’ robust institutions and economies give them a strong capacity to adapt to these changes. Still, the need for adaptation to the changing climate has been and still is substantial, and in most of the region, there has been progress on the issue. This paper explores the potential for Nordic cooperation on adaptation; specifically, for the development of a regional adaptation strategy. In particular, it addresses two questions (1) What is the current state of adaptation in the Nordic countries? and (2) What are the potential benefits and weaknesses of a Nordic strategy for adaptation? In order to answer these two questions, this paper examines reviews the current national adaptation policies of each Nordic country and discusses the challenges facing a Nordic strategy and finally assesses the potential for common Nordic adaptation policy and further cooperation.

  • 27.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Klein, Natacha
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kayhko, Janina
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Transformations in Nordic Agriculture?2017In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, ISSN 0743-0167, Vol. 51, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have negative impacts but also to bring potential opportunities for agriculture and crop productivity in the Nordic countries. Little research has been conducted at the farmer level to identify what adaptation measures are being considered or already taken and transformative these are. Based on semi-structured interviews with farmers and extension officers from two of the most fertile agricultural areas of Finland and Sweden, this study examines to what extent Nordic farmers are engaged in transforming their farming systems. The results show that some transformational changes are taking place already but most changes are incremental. Currently, agricultural policies and regulations are perceived as a greater adaptation challenge than climate change.

  • 28.
    Kuyper, Jonathan W.
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Schroeder, Heike
    University of East Anglia, England.
    Non-state actors in hybrid global climate governance: justice, legitimacy, and effectiveness in a post-Paris era2018In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 9, no 1, article id UNSP e497Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we outline the multifaceted roles played by non-state actors within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and place this within the wider landscape of global climate governance. In doing so, we look at both the formation and aftermath of the 2015 Paris Agreement. We argue that the Paris Agreement cements an architecture of hybrid multilateralism that enables and constrains non-state actor participation in global climate governance. We flesh out the constitutive features of hybrid multilateralism, enumerate the multiple positions non-state actors may employ under these conditions, and contend that non-state actors will play an increasingly important role in the post-Paris era. To substantiate these claims, we assess these shifts and ask how non-state actors may affect the legitimacy, justice, and effectiveness of the Paris Agreement. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 29.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rayner, Steve
    Institute for Science, Innovations and Society, University of Oxford.
    Innovation investments2015In: Research handbook on climate governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Northamton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 547-554Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lion, Peter
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Web-based Climate Visualization Platforms: Challenges and Opportunities2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change is becoming an pertinent issue, as climate change mitigation options have not been implemented to asufficient degree.  The impacts of climate change will have to be dealt with by various stakeholders including the insurance industry and homeowners.  These stakeholders, also including the scientific community, need to work together in order to distribute climate change information in a manner that enables homeowners to become part of the climate change discussion.  This study discusses the use of web-based climate visualization platforms and the perception of the users of these platforms through focus group studies. 

     

    By analyzing six web-based climate visualizations through content analysis and then having five focus groups analyze two web-based climate visualization platforms, Caladapt and Plan2Adapt, the study aims to determine how users of web-based climate visualization platforms perceive the platforms, tools and visual representations presented to them and what additional information and components should be included.

     

    The overall analysis determined that adaptation information is not adequately communicated within any of the examined platforms. Rather than vulnerability or adaptation, the effects of climate change were represented as 2D maps and graph visual representations.  Participants found this information to be secondary information since it did not interest or seem relevant to the users.  As homeowners, participants did not want to have to analyze or interpret data rather they wanted usable information that they could apply if they felt it was valid and applied to their situation.  The study presents many aspects that could be applied to future web-based visualization platforms.

  • 31.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change governance is under increasing pressure to deliver meaningful climate action. It is now widely agreed that a low-carbon growth path requires major transformations of energy systems. This paper seeks to provide new conceptual and empirical insights into questions about different roles played by major oil and gas companies in climate change governance. Specifically, the paper examines how the ten largest oil and gas companies in the world present their rationales for addressing climate change and their activities related to climate action, including the oil and gas companies’ involvement in international climate diplomacy. The paper thereby contributes to the environmental governance literature by highlighting the North/South dimension and the state/non-state dimension of major oil and gas companies and their activities to address climate change. These issues touch upon central questions in the literature, such as the relations between state and non-state actors and our understanding of the allocation of responsibility in climate change politics. Its novel empirical findings also contribute to new insights into the climate change activities currently underway in the oil and gas sector. The paper thus has important implications both for the theory and practice of climate change governance.

