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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

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  • 2.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

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  • 3.
    Ahlrot, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Welfare in zoo kept felids: A study of resource usage2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large number of felid species being endangered they are subjects of conservation projects both in situ and ex situ. Keeping felids in zoos are problematic with stereotypic behaviours such as pacing and reproduction difficulties often occurring. The aim of this study was to review research and zoo husbandry knowledge about which resources are most important for the welfare of zoo kept felids, and in addition perform behavioural observations in seven felid species in four Swedish zoos to try to find an order of priority of resources. Observations were performed during opening hours in 36 sessions per species and zoo. The results showed that studies of felid resource usage are missing. Zoo husbandry practice is probably based mainly on traditions and anecdotal knowledge. The observations showed that except for minor differences felids behave similarly regardless of species but the use of resources varies. Small felid species seems to be hiding rather than pacing as a way of coping. Elevated resources and areas as well as numerous hiding places are important to felids but many factors might affect the choice of resting places. Therefore it is important to provide the felids with multiple choices. It is also important to evaluate both species and individuals when designing enclosures and providing resources. More multi-institutional studies with large number of individuals of all zoo kept felid species are needed to gather knowledge about felids needs and preferences of resources.

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  • 4.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Variation in proactive - reactive personality types in the red junglefowl2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown in many species that individuals exhibit consistent differences in behaviour over time and/or across situations. These differences in behaviour are called personality. One way to categorise personality types typically used for rodents, is along a proactive-reactive gradient, which describes how individuals cope with stressful challenges. Proactive individuals pay less attention to their environment, form routines easily and take longer to adapt when routines are broken compared to reactive individuals. Avian species have to date rarely been described along this gradient, thus the generality of this description across species is unclear. The present study has investigated variation in proactivity-reactivity in red junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus). To observe the chicks’ coping styles, a proactive-reactive test was conducted where the chicks were trained to form a routine, which was then broken. Their behavioural response to this was recorded and used as a measure for proactivity-reactivity. The behavioural response was then linked to individual behavioural variation in additional personality assays. Individuals that were more vigilant in the proactive-reactive test often uttered stress calls and took longer to complete the test. In contrast, individuals that walked more and did not utter stress calls had a shorter time to complete the test. These findings can be used to describe proactive red junglefowl chicks; those that are more stressed when routines are broken, compared to calmer reactive individuals. I found no difference in routine formation between proactive and reactive red junglefowl chicks, suggesting that what describes proactive and reactive individuals may vary across species.

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  • 5.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 6.
    Andersson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. IFM.
    Dogs´understanding of human pointing gestures2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the ability for animals to understand human communication signals and the communication between animals and humans, scientists often investigate the understanding of human gestural cues. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) which have a long history of co-evolution with humans have been shown to make good use of human gestural cues. In the present study I investigated whether dogs in general understand a human pointing gesture and if there are differences between sex, age or breeds. In total 46 dogs of different breeds participated in the study. The study was carried out in a dog center in Linköping, Hundens och djurens beteendecenter. To test if dogs understand human pointing gestures, a two-way object choice test were used, where an experimenter pointed at a baited bowl at a distance of three meter from the dog. The results showed that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures. However, no significant differences were found for sex, age or breeds. As a conclusion, I found that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures, but sex, age or breed did not affect the ability.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Social environment influences impulsivity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition (i.e. how individuals perceive, process and react to environmental cues) is fundamental to all animals’ life. Despite this, what explains variation in cognitive abilities is still mainly unclear. Environment is assumed to influences cognitive variation, but the mechanisms for this are still unknown. According to the social intelligence hypothesis, living in a group with a rich social environment, generate challenges that can enhance cognitive abilities. Impulsivity (to not be able to inhibit impulses), one aspect of cognition, may be influenced by the social environment, however this has not yet been experimentally tested. Impulsivity can complicate life, both for humans and animals. In humans, high levels of impulsivity and lack of self-control are associated with addictions and psychiatric disorders, thus is considered to be maladaptive. In animals, impulsivity correlates with stereotypies. To improve our understanding of impulsivity, I experimentally investigated how early social environment affects individual variation in impulsivity. To test this, red junglefowl chicks were used because their group living nature, and our accumulated knowledge on their cognition and behaviour. To manipulate the social environment, chicks either grew up in larger groups (with 17 individuals) or smaller groups (with 7 individuals). During the chicks’ first five weeks of life, three aspects of impulsivity were tested; impulsive action, persistence (in a detour reaching test) and routine formation (in a reversal learning test). Chicks that grew up in larger groups tended to perform less impulsive actions, while social environment did not explain variation in persistence. Chicks from larger groups had less strong routine formation compared to chicks raised in smaller groups. This partially supports the social intelligence hypothesis, and suggest that early social life can affect cognitive traits and explain individual variation in such.

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    Social environment influences impulsivity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks
  • 8.
    Babaoglu, Irem
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Imprinting Stimuli in Chicks(Gallus gallus domesticus)2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Filial imprinting is a type of early developmental learning in which certain species buildstrong and mostly irreversible connections to objects or individuals. These connections couldbe shaped by the contribution of several stimuli including the fragments of auditory and visual components. This study aims to describe the duration of the imprinting process as well asestimate long-term behavioural changes in chicks. In this experiment, a total of 78 chicks were used out of which 39 were exposed to imprinting stimuli and the rest served as control.We applied three different tests and replicated them after the imprinting procedure. These tests are Imprinting Preference Test, Social Preference Test and Social isolation Test. Imprinted chicks had a constantly shorter latency to approach the imprinting stimuli for boththose two experiments with or without novel objects, whereas no preferences spent time inimprinting stimuli. However, introducing a novel object affected imprinting preferences more in terms of spending a longer time around the hen zone. During social isolation, the control group showed a relatively higher rate of distress calls even though our results don’t bear on the significant effect of filial imprinting on changes in distress calling. Overall, this study suggests the presence of long-lasting filial imprinting that is more triggered by external situations.

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  • 9.
    Beltéky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Beatrix
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of domestication in animals has led to alterations in behavior, physiology and phenotypic traits, changes that may be driven by correlations with reduced fear of humans. We used Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all domesticated chickens selected for either high or low fear of humans for five generations to study the effects of selection on gene transcription in the cerebral hemisphere, which is heavily involved in behaviour control. A total of 24 individuals from the parental generation as well as from the fifth selected generation were used. Twenty-two genes were significantly differentially expressed at p < 0.05 after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Those genes that were upregulated in the low fearful animals were found to be involved in neural functions. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed enrichment for terms associated with behavioural processes. We conclude that five generations of divergent selection for high or low tameness has significantly changed gene expression patterns in the cerebral hemisphere in the Red Junglefowl population used here, which could underlie a range of changes in the domestic phenotype.

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  • 10.
    Bergvall, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The domestication effects on social support in chickens (Gallus gallus)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are stressed they use a trait called social support to alleviate their stress responses. With domestication many traits from the ancestor red junglefowl have changed in the domesticated breed white leghorn. White leghorns are bred to be able to live in large groups where it becomes hard to recognize every chicken. They are therefore not as dependent of familiar stimuli birds for social support as red junglefowl. Our hypotheses were that red jungle males would be more interested in unfamiliar stimuli birds than white leghorn male before stress due to their territoriality. We tested total 56 chickens in an open field test. The test arena was divided in three zones and the time the focal birds spent in each zone was recorded. The focal bird was recorded in 300 seconds before being stressed by being suspended in a net and then recorded again in 300 seconds. The results showed that social support and social behaviour differs between females and males for both breeds. No significant differences were found between the breeds. There was a tendency for significant of breed (P=0.08) effects in the central zone unstressed. The two interactions before stressed between breed and sex, central zone (P<0.01) and unfamiliar zone (P<0.01) had significant effects. We observed fights between white leghorn males and familiar stimuli. Waltzing did also occur in red jungle males in front of unfamiliar. In conclusion, numeric differences can be seen but not large enough to be significant and our hypotheses are not confirmed.

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  • 11.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Tours, France.
    Dutour, Mylene
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Oscarsson, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gjöen, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of domestication on responses of chickens and red junglefowl to conspecific calls: A pilot study2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 12, article id e0279553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond physical and zootechnical characteristics, the process of animal domestication has also altered how domesticated individuals, compared to their wild counterparts, perceive, process, and interact with their environment. Little is known, however, on whether and how domestication altered the perception of conspecific calls on both domesticated and wild breeds. In the present work, we compared the vigilance behavior of domestic and captiveborn wild fowl following the playback of chicken alarm calls and contentment calls (control). The playback tests were performed on four different breeds/lines. We first compared the behavioral reaction of domesticated White Leghorn (WL, a breed selected for egg production) and Red Junglefowl (RJF) hens (ancestor of domestic chickens). We also compared the behavior of Red Junglefowl hens selected for high or low fear of humans (RJF HF and RJF LF, respectively), a proxy to investigate early effects of domestication. Contrary to our expectations, no breed/line reacted accordingly to the calls, as the increase in vigilance behavior after the playback calls was similar for both alarm and contentment calls. Although no call discrimination differences were found, breeds did differ on how they reacted/habituated to the calls. Overall, WL were more vigilant than RJF, and birds from the RJF LF line decreased their vigilance over testing days, while this was not the case for the RJF HF line. These results suggest that birds under commercial-like conditions are unable to discriminate between alarm and contentment calls. Interestingly, domestication and selection for low fear of humans may have altered how birds react to vocal stimuli. It is important to consider that farmed animals may interpret and be affected by the vocalizations of their conspecifics in unexpected ways, which warrants further investigation.

