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  • 1.
    Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo
    et al.
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Monteiro Sanders, Luciana Silva
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Abuchacra, Rodrigo Coutinho
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia F.
    Inst Rech Dev IRD, France.
    Cordeiro, Renato Campello
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Birmingham, England.
    Moreira, Luciane Silva
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Libonati, Renata
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fonseca, Thairiny
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Francisco, Cristiane Nunes
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Tropical forests as drivers of lake carbon burial2022Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 4051Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant proportion of carbon (C) captured by terrestrial primary production is buried in lacustrine ecosystems, which have been substantially affected by anthropogenic activities globally. However, there is a scarcity of sedimentary organic carbon (OC) accumulation information for lakes surrounded by highly productive rainforests at warm tropical latitudes, or in response to land cover and climate change. Here, we combine new data from intensive campaigns spanning 13 lakes across remote Amazonian regions with a broad literature compilation, to produce the first spatially-weighted global analysis of recent OC burial in lakes (over ~50-100-years) that integrates both biome type and forest cover. We find that humid tropical forest lake sediments are a disproportionately important global OC sink of 7.4 Tg C yr−1 with implications for climate change. Further, we demonstrate that temperature and forest conservation are key factors in maintaining massive organic carbon pools in tropical lacustrine sediments.

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  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Manton, Michael
    Vytautas Magnus Univ, Lithuania.
    Yamelynets, Taras
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Fedoriak, Mariia
    Chernivtsi Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Albulescu, Andra-Cosmina
    Alexandru Ioan Cuza Univ, Romania.
    Bravo, Felipe
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Cruz, Fatima
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Jaroszewicz, Bogdan
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Kavtarishvili, Marika
    LLM European & Int Law Sch, Georgia.
    Munoz-Rojas, Jose
    Univ Evora, Portugal.
    Sijtsma, Frans
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Washbourne, Carla-Leanne
    UCL, England.
    Agnoletti, Mauro
    Univ Firenze, Italy.
    Dobrynin, Denis
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Izakovicova, Zita
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanka, Robert
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Lazdinis, Marius
    European Commiss, Belgium.
    Metzger, Marc
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    van der Moolen, Bert
    Bosgrp Noord Oost Nederland, Netherlands.
    Ozut, Deniz
    Nat Conservat Ctr, Turkey.
    Gjorgieska, Dori Pavloska
    Secretariat Reg Rural Dev Standing Working Grp SW, North Macedonia.
    Stryamets, Natalie
    Nat Reserve Rortochya, Ukraine.
    Tolunay, Ahmet
    Isparta Univ Appl Sci, Turkey.
    Turkoglu, Turkay
    Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ, Turkey.
    Zagidullina, Asiya
    St Petersburg State Univ, Russia.
    Maintaining natural and traditional cultural green infrastructures across Europe: learning from historic and current landscape transformations2021Ingår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 637-663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Maintaining functional green infrastructures (GIs) require evidence-based knowledge about historic and current states and trends of representative land cover types. Objectives We address: (1) the long-term loss and transformation of potential natural forest vegetation; (2) the effects of site productivity on permanent forest loss and emergence of traditional cultural landscapes; (3) the current management intensity; and (4) the social-ecological contexts conducive to GI maintenance . Methods We selected 16 case study regions, each with a local hotspot landscape, ranging from intact forest landscapes, via contiguous and fragmented forest covers, to severe forest loss. Quantitative open access data were used to estimate (i) the historic change and (ii) transformation of land covers, and (iii) compare the forest canopy loss from 2000 to 2018. Qualitative narratives about each hotspot landscape were analysed for similarities (iv). Results While the potential natural forest vegetation cover in the 16 case study regions had a mean of 86%, historically it has been reduced to 34%. Higher site productivity coincided with transformation to non-forest land covers. The mean annual forest canopy loss for 2000-2018 ranged from 0.01 to 1.08%. The 16 case studies represented five distinct social-ecological contexts (1) radical transformation of landscapes, (2) abuse of protected area concepts, (3) ancient cultural landscapes (4) multi-functional forests, and (5) intensive even-aged forest management, of which 1 and 4 was most common. Conclusions GIs encompass both forest naturalness and traditional cultural landscapes. Our review of Pan-European regions and landscapes revealed similarities in seemingly different contexts, which can support knowledge production and learning about how to sustain GIs.

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  • 3.
    Bansal, Sheel
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, ND 58401 USA.
    Creed, Irena F.
    Univ Toronto Scarborough, Canada.
    Tangen, Brian A.
    US Geol Survey, ND 58401 USA.
    Bridgham, Scott D.
    Univ Oregon, OR USA.
    Desai, Ankur R.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, WI USA.
    Krauss, Ken W.
    US Geol Survey, LA USA.
    Neubauer, Scott C.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, VA USA.
    Noe, Gregory B.
    US Geol Survey, VA USA.
    Rosenberry, Donald O.
    US Geol Survey, CO USA.
    Trettin, Carl
    US Forest Serv, CA USA.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    US Geol Survey, CO USA.
    Allen, Scott T.
    Univ Nevada, NV USA.
    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA USA.
    Armitage, Anna R.
    Texas A&M Univ Galveston, TX USA.
    Baldocchi, Dennis
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA USA.
    Banerjee, Kakoli
    Cent Univ Odisha, India.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Berg, Peter
    Univ Virginia, VA USA.
    Bogard, Matthew J.
    Univ Lethbridge, Canada.
    Chow, Alex T.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Conner, William H.
    Clemson Univ, SC USA.
    Craft, Christopher
    Indiana Univ, IN USA.
    Creamer, Courtney
    US Geol Survey, CA USA.
    Delsontro, Tonya
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Duberstein, Jamie A.
    Clemson Univ, SC USA.
    Eagle, Meagan
    US Geol Survey, MA USA.
    Fennessy, M. Siobhan
    Kenyon Coll, OH USA.
    Finkelstein, Sarah A.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Goeckede, Mathias
    Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, Germany.
    Grunwald, Sabine
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Halabisky, Meghan
    Univ Washington, WA USA.
    Herbert, Ellen
    Ducks Unltd, TN USA.
    Jahangir, Mohammad M. R.
    Bangladesh Agr Univ, Bangladesh.
    Johnson, Olivia F.
    US Geol Survey, ND 58401 USA; Kent State Univ, OH USA.
    Jones, Miriam C.
    US Geol Survey, VA USA.
    Kelleway, Jeffrey J.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia; Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Knox, Sara
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Kroeger, Kevin D.
    US Geol Survey, MA USA.
    Kuehn, Kevin A.
    Univ Southern Mississippi, MS USA.
    Lobb, David
    Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Loder, Amanda L.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Ma, Shizhou
    Univ Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Maher, Damien T.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    McNicol, Gavin
    Univ Illinois, IL USA.
    Meier, Jacob
    US Geol Survey, ND 58401 USA.
    Middleton, Beth A.
    US Geol Survey, LA USA.
    Mills, Christopher
    US Geol Survey, CO USA.
    Mistry, Purbasha
    Univ Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Mitra, Abhijit
    Univ Calcutta, India.
    Mobilian, Courtney
    Indiana Univ, IN USA.
    Nahlik, Amanda M.
    US EPA, OR USA.
    Newman, Sue
    South Florida Water Management Dist, FL USA.
    O'Connell, Jessica L.
    Colorado State Univ, CO USA.
    Oikawa, Patty
    Calif State Univ East Bay, CA USA.
    van der Burg, Max Post
    US Geol Survey, ND 58401 USA.
    Schutte, Charles A.
    Rowan Univ, NJ USA.
    Song, Changchun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Stagg, Camille L.
    US Geol Survey, LA USA.
    Turner, Jessica
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, WI USA.
    Vargas, Rodrigo
    Univ Delaware, DE USA.
    Waldrop, Mark P.
    US Geol Survey, CA USA.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Wang, Zhaohui Aleck
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, MA USA.
    Ward, Eric J.
    US Geol Survey, LA USA.
    Willard, Debra A.
    US Geol Survey, VA USA.
    Yarwood, Stephanie
    Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Zhu, Xiaoyan
    Jilin Jianzhu Univ, Peoples R China.
    Practical Guide to Measuring Wetland Carbon Pools and Fluxes2023Ingår i: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 43, nr 8, artikel-id 105Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands cover a small portion of the world, but have disproportionate influence on global carbon (C) sequestration, carbon dioxide and methane emissions, and aquatic C fluxes. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes that affect wetland C pools and fluxes are complex and dynamic, making measurements of wetland C challenging. Over decades of research, many observational, experimental, and analytical approaches have been developed to understand and quantify pools and fluxes of wetland C. Sampling approaches range in their representation of wetland C from short to long timeframes and local to landscape spatial scales. This review summarizes common and cutting-edge methodological approaches for quantifying wetland C pools and fluxes. We first define each of the major C pools and fluxes and provide rationale for their importance to wetland C dynamics. For each approach, we clarify what component of wetland C is measured and its spatial and temporal representativeness and constraints. We describe practical considerations for each approach, such as where and when an approach is typically used, who can conduct the measurements (expertise, training requirements), and how approaches are conducted, including considerations on equipment complexity and costs. Finally, we review key covariates and ancillary measurements that enhance the interpretation of findings and facilitate model development. The protocols that we describe to measure soil, water, vegetation, and gases are also relevant for related disciplines such as ecology. Improved quality and consistency of data collection and reporting across studies will help reduce global uncertainties and develop management strategies to use wetlands as nature-based climate solutions.

  • 4.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measurement of methane oxidation in lakes: A comparison of methods2002Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 36, nr 15, s. 3354-3361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane oxidation in lakes constrains the methane emissions to the atmosphere and simultaneously enables the transfer of methane carbon to pelagic food webs, Several different methods have been used to estimate methane oxidation, but these methods have not previously been compared. In this study, we present methane oxidation estimates from three different lakes during summer and winter, using methods based on the transformation of added (CH4)-C-14, the fractionation of natural methane C-13, and the mass balance modeling of concentration gradients, All methods yielded similar results, including similar differences between lakes and seasons. Average methane oxidation rates varied from 0.25 to 81 mg of C m(-2) d(-1) and indicate that the three methods are comparable, although they to some extent take different processes into account. Critical issues as well as drawbacks and advantages with the used methods are thoroughly discussed. We conclude that methods using the stable isotope or mass balance modeling approach represent promising alternatives, particularly for studies focusing on ecosystem-scale carbon metabolism.

  • 5.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nygren, Jonatan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schenk, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Parellada Massana, Roser
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Technical note: Facilitating the use of low-cost methane (CH4) sensors in flux chambers - calibration, data processing, and an open-source make-it-yourself logger2020Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 17, nr 13, s. 3659-3667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major bottleneck regarding the efforts to better quantify greenhouse gas fluxes, map sources and sinks, and understand flux regulation is the shortage of low-cost and accurate-enough measurement methods. The studies of methane (CH4) - a long-lived greenhouse gas increasing rapidly but irregularly in the atmosphere for unclear reasons, and with poorly understood source-sink attribution - suffer from such method limitations. This study presents new calibration and data processing approaches for use of a low-cost CH4 sensor in flux chambers. Results show that the change in relative CH4 levels can be determined at rather high accuracy in the 2-700 ppm mole fraction range, with modest efforts of collecting reference samples in situ and without continuous access to expensive reference instruments. This opens possibilities for more affordable and time-effective measurements of CH4 in flux chambers. To facilitate such measurements, we also provide a description for building and using an Arduino logger for CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), relative humidity, and temperature.

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  • 6.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Critical method needs in measuring greenhouse gas fluxes2022Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 17, nr 10, artikel-id 104009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching climate goals depends on appropriate and accurate methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and to verify that efforts to mitigate GHG emissions are effective. We here highlight critical advantages, limitations, and needs regarding GHG flux measurement methods, identified from an analysis of >13 500 scientific publications regarding three long-lived GHGs, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). While existing methods are well-suited for assessing atmospheric changes and local fluxes, they are expensive and have limited accessibility. Further, we are typically forced to choose between methods for very local GHG sources and sinks and their regulation (m(2)-scaled measurements), or methods for aggregated net fluxes at >ha or km(2) scales measurements. The results highlight the key need of accessible and affordable GHG flux measurement methods for the many flux types not quantifiable from fossil fuel use, to better verify inventories and mitigation efforts for transparency and accountability under the Paris agreement. The situation also calls for novel methods, capable of quantifying large scale GHG flux patterns while simultaneously distinguishing local source and sink dynamics and reveal flux regulation, representing key knowledge for quantitative GHG flux modeling. Possible strategies to address the identified GHG flux measurement method needs are discussed. The analysis also generated indications of how GHG flux measurements have been distributed geographically and across flux types, which are reported.