  • 32.
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shapers, Brokers and Doers: The Dynamic Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Climate Change Governance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors, such as international environmental organisations, business associations and indigenous peoples organisations, increasingly take on governance functions that can influence the delivery of global public goods. This thesis examines the roles of these actors in the field of global climate change governance. Specifically, the thesis examines why and how non-state actors are involved in global climate change governance, the governance activities that they may perform and are perceived to perform, and their views on climate change solutions. The thesis also discusses the implications of their roles for how authority is shared between states and non-state actors in global climate change governance. The research questions are addressed by triangulating several empirical methods. The results show that the roles of non-state actors are continuously evolving and depend on the changing nature of relations between state and non-state actors as well as efforts by non-state actors to expand their policy space by justifying and seeking recognition for their participation. Moreover, the findings point to the importance of differentiating between groups of non-state actors, as they represent diverse interests and have different comparative advantages across governance activities. Which non-state actors participate and to what extent therefore has implications for the effects of their involvement in global climate change governance. On the basis of a systematic assessment of a set of non-state actors, this thesis concludes that the key role-categories of non-state actors in global climate change governance are broadly: shapers of information and ideas, brokers of knowledge, norms and initiatives, and doers of implementing policies and influencing behaviours. Different non-state actors carry out activities within these role-categories to different extents. In addition to the empirical mapping of the roles of non-state actors in global climate change governance, this thesis contributes to two strands in the literature: one theoretical focusing on the authority and legitimacy of non-state actors in global environmental governance, and the other methodological, offering a toolbox that combines survey data with qualitative methods.

    List of papers
    1. Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
    2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When do states allow nonstate actors (NSAs) to observe negotiations at intergovernmental meetings? Previous studies have identified the need for states to close negotiations when the issues under discussion are sensitive. This paper argues that sensitivity alone cannot adequately explain the dynamic of closing down negotiations to observers. Questions that have received little attention in the literature include which issues are considered sensitive and how the decision is made to move the negotiations behind closed doors. This paper examines the practices of NSA involvement in climate diplomacy from three analytical perspectives: functional efficiency, political dynamics, and historical institutionalism. Based on interviews and UNFCCC documents, this paper suggests that to understand the issue of openness in negotiations, institutional factors and the politics of NSA involvement need to be better scrutinized. The paper shows that each perspective has particular advantages when analyzing different dimensions of the negotiations, with implications of how we understand the role of NSAs in global environmental governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108551 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9237-6 (DOI)000372248800007 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
    2016 (English)In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 920-943Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of non-state actors in multilateral institutions is often portrayed as one way of decreasing the perceived legitimacy deficit in global governance. The literature on non-state actors has identified several ways in which these actors can enhance the legitimacy of intergovernmental organisations and global governance arrangements. Three partially competing normative arguments, or rationales, for the inclusion of non-state actors in international policymaking ᅵ functionalism, neocorporatism and democratic pluralism ᅵ have been identified. Whereas functionalism highlights the contribution of non-state actors to output legitimacy in terms of expertise, neocorporatism emphasises the inclusion of affected interests, and democratic pluralism claims that non-state actors increase input legitimacy through procedural values. These three normative arguments thus offer different understandings of the motives for the inclusion and representation of non-state actors in international negotiations and diplomacy. Through a single case study of United Nations climate diplomacy, we analyse the extent to which the three rationales for non-state actor inclusion are found in views held by state and non-state actors participating in the annual United Nations climate change conferences. Our results show that different actor groups place varying degrees of emphasis on the different rationales for non-state actor inclusion, even though the neocorporatist rationale remains most favoured overall. We discuss the implications of our findings for the democratic legitimacy of increasing participation of non-state actors in intergovernmental affairs and recent trends in the participation of non-state actors in the international climate change policymaking process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2016
    Keywords
    Climate change, global governance, legitimacy, non-state actors
    National Category
    Globalisation Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123293 (URN)10.1177/1354066115608926 (DOI)000387234600009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
    2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 109-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization processes have rendered non-state actors an integral part of global governance. The body of literature that has examined non-state actor involvement in global governance has focused mainly on whether and how non-state actors can influence states. Less attention has been paid to the comparative advantages of non-state actors to answer questions about agency across categories of non-state actors, and more precisely what governance activities non-state actors are perceived to fulfil. Using unique survey material from two climate change conferences, we propose that different categories of non-state actors have distinct governance profiles. We further suggest that the different governance profiles are derived from particular power sources and that agency is a function of these profiles. The study thereby contributes to a strand in the literature focusing on the authority of non-state actors in climate governance and broadens the methodological toolkit for studying the “governors” of global governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2016
    Keywords
    Non-state actors Agency Climate change Global environmental governance Power sources
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108555 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9243-8 (DOI)000372248800006 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

    Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change governance is under increasing pressure to deliver meaningful climate action. It is now widely agreed that a low-carbon growth path requires major transformations of energy systems. This paper seeks to provide new conceptual and empirical insights into questions about different roles played by major oil and gas companies in climate change governance. Specifically, the paper examines how the ten largest oil and gas companies in the world present their rationales for addressing climate change and their activities related to climate action, including the oil and gas companies’ involvement in international climate diplomacy. The paper thereby contributes to the environmental governance literature by highlighting the North/South dimension and the state/non-state dimension of major oil and gas companies and their activities to address climate change. These issues touch upon central questions in the literature, such as the relations between state and non-state actors and our understanding of the allocation of responsibility in climate change politics. Its novel empirical findings also contribute to new insights into the climate change activities currently underway in the oil and gas sector. The paper thus has important implications both for the theory and practice of climate change governance.

    Keywords
    Oil and gas companies, climate change governance, private authority, non-state actors
    National Category
    Climate Research Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123294 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    5. Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
    2014 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, ISSN ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 105, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intergovernmental organisations have developed into important sites of normative contestation where increasingly non-state actors participate. A common puzzle is however whether engaged non-state actors represent already strong and established interests or if they also bring forth marginalised voices. This concern raises the pertinent question of what views non-state actors actually represent and if this adds to the perspectives voiced by state actors. This paper examines the views held and voiced by state and a range of non-state participants at the United Nation's climate change conferences. Specifically, questions on what types of climate change solutions are favoured and to what extent these solutions are discussed are addressed. Through statistical analyses of questionnaire data and a content analysis of abstracts of side-events to the conferences, we find that while non-state actors help in broadening the discursive space, some perspectives remain marginalised. We conclude that while non-state actors represent a pluralising force, greater non-state actor participation in intergovernmental organisations is on its own unlikely to lead to democratic global governance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Non-state actors; Climate change; Global Environmental Governance; Deliberative democracy
    National Category
    Political Science Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108517 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.06.002 (DOI)000342272600018 ()
    Projects
    Non-state actors in the new landscape of international climate cooperation
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2014-06-29 Created: 2014-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05
  • 33.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Freshwater methane and carbon dioxide fluxes: Spatio-temporal variability and an integrated assessment of lake and stream emissions in a catchment2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater bodies such as lakes and streams release the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Global freshwater CH4 and CO2 emissions have been estimated to be of a similar magnitude to the global land or ocean carbon sink, and are thus significant components of global carbon budgets. However, the data supporting global estimates frequently lacks information regarding spatial and temporal variability and are thus highly inaccurate. In this thesis, detailed studies of the spatio-temporal variability of CH4 and CO2 fluxes were conducted in the open water areas of lakes and streams within a whole catchment in Sweden. One aim was also to evaluate the importance of spatio-temporal variability in lake and stream fluxes when making whole catchment aquatic or large scale assessments. Apart from the expected large spatio-temporal variability in lake fluxes, interactions between spatial and temporal variability in CH4 fluxes were found. Shallow lakes and shallow areas of lakes were observed to emit more CH4 as compared to their deeper counterparts. This spatial variability interacted with the temporal variability driven by an exponential temperature response of the fluxes, which meant that shallow waters were more sensitive to warming than deeper ones. Such interactions may be important for climate feedbacks. Surface water CO2 in lakes showed significant spatio-temporal variability and, when considering variability in both space and time, CO2 fluxes were largely controlled by concentrations, rather than gas transfer velocities. Stream fluxes were also highly variable in space and time and in particular, stream CH4 fluxes were surprisingly large and more variable than CO2 fluxes. Fluxes were large from stream areas with steep slopes and periods of high discharge which occupied a small fraction of the total stream area and the total measurement period, respectively, and a failure to account for these spatially distinct or episodic high fluxes could lead to underestimates. The total aquatic fluxes from the whole catchment were estimated by combining the measurements in open waters of lakes and streams. Using our data, recommendations on improved study designs for representative measurements in lakes and streams were provided for future studies. Thus, this thesis presents findings relating to flux regulation in lakes and streams, and urges forthcoming studies to better consider spatio-temporal variability so as to achieve unbiased large-scale estimates.

