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  • 1.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi. Kenya.
    Jumba, Isac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Nazariwo, Betty
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, Godfrey
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
    University of Florida, USA.
    Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 2313-3317, Vol. 2, no 1, 18-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. Organochlorine pesticides investigated were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan (both α- and β- isomers and endosulfan sulphate), the sum is called “total” or Σendosulfan and methoxychlor. Prior to the ban or restriction in use, these pesticides had found wide applications in public health for control of disease vectors and in agriculture for control of crop pests. The analysis revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides with the highest mean concentrations for methoxychlor 140 ± 1.5 μg/kg, Σendosulfan (30 ± 2.1 μg/kg), aldrin (18 ± 0.28 μg/kg), respectively. The results show the presence of these pesticides in soils in the basin and this could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Rafiq
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) Concentration in Swedish River2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers have been playing most important role as fresh water source and medium of nutrient transportation from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem. Inorganic form of nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) are plant available mostly control the productivity of aquatic ecosystem. Transfer of these nutrients in higher concentrations cause harmful eutrophication in receiving water body.

    Study of dissolved inorganic nutrients concentrations in 12 Swedish rivers of different basin characteristics demonstrated both similar and varying behaviour from river to river and from season to season depending on catchment hydrology; land use and geology. Highest concentration did not coincide with the highest runoff. High DSi concentration observed in the unperturbed rivers however, high DIN and DIP concentration observed in agriculture dominated river followed by river basin dominated by industrial and urban activities. DSi and DIN concentration observed high in winter and decreased through spring to reach lowest in summer. DIP concentration although found low in summer but high concentration observed in early spring and early autumn. Rivers with low average runoff positively correlated with DSi and DIN concentration however, DIP demonstrated weak correlation.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 5.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identification of regional stakeholders for adaptation to climate change:  2009In:  , 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve decisions and awareness considering climate change it is argued that stakeholder interaction and dialogue is essential. Engaging stakeholders in research on adaptation thus requires analysis of stakeholder landscape and identification of relevant actors at different levels in society. The term 'stakeholder' is broad and researchers and practitioners might have both interrelated and contrasting views on who is at stake, the need for adaptation and climate risks.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the stakeholder landscape in a Swedish region, as part of increasing the understanding of the adaptation process. The stakeholder analysis has been initiated by the research teams through stakeholder mapping and complemented by local and regional actors' notions of who is, or should be, involved and active stakeholders in adaptation to climate change. The results indicate the importance of careful stakeholder analysis for sustainable adaptation. The actors' expert knowledge of the regions deepens the picture, show important links and gaps between different actors and illuminate unclear relationships and responsibilities as well as identify those actors who have important roles to play.

  • 6.
    Angirekula, Ravi Kumar
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Low-Cost treatment methods for purification of Phenolic compounds suitable for ASEAN Agro/forest Industrial Wastewater2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid industrialization of South East Asian countries is causing severe industrial wastewater pollution. Large number of agro/forest industries such as agro-chemicals, rubber, oil palm, pulp and paper and wood preserving industries are contributing major role in industrial pollution. These industries discharging huge amounts of organic pollutants like phenolic compounds into the environment. Phenolic compounds showing significant negative impacts on water resources, aquatic life and human health. The growing problems of industrial wastewater pollution are exacerbated for many developing countries which cannot afford to construct or operate conventional wastewater treatment facilities. It has thus become imperative to develop and popularize low-cost and energy-saving technologies for wastewater treatment. Lack of treatment facilities, feeble environmental legislations and less financial resources of agro-forest industries are might be the some of causes for present situation of industrial pollution. This paper analyzed different low cost treatment methods such as stabilization ponds, constructed treatment wetlands, bioadsorbents and adsorption process on activated carbons prepared from low cost agro/forest based waste byproducts to purify the phenolic compounds present in the agro/forest industrial wastewaters. And also it analyzed the suitability of treatment methods for the circumstances and conditions of agro/forest based industries of ASEAN countries. Based on different factors such as suitability of any kind of physical, chemical and biological conditions, low cost, availability of raw material and availability land adsorption process on low cost activated carbons seem to be most promising treatment method for purification of phenols in ASEAN agro/forest industrial wastewaters.

  • 7.
    Arnold, Karin von
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forests and Greenhouse gases. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained forests on organic soils2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the largest environmental threats believed to be facing us today is global warming due to the accumulation of green house gases (GHG). The concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are a result of the net strength of different sinks and sources. Forests, in this context, are of particular interest because of their dual role as both sinks and sources. Most forests are net sinks for CO2 but others, such as drained forests, may be significant sources of both CO2 and N20. Consequently, it is essential to understand the fluxes of GHG between drained forests and the atmosphere in order to obtain accurate estimates of national GHG budgets.

    The findings reported in this thesis and the accompanying papers are based on dark chamber flux measurements of soil GHG fluxes and modelled annual net primary productions in five drained forest sites and two undrained sites situated on organic soil.

    Temporal variations in forest floor CO2, release could be explained, to a large extent, by differencies in temperature and groundwater level. The within-site spatial variation in soil GHG fluxes could only be explained to a very small extent by distance to tree stems. Much of the among-site variations in soil CO2 and CH4 release could be caused by differences in the mean annual groundwater table, while N20 emissions were strongly correlated to the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of soil organic matter. Most poorly drained forested areas are probably net sinks for GHG as the CO2 uptake by trees more than compensates for the soil GHG emissions. However, the total drained forested area in Sweden was estimated to be a net source of GHG. The CO2 release from decomposition of soil organic matter stored before drainage was estimated to be substantial. Corresponding to 15% of the CO2 release from the consumption of fossil fuels.

    List of papers
    1. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 210, no 1-3, 239-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured during two to three years at four sites, located within an area of 9 km2 in southern Sweden, using dark static chamber techniques. Three of the sites were drained coniferous forests on moist organic soils that differed in forest productivity and tree species. The fourth site was an undrained tall sedge mire. Although the drained sites were all moist, with average groundwater levels between 17 and 27 cm below the soil surface, the mean annual dark forest floor CO2 release rate was significantly higher at the drained sites, (0.9–1.9 kg m−2 y−1) than at the undrained mire site (0.8 to 1.2 kg m−2 y−1). CH4 emissions were significantly lower from the drained sites than from the undrained mire (0.0 to 1.6 g m−2 y−1, compared to 10.6 to 12.2 g m−2 y−1), while N2O emissions were significantly lower from the undrained site than from the drained sites (20 to 30 mg m−2 y−1, compared to 30 to 90 mg m−2 y−1). There were no clear effects of site productivity or tree species on the soil fluxes of any of the gases. The annual net primary production of the forests was modeled. All drained sites were net sinks, while the undrained mire was a net source of greenhouse gases. The estimated net greenhouse gas exchange of the drained sites was correlated with productivity: the most productive site was the largest net sink and the least productive the smallest net sink for greenhouse gases. The results indicate that, to mitigate the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, drained forest sites, which have been unsuccessfully drained or rewetted due to subsidence, should be managed in a way that keeps the groundwater level at a steady state.