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  • 12.
    Bjällerhag, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behaviours and experiences as indicators for the result in a behavioural test for dogs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) started a breeding program of military working dogs. The dogs leave SAF’s kennel at an age of 8 weeks and live with puppy raisers. To evaluate the suitability of dogs for military work the dogs conduct a behavioural test at an age of 15-18 months. An “Index value” is extracted from this behavioural test. The puppy raisers answered a modified version of Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) when the dogs were approximately 12 months old. Answered questionnaires and results from the behavioural test were obtained for 59 dogs. Dogs that had passed the behavioural test had tendency for higher scores for “Trainability” (p = 0.078) and “If lived with other animals” (p = 0.066). Failing dogs had significantly higher score for “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.006), ”Non-Social Fear” (p = 0.005), “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.021), “Hours of daily activation” (p = 0.001), “Mounting objects” (p = 0.012), and a tendency for higher risk of “Urinating when home alone” (p = 0.058). In a regressions between the “Index value” and the values of the questions from C-BARQ, the “Index value” was negatively correlated to “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.002), “Non-social Fear” (p = 0.003), and “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.006). The “Index value” was positively correlated to “Trainability” (p = 0.013), “Hours left home alone” (p=0.043), “Hyperactive” (p = 0.018), “Chases shadows/light spots” (p = 0.043), and a positive tendency for “Chewing on inappropriate objects” (p = 0.075). From a PCA at the categories in C-BARQ, 3 components were extracted. All three components had a correlation to the “Index value”. The results show that the use of C-BARQ can indicate whether the dog will pass the behavioural test or not.

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  • 13.
    Björklund Aksoy, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Do potentially seal-safe pingers deter harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the vicinity of gillnets and thereby reduce bycatch?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Incidental bycatch in gillnets is a substantial threat to small cetaceans. Using Acoustic Deterrent Devices, “pingers”, have successfully reduced bycatch of harbour porpoises in gillnets. However, seals can use pingers as “dinner-bells” to easier find gillnets in order to raid and destroy them, further aggravating the existing conflicts between seals and coastal fisheries. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of two alleged “seal-safe” pingers, an experimental Banana pinger “SSB” and a Future Oceans F70 pinger “FO”, in deterring harbour porpoises from the vicinity of gillnets and thereby reducing bycatch in commercial gillnet fisheries, was tested. This was done by deploying click detectors, “C-PODs”, recording Detection Positive Minutes per hour, at each end of gillnets, provided with the two pinger types or no pingers at all. Bycatch instances were recorded into logbooks by participating fishermen and verified using video footage from on-board video cameras. Results showed that video monitoring was a reliable method for verifying the number of bycatches of porpoises and seals, but not seabirds, recorded in the fishermen’s logbooks. The experimental SSB pingers and the FO pingers significantly reduced porpoise presence, measured as Detection Positive Minutes per hour in the vicinity of the nets, compared to gillnets without pingers. However, the sample size was too small to yield a significant result regarding the bycatch reducing efficiency and dinner bell effect of the experimental pingers. Nevertheless, bycatch trends suggest that pingers did in fact reduce porpoise bycatch. Although both successful, FO pingers were slightly more efficient in deterring porpoises than SSB pingers. The SSB pinger sounds had bigger directionality variations than the FO pinger, which may have affected its deterrent effects. Therefore, additional trials are needed to further investigate this aspect.

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  • 14.
    Björklund Aksoy, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. 2015.
    Effects of serotonin on personality in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality can be defined as a set of physiological and behavioral characteristics that differ between individuals, but are consistent over time and across situations. The evolution of individual differences in behavior that are consistent over time and situations is still not clear. Our understanding of why animals have personality can be improved by investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms of animal behavior. Serotonin is a key monoamine that serves as a physiological modulator of animal behavior. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a group of chemicals that increase levels of serotonin in the brain. Fluoxetine is one such chemical and is used to treat depression in humans. In the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), increased levels of serotonin have been linked to higher activity and boldness, which are both personality traits. In the current study, the effects of induced serotonin on activity, exploration, boldness and aggression was investigated. My results show that injecting fluoxetine causes substantial changes in behavioral traits used to describe personality in field crickets. This result is opposite to previous studies, as serotonin induced individuals were less active, less explorative, and won less fights, compared to control individuals. This could be due to serotonin existing naturally within the circulatory system of the field cricket, whereas fluoxetine is a manufactured chemical intended for human receptors, or that fluoxetine has a similar effect in modulating personality in field crickets as in humans. Since fluoxetine acts similarly in field crickets as in humans, an increased understanding of the effects of induced serotonin on different behaviors in field crickets could be beneficial for treating psychological illnesses.

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  • 15.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The behavioural response of mice to predator odours2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to detect and react to a predator odour is crucial for prey species. In the present study 10 mice (Mus musculus) were used to test the behavioural response of mice towards two predator odours (3-methyl-1-butanethiol and 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol) and one fruity odour (n-pentyl acetate). All three odours were tested against a near odourless blank stimulus (diethyl phthalate). The animals were individually placed in a test chamber of two equally sized compartments divided by a vertical Plexiglas wall with a semicircular opening. Their proximity to the odours, placed beneath the floor in petri dishes in each compartment, was measured continuously with stop watches. The mice spent less time in proximity to 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate compared to diethyl phthalate (P<0,05). The mice did not prefer any specific compartment in the test with 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol compared to diethyl phthalate (P>0,05). The avoidance of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate can be explained either by neophobia, or in the case of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol that it contains sulphur. The lack of behavioural response towards 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol may be due to its loss of intensity over time. From this study it is not certain if mice have an innate fear of predator odours.

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  • 16.
    Bonnefous, Claire
    et al.
    Univ Tours, France.
    Calandreau, Ludovic
    Univ Tours, France.
    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth
    Univ Tours, France.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Tours, France.
    Barbin, Alexandre
    Univ Tours, France.
    Collin, Anne
    Univ Tours, France.
    Reverchon, Maxime
    SYSAAF, France.
    Germain, Karine
    INRAE, France.
    Ravon, Laure
    INRAE, France.
    Kruger, Nina
    Univ Tours, France.
    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine
    Univ Tours, France.
    Guesdon, Vanessa
    Junia, France.
    Behavioural indicators of range use in four broiler strains2023In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 260, article id 105870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-range systems provide an outdoor range for broilers to give them the possibility to express a higher frequency and a wider range of behaviours, such as exploration, compared with those raised indoors. Greater variability in outdoor range use between individuals of the same flock is often reported. Individual variation in range use may result from differences in early-life behaviour or genetic background. Understanding how earlylife behaviour influences range use may provide opportunities to enhance and predict range use. Previous studies have shown that range use could be influenced by the animals personality traits such as social motivation, boldness and foraging motivation. Therefore, this study investigated personality traits in several broiler strains, namely Hubbard JA757, Hubbard S757N, White Bresse and a dual-purpose strain; we examined the latter as it represents a potential solution to the ban of 1-day-old chick culling. The present study also investigated early-life behaviours, before range access, of range use to identify and assess the stability of these early-life indicators among the four broiler strains. For that purpose, we recorded the behaviour and range use of 100 male chickens per strain, both in the barn and during individual tests, before and after range access. We examined which behaviours were time consistent, whether early-life behaviours were influenced by genetic variation and whether early-life behavioural indicators predicted range use regardless of genetic variation. There was a significant (p &lt; 0.001) difference between strains in several early-life behaviours, including the time spent resting or standing. Range use was time consistent regardless of the strain as our range use indicator followed a high-quality linear regression model (R-2 &gt; 0.7) for 82-99% of the individuals depending on their strain. Besides, time consistency of social motivation and boldness seemed to depend on the strain. Even though foraging showed low (rho = 0.2-0.4) positive correlations with range use in three of the four studied strains, there were no significant and strong correlations in the four studied strains between early-life behavioural indicators and range use. In conclusion, our results show that the link between chick behaviour (before range access) and range use can be modulated by the birds strain. It is crucial to consider all these different factors to better understand how range use varies within and between flocks.