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  • 7.
    Brown, Dylan R.
    et al.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta B.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Barroso, Glenda C.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Soares, Mario L. G.
    Univ Estado Rio de Janeiro UERJ, Brazil; Univ Estado Rio de Janeiro UERJ, Brazil.
    Machado, Wilson
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Perez, Alexander
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru.
    Smoak, Joseph M.
    Univ S Florida, FL 33701 USA.
    Sanders, Luciana M.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Conrad, Stephen
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sippo, James Z.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Santos, Isaac R.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maher, Damien T.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hypersaline tidal flats as important "blue carbon" systems: a case study from three ecosystems2021Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 2527-2538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semiarid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. Here, we estimate that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were buried at rates averaging 21 (+/- 6), 1.7 (+/- 0.3) and 1.4 (+/- 0.3) gm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, during the previous century in three contrasting HTF systems, one in Brazil (eutrophic) and two in Australia (oligotrophic). Although these rates are lower than those from nearby mangrove, saltmarsh and seagrass systems, the importance of HTFs as sinks for OC, TN and TP may be significant given their extensive coverage. Despite the measured short-term variability between net air-saltpan CO2 influx and emission estimates found during the dry and wet season in the Brazilian HTF, the only site with seasonal CO2 flux measurements, the OC sedimentary profiles over several decades suggest efficient OC burial at all sites. Indeed, the stable isotopes of OC and TN (delta C-13 and delta N-1(5)) along with C : N ratios show that microphytobenthos are the major source of the buried OC in these HTFs. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.

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  • 8.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    et al.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Cole, Jonathan J.
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Pace, Michael L.
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Van de Bogert, Matthew
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Bade, Darrren L.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gille, Caitlin M.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Hodgson, James R.
    Department of Biology, St. Norbert College, De Pere, Wisconsin, USA.
    Kitchell, James F.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Department of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ecosystem subsidies: Terrestrial support of aquatic food webs from C-13 addition to contrasting lakes2005Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 86, nr 10, s. 2737-2750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic C-13 were used to measure allochthony (the terrestrial contribution of organic carbon to aquatic consumers) in two unproductive lakes (Paul and Peter Lakes in 2001), a nutrient-enriched lake (Peter Lake in 2002), and a dystrophic lake (Tuesday Lake in 2002). Three kinds of dynamic models were used to estimate allochthony: a process-rich, dual-isotope flow model based on mass balances of two carbon isotopes in 12 carbon pools; simple univariate time-series models driven by observed time courses of delta(13)CO(2); and multivariate autoregression models that combined information from time series of delta(13)C in several interacting carbon pools. All three models gave similar estimates of allochthony. In the three experiments without nutrient enrichment, flows of terrestrial carbon to dissolved and particulate organic carbon, zooplankton, Chaoborus, and fishes were substantial. For example, terrestrial sources accounted for more than half the carbon flow to juvenile and adult largemouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish, golden shiners, brook sticklebacks, and fathead minnows in the unenriched experiments. Allochthony was highest in the dystrophic lake and lowest in the nutrient-enriched lake. Nutrient enrichment of Peter Lake decreased allochthony of zooplankton from 0.34-0.48 to 0-0.12, and of fishes from 0.51-0.80 to 0.25-0.55. These experiments show that lake ecosystem carbon cycles, including carbon flows to consumers, are heavily subsidized by organic carbon from the surrounding landscape.

  • 9.
    de Oliveira, Vinícius Peruzzi
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bento, Luiz Fernando Jardim
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Nielsen, Lars Peter
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    CO2 influence on oxygen dynamics and net primary production of the microphytobenthos: an experimental approach2020Ingår i: Journal of Research in Ecology, ISSN 2319-1546, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 2702-2712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of organic matter by phototrophs requires inorganic carbon,which in aquatic systems is taken up from the water column, sediment oratmosphere. Observations on a microphytobenthic mat overlaid with 2 mm of waterand atmospheric air showed a tight balance between consumption and production ofoxygen and, therefore, a bimodal pattern in the Net Primary Production (NPP).Enrichment of the air with CO2 led to an enhancement of the NPP of a community,while the removal of all CO2 from the air resulted in no NPP and a linear O2 gradientfrom the overlying water to the lower part of the mat. The distribution and rates ofgross photosynthetic oxygen production, measured as the oxygen decline within oneto twos after light-dark shifts, showed little response to CO2 depletion, suggesting thatthe photosynthetic electron flow was primarily redirected from CO2 fixation tophotorespiration. In nature, the observed control of NPP by atmospheric CO2concentration should be most pronounced in shallow-water and intertidal systems,and the productivity in these ecosystems may therefore be steadily increasing alongwith the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. 

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  • 10.
    Duran, J.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain; Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Meira-Neto, J.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Brazil.
    Delgado-Baquerizo, M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Hamonts, K.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Figueiredo, V.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Rodriguez, A.
    CSIC, Spain; Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Different Cerrado Ecotypes Show Contrasting Soil Microbial Properties, Functioning Rates, and Sensitivity to Changing Water Regimes2023Ingår i: Ecosystems, ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil moisture is among the most important factors regulating soil biodiversity and functioning. Models forecast changes in the precipitation regime in many areas of the planet, but how these changes will influence soil functioning, and how biotic drivers modulate such effects, is far from being understood. We evaluated the responses of C and N fluxes, and soil microbial properties to different soil water regimes in soils from the main three ecotypes of the worlds largest and most diverse tropical savanna. Further, we explored the direct and indirect effects of changes in the ecotype and soil water regimes on these key soil processes. Soils from the woodland savanna showed a better nutritional status than the other ecotypes, as well as higher potential N cycling rates, N2O emissions, and soil bacterial abundance but lower bacterial richness, whereas potential CO2 emissions and CH4 uptake peaked in the intermediate savanna. The ecotype also modulated the effects of changes in the soil water regime on nutrient cycling, greenhouse gas fluxes, and soil bacterial properties, with more intense responses in the intermediate savanna. Further, we highlight the existence of multiple contrasting direct and indirect (via soil microbes and abiotic properties) effects of an intensification of the precipitation regime on soil C- and N-related processes. Our results confirm that ecotype is a fundamental driver of soil properties and functioning in the Cerrado and that it can determine the responses of key soil processes to changes in the soil water regime.

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  • 11.
    Dutta, Anupam
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Bouri, Elie
    Holy Spirit Univ Kaslik, Lebanon.
    Junttila, Juha
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Does corn market uncertainty impact the US ethanol prices?2018Ingår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 683-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in biofuel as a green energy source has intensified the linkages between corn and ethanol markets, especially in the United States that represents the largest producing and exporting country for ethanol in the world. In this study, we examine the effect of corn market uncertainty on the price changes of US ethanol applying a set of GARCH-jump models. We find that the US ethanol price changes react positively to the corn market volatility shocks after controlling for the effect of oil price uncertainty. In addition, we document that the impact of corn price volatility on the US ethanol prices appears to be asymmetric. Specifically, only the positive corn market volatility shocks are found to influence the ethanol market returns. Our findings also suggest that time-varying jumps do exist in the ethanol market.

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  • 12.
    Erkkila, Kukka-Maaria
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Ojala, Anne
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Biermann, Tobias
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Heiskanen, Jouni J.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindroth, Anders
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Peltola, Olli
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Rantakari, Miitta
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Vesala, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Mammarella, Ivan
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over a lake: comparison between eddy covariance, floating chambers and boundary layer method2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 429-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, k CC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998), for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM). We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with k CC and two other gas transfer velocities (k TE and k HE), which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC) and floating chamber (FC) fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajarvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model k TE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajarvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference between CO2 fluxes from shallower and deeper areas. We highlight that while all flux measurement methods have their pros and cons, it is important to carefully think about the chosen method and measurement interval, as well as their effects on the resulting flux.

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  • 13. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Genero, Magalí Martí
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Microbial Communities in Boreal Peatlands: Responses to Climate Change and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Depositions2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Myrmarker har en stor roll i regleringen av den globala kolbalansen och koncentrationerna av koldioxid och metan i atmosfären, vilket gör dem till speciellt viktiga ekosystem ur ett klimatförandringsperspektiv. Förändringar av myrmarker genom naturlig utveckling eller antropogen påverkan kan därför få långtgående störningar av myrars klimatreglerande funktion. Mikroorganismer har en avgörande roll i biogeokemiska processer genom att t ex bryta ned organisk material i mark och därmed styra kolets kretslopp. För att förstå hur myrsystemen reagerar på störningar är det därför väsentligt att veta hur mikroorganismsamhällena reagerar genom förändringar i sammansättning och biogeokemisk aktivitet. Målet för studierna, som ligger till grund för denna avhandling, var att undersöka hur mikroorganismsamhällen i myrar reagerar på uppvärmning genom klimatförändring och ökade kväve- (N) och svavel- (S) halter i nederbörd. High through-put sekvensering användes för att studera taxonomiska och funktionella egenskaper hos mikroorganismerna i myrar och quantative PCR användes för att mer specifikt studera de metanbildande arkeorna. Två fältkampanjer vardera omfattande tre ombrotrofa myrar med olika klimatförhållanden och olika mängder N och S inederbörden användes för att undersöka lokala och storskaliga effekter på myrars mikrobiella samhällen. Resultaten visade att latudinell variation i geoklimatologiska förhållanden (temperatur ochnederbördsmängd) och deposition av näringsämnen hade en påverkan på sammansättningen av de mikrobiella samhällena och aktiva metanbildare förr än variationen i den kemiska miljön inom varje specifik myr. Myrväxtsamhällenas sammansättning för en specifik myr visades sig i stor utsträckning styra sammansättningen av motsvarande mikrobiella samhälle i torvprofilen. Detta framgick klart av i en analys av samexisterande nätverk av mikroorganismsamhällen och motsvarande växtsamhällen i en studie av tre geografiskt skilda myrar med olika kvävedeposition. Effekterna av klimatförändring och nederbörd med olika mängder av N och S studerades mer specifikt genom att analysera de mikrobiellasamhällena i  ett långliggande (18 år) försök. Påverkan av var och en av dessa manipulationer antingen förstärktes eller minskades, när de förekom i kombinationer. Ökad kvävedeposition var den faktor som hade starkast effekt. De långvariga störningarna medförde stora förändringar i den mikrobiella taxonomin inom samhällena. Detta återspeglades dock inte i den fysiologiska kapaciteten, vilket visar att det finns en stark buffring i myrarnas mikrobiella funktion. Detta tyder på att framtida utveckling av myrar i relation till olika störningar sannolikt inte kommer att påverka myrarnas roll för kolbalans och växthusgasutbyte med atmosfären.