    Keyword
    Forestry drainage; Forest productivity; CO2 flux; CH4 flux; N2O flux
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13452 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2005.02.031 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12 Last updated: 2009-06-08
    2. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests
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    2005 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, Vol. 37, no 6, 1059-1071 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examined net greenhouse gas exchange at the soil surface in deciduous forests on soils with high organic contents. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured using dark static chambers for two consecutive years in three different forest types; (i) a drained and medium productivity site dominated by birch, (ii) a drained and highly productive site dominated by alder and (iii) an undrained and highly productive site dominated by alder. Although the drained sites had shallow mean groundwater tables (15 and 18 cm, respectively) their average annual rates of forest floor CO2 release were almost twice as high compared to the undrained site (1.9±0.4 and 1.7±0.3, compared to 1.0±0.2 kg CO2 m−2 yr−1). The average annual CH4 emission was almost 10 times larger at the undrained site (7.6±3.1 compared to 0.9±0.5 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 for the two drained sites). The average annual N2O emissions at the undrained site (0.1±0.05 g N2O m−2 yr−1) were lower than at the drained sites, and the emissions were almost five times higher at the drained alder site than at the drained birch site (0.9±0.35 compared to 0.2±0.11 g N2O m−2 yr−1). The temporal variation in forest floor CO2 release could be explained to a large extent by differences in groundwater table and air temperature, but little of the variation in the CH4 and N2O fluxes could be explained by these variables. The measured soil variables were only significant to explain for the within-site spatial variation in CH4 and N2O fluxes at the undrained swamp, and dark forest floor CO2 release was not explained by these variables at any site. The between-site spatial variation was attributed to variations in drainage, groundwater level position, productivity and tree species for all three gases. The results indicate that N2O emissions are of greater importance for the net greenhouse gas exchange at deciduous drained forest sites than at coniferous drained forest sites.

    Keyword
    Forest drainage; Greenhouse effect; Methane; Carbon dioxide; Nitrous oxide; Organic soil; Tree species
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13453 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.11.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12
    3. Can distribution of trees explain variation in nitrous oxide fluxes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can distribution of trees explain variation in nitrous oxide fluxes?
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    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 20, no 6, 481-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of distance to tree stems on nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes was examined to determine whether it is possible to improve the accuracy of flux estimates from boreal forest soils. Dark static chambers were placed along transects between pairs of trees within a Norway spruce stand and fluxes of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured during the period 1999-2003. The groundwater table was measured on every sampling occasion along the transects. In addition, radiation transmission, potential diffusion rate and biomass of forest floor vegetation were measured once at each chamber site along one of the transects and soil samples were collected at three depths, from which pH, denitrification enzyme activity, soil moisture, organic matter, and carbon and nitrogen content were determined. There was a high level of variation in the N2O fluxes, both spatially and temporally. However, the spatial variation in the N2O fluxes within the transect could not be explained by differences in any of the measured variables. Sometimes, mainly when no major peaks occurred, N2O fluxes were significantly correlated with CO2 release. It is concluded that distance to stems cannot be used to improve the design of sampling schemes or for extrapolating flux levels to larger scales.

    Keyword
    Denitrification, nitrogen transformation, nitrous oxide emission, root dynamics, spatial variation, spruce (Picea abies)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13454 (URN)10.1080/02827580500443443 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12 Last updated: 2009-03-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Soil CN ratio as a scalar parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soil CN ratio as a scalar parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions
    2005 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, Vol. 11, no 7, 1142-1147 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Forested histosols have been found in some cases to be major, and in other cases minor, sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). In order to estimate the total national or global emissions of N2O from histosols, scaling or mapping parameters that can separate low- and high-emitting sites are needed, and should be included in soil databases. Based on interannual measurements of N2O emissions from drained forested histosols in Sweden, we found a strong negative relationship between N2O emissions and soil CN ratios (r2adj=0.96, mean annual N2O emission=ae(−b CN ratio)). The same equation could be used to estimate the N2O emissions from Finnish and German sites based on CN ratios in published data. We envisage that the correlation between N2O emissions and CN ratios could be used to scale N2O emissions from histosols determined at sampled sites to national levels. However, at low CN ratios (i.e. below 15–20) other parameters such as climate, pH and groundwater tables increase in importance as regulating factors affecting N2O emissions.

    Keyword
    CN ratio, drainage, histosol, mapping, nitrous oxide, scaling
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13455 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00973.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12
    5. Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 20, no 5, 400-411 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of drained organic forestlands in Sweden to the national greenhouse gas budget. Drained organic forestland in Sweden collectively comprises an estimated net sink for greenhouse gases of -5.0 Mt carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents year-1 (range -12.0 to 1.2) when default emission factors provided by the Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry are used, and an estimated net source of 0.8 Mt CO2 equivalents year-1 (range -6.7 to 5.1) when available emission data for the climatic zones spanned by Sweden are used. This discrepancy is mainly due to differences in the emission factors for heterotrophic respiration. The main uncertainties in the estimates are related to carbon changes in the litter pool and releases of soil CO2 and nitrous oxide.

    Keyword
    Carbon dioxide; good practice guidance; greenhouse gas budget; methane; nitrous oxide; peat; scaling
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13456 (URN)10.1080/02827580500281975 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12
  • 8.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reyier, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technical Note: Cost-efficient approaches to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments using mini loggers2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 12, 3849-3859 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2 are important for our understanding of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas balances. Several significant CO2 fluxes in nature may still be unknown as illustrated by recent findings of high CO2 emissions from aquatic environments, previously not recognized in global carbon balances. Therefore, it is important to develop convenient and affordable ways to measure CO2 in many types of environments. At present, direct measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil or water, or CO2 concentrations in surface water, are typically labor intensive or require costly equipment. We here present an approach with measurement units based on small inexpensive CO2 loggers, originally made for indoor air quality monitoring, that were tested and adapted for field use. Measurements of soil-atmosphere and lake-atmosphere fluxes, as well as of spatiotemporal dynamics of water CO2 concentrations (expressed as the equivalent partial pressure, pCO(2aq)) in lakes and a stream network are provided as examples. Results from all these examples indicate that this approach can provide a cost- and labor-efficient alternative for direct measurements and monitoring of CO2 flux and pCO(2aq) in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  • 9.
    Benskin, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Institute for Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Tyskland.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Scott, Brian
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Spencer, Christine
    Environment Canada, Kanada.
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Martin, Jonathan
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Manufacturing Origin of Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Seawater2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 2, 677-685 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which different manufacturing sources and long-range transport pathways contribute to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the world’s oceans, particularly in remote locations, is widely debated. Here, the relative contribution of historic (i.e., electrochemically fluorinated) and contemporary (i.e., telomer) manufacturing sources was assessed for PFOA in various seawater samples by an established isomer profiling technique. The ratios of individual branched PFOA isomers were indistinguishable from those in authentic historic standards in 93% of the samples examined, indicating that marine processes had little influence on isomer profiles, and that isomer profiling is a valid source apportionment tool for seawater. Eastern Atlantic PFOA was largely (83−98%) of historic origin, but this decreased to only 33% close to the Eastern U.S. seaboard. Similarly, PFOA in the Norwegian Sea was near exclusively historic, but the relative contribution decreased to ∼50% near the Baltic Sea. Such observations of contemporary PFOA in coastal source regions coincided with elevated concentrations, suggesting that the continued production and use of PFOA is currently adding to the marine burden of this contaminant. In the Arctic, a spatial trend was observed whereby PFOA in seawater originating from the Atlantic was predominantly historic (up to 99%), whereas water in the Archipelago (i.e., from the Pacific) was predominantly of contemporary origin (as little as 17% historic). These data help to explain reported temporal and spatial trends from Arctic wildlife biomonitoring, and suggest that the dominant PFOA source(s) to the Pacific and Canadian Arctic Archipelago are either (a) from direct emissions of contemporary PFOA via manufacturing or use in Asia, or (b) from atmospheric transport and oxidation of contemporary PFOA-precursors.