    List of papers
    1. Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, p. S13-S26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are major sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere that contribute significantly to the global budget. Recent studies have shown that diffusive fluxes, ebullition and surface water CH4 concentrations can differ significantly within lakes—spatially and temporally. CH4 fluxes may be affected at longer scales in response to seasons, temperature, lake mixing events, short term weather events like pressure variations, shifting winds and diel cycles. Frequent measurements of fluxes in the same system and integrated assessments of the impacts of the spatio-temporal variability are rare. Thereby, large scale assessments frequently lack information on this variability which can potentially lead to biased estimates. In this study, we analysed the variability of CH4 fluxes and surface water CH4 concentrations across open water areas of lakes in a small catchment in southwest Sweden over two annual cycles. Significant patterns in CH4 concentrations, diffusive fluxes, ebullition and total fluxes were observed in space (between and within lakes) and in time (over diel cycles to years). Differences observed among the lakes can be associated with lake characteristics. The spatial variability within lakes was linked to depth or distance to stream inlets. Temporal variability was observed at diel to seasonal scales and was influenced by weather events. The fluxes increased exponentially with temperature in all three lakes, with stronger temperature dependence with decreasing depth. By comparing subsets of our data with estimates using all data we show that considering the spatio-temporal variability in CH4 fluxes is critical when making whole lake or annual budgets.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    National Category
    Climate Research Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126776 (URN)10.1002/lno.10222 (DOI)000388560900002 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council FORMAS [2009-872, 2009-1692]; Swedish Research Council VR [325-2012-48, 621-2011-3575]; Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB)

    Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
  • 34.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Crill, Patrick
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates2016In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, p. S13-S26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are major sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere that contribute significantly to the global budget. Recent studies have shown that diffusive fluxes, ebullition and surface water CH4 concentrations can differ significantly within lakes—spatially and temporally. CH4 fluxes may be affected at longer scales in response to seasons, temperature, lake mixing events, short term weather events like pressure variations, shifting winds and diel cycles. Frequent measurements of fluxes in the same system and integrated assessments of the impacts of the spatio-temporal variability are rare. Thereby, large scale assessments frequently lack information on this variability which can potentially lead to biased estimates. In this study, we analysed the variability of CH4 fluxes and surface water CH4 concentrations across open water areas of lakes in a small catchment in southwest Sweden over two annual cycles. Significant patterns in CH4 concentrations, diffusive fluxes, ebullition and total fluxes were observed in space (between and within lakes) and in time (over diel cycles to years). Differences observed among the lakes can be associated with lake characteristics. The spatial variability within lakes was linked to depth or distance to stream inlets. Temporal variability was observed at diel to seasonal scales and was influenced by weather events. The fluxes increased exponentially with temperature in all three lakes, with stronger temperature dependence with decreasing depth. By comparing subsets of our data with estimates using all data we show that considering the spatio-temporal variability in CH4 fluxes is critical when making whole lake or annual budgets.

  • 35.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tiwari, Rakesh
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Pettersson, Kristina
    Murthy, Indu
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravindranath, N.H.
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Can India’s wasteland be used for biomass plantations?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How much of India’s vast wasteland can be used for growing plants such as eucalyptus and Jatropha? As land demands have increased, the sustainable use of marginal lands has become increasingly important. In India about 47 million hectares, or 15 percent of the total geographical area, is classified as wastelands. Here we assess the climate and land quality requirements of eucalyptus, a commonly used plantation tree, and Jatropha, a much-discussed biodiesel crop. We find that roughly half of the degraded lands are suitable for growing eucalyptus and/or Jatropha. 

  • 36.
    Paulsén, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Användning av spel för att utbilda och engagera människor om klimatförändringarna2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie har genomförts i syfte att undersöka om spelande i samband med klimatinformerande påverkade och motiverade deltagaren mer till klimatagerande jämfört med då deltagaren endast fick läsa information om klimatet. Detta undersöktes med hjälp av en spelprototyp som skapats i detta syfte. Spelprototypen skapades i Scratch, vilket är ett interpreterande dynamiskt visuellt programmeringsspråk, och spelet innehöll tre olika nivåer. Mellan dessa nivåer så fick deltagaren information om klimatet som var relaterat till nivån de precis spelat. Efter att ha gjort experimentet skulle deltagaren besvara en enkät, som innehöll frågor där deltagaren skulle uppskatta, med hjälp av likertskalor, om denne kände sig påverkad och motiverad. Svaren på enkäten analyserades med ett Mann Whitney U test. Resultaten från dessa frågor var inte signifikanta, och därför kan inga slutsatser dras om spelet i samband med informationen hade en positiv påverkan. Även om resultaten inte var signifikanta så bör ytterligare forskning utföras inom ämnet, då tidigare forskning visat hur spel kan påverka beteende, och hur människors klimatagerande kan påverkas till det bättre genom spel.