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  • 17.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Behavioural differences between and within retriever breeds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The retriever breeds have the same origin and have long been used as a gundog for hunting of game, mostly birds. However, recently the retriever breeds have become a popular pet and show dog. This have affected the breeding of the dogs as the same traits are not bred for a gundog and a pet or show dog. Breeds as the Labrador retriever consists of a field- and common-type. The aim of this study is to investigate any differences between and within five of the retriever breeds in behaviours as retrieving, search and game reaction. 64 dogs undergoing the field trial Description of Function- Retriever was video recorded and scores from 430 dogs that have undergone field trials was obtained. Both differences between and within breeds were found when analysing both the videos and scores. In the video analysis, the Flatcoated retriever showed the most retrieving behaviours and was the most passive. The Nova scotia duck tolling retriever was in both the video and score analyses the most active breed. The Labrador retriever scored high in game reaction. The field- and mixed-types had almost always higher scores in behaviours linked to hunting, compared to the common-type. This supports findings that recent selection in breeding have a larger effect on behaviour than the origin uses of the dogs.

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  • 18.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The help-seeking behaviour of dogs (Canis familiaris)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication, the dog( Canis familiaris), have become skilful in understanding human communication and also in communicating with humans. The wolf ( Canis lupus), is not as skilled with this interspecific communication. When dogs are faced with an unsolvable problem, they seek help from human by e.g. gazing at them. This behaviour has been studied and both age and breed group differences have been showed. In this study, we presented dogs with a task that consisted of a solvable and unsolvable problem in order to see if they gazed at their owner and/or an unfamiliar person for help. Although we did not find any difference in breed groups regarding gazing at humans, we did find that adult dogs (dogs older than 2 years) gazed more frequently at their owner and for a longer duration than adolescent dogs (6 months to 2 years). This may be because the adult dogs have more experience of this communication with humans, as they have lived longer with them. These findings empathize the bond between a dog and its owner that seems to grow stronger during the dogs’ life.

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    Ex 14/2868 Brodd Louise
  • 19.
    Brolin, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    The Importance of Natural Feeding Behaviour for Horse (Equus caballus) Welfare2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Horses are herbivores and can graze for up to 20 hours per day. It is well known that animals are motivated to perform natural behaviours and horses have, except from a physiological need to graze, a strong motivation to perform their natural feeding behaviour. This review aimed to give insight into how horses are kept, how the way they are kept affects their behaviour and welfare, if there are reasons why some horses cannot be kept on pasture, and if alternative feeding strategies can improve horse welfare by allowing horsesto perform their natural feeding behaviour. Most horses are kept in stables and are put on feeding regimes that do not resemble their natural feeding behaviour. This can lead to development of stereotypies, and when prevented from carrying out their feeding behaviour, oral stereotypies such as crib-biting can result. Horses kept free range display very few, if any, stereotypies and is therefore the best way to keep horses from a welfare approach. However, obesity and grass-related illnesses can restrict horses from being kept on pasture, thus, alternative feeding methods for stabled horses is imperative. Use of edible bedding, presenting several types of forage, providing ad libitumforage, or using slow feeders are alternative methods that could be implemented by horseowners and caretakers to improve horse welfare. Horses can however respond differently to these methods and a method that suits one horse might not be appropriate for another.

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  • 20.
    Brännmark, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Cognitive Bias as a Measurement of Emotional States in Dogs2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive bias can be used when determining emotional states in animals by assessing the animal’s perception of an ambiguous stimulus. In the concept of animal welfare, both physical health as well as mental health of animals are involved. Therefore, cognitive bias can be a valuable tool in order to measure the mental health of an animal. The aim of this paper is to summarize and discuss how cognitive bias tests have been used to assess emotional states in dogs. Cognitive bias tests in dogs have been used to evaluate the emotional state of a dog with behavioural problems. It has also been shown to be useful when studying the effect of enrichment in the form of natural behaviour, such as being allowed to use its olfactory sense to a greater extent. Additionally, the connection between personality and cognitive bias is discussed. Hence, assessing the emotional state of dogs can be valuable in a welfare perspective.

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  • 21.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is personality dependent of growth rate in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personality has been reported in a large variety of animal species, but it is not obvious why animals have personality. Variation in physiological traits, such as growth rate, should theoretically affect variation in behaviours and thus can explain why we observe variation in personalities. Growth rate is, theoretically, positively correlated with active personality types. Empirical studies have reported this pattern in different fish species, but there are not yet many studies on endothermic animals. I have therefore scored behaviours of 100 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks in four personality assays; novel arena, novel object, tonic immobility, and a proactive-reactive test, together with recording variation in growth rate of these individuals. The chicks individual growth rate (% day-1) were calculated and the relationship between personality and growth rate investigated. There was significant difference in growth rate between the sexes, where males grew faster than females, detected already at one week of age. However, no significant correlations between behavioural traits and growth rate were observed, indicating that personality seem to be independent of growth rate. Further studies should therefore investigate the generality of this finding, and alternative underlying mechanisms for variation in personality should be explored.

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    Is personality dependent of growth rate in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)?
  • 22.
    Casaca, Miriam
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Is there hope beyond fear? Effects of social rehabilitation on unsocialized stray dogs2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unsocialized stray dogs live unrestrained in urban areas, having limited to no direct contact with humans. Aggressive behaviour towards humans leads to their apprehension to shelters, where they tend to stay permanently. This study aimed to determine if unsocialized stray dogs could be rehabilitated and develop the social skills needed for adoption. Six unsocialized stray dogs (Group Stray) and 12 socialized dogs (C1: Control Group 1, n=6; C2: Control Group 2, n=6) housed in a shelter were selected. Stray and C2 dogs went through two training phases: social rehabilitation towards humans and leash training. Sociability towards humans and behaviour on a leash were tested in all groups following Valsecchi et al. (2011). Sociability Tests (ST) and Leash Tests (LT) were conducted before any intervention (ST1), after sociability training (ST2, LT1) and after leash training (ST3, LT2). Training sessions and tests were video recorded and posteriorly analysed by four observers. Results showed that for Stray, but not for C1 and C2, there was a significant increase in sociability from ST1 to ST3. Moreover, for Stray Group there was a significant decrease in the frequency of fear-related behaviours between ST1 and ST3. For leash behaviour, no significant changes were found from LT1 to LT2 for neither group. However, there was considerable individual variation, as not all strays overcame their extreme fear towards humans. These findings suggest that dog­–human interactions can be improved through training for dogs who do not show extreme fear and/or aggression towards humans.

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    Master Thesis
  • 23.
    Casaca, Miriam
    et al.
    Linköping University. Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Morello, Gabriela M.
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal; Inst Geofisico Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Magalhaes, Tatiana
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Olsson, I. Anna S.
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    de Castro, Ana Catarina Vieira
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Is there hope beyond fear? Effects of social rehabilitation on unsocialised stray dogs2022In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 253, article id 105671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsocialised stray dogs are dogs that live freely in urban areas with limited to no direct human contact. If left free to roam, they may present a public safety problem, since they can facilitate the spread of zoonotic diseases and resort to aggressive behaviours towards humans. If captured, their chance of rehoming into human families is low as a consequence of their low sociability towards humans. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the implementation of a rehabilitation and training program could render unsocialised stray dogs to develop the skills needed for a successful adoption. Six unsocialised stray dogs (Group Stray) and 12 socialized shelter dogs (C1: Group Control 1, n = 6; C2: Group Control 2, n = 6), housed at a shelter in Portugal, participated in the study. Stray and C2 dogs went through 40 days of social rehabilitation and 40 days of leash training protocols. The behaviour of all groups was assessed for general behaviour in the home pen (General Behaviour Assessment - GB), sociability towards humans (Sociability Test - ST) and leash behaviour (Leash Test - LT). Behaviour assessment was performed at three time-points: before any intervention (GB1, ST1), after social rehabilitation (GB2, ST2, and LT1) and after leash training (GB3, ST3, and LT2). Tests were video recorded and further analysed by different observers. The rehabilitation and training sessions were also recorded every ten days to analyse the dogs body posture overtime. Results showed that the stray dogs sociability towards humans improved from ST1 to ST3. Additionally, their general behaviour in the home pen also improved: from GB1 to GB3 the strays started to be found less often at the back of their home pens in a fearful body posture and more often in the front of the home pens in a neutral body posture. Similar changes in body posture were also found during social rehabilitation sessions. As for leash behaviour, no significant changes were found between LT1 to LT2 for either group. Importantly, there was large individual variation for Group Stray, with some dogs still showing intense fear of humans by the end of the study, while others were already interacting with the shelter staff and could be walked on a leash inside the shelter facilities. Our study suggests that with appropriate training and rehabilitation, some unsocialised stray dogs have the potential to become adoptable dogs. In conclusion, there may be hope beyond fear.