  • 10.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    University of Alberta, Canada .
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Scott, Brian F.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Spencer, Christine
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Environm Canada, Canada .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    University of Alberta, Canada .
    Morris, Adam
    University of Guelph, Canada .
    Lohmann, Rainer
    University of Rhode Isl, RI 02882 USA .
    Tomy, Gregg
    Department Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada .
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Department Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada .
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Japan .
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Japan .
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 11, 5815-5823 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here on the spatial distribution of C-4, C-6, and C-8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C-6-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (Sigma PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). Sigma PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L Sigma PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, Sigma PFAAs were less than210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically greater than= 1 in the northern hemisphere, similar to 1 near the equator, and less than= 1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, Sigma PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically greater thangreater than1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf; possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions.

  • 11.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Kucklick, John
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, South Carolina, USA.
    Letcher, Robert
    National Wildlife Research Centre, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN THE ARCTIC: AN ASSESSMENT OF HALOGENATED NATURAL PRODUCTS2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, 193-196 p., 8.4010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan
    Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Armitage, James
    University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Brown, Tanya
    University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Danon Schaffer, Monica
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada.
    Hung, Haley
    Meteorological Services Canada .
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Environment, Canada.
    Loock, Daniela
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Luttmer, Carol
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Ma, Jianmin
    Lanzhou University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Macdonald, Robie
    Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Mackay, Don
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reid, Liisa
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reimer, Ken
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport2013In: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013: Persistent Organic Pollutants in Canada’ s North / [ed] Derek Muir, Perihan Kurt-Karakus and Peter Stow, Ottawa: Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada , 2013, 19-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.

    There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.

    Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).

    Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.

  • 13.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Swedish University Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Beven, Keith
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Gothenburg University.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnson, Richard K
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Rodhe, Johan
    Gothenburg University.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    Swedish Meteorological & Hydrological Institute.
    Nature as the "Natural" Goal for Water Management: A Conversation2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 4, 209-214 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for water-quality and ecosystem integrity are often defined relative to "natural" reference conditions in many water-management systems, including the European Union Water Framework Directive. This paper examines the difficulties created for water management by using "natural" as the goal. These difficulties are articulated from different perspectives in an informal (fictional) conversation that takes place after a workshop on reference conditions in water-resources management. The difficulties include defining the natural state and modeling how a system might be progressed toward the natural, as well as the feasibility and desirability of restoring a natural state. The paper also considers the appropriateness for developing countries to adopt the use of natural as the goal for water management. We conclude that failure to critically examine the complexities of having "natural" as the goal will compromise the ability to manage the issues that arise in real basins by not making the ambiguities associated with this "natural" goal explicit. This is unfortunate both for the western world that has embraced this model of "natural as the goal" and for the developing world in so far as they are encouraged to adopt this model.

  • 14.
    Blomqvist (Jonsson), Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Food and Fashion: Water Management and Collective Action among Irrigation Farmers and Textile Industrialists in South India1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, much ofthe political debate in the West, East aud South has focused on the decentralization of responsibilities from the state to private enterprises and NGOs. But what potential is there for local communities to create their own govenlance structures able to deal with issues up till recently seen as the responsibility of the state? In this thesis, answer to this question is sought by analyzing two case studies from the semi-arid Coimbatore-region in South India from an institutionai perspective. One case concerns the efforts to involve farmers in irrigation water management in the Lower Bhavani Project, while the other focuses on the pressure on textile industrialists in Tirupur city to collectively treat their polluted effluent water.

    In both cases, the new distribution ofresponsibilities required that groups ofwater users would succeed in establishing new entities for collective action among themselves strong enough to prevent free-riding on a massive scale. Overcoming three main obstacles proved crucial in this process; meeting coordination costs, re-defining the notion of free-riding among resource users, and meeting motivation costs. Factors both within and outsicte the loeal community affected the degree ofsuccess.

    The distribution and lise of economic, moral and physical power between various actors and the interconnectedness between local and external institutions proved crucial for the establishrnent oflocal govemance stmctures. Moreover, the historical relation between the respective user group and the state has to a large extent affected the goals and strategies oflocal entities of eolleetive action.

    Clearly, resource management problems at localleve1 can not be solved by simply decentralizing responsibilities from the state to groups ofresource users. Rather, the state could playan important role by initiating, supporting and directing slich local entities of collective action.

  • 15. Bots, Pieter
    et al.
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding the role of perception and valuation in the development and use of models for water management2010In: Integrated Assessment for Water Framework Directive Implementation: data, economic and Human Dimension / [ed] Vanrolleghem, P., London: IWA , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated Assessment for Water Framework Directive Implementation: Data, Economic and Human Dimension - Volume 2 is a concrete outcome from the Harmoni-CA concerted action as part of a 4-volume series of Guidance Reports that guide water professionals through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive, with a focus on the use of ICT-tools (and in particular modelling). They are complementary to the Guidance Documents produced by the EU Directorate General for Environment.  Water resources planning and management and the development of appropriate policies require methodologies and tools that are able to support systematic, integrative and multidisciplinary assessments at various scales. It also requires the quantification of various uncertainties in both data and models, and the incorporation of stakeholders participation and institutional mechanisms into the various tools and risk assessment methodologies, to help decision makers understand and evaluate alternative measures and decisions.

  • 16.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Choong Kwe Yive, Nee Sun
    University of MAuritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Polder, Anushka
    Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Organic pollutants in term eggs from Rodrigues Island – Indian Ocean.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    Nort-West University, South Africa.
    Krátká, M
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klanova, Jana
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Do POPs Transfer from Plastic Marine Debris to Coral on Tropical Islands?2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, 1352-1355 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West Uniersity, South AFrica.
    Evans, Steven
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Cole, Nik
    Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Isles, UK.
    Choong Kwer Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon’s Rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean2016In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 114, 58-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon’s Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m-1 shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-01-04 04:57
  • 19.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North West University, South Africa .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sun Choong Kwet Yive, Nee
    Mauritian Wildlife Fdn, Mauritius .
    Loken, Katharina
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Utne Skaare, Janneche
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    First report of chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic Indian Ocean island2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, 53-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report for the first time levels of persistent organic pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, the worlds third largest ocean. Ten eggs each of the Common Noddy, also known as the Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), and Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) were collected from Ile Cocos off the coast of the island of Rodrigues, located 560 km east of the island of Mauritius. Sigma PCBs had the highest levels (2.2 and 2.6 ng/g wm, wet mass; 20 and 19 ng/g lm, lipid mass) for common Noddy and Sooty Tern, respectively (and following), then Sigma DDT (1.9 and 3.1 ng/g wm; 17 and 23 ng/g lm), and mirex (0.96 and 0.69 ng/g wm; 8.7 and 5.0 ng/g lm). Sigma Chlordanes (0.094 and 0.15 ng/g wm; 0.48 and 0.73 ng/g lm) and Sigma toxaphenes (0.26 and 0.61 ng/g wm; 2.4 and 5.9 ng/g lm) are rare data for these compounds from this ocean. Brominated flame retardants were low (0.08 and 0.07 ng/g wm; 0.7 and 0.7 ng/g lm). Multivariate analyses indicated different contamination patterns in the prey items as Sooty Terns had significantly higher levels of mean Sigma chlordanes and Sigma toxaphenes, as well as CB105, -108 and -157. p,p-DDE had an association with thinner eggshells in the Sooty Tern. Although the contaminant levels were in all respects low, industrialisation, development on the periphery, commercial exploitation of the marine environment, and pollutants transferred over long distances by marine debris is likely to add to chemical pressure in this region. Monitoring changes in background levels of pollutants in remote regions will indicate such trends, and marine bird eggs from Rodrigues would be an excellent site.