    Delarbeten
    1. Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia
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    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 81, s. 204-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ombrotrophic raised bogs are nutrient poor acidic peatlands accumulating organic matter. They are widely spread on northern latitudes and are substantial sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere being of great concern from a climate change perspective. We investigated the methanogen community composition along microtopographic gradients within three bogs in Scandinavia, receiving different amounts of nitrogen precipitation. Methanogenic community analyses by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mcrA gene showed different profiles among the three sites, while no in- fluence of the microtopographic gradients was observed. Peat temperature and dissolved organic carbon were the major edaphic variables explaining 38% of the variation of the methanogenic community di- versity among the bogs. The family Methanoregulaceae (hydrogenotrophic methanogens) showed the largest relative proportion and highest activity in all three sites. Quantitative PCR of the mcrA gene and transcripts showed that the most northern site, receiving the lowest atmospheric nitrogen load, had significantly lower abundance and activity of methanogens (4.7 106 and 2.4 104 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), compared to the most southern site (8.2 107 and 4.6 105 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), receiving the highest nitrogen load. No patterns of the mcrA gene and tran- script abundances were observed along the microtopography. The results indicated that the difference in occurrence of methanogens is mainly due to geoclimatological conditions rather than site intrinsic microtopographic variation. The study further suggests that environmental changes on the site intrinsic topography will not affect the methanogenic activity, while increasing average temperatures in Scan- dinavian ombrotrophic raised bogs might contribute to an increase of the methanogenic archaeal activity resulting in an increase of methane production. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Methanogenic arhcaea, mcrA gene, peatland, microtopography, T-RFLP, qPCR
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi Mikrobiologi Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113846 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.11.016 (DOI)000350524700024 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-02-02 Skapad: 2015-02-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Rewiring of peatland plant–microbe networks outpaces species turnover
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Rewiring of peatland plant–microbe networks outpaces species turnover
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    2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 130, nr 3, s. 339-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Enviro‐climatic changes are thought to be causing alterations in ecosystem processes through shifts in plant and microbial communities; however, how links between plant and microbial communities change with enviro–climatic change is likely to be less straightforward but may be fundamental for many ecological processes. To address this, we assessed the composition of the plant community and the prokaryotic community – using amplicon‐based sequencing – of three European peatlands that were distinct in enviro–climatic conditions. Bipartite networks were used to construct site‐specific plant–prokaryote co‐occurrence networks. Our data show that between sites, plant and prokaryotic communities differ and that turnover in interactions between the communities was complex. Essentially, turnover in plant–microbial interactions is much faster than turnover in the respective communities. Our findings suggest that network rewiring does largely result from novel or different interactions between species common to all realised networks. Hence, turnover in network composition is largely driven by the establishment of new interactions between a core community of plants and microorganisms that are shared among all sites. Taken together our results indicate that plant–microbe associations are context dependent, and that changes in enviro–climatic conditions will likely lead to network rewiring. Integrating turnover in plant–microbe interactions into studies that assess the impact of enviro–climatic change on peatland ecosystems is essential to understand ecosystem dynamics and must be combined with studies on the impact of these changes on ecosystem processes.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2021
    Nyckelord
    16S amplicon sequencing, 16S rRNA, bipartite networks, microbial and plant diversity, peatlands, plant–microbe interactions
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173027 (URN)10.1111/oik.07635 (DOI)000608571500001 ()2-s2.0-85099484361 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2021-01-27 Skapad: 2021-01-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-03-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Strong long-term interactive effects of warming and enhanced nitrogen and sulphur deposition on the abundance of active methanogens in a boreal oligotrophic mire
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Strong long-term interactive effects of warming and enhanced nitrogen and sulphur deposition on the abundance of active methanogens in a boreal oligotrophic mire
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    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Mires and Peat, E-ISSN 1819-754X, Vol. 24, s. 1-14, artikel-id 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands play a key role in the carbon cycle by being a considerable source of atmospheric methane. Thus, an understanding of the microbial production of methane is important in relation to environmental changes of peatlands. We applied real-time PCR on the mcrA gene and transcript to investigate the peat methanogen community response to the combined effect of 18 years of simulated warming and deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) at a boreal oligotrophic mire in Sweden. The long-term effects of the experimental treatments on the methanogens was highly dependent on interactions between the treatment factors Enhanced N deposition amplified the effect of warming, resulting in a further increase of the abundance of active methanogens. The effect of the perturbations was modulated by the depth horizon, with the strongest effect at the water level, where the interaction between enhanced N and S deposition, and warming, resulted in an increase of active methanogens. These results indicate that increasing average temperatures and simultaneously higher N deposition rates will substantially increase the methanogenic activity in northern ombrotrophic peatlands. These findings strongly highlight the importance of accounting for any possible interactive perturbation effects when investigating the response of peat methanogens to environmental change.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Dundee, United Kingdom: Mires and Peat, 2019
    Nyckelord
    field experiment; mcrA gene and transcript; nitrogen; real-time PCR; warming
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162895 (URN)10.19189/MaP.2019.OMB.398 (DOI)000500515100007 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council FORMASSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas [2007-666]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4901]

    Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-02 Skapad: 2020-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-04Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 14.
    Gerlee, Philip
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Julia
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Fritzell, Ingrid
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Brezicka, Thomas
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Jöud, Anna
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Lundh, Torbjörn
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predicting regional COVID-19 hospital admissions in Sweden using mobility data2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 24171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmission of COVID-19 is dependent on social mixing, the basic rate of which varies with sociodemographic, cultural, and geographic factors. Alterations in social mixing and subsequent changes in transmission dynamics eventually affect hospital admissions. We employ these observations to model and predict regional hospital admissions in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use an SEIR-model for each region in Sweden in which the social mixing is assumed to depend on mobility data from public transport utilisation and locations for mobile phone usage. The results show that the model could capture the timing of the first and beginning of the second wave of the pandemic 3 weeks in advance without any additional assumptions about seasonality. Further, we show that for two major regions of Sweden, models with public transport data outperform models using mobile phone usage. We conclude that a model based on routinely collected mobility data makes it possible to predict future hospital admissions for COVID-19 3 weeks in advance.

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  • 15.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Neset, Tina Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) Norrköping, Sweden.
    Almås, Anders-Johan
    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Oslo, Norway.
    Increasing house owners adaptive capacity: Compliance between climate change risks and adaptation guidelines in Scandinavia2015Ingår i: Urban Climate, E-ISSN 2212-0955, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to intensify weather related risks affecting the existing buildingstock. To increase the understanding of how the capacity among individual house ownersto mitigate such risks can be improved, this study analyses the compliance between anticipatedclimate risks and existing adaptation guidelines to house owners in Denmark,Norway and Sweden. The assessment of climate risks is based on a review of climatechange and building research literature. The compilation of available guidelines is basedon an assessment of information from government authorities, municipalities as well asinsurance companies and organizations. Results reveal a high compliance between availableguidelines and risks for already experienced weather risks, while somewhat new risksfrom anticipated climate change impacts are less covered. To better facilitate adaptiveresponses, further adaptation guidelines would earn from explicitly targeting house owners,as well as highlighting relationships between anticipated climate impacts, existingweather risks and individual management practices. Public–private cooperation is identifiedas an important means for making information more accessible and easily available.

  • 16.
    Golebiowska, Izabela
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Rod, Jan Ketil
    Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Breaking the Eyes: How Do Users Get Started with a Coordinated and Multiple View Geovisualization Tool?2020Ingår i: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 235-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maps are frequently combined with data displays in the form of coordinated and multiple views (CMV). Although CMV are valuable geovisualization tools, novice users may find them complex and thus require explanation. However, no tutorial guidelines have been developed that indicate what is helpful in understanding CMV geovisualization tools. We therefore conducted a study on the learnability of a CMV tool, informed with eye-tracking data, talk-aloud and interaction logs. We have investigated how untrained users work with a CMV geovisualization tool. The study revealed that: (1) despite their initial confusion, users found the tested tool pleasant to play with while getting to grips with how dynamic brushing works, (2) when examining the tools interface, participants mainly looked freely at explanatory elements, such as labels and the legend, but they explored interactive techniques only to a limited degree. We conclude with tips about tutorial design and layout design for CMV tools.

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  • 17.
    Gomez-Gener, Lluis
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Battin, Tom
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Dalmagro, Higo J.
    Univ Cuiaba, Brazil.
    Dinsmore, Kerry J.
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Scotland.
    Drake, Travis W.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Duvert, Clement
    Charles Darwin Univ, Australia.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Horgby, Asa
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Johnson, Mark S.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Kirk, Lily
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Marzolf, Nicholas S.
    North Carolina State Univ, NC 27695 USA.
    McDowell, Mollie J.
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    McDowell, William H.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Miettinen, Heli
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Ojala, Anne K.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Peter, Hannes
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Ran, Lishan
    Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Riveros-Iregui, Diego A.
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Santos, Isaac R.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Six, Johan
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stanley, Emily H.
    Univ Wisconsin, WI 53706 USA.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    White, Shane A.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Global carbon dioxide efflux from rivers enhanced by high nocturnal emissions2021Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 289-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere from running waters are estimated to be four times greater than the total carbon (C) flux to the oceans. However, these fluxes remain poorly constrained because of substantial spatial and temporal variability in dissolved CO2 concentrations. Using a global compilation of high-frequency CO2 measurements, we demonstrate that nocturnal CO2 emissions are on average 27% (0.9 gC m(-2) d(-1)) greater than those estimated from diurnal concentrations alone. Constraints on light availability due to canopy shading or water colour are the principal controls on observed diel (24 hour) variation, suggesting this nocturnal increase arises from daytime fixation of CO2 by photosynthesis. Because current global estimates of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from running waters (0.65-1.8 PgC yr(-1)) rely primarily on discrete measurements of dissolved CO2 obtained during the day, they substantially underestimate the magnitude of this flux. Accounting for night-time CO2 emissions may elevate global estimates from running waters to the atmosphere by 0.20-0.55 PgC yr(-1). Failing to account for emission differences between day and night will lead to an underestimate of global CO2 emissions from rivers by up to 0.55 PgC yr(-1), according to analyses of high-frequency CO2 measurements.

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  • 18.
    Graversgaard, Morten
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Jacobsen, Brian H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Dalgaard, Tommy
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Kjaergaard, Charlotte
    Landbrug & Fodevarer FmbA, Denmark.
    Powell, Neil
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Univ Sunshine Coast, Australia.
    Strand, John A.
    Hushallningssallskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Feuerbach, Peter
    Hushallningssallskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Policies for wetlands implementation in Denmark and Sweden - historical lessons and emerging issues2021Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 101, artikel-id 105206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural wetlands used to cover a significant part of the landscape, but these ecosystems have declined by >50% worldwide, and even more in Denmark and Sweden. However, since the 1980s, various policies have been implemented to restore and create wetlands. This study provides a comprehensive historical overview of policies used to stimulate the creation and restoration of wetlands in Denmark and Sweden, and also analyses what factors have facilitated participation or have been barriers for landowners. The analysis of wetlands implementation programmes in Denmark showed a change towards narrower focus on nitrogen reduction from 1998 and onwards, whereas policies in Sweden often have had a wider multifunctional purpose. In both countries, there has been a change in the compensation structure from a lump sum to annual payments, parallel to an observed increase in costs for wetlands implementation. There is still a large potential for recreating many more wetlands, and the national targets have not been reached in neither Denmark nor Sweden. Key success factors, for future wetlands implementation are sufficient compensation levels, flexible scheme designs and information-based strategies documenting relevant benefits and sustainability issues. In general, more advice and support from the state, regional and local participants, and farmers organisations, are required to increase the participation and achieve successful and cost-efficient wetlands implementation. A collaborative and catchment-based approach holds promise, where wetland governance can serve as a platform for collaboration between policy bodies and between farmers. Additionally, politicians and decision makers need to accept the area targets presented to them when setting policy goals for wetlands implementation, and to accept that restoring and constructing wetlands requires long implementation times before results can be demonstrated.

  • 19.
    Jansson, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle, Avdelning för geografi.
    Provkunskaper: Vilka kunskaper testas i geografiprov?2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om vilka olika kunskapsformer som testas i skriftliga prov i geografi på gymnasiet och om hur detta förhåller sig till betygskriterierna. För att besvara detta har tio geografilärares prov analyserats med hjälp av Blooms reviderade taxonomi. Tidigare forskning visar att prov i SO-ämnen nästan enbart testar minneskunskaper. Denna studie bekräftar delvis detta då de analyserade proven domineras av frågor som testar att minnas. Samtidigt finns det en variation i vilka kunskapsformer som testas. Även om lärarna främst testar att minnas fakta- och begreppskunskap, testar också andra kunskapsformer, om än i varierande grad. Det handlar främst om uppgifter som testar att förstå fakta- och begreppskunskap, men även att tillämpa, analysera och värdera begreppskunskap testas, liksom att tillämpa procedurkunskap.

     

    Det finns en viss överensstämmelse mellan lärarnas prov och betygskriterierna, men en tydlig skillnad är att lärarna i studien i högre utsträckning testar att minnas än vad som uttrycks i betygskriterierna. Detta gäller särskilt för de högre betygen. Det är inte heller alla lärare som testar de högre kognitiva processerna, som att tillämpa, analysera och värdera, vilka uttrycks för de högre betygen. Detta innebär en variation mellan lärarna i vad deras prov testar och också att validiteten i proven varierar. En del lärares prov testar ganska väl kunskaper motsvarande betygskriterierna medan andras gör det i mindre grad. Eftersom prov används som underlag för betygsättningen innebär det också att eleverna bedöms på olika grunder.