  • 24.
    Cederlund, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Behavioural responses of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and African lions (Panthera leo) to conspecific urine and to a component of tiger marking fluid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory signals are an important means of social communication among felids. However, not much is known about how individual volatiles of body-borne odours influence behavioural responses. 2-acetyl-1pyrroline has recently been identified as a characteristic component of tiger marking fluid, while being absent from lion marking fluid. One pride each of captive Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and African lions (Panthera leo) were presented with wooden logs impregnated with four different odours and their behaviour was observed. The tigers displayed significantly more interactions towards the marking fluid component (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline), the conspecific urine odour, and the fruity odour (iso-pentyl acetate) than towards the near odourless control (diethyl phthalate). The lions displayed significantly more behaviours towards conspecific urine than towards any of the other odours.  In general all lions interacted more with the logs than tigers. Hence, these results support the notion that 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is a species-specific odorant for tiger olfactory communication. Furthermore, the results show that a single compound (2-acetyl-1pyrroline) can elicit behavioural responses to the same degree as a complex chemical mixture (tiger urine). The high number of interactions performed by both species towards the wooden logs impregnated with conspecific urine suggests that conspecific odours are suitable to use as olfactory enrichment for captive felids.

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  • 25.
    Cederlund, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Eye preference in humans and its correlation with eye dominance, visual acuity and handedness2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Handedness is the most obvious expression of lateralized behaviour in humans. However, there is only limited knowledge about other forms of lateralized behaviour, e.g. preferential use of an eye and whether these may correlate with handedness. Thus to investigate this, 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) between 11 and 80 years of age were assessed for their eye preference, eye dominance, visual acuity, and handedness. Eye preference was assessed by performing four different monocular tasks, eye dominance by performing the binocular Dolman test, visual acuity was assessed with a Snellen chart and handedness was surveyed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Regarding eye preference, the right eye was preferred by 69% of the subjects. 90 % of the subjects were consistent for their preferred eye across all four tasks. 66% of the subjects had a dominant right eye, 33% had left eye dominance and 1% could not be assessed using the Dolman test. 56% of the subjects differed in their visual acuity between both eyes, while 43% had the same visual acuity in both of their eyes. 86% of the subjects were right-handed while 4% were left handed and 10% were ambidextrous. Significant correlations were found between visual acuity and eye preference and between visual acuity and eye dominance. The study also found a positive correlation between handedness and eye preference. These results support the notion that there is a weak correlation between the different aspects of lateralized behaviour in humans. 

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    Eye preference in humans and its correlation with eye dominance, visual acuity and handedness.
  • 26.
    Crespo Mingueza, Laia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Assessment of lateralized behaviour in free-ranging Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary origins of human handedness are still unknown. The study of lateralized behaviour in our closest relatives, the nonhuman primates, is useful to clarify how this trait appeared and evolved in our species. In the present study, lateralized behaviour was assessed in a population of 32 free-ranging Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) for thirteen spontaneous motor patterns, at individual and group levels, as well as the effect that age, sex and posture have on its strength and direction. The studied population of howler monkeys displayed only few significant lateral biases at the individual level with single motor patterns (Binomial tests, p≤0.05). No biases towards the use of a particular limb or side of the body were found at a population level. Therefore, even though some individuals showed significant limb/side preference with single motor patterns, no signs of task specialization, side specialization, or true handedness were found. Similarly, no effects of sex, age or posture were found on the direction or strength of lateralized behaviour. The general absence of limb/side preferences found in this population may be due to the constraints imposed by the arboreal life and/or the type of diet. Possible causal agents of the few significant individual biases found here may be the presence of handicaps and/or experience. Further research is needed in order to assess whether the lack of human-like handedness reported in this study is only specific to the studied population, a general phenomenon of the genus Alouatta or perhaps of all the Platyrrhini.

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  • 27.
    Crosby, Ashley
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    A study of lateralized behaviour in domestic horses (Equus caballus)2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lateralized behaviour is the most conspicuous manifestation of hemispheric specialization of the brain and has been reported in a variety of taxa. Only a few studies have so far assessed lateralized behaviours in horses. Therefore, I observed ten domestic horses for 16 weeks for an array of spontaneously occurring motor behaviours as well as stimulus-induced behavioural responses to determine if they display side preferences at the individual or population level and to assess possible correlations between lateralized behaviours. Significant side preferences were found for certain behaviours at the individual level, ranging from standing and flexing, to auditory stimuli, and olfactory stimuli. All horses showed task-dependent changes in their side preferences and no significant side preferences were found at the population level for any behaviours. Similarly, no significant correlations were found between behaviours. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that horses, like all other species studied so far except humans and some great apes, only display lateralized behaviour at the individual, but not at the population level.

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  • 28.
    Elebring, Viktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Vad skiljer domesticerade värphöns från de röda djungelhönsen (Gallus gallus) i återhämtningsprocessen efter en standardiserad stressupplevelse?: En studie med ett didaktiskt perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att domesticerade höns påvisar en lägre nivå av rädsla jämfört med förfadern, de röda djungelhönsen. I denna studie testades 18 domesticerade White Leghorn (WL) och 18 röda djungelhöns (RJF). Målet med studien var att studera återhämtningen för de båda raserna vid en standardiserad stressupplevelse. Försöket gick ut på att hönsen vistades i enskilda burar och blev efter ett dygn utsatta av en akut stress. Därefter startades observationerna omedelbart för att se när hönsen återhämtade sig och återigen började visa naturliga beteenden. Utifrån alla hönsens resultat beräknades medelvärde och standardfel för varje ras och kön, som sedan jämfördes med variansanalys (repeated measures ANOVA). Beteenden som visade signifikanta resultat över tiden analyseras och visade i några fall tyda på en återhämtningsprocess. Överlag visade White Leghorn på en snabbare och effektivare återhämtning jämfört med de röda djungelhönsen. Resultatet tyder även på att honor har en snabbare återhämtning jämfört med hanar. Studien innehåller även ett didaktiskt moment då etologi studerades utifrån skolverkets föreskrifter om vad biologiundervisning ska innehålla för grundskolans senare år. Läroplanen och kursplaner studerades därefter och jämfördes med läroböcker.

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  • 29. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ericsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stress in chickens: Effects of domestication and early experience on behaviour and welfare2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna avhandling presenteras resultat från fyra studier där alla har effekter av stress hos höns som gemensam nämnare. Vi har främst tittat på hur stress tidigt i livet påverkar beteendet och mängden stresshormoner i blodet på kort och lång sikt, men även hur den tidiga stressen kan påverka avkomman. I två av studierna undersöks också effekterna av domesticering.

    Domesticeringen, processen där vi avlat djur på tamhet och andra önskvärda anlag, har anpassat djuren till våra mänskliga förhållanden. Förfadern till alla våra domesticerade raser, det Röda djungelhönset, finns fortfarande kvar i vida populationer i Sydostasien där de lever i skogar. Detta är en stor fördel då man vill studera domesticeringsprocessen och vilka förändringar som uppkommit, eftersom man kan göra studier mellan raser och sedan direkt jämföra skillnader och likheter. Domesticeringen av höns inleddes för ca 8000 år sedan. Man tror att högre tolerans mot stress kan vara en bidragande faktor i domesticeringsprocessen eftersom tamhönsen har fått anpassa sig till miljöer och förhållanden som egentligen är kan betraktas som onaturliga för en höna, till exempel mycket stora flockar, trånga utrymmen och inomhusvistelse.

    Ägg och kyckling är viktiga livsmedel i stora delar av världen och bara i Sverige kläcks många miljoner höns till kött- och äggproduktion varje år. På kläckerier utsätts kycklingar för en rad av potentiellt stressande situationer och behandlingar och man har varit osäker på om detta påverkar kycklingarna negativt. Forskning visar att stress tidigt i livet kan störa utvecklingen av bl.a. hjärnan och stressystemet, som kontrollerar utsöndringen av stresshormoner. Negativa erfarenheter tidigt i livet kan ge upphov till bl.a. beteendestörningar, sänkt immunförsvar och påverka kognitiva beteenden på senare i livet. Det innebär att det kan vara mer allvarligt att utsättas för stress när man är liten jämfört med när man är äldre. Vid stress ökar mängden stresshormoner i blodet. Detta leder till att beteendet förändras och vissa kroppsfunktioner minskar i aktivitet för att energin istället behövs i musklerna. Kroppen förbereder sig på att försvara sig mot det potentiella hotet genom kamp eller flykt. Genom att ta blodprov kan man mäta mängden stresshormoner.

    I ett projekt undersöktes välfärd hos nykläckta kycklingar och huruvida hanteringen på kläckerier kan bidra till fysiologiska och beteendemässiga förändringar hos djuren. Vidare har vi undersökt hur stressystemet utvecklas tidigt i livet, om det finns skillnader i hur Röda djungelhöns och domesticerade värphöns reagerar. Vi har också undersökt om stress vid olika åldrar under kycklingstadie och pubertet kan ge effekter i vuxen ålder och slutligen har vi undersökt hur akut stress hos vuxna djur påverkar beteende och en rad olika hormoner.

    Resultaten visar att kycklingstadiet och puberteten kan anses som stresskänsliga perioder och ge upphov till kort- och långsiktiga effekter på beteende, genexpression och stressfysiologi. Även avkomman kan i vissa avseenden påverkas. Vi har också kunnat bekräfta att kycklingar har en fullt fungerande stressrespons redan från dag ett efter kläckning. De potentiellt stressande upplevelserna på kläckerier har en påverkan på hur vissa gener kopplade till stress uttrycks i hjärnan. Hanar i vuxen ålder verkar påverkas mer av den tidiga hanteringen än vad honor gör. Vidare visar vi att domesticeringen har påverkat hur höns reagerar på stress både tidigt i livet och i vuxen ålder.