  • 20.
    Bratt, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, L.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Farmers questions and model answers on nitrogen leakage2003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bratt, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, L. P.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Potential changes to nutrient leaching from adaptation of Swedish agricultural production to climate change2003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bratt, Anna-Lena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing agricultural nutrient leaching within the EC Water Framework Directive in Sweden2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural management practices geared towards reducing nutrient leaching are in focus for the research presented in this thesis. Critical measures for reducing diffuse pollution from the agricultural sector depend on decisions of individual farmers. It is useful to take stock of what different stakeholders are actually doing to reduce nutrient leaching and analyze their reasoning before defining a new administrative process. Stakeholder perceptions about potentials and problems concerning management of agricultural practices are analyzed with a systems approach using various analytical methods, and put in relation to the implementation of EC Water Framework Directive in Sweden. The methods used include surveys, focus group interviews, model comparison, sensitivity analyses and analyses of climate change implications.

    The results indicate a general positive attitude among stakeholders towards the main characteristics of the newly introduced directive. They also reveal that a move towards a pro-active process was perceived as an additional positive factor for the improvement of water quality, where specific activities and measures are carried out according to planning based on local assessments. The respondents pointed out that a national approach would put necessary pressure on local politicians to define environmental objectives and provide resources to fulfil them. The current findings indicate that decision making for farmers is a complex procedure and that the different factors need to be addressed in order to obtain a change in agricultural practices.

    Consistent legislation that is clear about power and rights is fundamental for cooperation to function when volunteerism and enthusiasm are absent. Environmental and socio-economic conditions change constantly, and administration has to be flexible to be able to adapt. Having access to and being able to use relevant data is only one important factor for stakeholder involvement. To give farmers the opportunity to further develop production towards reduced nutrient losses, appropriate information provided in all the right arenas is crucial.

    List of papers
    1. Local Knowledge for Management within the EU Water Framework Directive in a Swedish Region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Knowledge for Management within the EU Water Framework Directive in a Swedish Region
    2000 (English)In: Nordic Hydrological Conference 2000: Volume 2, Uppsala, June 26-30, 2000, 463–471- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13436 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-02-09
    2. Farmers' Choices: Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Leakage within a Swedish Catchment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmers' Choices: Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient Leakage within a Swedish Catchment
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, Vol. 45, no 5, 673-689 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses farmers' strategies on management practices for the reduction of nutrient releases, within a Swedish catchment. The main objective of the European Union water framework directive is to obtain good ecological water quality, and the approach is specifically stipulated to be catchment-based. Eutrophication is generally stated as the main environmental problem in water management and agricultural production is the major cause of nutrient leakage. The analysis concentrates on current agricultural management practices to reduce nutrient leakage. Farmers are beginning to experience a new awareness about nutrient use and see manure as a resource instead of a waste product. Further, those factors that are decisive for decision making are investigated, including information sources. The farm economy, the level of ecological knowledge and regulations illustrate the main obstacles linked to decision making. Professional magazines and informal discussions are considered the most esteemed information sources. Farmers' disposition to change, and co-operation, are also discussed, both of which are of vital importance for the development of new official administrative procedures.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13437 (URN)10.1080/0964056022000013066 (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18
    3. Farmers questions and model answers on nitrogen leakage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmers questions and model answers on nitrogen leakage
    2003 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13438 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18
    4. Municipal officers on implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden regarding agricultural nutrient flows
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal officers on implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden regarding agricultural nutrient flows
    2004 (English)In: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 9, no 1, 65-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses the perceptions at municipal level of potentials and problems in implementing integrated catchment management of water resources as proposed in the EU Water Framework Directive, expressed in views on how to reduce nutrient leakage from agricultural production. Heads of environmental authorities, spatial planners and environmental officers are among the professionals that will be key actors when implementing the WFD at the local level. Using a process of active focus group interviews, officials from municipal environmental offices studied, reflected upon and discussed the suggested plan concerning their part of implementing WFD. The municipal officers stressed certain conditions that have to be met to implement WFD in a sustainable manner. The most important conditions are clear environmental goals and management plans with support in legislation, which would put the necessary pressure upon local politicians to prioritize the WFD and take action. The respondents perceived the WFD would offer a changed approach in work routines with farmers towards partnerships for sustainable water resource management.

    Keyword
    EU Water Framework Directive, focus groups, nitrogen leaching, sustainable water resource management
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13439 (URN)10.1080/1354983042000176601 (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-05-07
    5. Potential changes to nutrient leaching from adaptation of Swedish agricultural production to climate change
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential changes to nutrient leaching from adaptation of Swedish agricultural production to climate change
    2003 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13440 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18
  • 23.
    Bratt, Anna-Lena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Municipal officers on implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden regarding agricultural nutrient flows2004In: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 9, no 1, 65-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses the perceptions at municipal level of potentials and problems in implementing integrated catchment management of water resources as proposed in the EU Water Framework Directive, expressed in views on how to reduce nutrient leakage from agricultural production. Heads of environmental authorities, spatial planners and environmental officers are among the professionals that will be key actors when implementing the WFD at the local level. Using a process of active focus group interviews, officials from municipal environmental offices studied, reflected upon and discussed the suggested plan concerning their part of implementing WFD. The municipal officers stressed certain conditions that have to be met to implement WFD in a sustainable manner. The most important conditions are clear environmental goals and management plans with support in legislation, which would put the necessary pressure upon local politicians to prioritize the WFD and take action. The respondents perceived the WFD would offer a changed approach in work routines with farmers towards partnerships for sustainable water resource management.

  • 24.
    Cassidy, Lynn
    et al.
    University of Botswana.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kgathi, Donald
    University of Botswana.
    Bendsen, Hannelore
    University of Botswana.
    Ngwenya, Barbara
    University of Botswana.
    Indigenous Knowledge, Livelihoods and Government Policy2011In: Rural Livelihoods, Risk and Political Economy of Access to Natural Resources in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / [ed] Kgathi, D.L., Ngwenya, B.N. and Darkoh, M.K.B., Nova Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango Delta, a globally renowned wetland, is characterized by a mosaic of meandering watercourses, floodplains and islands, and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation species. It is a major source of livelihoods for the local communities and also an important attraction for tourism, the second most important economic activity in Botswana after diamonds, contributing 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP). As a globally renowned Ramsar Site and major tourist attraction, the Okavango Delta is a resource of national, regional and international importance. This book examines the results of empirical micro-level studies undertaken in the Okavango Delta and contributes to the formulation of relevant policies for sustainable development in the Okavango Delta. (Imprint: Nova Press)

  • 25.
    Castensson, Reinhold
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kartbilden som ledstjärna2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är dels att visa på de historiska kanalkartornas kartografiska särdrag, dels att och redovisa uppbyggnaden av en digital kartdatabas. Digitaliseringen av kanalkartorna öppnar nya ännu oprövade möjligheter till komparativa analyser av kanalkartor från andra kanaler och andra länder. Särskilt gäller det kartografiska jämförelser med historiska kanalkartor från England som var den tidens föregångsland.

  • 26.
    Castensson, Reinhold
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Windahl, Urban
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    De historiska Göta kanalkartorn: design, tekniskt utförande och nyttjande av kartwebben2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delprojektet ”De historiska Göta kanalkartorna” inleddes med insamling systematisering och analys av det historiska kartmaterialet. Det skedde bl.a. genom besök på följande arkiv: Krigsarkivet, Landsarkivet i Vadstena, AB Götakanalbolags arkiv. Därefter följde digitaliseringsarbete och konstruktion och utformning av kartwebben.

    Syftet var att utveckla en metod för digitalisering och presentation av känsliga historiska kanalkartor. Flertalet av kartorna är tyvärr i sådant ömtåligt skick att de inte tillåter omfattande hantering ochatt genom digitalisering och konstruktion av den historiska kartdatabasen och ge göra det möjligt för forskare och studenter på univ. och högskolor, för elever grundskola och gymnasium och för den stora intresserade allmänheten att få tillträde till det unika kartmaterialet.