     

    Det kan finnas olika förklaringar till betoningen på minnesfrågor i proven. Tidigare forskning pekar på svårigheter att tolka kriterierna eller på traditionen. En annan förklaring är bristen på tid, lärarna behöver tid för att utforma prov med mer komplexa frågor och för att rätta dem.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Snäll, Tord
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Development of secondary woodland decreases epiphyte metapopulation sizes in wooded grasslands2014Ingår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 172, s. 49-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abandoned management of wooded grasslands leads to development of secondary woodland. We investigated how this development affects the colonization–extinction dynamics and persistence of epiphytic lichens associated with old trees. We modelled colonization probability based on observed colonizations (turnover data) during four years of two old-oak-associated lichens on 1236 oaks. Persistence was assessed by projections of future dynamics. We also used the turnover models to validate models fitted to snapshot data (from one point in time). Epiphyte colonization probabilities were lower on trees in closed than in open conditions, and the probabilities increased with increasing connectivity to surrounding occupied trees. The additional four study species had too few colonizations to be modelled, and thus, very low colonization rates. Local extinctions occurred only deterministically through patch destruction processes. In projections of future metapopulation dynamics, when assuming that all trees were in closed conditions, the metapopulations decreased slowly; new equilibria had not been reached after 200 years. In contrast, when assuming open conditions for all trees, to test for effects of clearing vegetation around oaks in closed conditions, the metapopulations increased comparatively fast. The turnover models and the snapshot models, gave similar projections of metapopulation sizes, when assuming that the present level of secondary woodland remained constant over time. Development of secondary woodland in wooded grassland has negative impacts on epiphyte metapopulations. However, the slow metapopulation declines suggest that restoration will be successful. High priority should be given to resumed grazing and clearing vegetation around old trees, in particular close to dispersal sources.

  • 21.
    Johnson, Matthew S.
    et al.
    NASA, CA 94035 USA.
    Matthews, Elaine
    NASA, CA USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Deemer, Bridget
    US Geol Survey, AZ 86001 USA.
    Du, Jinyang
    Univ Montana, MT 59812 USA.
    Genovese, Vanessa
    Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, CA USA.
    Spatiotemporal Methane Emission From Global Reservoirs2021Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 126, nr 8, artikel-id e2021JG006305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland aquatic systems, such as reservoirs, contribute substantially to global methane (CH4) emissions; yet are among the most uncertain components of the total CH4 budget. Reservoirs have received recent attention as they may generate high CH4 fluxes. Improved quantification of these CH4 fluxes, particularly their spatiotemporal distribution, is key to realistically incorporating them in CH4 modeling and budget studies. Here we report on a new global, gridded (0.25 degrees lat x 0.25 degrees lon) study of reservoir CH4 emissions, accounting for new knowledge regarding reservoir areal extent and distribution, and spatiotemporal emission patterns influenced by diurnal variability, temperature-dependent seasonality, satellite-derived freeze-thaw dynamics, and eco-climatic zone. The results of this new data set comprise daily CH4 emissions throughout the full annual cycle and show that reservoirs cover 297 x 10(3) km(2) globally and emit 10.1 Tg CH4 yr(-1) (1 sigma uncertainty range of 7.2-12.9 Tg CH4 yr(-1)) from diffusive (1.2 Tg CH4 yr(-1)) and ebullitive (8.9 Tg CH4 yr(-1)) emission pathways. This analysis of reservoir CH4 emission addresses multiple gaps and uncertainties in previous studies and represents an important contribution to studies of the global CH4 budget. The new data sets and methodologies from this study provide a framework to better understand and model the current and future role of reservoirs in the global CH4 budget and to guide efforts to mitigate reservoir-related CH4 emissions.

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    fulltext
  • 22.
    Johnson, Matthew S.
    et al.
    NASA Ames Res Ctr, CA 94035 USA.
    Matthews, Elaine
    NASA Ames Res Ctr, CA USA.
    Du, Jinyang
    Univ Montana, MT 59812 USA.
    Genovese, Vanessa
    Calif State Univ, CA USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Methane Emission From Global Lakes: New Spatiotemporal Data and Observation-Driven Modeling of Methane Dynamics Indicates Lower Emissions2022Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 127, nr 7, artikel-id e2022JG006793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes have been highlighted as one of the largest natural sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, global estimates of lake CH4 fluxes over the last 20 years exhibit widely different results ranging from 6 to 185 Tg CH4 yr(-1), which is to a large extent driven by differences in lake areas and thaw season lengths used. This has generated uncertainty regarding both lake fluxes and the global CH4 budget. This study constrains global lake water CH4 emissions by using new information on lake area and distribution and CH4 fluxes distinguished by major emission pathways; ecoclimatic lake type; satellite-derived ice-free emission period length; and diel- and temperature-related seasonal flux corrections. We produced gridded data sets at 0.25 degrees latitude x 0.25 degrees longitude spatial resolution, representing daily emission estimates over a full annual climatological cycle, appropriate for use in global CH4 budget estimates, climate and Earth System Models, bottom-up biogeochemical models, and top-down inverse model simulations. Global lake CH4 fluxes are 41.6 +/- 18.3 Tg CH4 yr(-1) with approximately 50% of the flux contributed by tropical/subtropical lakes. Strong temperature-dependent flux seasonality and satellite-derived freeze/thaw dynamics limit emissions at high latitudes. The primary emission pathway for global annual lake fluxes is ebullition (23.4 Tg) followed by diffusion (14.1 Tg), ice-out and spring water-column turnover (3.1 Tg), and fall water-column turnover (1.0 Tg). These results represent a major contribution to reconciling differences between bottom-up and top-town estimates of inland aquatic system emissions in the global CH4 budget.

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Multi-source Mapping of Peatland Types using Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Terrain Derivatives – A Comparison Between Five High-latitude Landscapes2023Dataset
    Ladda ner fulltext (zip)
    dataset
  • 24.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Multi-source mapping of peatland types using Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and terrain derivatives – A comparison between five high-latitude landscapes: Remote sensing predictor variables and field reference data2022Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Dataset used in the publication "Multi-source mapping of peatland types using Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and terrain derivatives – A comparison between five high-latitude landscapes". The dataset includes preprocessed predictor variables in image format (geoTIFF) from Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Copernicus DEM for the five sites, including North Slope (Alaska), Yukon (Canada), Great Slave Lake (Canada), Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada) and northern Sweden (Scandinavia). It also includes reference data (shape files) used for training and validation of classification models.

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    Yukon_S1_VH
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    Yukon_S1_VV
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    Toolik_S1_VH
    Ladda ner fulltext (gz)
    Toolik_VV
  • 25.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Multi‐Source Mapping of Peatland Types Using Sentinel‐1, Sentinel‐2, and Terrain Derivatives—A Comparison Between Five High‐Latitude Landscapes2023Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 128, nr 4, artikel-id e2022JG007195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping wetland types in northern-latitude regions with Earth Observation (EO) data is important for several practical and scientific applications, but at the same time challenging due to the variability and dynamic nature in wetland features introduced by differences in geophysical conditions. The objective of this study was to better understand the ability of Sentinel-1 radar data, Sentinel-2 optical data and terrain derivatives derived from Copernicus digital elevation model to distinguish three main peatland types, two upland classes, and surface water, in five contrasting landscapes located in the northern parts of Alaska, Canada and Scandinavia. The study also investigated the potential benefits for classification accuracy of using regional classification models constructed from region-specific training data compared to a global classification model based on pooled reference data from all five sites. Overall, the results show high promise for classifying peatland types and the three other land cover classes using the fusion approach that combined all three EO data sources (Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and terrain derivatives). Overall accuracy for the individual sites ranged between 79.7% and 90.3%. Class specific accuracies for the peatland types were also high overall but differed between the five sites as well as between the three classes bog, fen and swamp. A key finding is that regional classification models consistently outperformed the global classification model by producing significantly higher classification accuracies for all five sites. This suggests for progress in identifying effective approaches for continental scale peatland mapping to improve scaling of for example, hydrological- and greenhouse gas-related processes in Earth system models.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bousquet, Philippe
    LSCE, France.
    Saunois, Marielle
    LSCE, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Delineating northern peatlands using Sentinel-1 time series and terrain indices from local and regional digital elevation models2019Ingår i: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 231, artikel-id UNSP 111252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial extent of northern peatlands remains highly uncertain in spite of rapidly developing satellite observation datasets. This is limiting progress in the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes, such as the global carbon (C) cycle and climate feedback effects on C fluxes. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of two new satellite datasets that enable regional scale mapping of peatland extent at high spatial resolution, including Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the Arctic digital elevation model (ArcticDEM). Terrain indices and temporal features derived from these datasets provided input to Random Forest models for delineating four main land cover classes (forest, open upland, water and peatland) in an area in northern Sweden consisting of both lowland and mountainous terrain. The contribution of ArcticDEM to the classification accuracy was assessed by comparing the results with those derived when a high quality LiDAR based DEM (LiDEM) was used as alternative model input. This study shows that multi-seasonal SAR alone can produce reasonable classification results in terms of overall accuracy (OA; 81.6%), but also that it has limitations. The inclusion of terrain indices improved classification performance substantially. OA increased to 87.5% and 90.9% when terrain indices derived from ArcticDEM and LiDEM were included, respectively. The largest increase in accuracy was achieved for the peatland class, which suggests that terrain indices do have the ability to capture the features in the geographic context that aid the discrimination of peatland from other land cover classes. The relatively small difference in classification accuracy between LiDEM and ArcticDEM is encouraging since the latter provides circumpolar coverage. Thus, the combination of Sentinel-1 time series and terrain indices derived from ArcticDEM presents opportunities for substantially improving regional estimates of peatland extent at high latitudes.

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Karpouzoglou, Timos
    et al.
    Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dewulf, Art
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Perez, Katya
    Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN), Lima, Peru.
    Gurung, Praju
    Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists (SOHAM Nepal), Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Regmi, Santosh
    Society of Hydrologists and Meteorologists (SOHAM Nepal), Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Isaeva, Aiganysh
    Mountain Societies Research Institute, University of Central Asia, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Foggin, Marc
    School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bastiaensen, Johan
    Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Hecken, Gert
    Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Zulkafli, Zed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Mao, Feng
    School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom.
    Clark, Julian
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Hannah, David M.
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Chapagain, Prem Sagar
    Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Cieslik, Katarzyna
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Knowledge, Technology & Innovation Group, Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.
    From present to future development pathways in fragile mountain landscapes2020Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 114, s. 606-613Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountains are dynamic landscapes that are home to rich natural and human heritage. However, climatic variability, globalisation and increasing ecomomic integration are making these landscapes more fragile with implications for present and future development. Using a pathways lens, we examine development trajectories in mountains and relate these to environmental and social-economic change currently taking place. We analyse and compare pathways in three case studies in Peru (Andes); Nepal (Himalayas); and Kyrgyzstan (Tien Shan). The paper highlights that development pathways in fragile mountain regions may be shifting in new directions, but because they emerge out of complex socio-environmental and historical contexts, there are also social risks associated with the articulation of future pathways, particularly in terms of social equity and sustainability. Building on different pathway approaches with their various strengths and weaknesses, this study examines the role of human agency and power, the role of historical and present context and feedbacks between social and ecological features in shaping future development pathways of mountain landscapes.

  • 28.
    Kjaer, Lene Jung
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Dept Lab Med, Sweden.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Dept Lab Med, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Hans
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Cty Council, Sweden.
    Christensson, Madeleine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Wallenhammar, Amelie
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Bodker, Rene
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Gunlog
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Cty Council, Sweden.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Potential drivers of human tick-borne encephalitis in the orebro region of Sweden, 2010-20212023Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased during the last years in Scandinavia, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. TBE human case data reported between 2010 and 2021 were aggregated into postal codes within orebro County, south-central Sweden, along with tick abundance and environmental data to analyse spatial patterns and identify drivers of TBE. We identified a substantial and continuing increase of TBE incidence in orebro County during the study period. Spatial cluster analyses showed significant hotspots (higher number of cases than expected) in the southern and northern parts of orebro County, whereas a cold spot (lower number of cases than expected) was found in the central part comprising orebro municipality. Generalised linear models showed that the risk of acquiring TBE increased by 12.5% and 72.3% for every percent increase in relative humidity and proportion of wetland forest, respectively, whereas the risk decreased by 52.8% for every degree Celsius increase in annual temperature range. However, models had relatively low goodness of fit (R-2 < 0.27). Results suggest that TBE in orebro County is spatially clustered, however variables used in this study, i.e., climatic variables, forest cover, water, tick abundance, sheep as indicator species, alone do not explain this pattern.