    List of papers
    1. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens
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    2014 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 133, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due tothe domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses,withmodifiedendocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), thedomesticWhite Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed toan acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. Theywere then continuouslymonitored for theeffects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from thechicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples wereanalyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determinedusing validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behaviouralresponse was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baselinewithin 1 h. In WL, somebehaviourswere affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrationsof corticosterone increasedmore in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared toWL. A range of baseline levelsfor HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WLthan in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, butalso recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery ofdomesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Corticosterone Recovery Restraint White Leghorn Red Junglefowl
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107167 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.024 (DOI)000340315100022 ()
    Note

    Funders: Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4731]; Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) [221-2011-1088]; ERC (project Genewell) [322206]; Swedish Centre of Excellence in Animal Welfare; ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology

    Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-09 Last updated: 2023-12-28
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  • 30.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Radesäter, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1774, p. 20132531-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability of ‘state’ has been suggested as an underlying factor explainingbehavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, andconsistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibilitythat stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored.Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression andconsistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status betweenrepeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallusdomesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies,and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected bysocial status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance,activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldnessappeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore,variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicatingthat individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence ofsocial status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate thatsocial states contribute to both variation and stability in behaviouralresponses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigatingand interpreting variation in personality.

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  • 31.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Uden, Eva
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Personality remains: no effect of 3-week social status experience on personality in male fowl2018In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral responses of male fowl did not depend on social rank after 3 weeks in stable groups, but were consistent over time for an individual. Theory suggests that stable social states, for example, stable social hierarchies, may lead to consistent variation in behavior, that is, variation in personality. Our results suggest that variation in personality is not a consequence of variation in social status and that personality is more important than current social position in determining individual behavior in stable groups.Individuals often differ in behavior in a consistent way, that is, they show variation in personality. Understanding the processes explaining the emergence and maintenance of this variation is a current major topic in the field of animal behavioral research. Recent theoretical models predict that differences in various "states" can generate individual variation in behavior. Previous studies have mainly focused on endogenous states like metabolic rate or energy reserves, but theory also suggests that states based on social interactions could play important roles in shaping personality. We have earlier demonstrated short-term status-dependent variation in behavior in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), but whether such behavioral variation remains also after a longer period of time, is unknown. Therefore, we examine the influence of social status on variation in behavior, using experimental manipulation of social status in pairs of male domestic fowl. We scored males in 3 personality assays (novel arena test, novel object test, and aggression test) before and after 3 weeks in pairs as either dominant or subordinate. We observed individual consistency of behavior despite alteration of social status. We further found no support for social status acting as a state that generates variation in personality over the used time interval: social status had no significant effect on the change in behavioral responses between repeated personality tests. Our results suggest that personality is more important than current social situation for describing individual behavior in stable groups.

  • 32.
    Fischer, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Does Lifestyle Affect the Attachment between Dogs, Canis familiaris, and Their Owner?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the dog’s behaviour and the interactions between the dog and the owner   differ depending on lifestyle, breed or sex of the dog. For this we employed the Strange Situation Procedure, a test inspired from Mary Ainsworth´s study,   which investigated the attachment of human infants to their mothers. There were two breeds, Border collie and Shetland sheepdog and a total of 58 dogs that participated in this study. The two breeds were divided into two lifestyles, competition dogs and pet dogs. A PCA was used to find correlations between the behavioural variables and the factors were then analysed in a Mann Whitney U test to test the differences between breed, sex and lifestyle. In this study no differences in behaviour between the two lifestyles were shown. However, the results showed that there were some differences between the two breeds and between the two sexes in behavioural expressions. The differences between the breeds were quite expected because there are many different breeds today which are selected for various morphology and behavioural traits which could influence their behaviour. The difference in behaviour between the two sexes can be because of evolutionary heredity. Further studies on this subject should have bigger and more even sample size, longer separation time, a more balanced gender distribution of the owners and to also analyze the cortisol levels.

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  • 33.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 34.
    Galmor, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Exploring if Eyespot Tests can Replace Cognitive Judgement Bias Tasks when Assessing Affective State in Red Junglefowl chicks2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We can describe cognition as the mental processes involved when processing signals and information from our surroundings. Despite being vital for our actions, these processes can be biased by emotions, which results in a judgement bias of ambiguous information. Depressed individuals tend to be pessimistic about such ambiguous information, while individuals under normal or good condition, tend to be optimistic. This is true also for animals. Based on this, cognitive judgement bias tests are developed to measure the affective state of individuals. However, cognitive judgement bias tests require extensive pre-test training for animals to learn positive and negative reference cues. An alternative to using responses to pre-learnt cues could be to use naturally aversive stimuli instead. Eyespot patterns on lepidopterans can be aversive to birds. However, it is scarcely investigated if eyespot patterns can be used to measure affective state. The aim of my study was therefore to investigate if eyespots patterns can replace classic cues in cognitive judgment bias tests measuring affective state. I did so by comparing behavioural responses of red junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus) to both eyespot patterns and classical cues in a cognitive judgement bias test. Responses correlated between some cues in the two tests, suggesting that eyespot patterns may work as a replacement of pre-learnt cues. However, no differences in responses to the eyespot patterns was found, and so further work is needed to improve the design of eyespot cues to obtain a clearer correlation between responses to eyespot patterns and classical pre-learnt cues in cognitive judgement bias tests. As less training is needed, such improved tests could have positive implications, and be a simpler and more user-friendly way to measure affective state in animals.

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  • 35. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Causes and Consequences of Impulsivity in Red Junglefowl2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the animal kingdom, animals vary in cognition (i.e., how they acquire, process, store, and act on environmental information). Yet, the causes and consequences of this variation are currently unclear. Inhibitory control is one such aspect of cognition that typically varies between individuals within all species investigated. Variation in inhibitory control underlies variation in impulsivity (i.e., the tendency to act without planning or considering the consequences). The causes and consequences of variation in impulsivity are, themselves, rarely explored, despite that these may have important ecological and evolutionary implications. My thesis (spanning 5 papers), therefore, aimed to fill some of these gaps by taking a holistic approach and investigating causes and consequences of variation in impulsivity (specifically, impulsive action and persistence measured in a detour task) in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) males and females, chicks and adults. The red junglefowl was an ideal species for this investigation. Firstly, they show individual variation in impulsivity throughout their lives. They are also typically food motivated, and easily habituated to handling and new situations, which means they commonly willingly participate in behavioural and cognitive tests. Furthermore, they are precocial, which means that they can be hatched and raised without mothers, thus reducing parental effects. Finally, the large, accumulated knowledge of red junglefowl behaviour and cognition aids interpretations regarding this. As differences in experience early in life have been found to affect impulsivity, papers I and II empirically explored whether variation in two previously uninvestigated experiences in early life (exposure to enrichment, and social group size, respectively) influenced impulsivity. The dopaminergic and serotonergic systems are important signalling systems in the brain, which have been found to link to impulsivity in other species. Therefore, in paper I, I also explored if variation in impulsive action and persistence was connected to variation in dopaminergic or serotonergic gene expression. As impulsivity links to inhibitory control, in looking at the effect of group size on impulsivity, paper II explored the hypotheses that social environment affects cognition (e.g., that social environments which are assumed to be more cognitively demanding will lead to better cognitive performance, a.k.a., the social intelligence hypothesis). To uncover potential mechanisms by which group size could affect impulsivity, besides from variation in cognitive demand, paper II also investigated if behaviours that could covary with group size linked to impulsivity. As emotional arousal has been linked to impulsivity, in another species, and impulsivity is implicated in welfare issues, paper III looked into how both positive and negative affective states (which can be used to measure welfare) related to impulsivity. Prior to my thesis, whether variation in impulsivity could potentially affect animal welfare was scarcely explored. To better understand the potential consequences of impulsivity, and, thus, how selection could act on impulsivity, papers IV and V looked at potential implications of variation in impulsivity for social status (paper IV and V), foraging efficiency, and risk taking (paper V). My results showed that impulsivity could be consistent over time periods of weeks (in chicks, paper II) to months (in adults, paper V). Thus, impulsivity describes a characteristic of the individual. However, individuals could still learn to become less impulsive (paper I). Exposure to enrichment in early life could affect how impulsively individuals behaved. Environmental enrichment increased impulsivity, as did cognitive enrichment to a greater degree (paper I). Impulsive action, and persistence, correlated somewhat with brain gene expression of dopaminergic and serotonergic genes (DRD1, TPH; paper I). The social group size individuals experimentally experienced in early life did not affect their impulsivity (paper II). However, variation in impulsivity was connected to variation in activity, boldness, neophobia, and stress (paper II). Further, more impulsive individuals had less negative, more positive, affective states, but only when they were young chicks, and not as older chicks or adults (paper VI). No links were found between impulsivity and social status (paper IV and V), foraging efficiency, or risk taking (paper V). Taken together, paper I suggests that underlying explanations to observed individual variation in impulsivity could include variation in early life experiences and in dopaminergic and serotonergic gene expression, while paper II suggests that impulsivity may not be influenced by social aspects early in life. Papers II and III demonstrate that variation in impulsivity can associate with variation in behaviours and affective states (though these associations may vary over ontogeny), with the latter finding implying that variation in impulsivity could have welfare implications. Papers IV and V indicate that variation in impulsivity may have limited consequences for individuals in contexts that could affect reproduction or survival. Thus, it may not necessarily be costly to individuals if they are more impulsive than others. This, in turn, could help explain why variation in inhibitory control exists, because limited consequences of variation could result in low selection against variation. Overall, through the investigations conducted in its 5 papers, my thesis improves our understanding the potential causes and consequences of variation in impulsivity. As impulsivity is underlain by an aspect of cognition (inhibitory control), in exploring the causes and consequences of variation in impulsivity, my thesis also provides knowledge on causes and consequences of individual variation in cognition.