  • 27.
    Chang, Yan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Impacts of Climate Changeson Reservoirs in Northern Sweden: case study of Akkajaure reservoir by modelling2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the middle of the 20th century, the average temperature of the atmosphere near Earthsurface has increased. The global warming causes many effects in hydrological systems, suchas changes in thermal structure, water quality, aquatic ecosystems, etc. This thesis studies theimpact of climate change on Akkajaure reservoir, the second largest regulated reservoir inSweden, by simulating a predicted temperature rise based on the climate and hydrologicalconditions of Akkajaure in 1998-2002. The congeal duration, ice thickness and the turbulentkinetic energy (TKE) in the lake were calculated by the catchment hydrological model and thelake model. The movement of phytoplankton and their mean net production (MeanNP) rateare simulated by the dispersion model and the photosynthesis model. By comparing thesimulation results of past situation and three predicted scenarios, it is obtained that theincreases of temperature shorten the congeal duration, which is a lead factor for shortening thetrough period and amplification of peak value of TKE. The comparison of plankton particlesposition illustrates that the particles stay in a deeper position for a longer time because of thechanges of TKE. Though the plankton stays in euphotic zone longer as the temperatureincreases, the comparison of the mean production rate between the real scenario and thepredicted scenarios concludes that the mean production rate grows as the temperatureincreases because the shortened ice cover period makes the duration of absorbed sunlightincreases in lake. The effects of global warming may influence the distribution of microalgaein on high latitude lakes and reservoirs. The phytoplankton will stay in deeper water layers fora longer time.

  • 28.
    Chmiel, Hannah E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Einarsdottir, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Koehler, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isidorova, Anastasija
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferland, Marie-Eve
    University of Quebec, Canada.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The role of sediments in the carbon budget of a small boreal lake2016In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, no 5, 1814-1825 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the role of lake sediments as carbon (C) source and sink in the annual C budget of a small (0.07 km(2)) and shallow (mean depth, 3.4 m), humic lake in boreal Sweden. Organic carbon (OC) burial and mineralization in the sediments were quantified from Pb-210-dated sediment and laboratory sediment incubation experiments, respectively. Burial and mineralization rates were then upscaled to the entire basin and to one whole year using sediment thickness derived from sub-bottom profiling, basin morphometry, and water column monitoring data of temperature and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, catchment C import, open water metabolism, photochemical mineralization as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions to the atmosphere were quantified to relate sediment processes to other lake C fluxes. We found that on a whole-basin and annual scale, sediment OC mineralization was three times larger than OC burial, and contributed about 16% to the annual CO2 emission. Other contributions to CO2 emission were water column metabolism (31%), photochemical mineralization (6%), and catchment imports via inlet streams and inflow of shallow groundwater (22%). The remainder (25%) could not be explained by our flux calculations, but was most likely attributed to an underestimation in groundwater inflow. We conclude that on an annual and whole-basin scale (1) sediment OC mineralization dominated over OC burial, (2) water column OC mineralization contributed more to lake CO2 emission than sediment OC mineralization, and (3) catchment import of C to the lake was greater than lake-internal C cycling.

  • 29.
    Cole, Jonathan J
    et al.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY.
    Bade, Darren L.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pace, Michael L.
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
    Van de Bogert, Matthew
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
    Multiple approaches to estimating air-water gas exchange in small lakes2010In: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, ISSN 1541-5856, E-ISSN 1541-5856, Vol. 8, 285-293 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of gas exchange between air and water is an essential quantity in a number of contexts, from mass balances to the calculation of whole-system metabolism. The exchange of a gas between water and the atmosphere is controlled by differential partial pressures of gases in air and in water (both straightforward to measure) and by the amount of turbulent energy exchange between the air-water interface, the measurement of which is neither simple nor direct. This physical exchange is often expressed as a piston velocity (k). We compared four methods for estimating k in a series of small (0.3 to 45 ha), low-wind (mean wind < 3 m s–1) lakes: 1) floating chambers using ambient CH4; 2) whole-lake SF6 additions; 3) three wind-based models from the literature; and 4) C mass balances constrained by whole-lake 13C additions. All of the methods, with the exception of one windbased model, converged on values for k600 of between 0.35 and 0.74 m d–1 with no biases among methods. The floating chambers, if designed properly, are a cost-effective way of obtaining site-specific values of k for low wind lakes over fairly short time frames (hours).

  • 30.
    Cordell, Dana
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Urine Diversion & Reuse in Australia: A homeless paradigm or sustainable solution for the future?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diverting urine from faeces or mixed wastewater and reusing it to fertilize crops, is a traditional method used in Asia. It is also a contemporary approach to sustainable nutrient and water management in Scandinavia and other parts of Europe. Urine diversion and reuse is a proven socio-technical system that has significant potential benefits on both a local and global scale, such as recirculating scarce plant nutrients like phosphorus back to agriculture, reducing eutrophication of waterways and improving water and sanitation systems. This thesis explores the nature of these benefits in Australia and the global context and what barriers would need to be overcome if a urine diversion and reuse system were implemented in Australia to achieve significant environmental benefits. These questions are investigated through stakeholder interviews in Sweden, to identify the ‘lessons learnt’ from the Swedish experience with urine diversion and reuse, and, through interviews with relevant stakeholders in Australia to identify possible barriers and opportunities, costs and benefits, and roles and responsibilities in the Australian context. Findings from both the stakeholder interviews are triangulated with other sources of knowledge, such as the literature, personal communications and a qualitative assessment of costs and benefits.

    This thesis found that while urine diversion is likely to benefit the Australia situation and warrants further research, these benefits are fragmented and spread across a range of discourses and separate institutions. Its acceptance and effective introduction into Australia might therefore be challenged by its lack of a single obvious organisational home. To overcome this and other identified challenges, several recommendations are made. For example, an Australian demonstration trial of urine diversion and reuse is recommended where clear drivers and opportunities exist, such as: in new developments adjacent to agricultural land; in regions where algal blooms are a critical problem and are predominantly caused by municipal sewage discharges; and where synergies with waterless urinals are being considered for water conservation value. This thesis does not promote urine diversion and reuse as the ‘silver bullet’ to Australia’s water and nutrient problems, however it does recommend that it be considered on an equal basis next to other possible options. For example, if reducing nutrient loads on receiving water bodies is a key objective, then a cost-effective analysis of urine diversion and reuse, compared to other options to reduce nutrient loads, could be undertaken, ensuring all relevant costs and benefits to the whole of society are included in the analysis.

  • 31.
    Cordell, Dana
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phosphorus: a nutrient with no home - multiple stakeholder perspectives on a critical global resource for food securityManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As an essential nutrient for crop growth and hence food production, phosphorus is a resource of global significance. Yet the main source of phosphorus – phosphate rock – is a non-renewable resource and high-grade global reserves of phosphate rock are likely to be depleted in the next 50-100 years while demand continues to increase. Unlike oil, which can be substituted with renewable energy sources, there is no substitute for phosphorus in food production. Increasing environmental, geopolitical, economic and social challenges means there is a pressing need to reassess how phosphorus is sourced and used in the global food system. For example, while all farmers need access to phosphorus, just five countries currently control around 90% of the worlds remaining phosphate rock reserves. Further, the quality of reserves is decreasing, while the environmental pollution is increasing and cheap fertilizers are likely to be a thing of the past. Given this situation, it is concerning that no existing international organisation is taking an active role in governing phosphorus resources to ensure its long-term sustainability for future food security. This paper first synthesizes findings from a series of international in-depth stakeholder interviews regarding sustainability perspectives on global phosphorus resources for food security. The findings are integrated within a broader institutional analysis of the situation. The analyses revealed that there is little consensus on the nature of the phosphorus situation and indeed possible solutions. Phosphorus is conceptualised in many different ways depending on the context, such as a fertilizer commodity or an environmental pollutant. There is substantial institutional fragmentation and ambiguity regarding roles and responsibilities. In order to ensure future phosphorus accessibility and availability for global food production, phosphorus scarcity needs to be added to the food security discourses alongside water and energy scarcity.