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    fulltext
  • 29.
    Kuhn, McKenzie A.
    et al.
    Univ Alberta, Canada; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Thompson, Lauren M.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Winder, Johanna C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Braga, Lucas P. P.
    Univ Cambridge, England; Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Tanentzap, Andrew J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Olefeldt, David
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Opposing Effects of Climate and Permafrost Thaw on CH4 and CO2 Emissions From Northern Lakes2021Ingår i: AGU Advances, E-ISSN 2576-604X, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id e2021AV000515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small, organic-rich lakes are important sources of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, yet the sensitivity of emissions to climate warming is poorly constrained and potentially influenced by permafrost thaw. Here, we monitored emissions from 20 peatland lakes across a 1,600 km permafrost transect in boreal western Canada. Contrary to expectations, we observed a shift from source to sink of CO2 for lakes warmer regions, driven by greater primary productivity associated with greater hydrological connectivity to lakes and nutrient availability in the absence of permafrost. Conversely, an 8-fold increase in CH4 emissions in warmer regions was associated with water temperature and shifts in microbial communities and dominant anaerobic processes. Our results suggest that the net radiative forcing from altered greenhouse gas emissions of northern peatland lakes this century will be dominated by increasing CH4 emissions and only partially offset by reduced CO2 emissions.

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    fulltext
  • 30.
    Kuhn, McKenzie A.
    et al.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Sweden.
    MacIntyre, Sally
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Turetsky, Merritt
    Univ Colorado Boulder, CO USA.
    Walter Anthony, Katey
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
    McGuire, Anthony D.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
    Olefeldt, David
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    BAWLD-CH4: a comprehensive dataset of methane fluxes from boreal and arctic ecosystems2021Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 5151-5189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) emissions from the boreal and arctic region are globally significant and highly sensitive to climate change. There is currently a wide range in estimates of high-latitude annual CH4 fluxes, where estimates based on land cover inventories and empirical CH4 flux data or process models (bottom-up approaches) generally are greater than atmospheric inversions (top-down approaches). A limitation of bottom-up approaches has been the lack of harmonization between inventories of site-level CH4 flux data and the land cover classes present in high-latitude spatial datasets. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of small-scale, surface CH4 flux data from 540 terrestrial sites (wetland and non-wetland) and 1247 aquatic sites (lakes and ponds), compiled from 189 studies. The Boreal-Arctic Wetland and Lake Methane Dataset (BAWLD-CH4) was constructed in parallel with a compatible land cover dataset, sharing the same land cover classes to enable refined bottom-up assessments. BAWLD-CH4 includes information on site-level CH4 fluxes but also on study design (measurement method, timing, and frequency) and site characteristics (vegetation, climate, hydrology, soil, and sediment types, permafrost conditions, lake size and depth, and our determination of land cover class). The different land cover classes had distinct CH4 fluxes, resulting from definitions that were either based on or co-varied with key environmental controls. Fluxes of CH4 from terrestrial ecosystems were primarily influenced by water table position, soil temperature, and vegetation composition, while CH4 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems were primarily influenced by water temperature, lake size, and lake genesis. Models could explain more of the between-site variability in CH4 fluxes for terrestrial than aquatic ecosystems, likely due to both less precise assessments of lake CH4 fluxes and fewer consistently reported lake site characteristics. Analysis of BAWLD-CH4 identified both land cover classes and regions within the boreal and arctic domain, where future studies should be focused, alongside methodological approaches. Overall, BAWLD-CH4 provides a comprehensive dataset of CH4 emissions from high-latitude ecosystems that are useful for identifying research opportunities, for comparison against new field data, and model parameterization or validation.

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Kylin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    BIOLOGICAL FACTORS REGULATE THE UPTAKE OF AIRBORNE POPS IN “PLANTS” AND THEDEPOSITION OF POPS TO REMOTE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS2016Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, s. 176-179, artikel-id 8.4015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Lauerwald, R.
    et al.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Regnier, P.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Figueiredo, V
    University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lehner, B.
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Maavara, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Raymond, P.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, USA.
    Natural lakes are a minor global source of N2O to the atmosphere2019Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 1564-1581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural lakes and reservoirs are important, yet not well constrained sources of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In particular for N2O emissions, a huge variability is observed in the few, observation‐driven flux estimates that have been published so far. Recently, a process‐based, spatially explicit model has been used to estimate global N2O emissions from more than 6,000 reservoirs based on nitrogen (N) and phosphorous inflows and water residence time. Here, we extend the model to a dataset of 1.4 million standing water bodies comprising natural lakes and reservoirs. For validation, we normalized the simulated N2O emissions by the surface area of each water body and compared them against regional averages of N2O emission rates taken from the literature or estimated based on observed N2O concentrations. We estimate that natural lakes and reservoirs together emit 4.5±2.9 Gmol N2O‐N yr‐1 globally. Our global scale estimate falls in the far lower end of existing, observation‐driven estimates. Natural lakes contribute only about half of this flux, although they contribute 91% of the total surface area of standing water bodies. Hence, the mean N2O emission rates per surface area are substantially lower for natural lakes than for reservoirs with 0.8±0.5 mmol N m‐2yr‐1 vs. 9.6±6.0 mmol N m‐2yr‐1, respectively. This finding can be explained by on average lower external N inputs to natural lakes. We conclude that upscaling based estimates, which do not distinguish natural lakes from reservoirs, are prone to important biases.

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  • 33.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Norros, Veera
    Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rannik, Üllar
    Dept of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Johansson, Victor
    Dept of Ecology, Swedish Agricultural Univ., Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ovaskainen, Otso
    Dept of Biosciences, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Dept of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm, Sweden.
    Testing a mechanistic dispersal model against a dispersal experiment with a wind-dispersed moss2015Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, nr 9, s. 1232-1240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind is the main dispersal agent for a wide array of species and for these species the environmental conditions under which diaspores are released can potentially modify the dispersal kernel substantially. Little is known about how bryophytes regulate spore release, but conditions affecting peristome movements and vibration of the seta may be important. We modelled airborne spore dispersal of the bryophyte species Discelium nudum (spore diameter 25 μm), in four different release scenarios, using a Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model and meteorological data. We tested the model predictions against experimental data on colonization success at five distances (5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 m) and eight directions from a translocated point source during seven two-day periods. The model predictions were generally successful in describing the observed colonization patterns, especially beyond 10 m. In the laboratory we established spore release thresholds; horizontal wind speed sd > 0.25 m s−1 induced the seta to vibrate and in relative humidity < 75% the peristome was open. Our dispersal model predicts that the proportion of spores dispersing beyond 100 m is almost twice as large if the spores are released under turbulent conditions than under more stable conditions. However, including release thresholds improved the fit of the model to the colonization data only minimally, with roughly the same amount of variation explained by the most constrained scenario (assuming both vibration of the seta and an open peristome) and the scenario assuming random release. Model predictions under realised experimental conditions suggest that we had a low statistical power to rank the release scenarios due to the lack of measurements of the absolute rate of spore release. Our results hint at the importance of release conditions, but also highlight the challenges in dispersal experiments intended for validating mechanistic dispersal models.

  • 34.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Peres, Leonardo F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal.
    Gouveia, Celia M.
    Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta B.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Pereira, Jose M. C.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil.
    Fernandes, Pedro J. F.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Libonati, Renata
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Drought Resilience Debt Drives NPP Decline in the Amazon Forest2021Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 35, nr 9, artikel-id e2021GB007004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has substantially increased the frequency of extreme droughts in the Amazon basin, generating concern about impacts on the worlds largest tropical forest, which contributes about one-seventh of the global vegetation carbon sink. Most research to understand drought impacts has focused on the immediate influences of such events, neglecting post-drought effects on ecosystems recovery. Since ecological processes are influenced by antecedent conditions, we analyzed whether extreme droughts affect vegetation growth (i.e., net primary productivity, NPP) recovery. Here, we evaluated the NPP in the Amazon basin from 2003 to 2020, a period in which drought frequency was almost double the decadal incidence of the last century. We show that NPP does respond to the coupled impacts of individual droughts and the post-drought impacts during ecosystem recovery. In particular, our results reveal that the ecosystems undergoing recovery show NPP about 13% lower than reference values based on the pre-drought state or in areas undisturbed by drought. NPP deficits have consistently increased with the extreme droughts of 2005, 2010, and 2015 due to the combined effects of disturbances magnitude and the length of recovery. If the expected increase in drought frequency and intensity does occur, reduced recovery may lead the Amazon Forest to an alternative ecosystem state with lower carbon uptake, contributing to a warming global climate.

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  • 35.
    Möhlmann, Tim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Keeling, Matt J.
    Univ Warwick, England.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favia, Guido
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Santman-Berends, Inge
    GD Anim Hlth, Netherlands.
    Takken, Willem
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Brand, Samuel P. C.
    Univ Warwick, England; Univ Warwick, England.
    Biting midge dynamics and bluetongue transmission: a multiscale model linking catch data with climate and disease outbreaks2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 has been circulating in Europe since a major outbreak occurred in 2006, causing economic losses to livestock farms. The unpredictability of the biting activity of midges that transmit BTV implies difficulty in computing accurate transmission models. This study uniquely integrates field collections of midges at a range of European latitudes (in Sweden, The Netherlands, and Italy), with a multi-scale modelling approach. We inferred the environmental factors that influence the dynamics of midge catching, and then directly linked predicted midge catches to BTV transmission dynamics. Catch predictions were linked to the observed prevalence amongst sentinel cattle during the 2007 BTV outbreak in The Netherlands using a dynamic transmission model. We were able to directly infer a scaling parameter between daily midge catch predictions and the true biting rate per cow per day. Compared to biting rate per cow per day the scaling parameter was around 50% of 24 h midge catches with traps. Extending the estimated biting rate across Europe, for different seasons and years, indicated that whilst intensity of transmission is expected to vary widely from herd to herd, around 95% of naive herds in western Europe have been at risk of sustained transmission over the last 15 years.

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  • 36.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Silverstein, Samuel
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Wik, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Technical note: Greenhouse gas flux studies: an automated online system for gas emission measurements in aquatic environments2020Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 3417-3430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks of natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter all in one. In addition to automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device also utilized a low-cost carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and methane (CH4) sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. Each of the devices was equipped with an XBee module to enable local radio communication (DigiMesh network) for time synchronization and data readout at a server controller station on the lakeshore. The software of this server controller was operated on a lowcost computer (Raspberry Pi), which has a 3G connection for remote control and monitor functions from anywhere in the world. This study shows the potential of a low-cost automatic sensor network system for studying GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

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  • 37.
    Olefeldt, David
    et al.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Hovemyr, Mikael
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Kuhn, McKenzie A.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bohn, Theodore J.
    WattIQ, CA 94080 USA.
    Connolly, John
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Euskirchen, Eugenie S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA; Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
    Finkelstein, Sarah A.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Genet, Helene
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
    Grosse, Guido
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Germany; Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Harris, Lorna I
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Heffernan, Liam
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Helbig, Manuel
    Dalhousie Univ, Canada.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Hutchins, Ryan
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Juutinen, Sari
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Lara, Mark J.
    Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Malhotra, Avni
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Manies, Kristen
    US Geol Survey, CA 94025 USA.
    McGuire, A. David
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woodwell Climate Res Ctr, MA 02540 USA.
    ODonnell, Jonathan A.
    Natl Pk Serv, AK 99501 USA.
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Univ Oslo, Norway; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Raesaenen, Aleksi
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Schaedel, Christina
    No Arizona Univ, AZ 86011 USA.
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Strack, Maria
    Univ Waterloo, Canada.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Treat, Claire
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Germany.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Warren, Rebecca K.
    Ducks Unlimited Canada, Canada.
    Watts, Jennifer D.
    Woodwell Climate Res Ctr, MA 02540 USA.
    The Boreal-Arctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD)2021Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 5127-5149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane emissions from boreal and arctic wetlands, lakes, and rivers are expected to increase in response to warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, the lack of appropriate land cover datasets for scaling field-measured methane emissions to circumpolar scales has contributed to a large uncertainty for our understanding of present-day and future methane emissions. Here we present the BorealArctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD), a land cover dataset based on an expert assessment, extrapolated using random forest modelling from available spatial datasets of climate, topography, soils, permafrost conditions, vegetation, wetlands, and surface water extents and dynamics. In BAWLD, we estimate the fractional coverage of five wetland, seven lake, and three river classes within 0.5 x 0.5 degrees grid cells that cover the northern boreal and tundra biomes (17 % of the global land surface). Land cover classes were defined using criteria that ensured distinct methane emissions among classes, as indicated by a co-developed comprehensive dataset of methane flux observations. In BAWLD, wetlands occupied 3.2 x 10(6) km(2) (14 % of domain) with a 95 % confidence interval between 2.8 and 3.8 x 10(6) km(2). Bog, fen, and permafrost bog were the most abundant wetland classes, covering similar to 28 % each of the total wetland area, while the highest-methane-emitting marsh and tundra wetland classes occupied 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Lakes, defined to include all lentic open-water ecosystems regardless of size, covered 1.4 x 10(6) km(2) (6 % of domain). Low-methane-emitting large lakes (&gt;10 km(2)) and glacial lakes jointly represented 78 % of the total lake area, while high-emitting peatland and yedoma lakes covered 18 % and 4 %, respectively. Small (&lt;0.1 km(2)) glacial, peatland, and yedoma lakes combined covered 17 % of the total lake area but contributed disproportionally to the overall spatial uncertainty in lake area with a 95 % confidence interval between 0.15 and 0.38 x 10(6) km(2). Rivers and streams were estimated to cover 0.12 x 10(6) km(2) (0.5 % of domain), of which 8 % was associated with high-methane-emitting headwaters that drain organic-rich landscapes. Distinct combinations of spatially co-occurring wetland and lake classes were identified across the BAWLD domain, allowing for the mapping of "wetscapes" that have characteristic methane emission magnitudes and sensitivities to climate change at regional scales. With BAWLD, we provide a dataset which avoids double-accounting of wetland, lake, and river extents and which includes confidence intervals for each land cover class. As such, BAWLD will be suitable for many hydrological and biogeochemical modelling and upscaling efforts for the northern boreal and arctic region, in particular those aimed at improving assessments of current and future methane emissions.