    List of papers
    1. Impulsivity is affected by cognitive enrichment and links to brain gene expression in red junglefowl chicks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impulsivity is affected by cognitive enrichment and links to brain gene expression in red junglefowl chicks
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    2021 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 178, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite reported findings, explanations for within-species variation in behavioural performance on cognitive tests are still understudied. Cognitive processes are influenced by environmental and genetic differences, where cognitive stimulation and monoaminergic systems are predicted to be important. To explore explanations for individual variation in impulsivity (a behaviour that is negatively correlated with inhibitory control), we experimentally altered the environment of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, by exposing chicks from newly hatched to 9 weeks old to either (1) both environmental and cognitive enrichment, (2) environmental enrichment without additional cognitive enrichment or (3) neither environmental nor cognitive enrichment. Subsequently, we measured variation in impulsivity and brain gene expression of genes from the dopaminergic system (DRD1 and DRD2) and serotonergic system (5HT2A, 5HT1B, 5HT2B, 5HT2C and TPH). We focused on two aspects of impulsivity, impulsive action and persistence, and their reduction over time. Cognitively enriched chicks tended to have higher initial impulsive action and had higher initial persistence, and our environmentally enriched chicks had slower reduction of impulsive action over time. DRD2 (a dopamine receptor gene) had lower expression in environmentally enriched chicks. Variation in impulsive action tended to correlate with expression of TPH (a gene involved in serotonin synthesis), whereas persistence correlated with both TPH and the dopamine receptor gene DRD1, and tended to correlate with the dopaminergic gene DRD2, regardless of rearing treatment. These results indicate that both environment and links to neurobiology could explain initial individual variation in, and reduction of, impulsivity. Further, distinct neurobiological pathways appear to govern impulsive action versus persistence, supporting the suggestion that impulsivity is a heterogenic behaviour. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by/4.0/).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Press Inc - Elsevier Science, 2021
    Keywords
    animal cognition; Gallus gallus; impulsive action; individual variation; inhibitory control; persistence
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178540 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2021.06.007 (DOI)000680359900018 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council FORMASSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas [2015-11891]

    Available from: 2021-08-24 Created: 2021-08-24 Last updated: 2022-04-04
    2. The role of personality, cognition, and affective state in same-sex contests in the red junglefowl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of personality, cognition, and affective state in same-sex contests in the red junglefowl
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    2019 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 73, no 11, article id UNSP 149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-species contests are common in the animal kingdom and can have fitness consequences. Most research on what predicts contest outcome focuses on morphology, although differences in personality and cognition may also be involved. Supporting this, more proactive individuals often have dominant status, although the causality of this relationship is rarely investigated. Contest initiators often win; thus, individuals that are more proactive in their personality (e.g., more aggressive, risk-taking) or cognition (e.g., more optimistic, impulsive) may initiate contests more often. To investigate this, we assayed the behavior and cognition of sexually mature male and female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), a species in which both sexes contest over social status, before staging intra-sexual contests. We confirm that contest initiators were more likely to win. In males, individuals that behaved more boldly in a novel arena test were more likely to initiate and win contests. Female initiators tended to be less active in novel object test, more aggressive in a restrained opponent test, and respond less optimistically in a cognitive judgement bias test, whereas the main predictor of whether a female would win a contest was whether she initiated it. These results suggest that behaviors attributed to proactive and reactive personalities, and-at least for female red junglefowl-optimism, can affect contest initiation and outcome. Therefore, within species, and depending on sex, different aspects of behavior and cognition may independently affect contest initiation and outcome. The generality of these findings, and their fitness consequences, requires further investigation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPRINGER, 2019
    Keywords
    Animal cognition; Animal personality; Contests; Gallus gallus; Intra-sexual selection
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162758 (URN)10.1007/s00265-019-2762-0 (DOI)000499247700003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University; Swedish research council FormasSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2022-04-04
    3. How Inhibitory Control Relates to Positive and Negative Affective States in Red Junglefowl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Inhibitory Control Relates to Positive and Negative Affective States in Red Junglefowl
    2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 872487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in inhibitory control, an aspect of cognition, are found in many species. How this variation links to affective states is not much explored, and could be relevant for welfare. As less fearful, more optimistic, individuals may act more impulsively, inhibitory control could link to less negative, more positive, affective states. Alternatively, poorer inhibitory control could associate with more negative, less positive, affective states, as poorer inhibitory control can result in individuals being less able to adapt to changing environments and more likely to show stereotypies. We here explored in three cohorts (N = 209) of captive red junglefowl, the ancestor of domestic chickens, how inhibitory control associated with affective states. Specifically, we measured inhibitory control with a detour task, and negative and positive affective states with a tonic immobility test and a cognitive judgement bias test, respectively. Cognition and behaviour can differ between ages and sexes. Therefore, we investigated how inhibitory control related to affective states in younger chicks (≈2.5 weeks old), older chicks (≈5 weeks old) and sexually mature adults (≈28 weeks old) of both sexes. In younger chicks, poorer inhibitory control associated with less negative, more positive, affective states. We found no relationship between inhibitory control and affective states in older chicks or adults, nor sex differences regarding how inhibitory control related to affective states. Overall, our results suggest that inhibitory control can link to affective states and that the nature of these links can change over ontogeny.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022
    Keywords
    affective state, animal welfare, chicken, cognitive bias, fowl, impulsivity, tonic immobility
    National Category
    Behavioral Sciences Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184254 (URN)10.3389/fvets.2022.872487 (DOI)000791343700001 ()35464350 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: HL received funding from the Swedish research council FORMAS (Grant No. 2015-11891) and LiU Neuro Systemsbiology for costs associated with housing of birds or paying of PhD-salary (to LG).

    Available from: 2022-04-11 Created: 2022-04-11 Last updated: 2022-05-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Variation in inhibitory control does not influence social rank, foraging efficiency, or risk taking, in red junglefowl females
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in inhibitory control does not influence social rank, foraging efficiency, or risk taking, in red junglefowl females
    2022 (English)In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 25, p. 867-879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Individual variation in cognition, seen in many taxa, is not well understood, despite its potential evolutionary consequences. Inhibitory control is an aspect of cognition which differs between individuals. However, how selection could act on this variation remains unclear. First, individual consistency over time of behaviours affected by inhibitory control, and how these behaviours relate to each other, is not well understood. Second, consequences in ecologically relevant contexts of variation in behaviours affected by inhibitory control, are scarcely investigated. Therefore, we explored the temporal consistency and inter-relatedness of two behaviours influenced by inhibitory control (impulsive action and persistence) and how these link to social rank, foraging efficiency, and risk taking in adult female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We measured impulsive action in a detour test, and persistence in both a detour test and a foraging test. Impulsive action and persistence, measured in a detour test, were moderately consistent over time, and positively correlated. This implies that selection could act on inhibitory control via these behaviours, and selection on one behaviour could affect the other. However, we found no evidence of links between inhibitory control and social rank, foraging efficiency, or risk taking. This implies that selection may not act on inhibitory control via these measures, and that, in general, there may be a lack of strong selection on inhibitory control. This, in turn, could help explain individual variation in this aspect of cognition. Future research should explore the specificity of when inhibitory control has implications for individuals, and continue to investigate how variation in cognitive traits influences how individuals behave in contexts with potential evolutionary implications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Heidelberg, 2022
    Keywords
    Cognition; Foraging; Impulsivity; Inhibitory control; Risk taking; Social rank
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182956 (URN)10.1007/s10071-022-01598-5 (DOI)000751220200001 ()35122185 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|FORMASSwedish Research Council Formas [2015-11891]; LiU Neuro Systemsbiology; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2022-02-16 Created: 2022-02-16 Last updated: 2023-04-06Bibliographically approved
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  • 36.
    Garnham, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahlgren Porthen, Sabina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Child, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Forslind, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of personality, cognition, and affective state in same-sex contests in the red junglefowl2019In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 73, no 11, article id UNSP 149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-species contests are common in the animal kingdom and can have fitness consequences. Most research on what predicts contest outcome focuses on morphology, although differences in personality and cognition may also be involved. Supporting this, more proactive individuals often have dominant status, although the causality of this relationship is rarely investigated. Contest initiators often win; thus, individuals that are more proactive in their personality (e.g., more aggressive, risk-taking) or cognition (e.g., more optimistic, impulsive) may initiate contests more often. To investigate this, we assayed the behavior and cognition of sexually mature male and female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), a species in which both sexes contest over social status, before staging intra-sexual contests. We confirm that contest initiators were more likely to win. In males, individuals that behaved more boldly in a novel arena test were more likely to initiate and win contests. Female initiators tended to be less active in novel object test, more aggressive in a restrained opponent test, and respond less optimistically in a cognitive judgement bias test, whereas the main predictor of whether a female would win a contest was whether she initiated it. These results suggest that behaviors attributed to proactive and reactive personalities, and-at least for female red junglefowl-optimism, can affect contest initiation and outcome. Therefore, within species, and depending on sex, different aspects of behavior and cognition may independently affect contest initiation and outcome. The generality of these findings, and their fitness consequences, requires further investigation.