  • 32.
    Cordell, Dana
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Story of Phosphorus: Sustainability implications of global phosphorus scarcity for food security2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The story of phosphorus began with the search for the philosopher’s stone, and centuries later the critical role of phosphorus in soil fertility and crop growth was highlighted. Eventually, phosphorus was implicated in the global environmental challenge of eutrophication. Now, we are on the brink of yet another emerging chapter in the story: global phosphorus scarcity linked to food security. Through a transdisciplinary and systemic inquiry, this thesis has analyzed, reconceptualized and synthesized the physical and institutional dimensions of global phosphorus scarcity in the context of food security, leading to a new framing, ‘phosphorus security’ to guide future work towards a more sustainable and food secure pathway.

    In a world which will be home to nine billion people by the middle of this century, producing enough food and other vital resources is likely to be a substantial challenge for humanity. Phosphorus, together with nitrogen and potassium, is an essential plant nutrient. It is applied to agricultural soils in fertilizers to maintain high crop yields. Phosphorus has no substitute in food production. Therefore, securing the long-term availability and accessibility of phosphorus is crucial to global food security. However the major source of phosphorus today, phosphate rock, is a non-renewable resource and high quality reserves are becoming increasingly scarce. This thesis estimates peak phosphorus to occur before 2035, after which demand will exceed supply. Phosphorus scarcity is defined by more than just physical scarcity of phosphate rock and this thesis develops five important dimensions. For example, there is a scarcity of management of phosphorus throughout the entire food production and consumption system: the global phosphorus flows analysis found that only 20% of phosphorus in phosphate rock mined for food production actually reaches the food consumed by the global population due to substantial inefficiencies and losses from mine to field to fork. There is also an economic scarcity, where for example, while all the world’s farmers need access to sufficient fertilizers, only those with sufficient purchasing power can access fertilizer markets. Institutional scarcity, such as the lack of governance structures at the international level that explicitly aim to ensure long-term availability of and access to global phosphorus resources for food production that has led to ineffective and fragmented governance of phosphorus, including a lack of: overall coordination, monitoring and feedback, clear roles and responsibilities, long-term planning and equitable distribution. Finally, geopolitical scarcity arising from 90% of the world’s remaining high-grade phosphate rock reserves being controlled by just five countries (a majority of which are subject to geopolitical tensions) can limit the availability of phosphorus on the market and raises serious ethical questions.

    The long-term future scenarios presented in this thesis indicate that meeting future global food demand will likely require a substantial reduction in the global demand for phosphorus through not only improved efficient use of phosphorus in agriculture, but also through changing diets and increasing efficiency in the food chain. The unavoidable demand for phosphorus could then be met through a high recovery and reuse rate of all sources of phosphorus (crop residues, food waste, manure, excreta) and other sources including some phosphate rock. A ‘hard-landing’ situation could involve further fertilizer price spikes, increased waste and pollution (including eutrophication), increased energy consumption associated with the production and trade of phosphorus fertilizers, reduced farmer access to phosphorus, reduced global crop yields and increased food insecurity. A preferred ‘soft landing’ situation will however require substantial changes to physical and institutional infrastructure, including improved governance structures at the global, national and other levels, such as new policies, partnerships and roles to bring together the food, fertilizer, agriculture, sanitation and waste sectors for a coordinated response.

    Finally, this thesis proposes a new global goal – phosphorus security – to be integrated in the dominant research discourses and policy debates on global food security and global environmental change. Among other criteria, phosphorus security requires that phosphorus use is decoupled from environmental degradation and that farmers’ access to phosphorus is secured.

    List of papers
    1. The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought
    2009 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, Vol. 19, no 2, 292-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Food production requires application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to sustain crop yields. However modern agriculture is dependent on phosphorus derived from phosphate rock, which is a non-renewable resource and current global reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. While phosphorus demand is projected to increase, the expected global peak in phosphorus production is predicted to occur around 2030. The exact timing of peak phosphorus production might be disputed, however it is widely acknowledged within the fertilizer industry that the quality of remaining phosphate rock is decreasing and production costs are increasing.

    Yet future access to phosphorus receives little or no international attention. This paper puts forward the case for including long-term phosphorus scarcity on the priority agenda for global food security. Opportunities for recovering phosphorus and reducing demand are also addressed together with institutional challenges.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18446 (URN)10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2010-02-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Phosphorus, food and ‘messy’ problems: A systemic inquiring into the management of a critical global resource
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus, food and ‘messy’ problems: A systemic inquiring into the management of a critical global resource
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th ANZSYS Australia New Zealand Systems Society Conference, 1-2 December 2008, Edith Cowan UniversityMount Lawley CampusPerth, Western Australia / [ed] Trudi Cooper, Terence Love, William Hutchinson and David Cook, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a process of systemic inquiry into the roles, relationships and perceptions in the management of phosphorus resources in the context of global food security. Phosphorus, like water, energy and nitrogen, is critical for food production. All modern food production and consumption systems are dependent on continual inputs of phosphate fertilizers derived from phosphate rock. Yet phosphate rock is a finite resource under the control of only a handful of countries – mainly China, Morocco and the US. Production of current global phosphate reserves could peak in 30 years, within decades of peak oil. Given this situation it is surprising that phosphorus is not considered a priority in the dominant discourses on global food security or global environmental change. Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology offers a framework to guide an inquiry or ‘learning process’ into the nature of the problem situation and system failure, incorporating results of an analysis of stakeholder interviews, a substance flows analysis and an institutional analysis. The soft systems inquiry reveals that not only is there no stakeholder consensus on the nature of the problem, there are no international institutional arrangements, much less an international organisation, responsible for monitoring and facilitating the long-term sustainability of phosphorus resources for food production. Further, without such an actor and associated institutional arrangements, there is no ‘feedback loop’ that can correct the system. Given the critical nature of phosphorus to all modern economies, this is a concerning finding and warrants further analysis, deliberation and enabling of change.

    Keyword
    Phosphorus, global food security, soft systems methodology, stakeholder analysis, institutional analysis
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53760 (URN)978-0-7298-0668-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2010-02-03 Created: 2010-02-03 Last updated: 2010-02-03
    3. Phosphorus: a nutrient with no home - multiple stakeholder perspectives on a critical global resource for food security
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus: a nutrient with no home - multiple stakeholder perspectives on a critical global resource for food security
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As an essential nutrient for crop growth and hence food production, phosphorus is a resource of global significance. Yet the main source of phosphorus – phosphate rock – is a non-renewable resource and high-grade global reserves of phosphate rock are likely to be depleted in the next 50-100 years while demand continues to increase. Unlike oil, which can be substituted with renewable energy sources, there is no substitute for phosphorus in food production. Increasing environmental, geopolitical, economic and social challenges means there is a pressing need to reassess how phosphorus is sourced and used in the global food system. For example, while all farmers need access to phosphorus, just five countries currently control around 90% of the worlds remaining phosphate rock reserves. Further, the quality of reserves is decreasing, while the environmental pollution is increasing and cheap fertilizers are likely to be a thing of the past. Given this situation, it is concerning that no existing international organisation is taking an active role in governing phosphorus resources to ensure its long-term sustainability for future food security. This paper first synthesizes findings from a series of international in-depth stakeholder interviews regarding sustainability perspectives on global phosphorus resources for food security. The findings are integrated within a broader institutional analysis of the situation. The analyses revealed that there is little consensus on the nature of the phosphorus situation and indeed possible solutions. Phosphorus is conceptualised in many different ways depending on the context, such as a fertilizer commodity or an environmental pollutant. There is substantial institutional fragmentation and ambiguity regarding roles and responsibilities. In order to ensure future phosphorus accessibility and availability for global food production, phosphorus scarcity needs to be added to the food security discourses alongside water and energy scarcity.