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  • 38.
    Pangala, Sunitha R.
    et al.
    Open University, England; University of Lancaster, England.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Basso, Luana S.
    IPEN, Brazil.
    Bittencourt Peixoto, Roberta
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hornibrook, Edward R. C.
    University of Bristol, England; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Gatti, Luciana V.
    IPEN, Brazil; National Institute Space Research INPE, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Silva Braucks Calazans, Luana
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Monica Sakuragui, Cassia
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rodrigues Bastos, Wanderley
    Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil.
    Malm, Olaf
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Gloor, Emanuel
    University of Leeds, England.
    Bharat Miller, John
    NOAA, CO 80305 USA.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Open University, England.
    Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget2017Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 552, nr 7684, s. 230-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4)(1), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain(2,3), the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling(4,5), pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests(6) and tropical peat swamp forests(7), representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (delta C-13) of -66.2 +/- 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 +/- 1.8 to 21.2 +/- 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 +/- 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a topdown regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 +/- 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our top-down and combined bottom-up estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  • 39.
    Peacock, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Audet, J.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cook, S.
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Evans, C. D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden; UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Wales.
    Grinham, A.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Holgerson, M. A.
    Cornell Univ, NY USA.
    Högbom, L.
    Skogforsk, Sweden; SLU, Sweden.
    Pickard, A. E.
    UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Scotland.
    Zielinski, P.
    Univ Bialystok, Poland.
    Futter, M. N.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Small artificial waterbodies are widespread and persistent emitters of methane and carbon dioxide2021Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 27, nr 20, s. 5109-5123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waters play an active role in the global carbon cycle and emit large volumes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A considerable body of research has improved emissions estimates from lakes, reservoirs and rivers but recent attention has been drawn to the importance of small, artificial waterbodies as poorly quantified but potentially important emission hotspots. Of particular interest are emissions from drainage ditches and constructed ponds. These waterbody types are prevalent in many landscapes and their cumulative surface areas can be substantial. Furthermore, GHG emissions from constructed waterbodies are anthropogenic in origin and form part of national emissions reporting, whereas emissions from natural waterbodies do not (according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines). Here, we present GHG data from two complementary studies covering a range of land uses. In the first, we measured emissions from nine ponds and seven ditches over a full year. Annual emissions varied considerably: 0.1-44.3 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1) and -36-4421 g CO2 m(-2) year(-1). In the second, we measured GHG concentrations in 96 ponds and 64 ditches across seven countries, covering subtropical, temperate and sub-arctic biomes. When CH4 emissions were converted to CO2 equivalents, 93% of waterbodies were GHG sources. In both studies, GHGs were positively related to nutrient status (C, N, P), and pond GHG concentrations were highest in smallest waterbodies. Ditch and pond emissions were larger per unit area when compared to equivalent natural systems (streams, natural ponds). We show that GHG emissions from natural systems should not be used as proxies for those from artificial waterbodies, and that artificial waterbodies have the potential to make a substantial but largely unquantified contribution to emissions from the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use sector, and the global carbon cycle.

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  • 40.
    Peacock, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Audet, J.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Futter, M. N.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Gauci, V
    Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Birmingham, England.
    Grinham, A.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Harrison, J. A.
    Washington State Univ, WA 98686 USA.
    Kent, M. S.
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Kosten, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Lovelock, C. E.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Veraart, A. J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Evans, C. D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden; Environm Ctr Wales, Wales.
    Global importance of methane emissions from drainage ditches and canals2021Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikel-id 044010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, there are millions of kilometres of drainage ditches which have the potential to emit the powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4), but these emissions are not reported in budgets of inland waters or drained lands. Here, we synthesise data to show that ditches spanning a global latitudinal gradient and across different land uses emit large quantities of CH4 to the atmosphere. Area-specific emissions are comparable to those from lakes, streams, reservoirs, and wetlands. While it is generally assumed that drainage negates terrestrial CH4 emissions, we find that CH4 emissions from ditches can, on average, offset similar to 10% of this reduction. Using global areas of drained land we show that ditches contribute 3.5 Tg CH4 yr(-1) (0.6-10.5 Tg CH4 yr(-1)); equivalent to 0.2%-3% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions. A positive relationship between CH4 emissions and temperature was found, and emissions were highest from eutrophic ditches. We advocate the inclusion of ditch emissions in national GHG inventories, as neglecting them can lead to incorrect conclusions concerning the impact of drainage-based land management on CH4 budgets.

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  • 41.
    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Qiu, Chunjing
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Ciais, Philippe
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Thompson, Rona L.
    Norwegian Inst Air Res NILU, Norway.
    Peylin, Philippe
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    McGrath, Matthew J.
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Solazzo, Efisio
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Tubiello, Francesco N.
    Food & Agr Org United Nations, Italy.
    Bergamaschi, Peter
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Brunner, Dominik
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Peters, Glen P.
    CICERO Ctr Int Climate Res, Norway.
    Hoeglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal IIASA, Austria.
    Regnier, Pierre
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Lauerwald, Ronny
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tsuruta, Aki
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland.
    Winiwarter, Wilfried
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal IIASA, Austria; Univ Zielona Gora, Poland.
    Patra, Prabir K.
    JAMSTEC, Japan.
    Kuhnert, Matthias
    Univ Aberdeen UNIABDN, Scotland.
    Oreggioni, Gabriel D.
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Crippa, Monica
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Saunois, Marielle
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Perugini, Lucia
    Ctr Euromediterraneo Cambiamenti Climat CMCC, Italy.
    Markkanen, Tiina
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland.
    Aalto, Tuula
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland.
    Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot
    Norwegian Inst Air Res NILU, Norway.
    Yao, Yuanzhi
    Auburn Univ, AL 36849 USA.
    Wilson, Chris
    Univ Leeds, England; Univ Leeds, England.
    Conchedda, Giulia
    Food & Agr Org United Nations, Italy.
    Guenther, Dirk
    Umweltbundesamt UBA, Germany.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Smith, Pete
    Univ Aberdeen UNIABDN, Scotland.
    Haussaire, Jean-Matthieu
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Leppanen, Antti
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Manning, Alistair J.
    Met Off, England.
    McNorton, Joe
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF, England.
    Brockmann, Patrick
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Dolman, Albertus Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    The consolidated European synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990-20172021Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 2307-2362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable quantification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, together with trends and uncertainties, is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a consolidated synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions with consistently derived state-of-the-art bottom-up (BU) and top-down (TD) data sources for the European Union and UK (EU27 C UK). We integrate recent emission inventory data, ecosystem process-based model results and inverse modeling estimates over the period 1990-2017. BU and TD products are compared with European national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) reported to the UN climate convention UNFCCC secretariat in 2019. For uncertainties, we used for NGHGIs the standard deviation obtained by varying parameters of inventory calculations, reported by the member states (MSs) following the recommendations of the IPCC Guidelines. For atmospheric inversion models (TD) or other inventory datasets (BU), we defined uncertainties from the spread between different model estimates or model-specific uncertainties when reported. In comparing NGHGIs with other approaches, a key source of bias is the activities included, e.g., anthropogenic versus anthropogenic plus natural fluxes. In inversions, the separation between anthropogenic and natural emissions is sensitive to the geospatial prior distribution of emissions. Over the 2011-2015 period, which is the common denominator of data availability between all sources, the anthropogenic BU approaches are directly comparable, reporting mean emissions of 20.8 TgCH(4) yr (-1) (EDGAR v5.0) and 19.0 TgCH(4) yr(-1) (GAINS), consistent with the NGHGI estimates of 18.9 +/- 1.7 TgCH(4) yr(-1). The estimates of TD total inversions give higher emission estimates, as they also include natural emissions. Over the same period regional TD inversions with higher-resolution atmospheric transport models give a mean emission of 28.8 TgCH(4) yr(-1). Coarser-resolution global TD inversions are consistent with regional TD inversions, for global inversions with GOSAT satellite data (23.3 TgCH(4) yr(-1)) and surface network (24.4 TgCH(4) yr (-1)). The magnitude of natural peatland emissions from the JSBACH-HIMMELI model, natural rivers and lakes emissions, and geological sources together account for the gap between NGHGIs and inversions and account for 5.2 TgCH(4) yr(-1). For N2O emissions, over the 2011-2015 period, both BU approaches (EDGAR v5.0 and GAINS) give a mean value of anthropogenic emissions of 0.8 and 0.9 TgN(2)Oyr(-1), respectively, agreeing with the NGHGI data (0.9 0.6 TgN(2)Oyr(-1)). Over the same period, the average of the three total TD global and regional inversions was 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 1.3 +/- 0.1 TgN(2)Oyr(-1), respectively. The TD and BU comparison method defined in this study can be operationalized for future yearly updates for the calculation of CH4 and N2O budgets both at the EU CUK scale and at the national scale.