  • 37.
    Pauw, W. P.
    et al.
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mbeva, Kennedy
    African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya / University of Melbourne, Melbourne, nAustralia.
    Dzebo, Adis
    German Development Institute, Bonn, Germany / Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cassanmagnago, Davide
    Independent Researcher, Milan, Italy.
    Rudloff, Anna
    Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
    Beyond headline mitigation numbers: we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change2018In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 147, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were key to reaching the Paris Agreement and will be instrumental in implementing it. Research was quick to identify the ‘headline numbers’ of NDCs: if these climate action plans were fully implemented, global mean warming by 2100 would be reduced from approximately 3.6 to 2.7°C above pre-industrial levels (Höhne et al. Climate Pol 17:1–17, 2016; Rogelj et al. Nature 534:631–639, 2016). However, beyond these headline mitigation numbers, NDCs are more difficult to analyse and compare. UN climate negotiations have so far provided limited guidance on NDC formulation, which has resulted in varying scopes and contents of NDCs, often lacking details concerning ambitions. If NDCs are to become the long-term instrument for international cooperation, negotiation, and ratcheting up of ambitions to address climate change, then they need to become more transparent and comparable, both with respect to mitigation goals, and to issues such as adaptation, finance, and the way in which NDCs are aligned with national policies. Our analysis of INDCs and NDCs (Once a party ratifies the Paris Agreement, it is invited to turn its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) into an NDC. We refer to results from our INDC analysis rather than our NDC analysis in this commentary unless otherwise stated.) shows that they omit important mitigation sectors, do not adequately provide details on costs and financing of implementation, and are poorly designed to meet assessment and review needs.

  • 38.
    Persson, U. Martin
    et al.
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Henders, Sabine
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities: applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil2014In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 3482-3491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints (CFPs), however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land‐use change (LUC) and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here we propose a new methodology for calculating land‐use change carbon footprints (LUC‐CFPs) for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate LUCCFPs in 2010 to be 66 tCO2/tCW for Brazilian beef, 0.9 tCO2/t for Brazilian soybeans, and 8.6 tCO2/t for Indonesian palm oil. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of LUC‐CFPs for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and sub‐national LUC‐CFPs; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of LUC. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land‐use change, LUC‐CFPs could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land‐use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  • 39.
    Premer, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nansubuga, Brenda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisational Learning in Business Model Innovation in the Bottom of Pyramid market: An empirical fieldwork about the market introduction of clean cookstoves in Mozambique2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for cleaner technology initiatives into the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) market to combat the effects of climate change. The difficulty of these initiatives lies in their business model innovation process, as those organisations struggle in finding adequate strategies to establish their business in the BoP market. The BoP market is characterised as highly uncertain, which makes the operation of businesses challenging. Hereby the thesis aims at answering the question on how organisational learning occurs in business model innovation in the BoP market. Through a case study approach, the thesis intends to understand the requirements to establish a functioning business model by analysing organisational learning under business model innovation within the BoP market.

    This has been realised through a three week field study in Northern Mozambique, observing the market introduction of a cleantech company operating in this context. Hereby the business model innovation process and the environment of operation was analysed. This research contributes to the current discussion of business model innovation in BoP markets by detecting organisational learning as a useful mechanism and adding relevant insights on how organisational learning occurs in this specific context. Therefore the study opens the discussion on organisational learning in business model innovation in the context of the BoP market by asking for further studies on the topic.