    Keyword
    phosphorus, global food security, food availability, stakeholder interviews, institutional fragmentation
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53761 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-02-03 Created: 2010-02-03 Last updated: 2010-02-03
    4. Preferred future phosphorus scenarios: A framework for meeting long-term phosphorus needs for global food demand
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preferred future phosphorus scenarios: A framework for meeting long-term phosphorus needs for global food demand
    2009 (English)In: International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams, Vancouver, 2009 / [ed] Don Mavinic, Ken Ashley and Fred Koch, London: IWA Publishing , 2009, 1, 23-44 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closing the loop for nutrients in wastewaters (municipal sewage, animal wastes, food industry, commercial and other liquid waste streams) is a necessary, sustainable development objective, to reduce resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Chemistry, engineering and process integration understanding are all developing quickly, as new processes are now coming online. A new "paradigm" is emerging, globally. Commercial marketing of recovered nutrients as "green fertilizers" or recycling of nutrients through biomass production to new outlets, such as bioenergy, is becoming more widespread.This exciting conference brings together various waste stream industries, regulators, researchers, process engineers and commercial managers, to develop a broad-based, intersectional understanding and joint projects for phosphorus and nitrogen recovery from wastewater streams, as well as reuse. Over 90 papers from over 30 different countries presented in this volume.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: IWA Publishing, 2009 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53763 (URN)978-1-8433-9232-3 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2010-02-03 Created: 2010-02-03 Last updated: 2013-05-13Bibliographically approved
    5. The Australian story of phosphorus: sustainability implications of global phosphate scarcity for a net food-producing nation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Australian story of phosphorus: sustainability implications of global phosphate scarcity for a net food-producing nation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for the growth of all living organisms including plants and animals, hence critical for food production. Mining of phosphate-rich deposits of guano and phosphate rock have played an important part in feeding the world in the past 100 years, and supporting the Australian economy. However, increasing environmental, economic, geopolitical and social concerns about the short and long-term use of phosphate rock in agriculture means there is a need to initiate a policy discussion, research and action to address the pertinent challenges both at the international and national levels. A peak in global production of phosphate rock is expected to occur by 2030 yet there are no alternatives currently on the market that could replace phosphate rock on any significant scale. This paper addresses the sustainability implications of global phosphate scarcity for Australia. Australia has naturally phosphorus-deficient soils while simultaneously has invested in phosphorus-demanding export industries like beef and dairy. This paper considers the historical and present situation in addition to possible future pathways. A distinction is made between ‘hard landing’ responses to phosphorus scarcity, including further fertilizer price spikes, increasing environmental costs and reduced fertiliser availability and hence crop growth, and preferred ‘soft landing’ responses such as diversifying sources of phosphorus fertilizers, including recovering from organic waste streams, and demand management options that are likely to ensure a smoother transition. As a phosphate-dependent nation heavily dependent on agricultural exports, the Australian situation is of global interest.

    Keyword
    global phosphorus scarcity, food production, Australia, phosphate rock, phosphorus recovery
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53767 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-02-03 Created: 2010-02-03 Last updated: 2010-02-03
  • 33.
    Cordell, Dana
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phosphorus, food and ‘messy’ problems: A systemic inquiring into the management of a critical global resource2008In: Proceedings of the 14th ANZSYS Australia New Zealand Systems Society Conference, 1-2 December 2008, Edith Cowan UniversityMount Lawley CampusPerth, Western Australia / [ed] Trudi Cooper, Terence Love, William Hutchinson and David Cook, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a process of systemic inquiry into the roles, relationships and perceptions in the management of phosphorus resources in the context of global food security. Phosphorus, like water, energy and nitrogen, is critical for food production. All modern food production and consumption systems are dependent on continual inputs of phosphate fertilizers derived from phosphate rock. Yet phosphate rock is a finite resource under the control of only a handful of countries – mainly China, Morocco and the US. Production of current global phosphate reserves could peak in 30 years, within decades of peak oil. Given this situation it is surprising that phosphorus is not considered a priority in the dominant discourses on global food security or global environmental change. Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology offers a framework to guide an inquiry or ‘learning process’ into the nature of the problem situation and system failure, incorporating results of an analysis of stakeholder interviews, a substance flows analysis and an institutional analysis. The soft systems inquiry reveals that not only is there no stakeholder consensus on the nature of the problem, there are no international institutional arrangements, much less an international organisation, responsible for monitoring and facilitating the long-term sustainability of phosphorus resources for food production. Further, without such an actor and associated institutional arrangements, there is no ‘feedback loop’ that can correct the system. Given the critical nature of phosphorus to all modern economies, this is a concerning finding and warrants further analysis, deliberation and enabling of change.

  • 34.
    Cordell, Dana
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    White, Stuart
    Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
    The Australian story of phosphorus: sustainability implications of global phosphate scarcity for a net food-producing nationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for the growth of all living organisms including plants and animals, hence critical for food production. Mining of phosphate-rich deposits of guano and phosphate rock have played an important part in feeding the world in the past 100 years, and supporting the Australian economy. However, increasing environmental, economic, geopolitical and social concerns about the short and long-term use of phosphate rock in agriculture means there is a need to initiate a policy discussion, research and action to address the pertinent challenges both at the international and national levels. A peak in global production of phosphate rock is expected to occur by 2030 yet there are no alternatives currently on the market that could replace phosphate rock on any significant scale. This paper addresses the sustainability implications of global phosphate scarcity for Australia. Australia has naturally phosphorus-deficient soils while simultaneously has invested in phosphorus-demanding export industries like beef and dairy. This paper considers the historical and present situation in addition to possible future pathways. A distinction is made between ‘hard landing’ responses to phosphorus scarcity, including further fertilizer price spikes, increasing environmental costs and reduced fertiliser availability and hence crop growth, and preferred ‘soft landing’ responses such as diversifying sources of phosphorus fertilizers, including recovering from organic waste streams, and demand management options that are likely to ensure a smoother transition. As a phosphate-dependent nation heavily dependent on agricultural exports, the Australian situation is of global interest.

  • 35.
    Cossio, Vladimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A paradigm confronting reality: The river basin approach and local water management spaces in the Pucara Basin, Bolivia2017In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 10, no 1, 181-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current Bolivian water policy incorporates the IWRM paradigm adopting the river basin as the space for water management in the country. The linkage of water management with communal territories in the Andes challenges the application of the river basin approach, bringing water spaces into the discussion. Considering the example of the Pucara River Basin, the article uses space theory to identify characteristics of local spaces for water management and to contrast them with the river basin concept. The river basin concept is applied by water professionals, mostly taking the perceived dimension of this space into consideration and sometimes in abstract terms. In contrast, the lived dimension of space is more important in local water management spaces and it is not represented in abstract terms. Local water spaces are flexible and strongly related to local organisations, which allows them to respond appropriately to the needs and demands of peasant society in the area, characteristics that cannot be found in the river basin space.

  • 36.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anette
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper2007In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, Vol. 57, no 4, 257-269 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension.