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  • 42.
    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Qiu, Chunjing
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    McGrath, Matthew J.
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Peylin, Philippe
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Peters, Glen P.
    Ctr Int Climate Res CICERO, Norway; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Ciais, Philippe
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Thompson, Rona L.
    Norwegian Inst Air Res NILU, Norway; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Tsuruta, Aki
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Brunner, Dominik
    Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol EMPA, Switzerland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Kuhnert, Matthias
    Univ Aberdeen, Scotland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Matthews, Bradley
    Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Austria; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Palmer, Paul I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Tarasova, Oksana
    World Meteorol Org WMO, Switzerland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Regnier, Pierre
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Lauerwald, Ronny
    Univ Paris Saclay, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Uni Syst, Italy.
    Hoeglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal IIASA, Austria; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Winiwarter, Wilfried
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal IIASA, Austria; Univ Zielona, Poland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Etiope, Giuseppe
    Ist Nazl Geofis & Vulcanol, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Aalto, Tuula
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Balsamo, Gianpaolo
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF, England; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Bastrikov, Vladislav
    Sci Partners, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Berchet, Antoine
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Brockmann, Patrick
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Ciotoli, Giancarlo
    CNR, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Conchedda, Giulia
    Food & Agr Org United Nations FAO, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Crippa, Monica
    European Commiss, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Dentener, Frank
    European Commiss, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot
    Uni Syst, Italy.
    Guizzardi, Diego
    European Commiss, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Guenther, Dirk
    Umweltbundesamt UBA, Germany; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Haussaire, Jean-Matthieu
    Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol EMPA, Switzerland; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Houweling, Sander
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet
    European Commiss, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy.
    Kouyate, Massaer
    Uni Syst, Italy.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commiss, Italy; Uni Syst, Italy; European Commiss, Belgium.
    Leppanen, Antti
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Lugato, Emanuele
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Maisonnier, Manon
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Manning, Alistair J.
    Hadley Ctr, England.
    Markkanen, Tiina
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland.
    McNorton, Joe
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF, England.
    Muntean, Marilena
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Oreggioni, Gabriel D.
    European Commiss, Italy; Imperial Coll, England.
    Patra, Prabir K.
    JAMSTEC, Japan.
    Perugini, Lucia
    Ctr Euro Mediterraneo Cambiamenti Climat CMCC, Italy.
    Pison, Isabelle
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Raivonen, Maarit T.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Saunois, Marielle
    Lab Sci Climat & Environm, France.
    Segers, Arjo J.
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Smith, Pete
    Univ Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Solazzo, Efisio
    Uni Syst, Italy.
    Tian, Hanqin
    Auburn Univ, AL 36849 USA.
    Tubiello, Francesco N.
    Food & Agr Org United Nations FAO, Italy.
    Vesala, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wilson, Chris
    Univ Leeds, England; Univ Leeds, England.
    Zaehle, Soenke
    Max Planck Inst Biogeochem MPI BGC, Germany.
    The consolidated European synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990-20192023Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 1197-1268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and their temporal variability as well as flux attribution to natural and anthropogenic processes is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Paris Agreement and to inform its global stocktake. This study provides a consolidated synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions using bottom-up (BU) and top-down (TD) approaches for the European Union and UK (EU27 + UK) and updates earlier syntheses (Petrescu et al., 2020, 2021). The work integrates updated emission inventory data, process-based model results, data-driven sector model results and inverse modeling estimates, and it extends the previous period of 1990-2017 to 2019. BU and TD products are compared with European national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) reported by parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2021. Uncertainties in NGHGIs, as reported to the UNFCCC by the EU and its member states, are also included in the synthesis. Variations in estimates produced with other methods, such as atmospheric inversion models (TD) or spatially disaggregated inventory datasets (BU), arise from diverse sources including within-model uncertainty related to parameterization as well as structural differences between models. By comparing NGHGIs with other approaches, the activities included are a key source of bias between estimates, e.g., anthropogenic and natural fluxes, which in atmospheric inversions are sensitive to the prior geospatial distribution of emissions. For CH4 emissions, over the updated 2015-2019 period, which covers a sufficiently robust number of overlapping estimates, and most importantly the NGHGIs, the anthropogenic BU approaches are directly comparable, accounting for mean emissions of 20.5 TgCH(4) yr(-1) (EDGARv6.0, last year 2018) and 18.4 TgCH(4) yr(-1) (GAINS, last year 2015), close to the NGHGI estimates of 17 :5 +/- 2 :1 TgCH(4) yr(-1). TD inversion estimates give higher emission estimates, as they also detect natural emissions. Over the same period, high-resolution regional TD inversions report a mean emission of 34 TgCH(4) yr(-1). Coarser-resolution global-scale TD inversions result in emission estimates of 23 and 24 TgCH(4) yr(-1) inferred from GOSAT and surface (SURF) network atmospheric measurements, respectively. The magnitude of natural peatland and mineral soil emissions from the JSBACH-HIMMELI model, natural rivers, lake and reservoir emissions, geological sources, and biomass burning together could account for the gap between NGHGI and inversions and account for 8 TgCH(4) yr(-1). For N2O emissions, over the 2015-2019 period, both BU products (EDGARv6.0 and GAINS) report a mean value of anthropogenic emissions of 0.9 TgN(2)Oyr(-1), close to the NGHGI data (0 :8 +/- 55% TgN(2)Oyr(-1)). Over the same period, the mean of TD global and regional inversions was 1.4 TgN(2)Oyr(-1) (excluding TOMCAT, which reported no data). The TD and BU comparison method defined in this study can be operationalized for future annual updates for the calculation of CH4 and N2O budgets at the national and EU27 C UK scales. Future comparability will be enhanced with further steps involving analysis at finer temporal resolutions and estimation of emissions over intra-annual timescales, which is of great importance for CH4 and N2O, and may help identify sector contributions to divergence between prior and posterior estimates at the annual and/or inter-annual scale. Even if currently comparison between CH4 and N2O inversion estimates and NGHGIs is highly uncertain because of the large spread in the inversion results, TD inversions inferred from atmospheric observations represent the most independent data against which inventory totals can be compared. With anticipated improvements in atmospheric modeling and observations, as well as modeling of natural fluxes, TD inversions may arguably emerge as the most powerful tool for verifying emission inventories for CH4, N2O and other GHGs. The referenced dataset srelated to figures are visualized at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7553800 (Petrescu et al., 2023).

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  • 43.
    Podgrajsek, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sahlee, E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kljun, N.
    Swansea University, Wales.
    Chmiel, H. E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, L.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rutgersson, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Methane fluxes from a small boreal lake measured with the eddy covariance method2016Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, s. S41-S50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of methane, CH4, were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) method at a small boreal lake in Sweden. The mean CH4 flux during the growing season of 2013 was 20.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1) and the median flux was 16 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (corresponding to 1.7 mmol m(-2) d(-1) and 1.4 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Monthly mean values of CH4 flux measured with the EC method were compared with fluxes measured with floating chambers (FC) and were in average 62% higher over the whole study period. The difference was greatest in April partly because EC, but not FC, accounted for fluxes due to ice melt and a subsequent lake mixing event. A footprint analysis revealed that the EC footprint included primarily the shallow side of the lake with a major inlet. This inlet harbors emergent macrophytes that can mediate high CH4 fluxes. The difference between measured EC and FC fluxes can hence be explained by different footprint areas, where the EC system sees the part of the lake presumably releasing higher amounts of CH4. EC also provides more frequent measurements than FC and hence more likely captures ebullition events. This study shows that small lakes have CH4 fluxes that are highly variable in time and space. Based on our findings we suggest to measure CH4 fluxes from lakes as continuously as possible and to aim for covering as much of the lakes surface as possible, independently of the selected measuring technique.

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  • 44. Pohjola, Jari
    et al.
    Turunen, Jari
    Lipping, Tarmo
    Sivula, Anna
    Marila, Marko
    Historical Perspectives to Postglacial Uplift: Case Studies from the Lower Satakunta Region2019Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Regnell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Becher, Gustaf Peterson
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Ohrling, Christian
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Blomdin, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Brendryen, Jo
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Goodfellow, Bradley W.
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Mikko, Henrik
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Ransed, Gunnel
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Smith, Colby
    Geol Survey Sweden, Sweden.
    Ice-dammed lakes and deglaciation history of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in central Jaeuromtland, Sweden2023Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 314, artikel-id 108219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive glacial lakes dammed in the Scandinavian Mountains during the retreat of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet were first hypothesised over a century ago. Here, using high-resolution LiDAR, we report &gt;4500 relict shorelines, deltas and palaeo-channels related to ice-dammed lakes over a -30 000 km2 area of central Jaeuromtland, west-central Sweden. Shorelines occur as flights on the valley sides, a consequence of sequential lowering of palaeo-lake levels during ice margin retreat and lower threshold outlets becoming ice-free. Based on the extent and elevation of shorelines, we identify requisite lake-damming ice-margin positions and lake drainage outlets, and we reconstruct the coupled evolution of ice-dammed lakes and the retreating ice margin. Beginning as a series of smaller ice-dammed lakes along the Swedish-Norwegian border, draining westward across the present-day water divide and into the Atlantic Ocean, the lakes successively coalesced during eastward ice margin retreat to form water bodies covering 1000s of km2 with 10s of km-long calving margins. Ultimately, the lake system coalesced into a single lake: the Central Jaeuromtland Ice Lake, which exceeded 3500 km2 in area and 360 km3 in volume. Eventually, the damming ice-margin split in two, resulting in a large (-200 km2) catastrophic glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) that reversed the drainage of the entire lake system from the west to an eastern outlet draining to the Baltic basin. We present new radiocarbon ages for one lake drainage event prior to the eastward outburst flood and, together with previously published deglacial ages and local varve records, we suggest that the region was possibly deglaciated within just 350 years, sometime between 10.5 and 9.2 cal ka BP. We tentatively correlate the penultimate drainage of the Central Jaeuromtland Ice Lake to the zero-varve of the Swedish Time Scale, a drainage varve at Doeuroviken, eastern Jaeuromtland, raising the tantalising prospect of using the evolution of the ice-dammed lake system to tie the varve-based Swedish Time Scale to the radiocarbon timescale with a new programme of radiocarbon dating in central Jaeuromtland. & COPY; 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 46.
    Robroek, Björn J. M.
    et al.
    University of Utrecht, Netherlands; University of Southampton, England.
    Jassey, Vincent E. J.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, England; University of York, England.
    Marti, Magali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bragazza, Luca
    University of Ferrara, Italy; Ecole Polytech Federal Lausanne, Switzerland; WSL Swiss Federal Institute Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Switzerland.
    Bleeker, Albert
    PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agency, Netherlands.
    Buttler, Alexandre
    University of Ferrara, Italy; Ecole Polytech Federal Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, England.
    Dise, Nancy B.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, England; Centre Ecol and Hydrol, Scotland.
    Kattge, Jens
    Max Planck Institute Biogeochem, Germany; German Centre Integrat Biodivers Research iDiv, Germany.
    Zajac, Katarzyna
    University of Bayreuth, Germany; University of Bayreuth, Germany.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    van Ruijven, Jasper
    Wageningen University of and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Verhoeven, Jos T. A.
    University of Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs2017Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, artikel-id 1161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.

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  • 47.
    Rudberg, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Duc, N. T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schenk, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sieczko, Anna Katarzyna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pajala, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique Oliveira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Verheijen, H. A.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Melack, J. M.
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA University of California Santa Barbara, Earth Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
    MacIntyre, S.
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA University of California Santa Barbara, Earth Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, USA University of California Santa Barbara, Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
    Karlsson, J.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Diel Variability of CO2 Emissions From Northern Lakes2021Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 126, nr 10, artikel-id e2021JG006246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are generally supersaturated in carbon dioxide (CO2) and emitters of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, estimates of CO2 flux (FCO2) from lakes are seldom based on direct flux measurements and usually do not account for nighttime emissions, yielding risk of biased assessments. Here, we present direct FCO2 measurements from automated floating chambers collected every 2-3 hr and spanning 115 24 hr periods in three boreal lakes during summer stratification and before and after autumn mixing in the most eutrophic lake of these. We observed 40%-67% higher mean FCO2 in daytime during periods of surface water CO2 supersaturation in all lakes. Day-night differences in wind speed were correlated with the day-night FCO2 differences in the two larger lakes, but in the smallest and most wind-sheltered lake peaks of FCO2 coincided with low-winds at night. During stratification in the eutrophic lake, CO2 was near equilibrium and diel variability of FCO2 insignificant, but after autumn mixing FCO2 was high with distinct diel variability making this lake a net CO2 source on an annual basis. We found that extrapolating daytime measurements to 24 hr periods overestimated FCO2 by up to 30%, whereas extrapolating measurements from the stratified period to annual rates in the eutrophic lake underestimated FCO2 by 86%. This shows the importance of accounting for diel and seasonal variability in lake CO2 emission estimates.

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  • 48.
    Rudberg, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schenk, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pajala, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sieczko, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologisk och miljövetenskaplig modellering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Macintyre, Sally
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA USA.
    Melack, John
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Contribution of gas concentration and transfer velocity to CO2 flux variability in northern lakes2024Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The CO( 2)flux (FCO2) from lakes to the atmosphere is a large component of the global carbon cycle anddepends on the air-water CO2concentration gradient (Delta CO2) and the gas transfer velocity (k). Both Delta CO2 and k can vary on multiple timescales and understanding their contributions toFCO(2)is important for explaining var-iability influxes and developing optimal sampling designs. We measuredFCO2 and Delta CO(2 )and derivedkforone full ice-free period in 18 lakes usingfloating chambers and estimated the contributions of Delta CO2 and k to FCO2 variability. Generally, kcontributed more than Delta CO2to short-term (1-9d) FCO2 variability. With in creased temporal period, the contribution of k to FCO2 variability decreased, and in some lakes resulted in Delta CO2 contrib-uting more thank to FCO2 variability over the full ice-free period. Increased contribution of Delta CO2 to FCO2 vari-ability over time occurred across all lakes but was most apparent in large-volume southern-boreal lakes and indeeper (&gt;2m) parts of lakes, whereaskwas linked to FCO(2 )variability in shallow waters. Accordingly, knowing the variability of bothk and Delta CO(2 )over time and space is needed for accurate modeling of F CO2 from these vari-ables. We conclude that priority in FCO(2 )assessments should be given to direct measurements of FCO2 at multiplesites when possible, or otherwise from spatially distributed measurements of Delta CO(2 )combined with k- models that incorporate spatial variability of lake thermal structure and meteorology.