  • 40.
    Ricao Canelhas, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Methane oxidation at the water-ice interface of an ice-covered lake2016In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, p. S78-S90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are important components of the global methane (CH4) cycle. In seasonally ice-covered lakes, CH4 transported by ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic sediments gets trapped at the water-ice interface. If not oxidized by methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), this can potentially lead to high episodic CH4 emissions at ice-melt. To understand the fate of CH4 trapped below ice, we measured depth-distributions of CH4 concentrations in the water column near bubbles trapped below ice in Lake Erken. We also performed a 21 d incubation experiment at low temperature (2.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C) to investigate the potential for CH4 oxidation. During most sampling occasions, we found steep CH4 concentration gradients just below the ice with a 13-fold decrease from the surface to a depth of 20 cm. In vitro incubations revealed that CH4 oxidation can occur at low temperatures typical for the water-ice interface. CH4 oxidation was observed as a significant decrease in CH4 concentration, a significant increase in stable isotope C-13 signature, and an increase in MOB during the incubation. Thus, CH4 accumulating in the top 20 cm of the water column, fed by diffusion from CH4 in trapped bubbles, may fuel significant CH4 oxidation. Since northern latitude lakes can be ice-covered for many months of the year and significant amounts of CH4 accumulate below the ice, the extent of CH4 oxidation under these low temperature-conditions is important for understanding the potential CH4 emissions to the atmosphere during ice-melt.

  • 41.
    Shilla, Dativa J.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Distribution, Behavior, and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Water Column, Sediments and Biota of the Rufiji Estuary, Tanzania2018In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish the environmental status of Rufiji coastal waters in Tanzania, it is necessary to document the different contaminants as major entry points into the lower estuarine areas. Because there is no data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in this estuarine delta, the current study measured the concentrations of 19 PAHs in suspended particulate matter (SPM), surface sediments and marine organisms that are part of a telescoping food chain (gastropod Terebralia sp., clams Crassostrea cucullata, crabs Uca sp., panaeid shrimps Panaeus monodon, teleost Hilsa kelee, Trichiurus lepturus, and Arius thalassinus). Total PAH concentrations in SPM were low to moderate (18.7–223 ng/g) and varied between the sites; phenanthrene and chrysene were the dominant PAHs (2.40–47.2 and 4.20–28.1 ng/g, respectively). Significant variation between the sites indicates the influence of fuel spills and contribution from terrestrial sources resulting from different land use practices, such as agriculture, fishing, and harvesting firewood, charcoal, and mangroves poles. PAH concentrations in surface sediments were higher (127–376 ng/g) than SPM samples, and high molecular weight PAHs were the dominant fraction. Animal tissues indicated low PAH levels (9.20–158 ng/g). Only low molecular weight PAHs were dominant in the muscle tissues of pelagic and filter feeders (C. cucullata, P. monodon, and H. kelee). Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) ranged between 0.20 and 69.5 and it suggests 1) PAH accumulation in the marine organisms has so far been limited, and 2) distribution of PAHs in the Rufiji estuary poses limited risks.

  • 42.
    Shrivastava, Manish K.
    et al.
    The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India.
    Upadhyaya, Prabhat
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Whither multilateralism? Implications of bilateral NAMA finance for development and soverignty concerns of developing countries2014In: Internalising mitigation activities into the development priorities and approaches of developing countries / [ed] Meagan Jooste, Emily Tyler, Kim Coetzee, Anya Boyd and Michael Boulle, Cape Town: Energy, Environment and Climate Change Programme of the Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa , 2014, p. 78-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of sovereignty has been considerably redefined by the environmental challenges, particularly those with global implications. While the sovereign right of countries to exploit nat- ural resources (and protect the environment) within national boundaries has been recognised, how this right may be exercised by countries has been facing increasing threat of restrictions on account of the possible negative impacts it may have on other countries and global envi- ronment. For developing countries a multilateral regime to address global problems is better suited than a bilateral regime on account of sovereignty concerns. Space to bargain for legiti- mate space for determining national development agenda, as well as for negotiating a capa- bility enhancing non-intrusive arrangement towards contributing to the global solutions, is rel- atively wider under multilateral processes – more so, because developing countries can benefit from collective bargaining power. These options are either not available or restricted in a bilat- eral setting. In the context of climate change, provision of financial support to developing countries under the UNFCCC is one such capability-enhancing non-intrusive arrangement. However, the many bilateral channels of climate finance have reduced the effective bargaining space for developing countries. Many of the terms of these bilateral channels to support Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are in conflict with the long standing negotiating positions of developing countries on climate finance. Hence, implementation of bilaterally supported climate action puts developing countries’ negotiating stances in a contradictory position. Moreover, these terms may be influencing the development agenda in favour of mit- igation over development.