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  • 37.
    Garnham, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clarke, Charlie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How Inhibitory Control Relates to Positive and Negative Affective States in Red Junglefowl2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 872487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in inhibitory control, an aspect of cognition, are found in many species. How this variation links to affective states is not much explored, and could be relevant for welfare. As less fearful, more optimistic, individuals may act more impulsively, inhibitory control could link to less negative, more positive, affective states. Alternatively, poorer inhibitory control could associate with more negative, less positive, affective states, as poorer inhibitory control can result in individuals being less able to adapt to changing environments and more likely to show stereotypies. We here explored in three cohorts (N = 209) of captive red junglefowl, the ancestor of domestic chickens, how inhibitory control associated with affective states. Specifically, we measured inhibitory control with a detour task, and negative and positive affective states with a tonic immobility test and a cognitive judgement bias test, respectively. Cognition and behaviour can differ between ages and sexes. Therefore, we investigated how inhibitory control related to affective states in younger chicks (≈2.5 weeks old), older chicks (≈5 weeks old) and sexually mature adults (≈28 weeks old) of both sexes. In younger chicks, poorer inhibitory control associated with less negative, more positive, affective states. We found no relationship between inhibitory control and affective states in older chicks or adults, nor sex differences regarding how inhibitory control related to affective states. Overall, our results suggest that inhibitory control can link to affective states and that the nature of these links can change over ontogeny.

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  • 38.
    Gjöen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jean-Joseph, Hillary
    Univ Vienna, Austria; Univ Vet Med, Austria.
    Kotrschal, Kurt
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Domestication and social environment modulate fear responses in young chickens2023In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 210, article id 104906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a mosaic of traits. Classical domestication theories agree that reactivity to fear and stress is one of the main traits affected. Domesticated species are expected to be less fear and stress prone to than their wild counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we compared the behavioural responses of White Leghorn (WL) chicks to their wild counterparts, Red Junglefowl (RJF) chicks in risk-taking situations. In order to obtain food, the chicks faced an unknown and potentially harmful object at the presence or absence of a social partner. We found that according to our predictions, RJF were more stressed and fearful of the object than the WL. Still, RJF were more explorative than WL. Additionally, the presence of a social partner reduced the fear response in both, but had a stronger effect on RJF. Finally, WL were more food orientated than the RJF. Our results confirmed classical domestication hypotheses of downregulation of the stress system and importance of the social partner in domesticated farm chicken.

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  • 39.
    Grozelier, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Labrador and German shepherd breed differences in dog-human communication2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As our long-term companions, dogs’ communication with us is perhaps the most developed of all human- animal ones. This study was aimed to investigate breed differences of German Shepherds and Labradors in dog-human communication. This was obtained through two tests: a problem-solving task and a pointing test. These two tests target both directions of communication: how much dogs understand and respond to the pointing and how they communicate with humans when facing a problem. Additionally, hair cortisol was measured in the dogs and dog owners filled a behavioural questionnaire (C-BARQ). The main breed difference I found was that Labradors performed better in both tests. I also found that the latency of the dogs’ choices in the pointing test correlated with many factors, e.g. they chose quicker when: choosing correctly, when they had many physical contacts with the experimenter in the problem-solving task, when they were more intense, energetic dogs, when they had higher hair cortisol levels and when they had a confident body posture. This indicates that the latency of choice could depend on the confidence of the dog and on the trust in the experimenter as well as on energy level and focus ability. Overall, this study revealed a limited amount of breed differences, compared to a parallel study on Labrador types (hunting and show dogs), showing that intra-breed differences can be more important than inter-breed ones on a behavioural level. 

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  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Jannie Frida Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Thermoregulatory behavior and habitat use of Liolaemus aparicioi at two different altitudes2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoregulation of lizards depends highly on the environment they inhabit. Thermoregulation is crucial for physiological processes and affects therefore the life history of the lizard. High altitudes are characterized by a colder climate than on lower altitudes, and these environmental factors affects the thermoregulation of lizards. Lizards can however adapt to colder climates by adjusting their physiology and/or behavior. In this study two populations of Liolaemus aparicioi, an endemic lizard inhabiting the valleys close to La Paz, were observed at two different altitudes to investigate any differences in behavior or habitat use that could compensate for the high altitude. The behavioral displays associated to thermoregulation and the use of habitat were recorded in order to assess how they allocated their time and how they used the habitat available. The mean values of most parameters measured indicated that the population on the high altitude do compensate for the high altitude by behavior and habitat use.

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  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Jennie Frida Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoregulating behavior and habitat use of Liolaemus aparicioi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoregulation of lizards depends highly on the environment they inhabit. Thermoregulation is crucial for physiological processes and affects therefore the life history of the lizard. High altitudes are characterized by a colder climate than on lower altitudes, and these environmental factors affects the thermoregulation of lizards. Lizards can however adapt to colder climates by adjusting their physiology and/or behavior. In this study two populations of Liolaemus aparicioi, an endemic lizard inhabiting the valleys close to La Paz, were observed at two different altitudes to investigate any differences in behavior or habitat use that could compensate for the high altitude. The behavioral displays associated to thermoregulation and the use of habitat were recorded in order to assess how they allocated their time and how they used the habitat available. The mean values of most parameters measured indicated that the population on the high altitude do compensate for the high altitude by behavior and habitat use.

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  • 42.
    Gustavsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Evaluation of varied enrichment schedules for two feline and one primate species at Parken Zoo2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of varied enrichment and feeding schedules were conducted on three spices, drill, Pallas’s cat and cheetah, at Parken Zoo in Sweden. Varied schedules of enrichment and feeding are used to prevent the animals from knowing when the administration of these events are going to happen since anticipation can lead to a number of negative changes in the behaviours of the animals. Scan sampling was used to gather behavioural data of the animals and the data was then used to answer a number of questions about the extent of success of the varied schedule: 1.Is the varied schedule experienced as unpredictable for the animals? 2. Are there any negative behaviours associated with the scheduled enrichments? 3. What are the reactions to the enrichment being withheld at certain days? The results showed that the animals did not perceive the scheduled events as predictable; pacing in cheetahs and aggressive behaviours in Pallas’s cats seemed to be directly associated with the events; active behaviours in the drills decreased and aggressiveness increased as an immediate result of withholding enrichment. Implications for the animals and the zoo in light of the results are discussed.

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  • 43.
    Hakansson, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Copenhagen.
    Effect of daytime and age on the avoidance and approach behaviour of commercial Danish broiler chicken2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As activity levels of intensively managed broiler chicken vary over time, detailed knowledge on their influence is potentially useful to further adjust welfare assessment schemes. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of daytime and age on the performance of broiler chicken in two applied fear tests.On-farm studies were carried out in 14 flocks of intensively managed broiler chicken. A forced and a voluntary approach test were conducted during morning and evening hours and at three different ages (1: 6-12d; 2: 21-24d; 3: prior to slaughter). At each observation, avoidance distances (AD) and the number of animals voluntarily approaching (VA) an observer were collected.No significant correlation was found between daytime and AD or VA. When tested at different ages, daytime and VA were significantly correlated (1: r= 0.56*; 2: r= 0.40*; 3: r= 0.64*), but the results were not consistent. At three weeks the VA was found to be higher in the morning but at younger age and prior to slaughter, more birds approach an observer in the evening. Both, approach and avoidance peaked at three weeks and decreased prior to slaughter. Further, the effect of differing observer locations in the chicken house on the behavioural response of broiler chicken was studied. A higher proportion of birds voluntarily approached an unknown human in the area close to the main entrance door, but the avoidance behaviour was not affected.From the results of this study I conclude, that the time of assessment has no effect on avoidance or approach behaviour of commercial slow-growing broiler chicken. However, fear related behaviour changed depending on age. This makes the applied tests potentially applicable independent of daytime restrictions when performed with birds of the same age.