  • 49.
    Saunois, Marielle
    et al.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Bousquet, Philippe
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Poulter, Ben
    NASA, MD 20771 USA.
    Peregon, Anna
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Ciais, Philippe
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Canadell, Josep G.
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia.
    Dlugokencky, Edward J.
    NOAA ESRL, CO 80305 USA.
    Etiope, Giuseppe
    Ist Nazl Geofis and Vulcanol, Italy.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Houweling, Sander
    SRON, Netherlands; Institute Marine and Atmospher Research, Netherlands.
    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Tubiello, Francesco N.
    Food and Agriculture Org United Nations FAO, Italy.
    Castaldi, Simona
    Seconda University of Napoli, Italy; FEFU, Russia; Euromediterranean Centre Climate Change, Italy.
    Jackson, Robert B.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Alexe, Mihai
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Arora, Vivek K.
    Environm and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Beerling, David J.
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Bergamaschi, Peter
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Blake, Donald R.
    University of Calif Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Brailsford, Gordon
    National Institute Water and Atmospher Research, New Zealand.
    Brovkin, Victor
    Max Planck Institute Meteorol, Germany.
    Bruhwiler, Lori
    NOAA ESRL, CO 80305 USA.
    Crevoisier, Cyril
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Crill, Patrick
    Bolin Centre Climate Research, Sweden.
    Covey, Kristofer
    Yale University, CT 06511 USA.
    Curry, Charles
    University of Victoria, Canada.
    Frankenberg, Christian
    Jet Prop Lab, CA 91109 USA.
    Gedney, Nicola
    Joint Centre Hydrometeorol Research, England.
    Hoeglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Int Institute Appl Syst Anal, Austria.
    Ishizawa, Misa
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Ito, Akihiko
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Joos, Fortunat
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Kim, Heon-Sook
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institute Meteorol, Germany.
    Krummel, Paul
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Lamarque, Jean-Francois
    NCAR, CO 80307 USA.
    Langenfelds, Ray
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Locatelli, Robin
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Machida, Toshinobu
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Maksyutov, Shamil
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    McDonald, Kyle C.
    CUNY, NY 10031 USA.
    Marshall, Julia
    Max Planck Institute Biogeochem, Germany.
    Melton, Joe R.
    Environm and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Morino, Isamu
    Joint Centre Hydrometeorol Research, England.
    Naik, Vaishali
    NOAA, NJ 08540 USA.
    ODoherty, Simon
    University of Bristol, England.
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Patra, Prabir K.
    JAMSTEC, Japan.
    Peng, Changhui
    University of Quebec, Canada.
    Peng, Shushi
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Peters, Glen P.
    CICERO, Norway.
    Pison, Isabelle
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Prigent, Catherine
    Observ Paris, France.
    Prinn, Ronald
    MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Ramonet, Michel
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Riley, William J.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Saito, Makoto
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Santini, Monia
    Euromediterranean Centre Climate Change, Italy.
    Schroeder, Ronny
    CUNY, NY 10031 USA; University of Hohenheim, Germany.
    Simpson, Isobel J.
    University of Calif Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Spahni, Renato
    University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Steele, Paul
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Takizawa, Atsushi
    JMA, Japan.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Bolin Centre Climate Research, Sweden.
    Tian, Hanqin
    Auburn University, AL 36849 USA.
    Tohjima, Yasunori
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Viovy, Nicolas
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Voulgarakis, Apostolos
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    van Weele, Michiel
    KNMI, Netherlands.
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Weiss, Ray
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Wiedinmyer, Christine
    NCAR, CO 80307 USA.
    Wilton, David J.
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Wiltshire, Andy
    Met Off Hadley Centre, England.
    Worthy, Doug
    Environm Canada, Canada.
    Wunch, Debra
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Xu, Xiyan
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Yoshida, Yukio
    Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.
    Zhang, Bowen
    Auburn University, AL 36849 USA.
    Zhang, Zhen
    NASA, MD 20771 USA; Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Switzerland.
    Zhu, Qiuan
    Northwest AandF University, Peoples R China.
    The global methane budget 2000-20122016Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 697-751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (similar to biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 TgCH(4) yr(-1), range 540-568. About 60% of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios. Bottom-up approaches suggest larger global emissions (736 TgCH(4) yr(-1), range 596-884) mostly because of larger natural emissions from individual sources such as inland waters, natural wetlands and geological sources. Considering the atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget, it is likely that some of the individual emissions reported by the bottom-up approaches are overestimated, leading to too large global emissions. Latitudinal data from top-down emissions indicate a predominance of tropical emissions (similar to 64% of the global budget, amp;lt;30 degrees N) as compared to mid (similar to 32 %, 30-60 degrees N) and high northern latitudes (similar to 4 %, 60-90 degrees N). Top-down inversions consistently infer lower emissions in China (similar to 58 TgCH(4) yr(-1), range 51-72, -14 %) and higher emissions in Africa (86 TgCH(4) yr(-1), range 73-108, + 19 %) than bottom-up values used as prior estimates. Overall, uncertainties for anthropogenic emissions appear smaller than those from natural sources, and the uncertainties on source categories appear larger for top-down inversions than for bottom-up inventories and models. The most important source of uncertainty on the methane budget is attributable to emissions from wetland and other inland waters. We show that the wetland extent could contribute 30-40% on the estimated range for wetland emissions. Other priorities for improving the methane budget include the following: (i) the development of process-based models for inland-water emissions, (ii) the intensification of methane observations at local scale (flux measurements) to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scale (surface networks and satellites) to constrain top-down inversions, (iii) improvements in the estimation of atmospheric loss by OH, and (iv) improvements of the transport models integrated in top-down inversions. The data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/GLOBAL_METHANE_BUDGET_2016_V1.1) and the Global Carbon Project.

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  • 50.
    Saunois, Marielle
    et al.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Bousquet, Philippe
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Poulter, Ben
    NASA, MD 20771 USA.
    Peregon, Anna
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Ciais, Philippe
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Canadell, Josep G.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Dlugokencky, Edward J.
    NOAA, CO 80305 USA.
    Etiope, Giuseppe
    Ist Nazl Geofis and Vulcanol, Italy; Babes Bolyai University, Romania.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Houweling, Sander
    Netherlands Institute Space Research SRON, Netherlands; Institute Marine and Atmospher Research, Netherlands.
    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Tubiello, Francesco N.
    Food and Agriculture Org United Nations FAO, Italy.
    Castaldi, Simona
    Seconda University of Napoli, Italy; FEFU, Russia; Euro Mediterranean Centre Climate Change, Italy.
    Jackson, Robert B.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Alexe, Mihai
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Arora, Vivek K.
    Environm and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Beerling, David J.
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Bergamaschi, Peter
    European Commiss Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Blake, Donald R.
    University of Calif Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Brailsford, Gordon
    Nat Institute Water and Atmospher Research, New Zealand.
    Bruhwiler, Lori
    NOAA, CO 80305 USA.
    Crevoisier, Cyril
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Crill, Patrick
    Department Geol Science, Sweden; Bolin Centre Climate Research, Sweden.
    Covey, Kristofer
    Yale University, CT 06511 USA.
    Frankenberg, Christian
    CALTECH, CA 91125 USA; Jet Prop Lab, CA 91109 USA.
    Gedney, Nicola
    Joint Centre Hydrometeorol Research, England.
    Hoeglund-Isaksson, Lena
    IIASA, Austria.
    Ishizawa, Misa
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Ito, Akihiko
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Joos, Fortunat
    University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Kim, Heon-Sook
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institute Meteorol, Germany.
    Krummel, Paul
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Lamarque, Jean-Francois
    NCAR, CO 80307 USA.
    Langenfelds, Ray
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Locatelli, Robin
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Machida, Toshinobu
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Maksyutov, Shamil
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Melton, Joe R.
    Environm and Climate Change Canada, Canada.
    Morino, Isamu
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Naik, Vaishali
    NOAA, NJ 08540 USA.
    ODoherty, Simon
    University of Bristol, England.
    Parmentier, Frans-JanW.
    UiT Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Patra, Prabir K.
    JAMSTEC, Japan; JAMSTEC, Japan.
    Peng, Changhui
    University of Quebec, Canada; Northwest AandF University, Peoples R China.
    Peng, Shushi
    University of Paris Saclay, France; Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Peters, Glen P.
    CICERO Centre Int Climate Research, Norway.
    Pison, Isabelle
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Prinn, Ronald
    MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Ramonet, Michel
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Riley, William J.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Saito, Makoto
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Santini, Monia
    FEFU, Russia; Euro Mediterranean Centre Climate Change, Italy.
    Schroeder, Ronny
    University of New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Simpson, Isobel J.
    University of Calif Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Spahni, Renato
    University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Takizawa, Atsushi
    Japan Meteorol Agency, Japan.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Department Geol Science, Sweden; Bolin Centre Climate Research, Sweden.
    Tian, Hanqin
    Auburn University, AL 36849 USA.
    Tohjima, Yasunori
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Viovy, Nicolas
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Voulgarakis, Apostolos
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Weiss, Ray
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Wilton, David J.
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Wiltshire, Andy
    Hadley Centre, England.
    Worthy, Doug
    Environm Canada, Canada.
    Wunch, Debra
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Xu, Xiyan
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yoshida, Yukio
    National Institute Environm Studies, Japan.
    Zhang, Bowen
    Auburn University, AL 36849 USA.
    Zhang, Zhen
    Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Switzerland.
    Zhu, Qiuan
    Northwest AandF University, Peoples R China.
    Variability and quasi-decadal changes in the methane budget over the period 2000-20122017Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 18, s. 11135-11161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the recent Global Carbon Project (GCP) synthesis of the decadal methane (CH4) budget over 2000-2012 (Saunois et al., 2016), we analyse here the same dataset with a focus on quasi-decadal and inter-annual variability in CH4 emissions. The GCP dataset integrates results from top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry), inventories of anthropogenic emissions, and data-driven approaches. The annual global methane emissions from top-down studies, which by construction match the observed methane growth rate within their uncertainties, all show an increase in total methane emissions over the period 2000-2012, but this increase is not linear over the 13 years. Despite differences between individual studies, the mean emission anomaly of the top-down ensemble shows no significant trend in total methane emissions over the period 2000-2006, during the plateau of atmospheric methane mole fractions, and also over the period 2008-2012, during the renewed atmospheric methane increase. However, the top-down ensemble mean produces an emission shift between 2006 and 2008, leading to 22 [16-32] Tg CH4 yr(-1) higher methane emissions over the period 2008-2012 compared to 2002-2006. This emission increase mostly originated from the tropics, with a smaller contribution from mid-latitudes and no significant change from boreal regions. The regional contributions remain uncertain in top-down studies. Tropical South America and South and East Asia seem to contribute the most to the emission increase in the tropics. However, these two regions have only limited atmospheric measurements and remain therefore poorly constrained. The sectorial partitioning of this emission increase between the periods 2002-2006 and 2008-2012 differs from one atmospheric inversion study to another. However, all top-down studies suggest smaller changes in fossil fuel emissions (from oil, gas, and coal industries) compared to the mean of the bottom-up inventories included in this study. This difference is partly driven by a smaller emission change in China from the top-down studies compared to the estimate in the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.2) inventory, which should be revised to smaller values in a near future. We apply isotopic signatures to the emission changes estimated for individual studies based on five emission sectors and find that for six individual top-down studies (out of eight) the average isotopic signature of the emission changes is not consistent with the observed change in atmospheric (CH4)-C-13. However, the partitioning in emission change derived from the ensemble mean is consistent with this isotopic constraint. At the global scale, the top-down ensemble mean suggests that the dominant contribution to the resumed atmospheric CH4 growth after 2006 comes from microbial sources (more from agriculture and waste sectors than from natural wetlands), with an uncertain but smaller contribution from fossil CH4 emissions. In addition, a decrease in biomass burning emissions (in agreement with the biomass burning emission databases) makes the balance of sources consistent with atmospheric (CH4)-C-13 observations. In most of the top-down studies included here, OH concentrations are considered constant over the years (seasonal variations but without any inter-annual variability). As a result, the methane loss (in particular through OH oxidation) varies mainly through the change in methane concentrations and not its oxidants. For these reasons, changes in the methane loss could not be properly investigated in this study, although it may play a significant role in the recent atmospheric methane changes as briefly discussed at the end of the paper.

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