  • 43.
    Sietz, Diana
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany.
    Boschütz, Maria
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2B, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mainstreaming climate adaptation into development assistance: rationale, institutional barriers and opportunities in Mozambique2011In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Mozambique, weather extremes threaten development progress, while pronounced poverty aggravates the climate vulnerability of the population. With the country being a major recipient of official development assistance, Mozambique’s development strongly depends on donor investments. Against this background, we aim to encourage the mainstreaming of climate adaptation into development assistance. An analysis of donor investments at a sub-national level showed that a significant proportion of development assistance was invested in climate-sensitive sectors in regions highly exposed to extreme weather conditions. Major damage caused by weather extremes motivates a stronger integration of climate policies into development assistance. Although Mozambique has a supportive legislative environment and climate awareness among donors was found to be high, the limited institutional capacity restricted mainstreaming initiatives. Given major barriers at the national level, bilateral and multilateral donors are able to play a key role in fostering mainstreaming in Mozambique.

  • 44.
    Simelton, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. World Agroforestry CentreHa Noi, Viet Nam.
    Viet, Dam B.
    World Agroforestry CentreHa Noi, Viet Nam.
    Farmers in NE Viet Nam rank values of ecosystems from seven land uses2014In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 9, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being promoted as an integral part of natural resource management and Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) community participation is often considered restricted by lack of (local) knowledge. Contrasting evidence suggest that farmers more holistic understanding of ecosystems may challenge scientific studies and payment schemes typically focussing on a fraction of ecosystem services, e.g. Viet Nams PES-policy which covers forest carbon, water and landscape beauty. Against this backdrop we explored how farmer groups in two villages (one with PES and one without) in northeast Viet Nam rated and justified fifteen ecosystem services from seven land-uses, including non-PES functions and non-forest land uses. The villagers gave overall analogous ranking and reasoning. For overall ecosystem services natural forests and forest plantations rated highest and paddy rice lowest, however for economic values natural forests rated lowest and rice-fish cultivation highest. With regards to the PES-policy, farmers failed to see the logic of excluding agricultural land and agrochemical pollution from water services. We recommend that research and capacity building aiming to prepare for PES-schemes embrace a wider range of local knowledge and understandings of ecosystem functions than those immediately considered for payment schemes. We present a participatory matrix ranking tool to support such purposes.

  • 45.
    Smith, Joel B.
    et al.
    Stratus Consulting, PO Box 4059, Boulder, CO 80302, USA.
    Dickinson, Thea
    Burton Dickinson Consulting Ltd, 204-600 Kingston Road, Toronto, Ontario M4E 1R1, Canada.
    Donahue, Joseph D.B.
    Stratus Consulting, 1920 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
    Burton, Ian
    University of Toronto, 26 St. Anne’s Road, Toronto M6J 2C1, Canada / International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, UK.
    Haites, Erik
    Margaree Consultants Inc., 120 Adelaide Street West, Toronto M5H 1T1, Canada.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kra ̈ftriket 2B, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patwardhan, Anand
    S.J. Mehta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.
    Development and climate change adaptation funding: coordination and integration2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 987-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a few decades, tens of billions, and possibly over a hundred billion, dollars will be needed for climate change adaptation in developing countries. In recent international climate negotiations, US$100 billion per year by 2020 was pledged by developed countries for mitigation and adaptation. Even if this pledge is realized, it is not clear that it will generate sufficient funds to address the adaptation needs of developing countries. A majority of what has been identified as climate change adaptation needs could be considered as funding for basic development. In addition, a large share of current development assistance is spent on climate-sensitive projects. With the potential for funding of climate change adaptation to fall short of what is needed and for development funding to continue funding many climate-sensitive activities, coordination of the two funding streams may enable more effective support for both sustainable development and climate change adaptation. Preliminary steps to facilitate such coordination are part of the Cancun Agreements and initiatives by other organizations.

  • 46.
    Soria Baledón, Mónica
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prospective of biogas production in the Mexican agroindustry: the traditional tortilla manufacturing sector2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an assessment of the availability and quality of biomass from the wastewaters in a traditional corn mill in Mexico City for biogas production. To date, these wastewaters (called nejayote) are discharged untreated to the sewer with a chemical composition that surpasses the maximum permissible levels of pollutants established in the Official Mexican Standards (NOMs). From the study case four scenarios were proposed to tackle this problem: 1) separate the suspended solids (SS) by sedimentation in order to reduce the organic content of nejayote, 2) recover a protein-rich microbial biomass for animal feed through the aerobic treatment of these wastewaters, 3) produce biogas to cover part of the energy demand of the corn mill under study, and 4) switch to the alkaline extrusion of corn as an alternative the traditional corn-cooking technique known as nixtamalization. Despite their environmental benefits, none of the proposed scenarios offer, separately, the economic incentives to change the business as usual in this traditional corn mill. Yet, biogas production can be combined with other alternatives like the alkaline extrusion of corn in a two-stage technological package. This processing technology would completely eliminate nejayote while preserving the nutritive value of the nixtamal dough and most importantly, the organoleptic uniqueness of the traditionally-made tortillas.