    The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40–60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

  • 37.
    Dernelid, Yasmine
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Att kommunicera miljöarbete: En fallstudie i miljökommunikation på två Svanenmärkta hotell2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svanen är en av världens ledande miljömärkningar och firade nyligen 20 års jubileum. Det har under ett antal år varit möjligt att förutom produkter även svanenmärka tjänster och verksamheter, så som exempelvis restauranger och hotell. För att miljöarbetet inom en verksamhet ska fungera så bra som möjligt är kommunikationen i denna av yttersta vikt. Det har inte utförts några kända studier kring hur kommunikationen på Svanenmärkta hotell fungerar vilket är motivet bakom denna studie. Det finns en misstänksamhet i samhället mot miljömärkta varor och greenwashing har blivit ett allt vanligare begrepp, vilket innebär att företag utnyttjar miljömärkningar för att få ett bättre anseende på marknaden och inte för att egentligen gynna miljön. Syftet med denna studie har varit att titta på hur miljökommunikationen fungerar inom Svanenmärkta hotell. Ett delsyfte har även varit att ta reda på huruvida medarbetarna på hotellen uppfattar att verksamheten genomsyras av en miljömedvetenhet, något som Svanen strävar efter med sin miljömärkning.

    En fallstudie av två Svanencertifierade hotell har utförts genom intervjuer av personal från olika avdelningar på dessa hotell. Intervjumaterialet har sedan transkriberats och analyserats för att kunna dra slutsatser utifrån den fakta som framkommit. Även en litteraturstudie har genomförts i syfte att studera tidigare forskning i ämnet. Dessutom har material gällande hotellens miljörutiner granskats och analyserats.

    Resultaten från fallstudien visar att medarbetarna på hotellen är nöjda med kommunikationen över lag, detta trots att det i princip inte finns någon kommunikation mellan avdelningarna på hotellen. Visst utrymme för förbättring finns dock och både koncernen samt inom hotellen skulle det förmodligen tjänas på att decentralisera miljöfrågorna. På båda hotellen anses även att en miljömedvetenhet genomsyrar verksamheterna. Detta skulle kunna vara en följd av Svanencertifieringen, det kan även bero på andra orsaker.

  • 38.
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    et al.
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Cincinelli, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italien.
    Cochran, Michel
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aerosol-Mediated Transport and Deposition of Brominated Diphenyl Ethers to Antarctica2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 6, 3135-3140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE47, 99, 100, and 209) were measured in air, snow and sea ice throughout western Antarctica between 2001 and 2007. BDEs in Antarctic air were predominantly associated with aerosols and were low compared to those in remote regions of the northern hemisphere, except in Marguerite Bay following the fire at Rothera research station in Sept 2001, indicating that this event was a local source of BDE209 to the Antarctic environment. Aerosol BDE47/100 reflects a mixture of commercial pentaBDE products; however, BDE99/100 is suggestive of photodegradation of BDE99 during long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) in the austral summer. BDEs in snow were lower than predicted based on snow scavenging of aerosols indicating that atmospheric deposition events may be episodic. BDE47, -99, and -100 significantly declined in Antarctic sea ice between 2001 and 2007; however, BDE209 did not decline in Antarctic sea ice over the same time period. Significant losses of BDE99 and -100 from sea ice were recorded over a 19 day period in spring 2001 demonstrating that seasonal ice processes result in the preferential loss of some BDEs. BDE47/100 and BDE99/100 in sea ice samples reflect commercial pentaBDE products, suggesting that photodegradation of BDE99 is minimal during LRAT in the austral winter.

  • 39.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Urine blindness and the use of nutrients from human excreta in urban agriculture1998In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, Vol. 45, no 3, 201-208 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief look around the globe shows that most countries are facing sanitary problems, especially in the expanding cities in the Southern Hemisphere. Governments and municipal councils are trying hard to improve sanitation conditions within the mind set of piped systems. There is a need to know what is being done in other countries in order to enlarge the policy options. Among these are the ones recirculating water and nutrients. This article focuses on excreta disposal systems which use little or no water, and various ways to use the end products of faeces and urine. Doing away with our urine blindness will pave the way to discover new possibilities which will save scarce resources in the future.

  • 40.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rural household water: crucial and insignificant1996In: IRDCurrents, no 12, 29-33 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of water that rural households require is insignificant in a water resources perspective. Yet its quality and availability is crucial to human well-being. In Sukumaland, Tanzania, in a number of villages, more water sources have been developed over the years, water quality maintained, and sources have been used more intensively to compensate for increasing population. With intensification of use maintenance problems may surge. Experience shows, however, that people have the ability to manage their water sources. A new division of tasks and responsibilities between different stakeholders in the community may be required. Intervention projects, usually involving the global community, should be avoided as they deprive men in communities with an abundance of labour from performing tasks which could be part of local craftmanship and pride.

  • 41.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Who cares about water?1995In: Waterlines, ISSN 0262-8104, Vol. 13, no 3, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Successfully supplying water to households in rural areas is only partly a matter of technology; mainly, it is a question of improving or adapting the existing ways in which rural people organize their human and physical resources. A study carried out in Sukumaland, Tanzania, looked into what individuals had done (or had not done)— and why — by using a combination of observation, interviews, and water-testing.

  • 42.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rapid Population Increase: A Development Trap. A Study of a Social Sector Development in Rural Tanzania1994In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 23, no 4-5, 309-311 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rural Water Sources Reconsidered: Development Perspectives from Sweden and Tanzania1996Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Rational Are We?: The Illusive Water Sector1998In: Water: The Taming of a Scarce Resource / [ed] Gunnel Cederlöf, Uppsala: Uppsala University , 1998, August, 63-71 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norms and Attitudes Towards Ecosan and Other Sanitation Systems2004Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heyns, Piet
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Lundqvist, Jan
    Seely, Mary
    Hydén, Lars
    Bethune, Shirley
    Kemper, Karin
    Sharing Water in Southern Africa1997In: Sharing Water in Southern Africa: Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, Windhoek / [ed] John Pallett, Windhoek: Desert Research Foundation of Namibia , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klockner, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Nors, Linda
    Linköping University.
    På väg mot en hållbar stad: uppfattad och uppmätt påverkan av miljösatsningar i Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm2005Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krantz, Helena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarby Sjöstad - miljöföreställningar och verkligheter.2002In: Vatten. Tidskrift för vattenvård., ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 58, no 2, 89-95 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Okotto-Okotto, Joseph
    Lake Basin Development Authority, Kisumu, Kenya.
    Okotto, Lorna G. O.
    Moi University, Kenya.
    Auko, Otieno
    Bandaptai Laboratories, Homa Bay, Kenya.
    Going Small When the City Grows Big : New Options for Water Supply and Sanitation in Rapidly Expanding Urban Areas 2002In: Water international, ISSN 0250-8060, Vol. 27, no 3, 354-363 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Actual development of water and wastewater systems in towns is an outcome of several interrelated factors such as physical, economic, and social environments. Demography is also an important factor to consider in the formulation of development strategies. Too often in policy papers, population increase only serves as an argument for urgent action, but rarely as a factor in its own right that affects chances of improving a grave situation. A model is developed to generate water management options in urban areas related to population growth. A hypothesis is that management should go small in periods when the city expands rapidly. A study is presented of the development of water and sanitation in the town of Kisumu in Kenya on the shore of Lake Victoria during last century. The aim is to describe and analyze actual development in the water sector and to foresee what prospective developments could be identified in light of continued rapid population growth. The slow growth of the town in the colonial period allowed towns to adequately meet the needs of all residents for water. The extremely rapid population growth after Independence in 1963 interacted with other factors to cause a successive deterioration of residents access to water and sewage disposal.

  • 50.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swiderski, RichardFaculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Kenya.Woodhouse, MelvinLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Conference on Safe Water Environments, Eldoret, Kenya, August 21-23, 19951995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
1234 1 - 50 of 182
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