  • 47.
    Sovacool, Benjamin K.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Goodsite, Michael E.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    COMMENTARY: The political economy of climate adaptation in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, vol 5, issue 7, pp 616-6182015In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 616-618Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiatives to adapt to the effects of climate change are growing in number but may fail to achieve the desired outcomes unless critical competing interests are taken into account during the planning process.

  • 48.
    Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik / IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Buhr, Katarina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roth, Susanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The ambitions in Copenhagen Pledges: Country case studies of drivers and barriers2013In: Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, ISSN 2043-0779, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate pledges under the Copenhagen Accord have been evaluated by researchers in quantitative terms, but less attention has been provided on insights into what drove countries and what political barriers impeded countries to submit a pledge and the ambitiousness of the pledges. This article therefore highlights what the drivers and barriers are under the Copenhagen Accord and assesses whether the political considerations can be expected to differ from the positions under a binding climate regime under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. By means of case studies the research finds that the political origin differs and in general views that the Accord is viewed as adding to transparency and legitimacy of the negotiations. Moreover, while the pledges can be viewed as a separate regime, it should be complemented by emissions trading to spur increased ambition. The research also identifies that the pledges are commonly viewed as binding and that barriers are increasingly viewed as drivers seeing that costs of climate action is viewed as lower than inaction.

  • 49.
    Todd, Martin
    et al.
    n/a.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hughes, Denis
    n/a.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    n/a.
    Layberry, Russell
    n/a.
    Murray-Hudson, Mike
    n/a.
    Savenije, Hubert
    n/a.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wolski, Piotr
    n/a.
    Simulating climate impacts on water resources: Experiences from the Okavango River, Southern Africa2008In: Hydrological Modelling and the Water Cycle / [ed] Soroosh Sorooshian,Kuo-lin Hsu ,Erika Coppola ,Barbara Tomassetti, Berlin Heidelburg: Springer , 2008, 1, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This collected work reports on the state of the art of hydrological model simulation, as well as the methods for satellite-based rainfall estimation. Mainly addressed to scientists and researchers, the contributions have the structure of a standard paper appearing in most cited hydrological, atmospheric and climate journals. Several already-known hydrological models and a few novel ones are presented, as well as the satellite-based precipitation techniques. As the field of hydrologic modeling is experiencing rapid development and transition to application of distributed models, many challenges including overcoming the requirements of compatible observations of inputs and outputs are addressed.

    The many contributing authors, who are well established in this field, provide readers with a timely overview of the ongoing research on these topics. The level of interest and active involvement in the discussions clearly demonstrate the importance the scientific community places on challenges related to the coupling of atmospheric and hydrologic models.

  • 50. Ullah, Sami
    Carbon Capture and Storage: Major uncertainties prevailing in theFutureGen project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an old technology matrix with new concept to mitigate climate change while utilizing fossil fuels by advancing the technology. The various level of advancement in technology has been successfully demonstrated in some part of the world. However the technology has inherent uncertainty of not having commercial CCS plant. Efforts to make CCS commercially viable unfold uncertainties in numerous aspects of CCS technology. Beside the uncertainties in technology many barriers restrain CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology. However the growing energy demand and urgent need to mitigate climate change through emission reduction favours CSS as transition to clean energy production. FutureGen 2.0 is the only large commercial scale CCS project, initiated in 2003 to test the commercial viability of the technology and to meet the U.S energy demands besides emission reductions target. The project resurrection in 2010 as FutureGen 2.0 after FutureGen termination in 2008 provides an opportunity to understand and analyse numerous uncertainties. However through document analysis only major three uncertainties i.e. policy and regulatory, economic and financial and public acceptance uncertainties are identified and analysed. The interlinkages between these uncertainties are also analysed. The study results show that above uncertainties constrained the project engendering new uncertainties i.e. timeframe uncertainties. This study also provides an insight about the sustainability implication of CCS by evaluating economic, environmental and social impact of CCS technology. It is still early to term the CCS as Sustainable technological innovation however for many years CCS would upset and restrain investment in other clean energy technologies like Renewable technology system. This study gives an input in sustainability of CCS and technological assessment study. This study is helpful in managing uncertainties and planning new CCS projects. 

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