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  • 44.
    Hanson, Michaela
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facial expressions and other behavioral responses to pleasant and unpleasant tastes in cats  (Felis silvestris catus)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior and facial expressions performed by cats have been reported to be visibly affected by the perceived taste quality of a food item. The goal of the present study was to assess how cats react to pleasant and unpleasant tastes. The facial and behavioral reactions of 13 cats to different concentrations of L-Proline and quinine monohydrochloride as well as mixtures with different concentrations of the two substances were assessed using a two-bottle preference test. The cats were videotaped during the tests and the frequency and duration of 50 different behaviors was analyzed in Noldus the Observer XT. The cats responded to tastes regarded as pleasant by having their eyes less than 50 % open for significantly longer periods of time compared to a water control. Tongue protrusions were also observed significantly more frequently when the cats sampled from a solution with a preferred taste compared to a water control. When encountering solutions of quinine monohydrochloride or mixtures containing quinine monohydrochloride the cats were observed to perform tongue protrusion gapes much more frequently compared to a water or L-Proline control. Even though the cats did not significantly differ in the number of times they licked at spouts containing the 50 mM L-Proline and 500 mM quinine monohydrochloride mixture compared to a 50 mM L-Proline, no masking effect could be confirmed as there was no increase in the acceptance of the mixture was observed. The present study suggests that the knowledge about behavioral responses to pleasant or unpleasant taste can be utilized in future studies on how cats perceive different tastes.

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  • 45.
    Hedlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Personality and production in dairy cows2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in animal personality, in other words, behavioural responses consistent within individuals over time and/or across contexts, is predicted to be related to life-history traits, such as growth rate and investment in reproduction. How this translates into relationships between personality and milk production in dairy cows is however scarcely investigated and previous studies are showing contradicting results. To further investigate this relationship, individual consistencies in behaviour were related to milk production in two breeds of dairy cows (Swedish red and white cattle, SRB, and Holstein). Variation was found among the breeds in consistency of behaviours and both SRB and Holstein cows were highly consistent over time in stepping behaviour during milking and frequency of performed abnormal behaviours in home pen. Overall were Holstein cows consistent in more observed behaviours than SRB. Variation in neophobia and responses to social separation were more flexible, both among breeds and over time. Nevertheless, behaviour showed limited relationship with milk production. To conclude, the tests here carried out are useful in describing personality in cows; however, personality showed no relationship with milk production, encouraging future studies to explore this expected relationship further in other breeds and species.

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    Personality and production in dairy cows
  • 46.
    Hedlund, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palazon, Tiphaine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stress during Commercial Hatchery Processing Induces Long-Time Negative Cognitive Judgement Bias in Chickens2021In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary Worldwide, billions of laying hen chicks are incubated, hatched and processed in industrial hatcheries every year. When exposed to stress, hormones are incorporated in the feathers of the birds. Here, we measured levels of the stress hormone corticosterone to investigate possible stress during the incubation. Further, animals can perceive their environment either in a positive (optimistic) or a negative (pessimistic) way. We investigated how the early hatchery experiences affects "optimism" and "pessimism". Commercially hatched chicks were exposed to a positive cue, an aversive cue, and ambiguous cues, in order to evaluate the cognitive welfare state of the animals. These chicks were compared to a group of non-stressed animals. Commercially incubated chicks did not have elevated levels of feather corticosterone, which implies that the main part of the stress effects from the hatchery originates from the period around hatch. Latencies to approach ambiguous cues were longer for the stressed chicks, i.e., these showed a more pessimistic-like behaviour. We conclude that the main part of the stress effects in commercially hatched chicks originates in the period around hatch, and further, that these birds show lasting levels of increased pessimism. This strongly indicates a long-time poorer welfare state for the animals. Worldwide, billions of laying hen chicks are incubated and processed under highly industrialised circumstances every year, which, as we have previously shown, has long-lasting effects. Here, we measured corticosterone incorporated in down feathers to investigate possible stress during the incubation and showed that commercially incubated chicks did not have elevated levels of feather corticosterone, which implies that the main part of the stress effects from hatchery originates from the perinatal period and the handling immediately post-hatch. Further, we investigated how the early hatchery stress affects the chicks cognitive welfare state, i.e., "optimism" and "pessimism". We exposed commercially hatched chickens to a positive cue, an aversive cue and ambiguous cues. The birds were tested at 1 and 10 w of age and the behaviour was compared with that of non-stressed chicks. Latencies to approach ambiguous cues were longer for the stressed chicks, both at 1 (p = 0.008) and at 10 (p = 0.020) weeks of age, i.e., these showed a more pessimistic-like behaviour. We conclude that the main part of the stress effects in commercially hatched chicks originates in the perinatal period, and further, that these birds show lasting levels of increased pessimism. This strongly indicates a long-time poorer welfare state for the animals.

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  • 47.
    Henriksen, Rie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson Holm, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of contact incubation on stress, behavior and body composition in the precocial Red jungle fowl2021In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 128, article id 104892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds use contact incubation to warm their eggs above ambient temperature required for embryonic development. In contrast, birds in the industry as well as many birds in breeding programs and scientific studies are incubated in conventional incubators that warm eggs via circulating warm air. This means that contact incubated eggs have different thermal properties than eggs incubated in a conventional incubator. In light of previous studies showing that small differences in incubation temperature can affect chicks post-hatching phenotype, we investigated the consequences of incubating Red jungle fowl eggs at the same temperature (37 degrees C) either via contact incubation or warm air incubation. We found that contact incubated chicks had a more robust body composition, were more explorative and had a higher temperature preference early in life, as well as a sex dependent difference in plasma Corticosterone levels pre-hatch (measured in down-feathers) and post-hatch (measured in plasma) compared to chicks incubated in a conventional warm air incubator. While previous studies have demonstrated that embryonic development and post-hatch phenotype is sensitive to small variations in temperature, our study demonstrates for the first time that the way heat is distributed to the egg has a similar magnitude of effect on post-hatch phenotype and highlights the sensitivity of the incubation period in shaping birds post-hatch phenotype.

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  • 48.
    Heurlin, Jasmine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Behavioral synchronization between dogs and owners.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs have lived with us for thousands of years, so we have learned to understand one another. Dogs have been shown to synchronize their behavior with humans. Behavioral synchronization is characterizes by doing the same thing at the same time and in the same place as someone else. This synchronization is often dependent on the relationship and the emotional state of the individuals. The main aim in this study was to develop a method to test behavioral synchronization and also to investigate how this, but also other behaviors, are effect by preceding human-dog interactions. Privately owned dogs (N=21) were tested with three different treatments (play, pet or ignore). The test procedure consisted of the owner walking or standing still in a predefined pattern, while their dog was freely roaming. This study showed that dogs adapted their movement pattern to their owners. This was similar to previous studies showing that the method developed can be used to test behavioral synchronization between owner and dog. Dogs explored the test arena less after play interaction and they also tended to seek more eye contact with their owners, but the interactions did not affect how much time spent in human proximity, how much they followed them or on dogs movement pattern.

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    Behavioral synchronization between dogs and owners.
  • 49.
    Heurlin, Jasmine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barabas, György
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. HUN REN Ctr Ecol Res, Hungary.
    Roth, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavioural synchronisation between different groups of dogs and wolves and their owners/handlers: Exploring the effect of breed and human interaction2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 5, article id e0302833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs have previously been shown to synchronise their behaviour with their owner and the aim of this study was to test the effect of immediate interactions, breed, and the effects of domestication. The behavioural synchronisation test was conducted in outdoor enclosures and consisted of 30 s where the owner/handler was walking and 30 s of standing still. Three studies were conducted to explore the effect of immediate interaction (study A), the effect of breed group (study B), and the effect of domestication (study C). In study A, a group of twenty companion dogs of various breeds were tested after three different human interaction treatments: Ignore, Pet, and Play. The results showed that dogs adjusted their movement pattern to align with their owner's actions regardless of treatment. Furthermore, exploration, eye contact, and movement were all influenced by the owners moving pattern, and exploration also decreased after the Play treatment. In study B, the synchronisation test was performed after the Ignore treatment on three groups: 24 dogs of ancient dog breeds, 17 solitary hunting dogs, and 20 companion dogs (data from study A). Irrespective of the group, all dogs synchronised their moving behaviour with their owner. In addition, human walking positively influenced eye contact behaviour while simultaneously decreasing exploration behaviour. In study C, a group of six socialised pack-living wolves and six similarly socialised pack-living dogs were tested after the Ignore treatment. Interestingly, these animals did not alter their moving behaviour in response to their handler. In conclusion, dogs living together with humans synchronise with their owner's moving behaviour, while wolves and dogs living in packs do not. Hence, the degree of interspecies behavioural synchronisation may be influenced by the extent to which the dogs are immersed in everyday life with humans.

  • 50.
    Hottges, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Madeleine
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Hard, Therese
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How does feeding regime affect behaviour and activity in captive African lions (Panthera leo)?2019In: JOURNAL OF ZOO AND AQUARIUM RESEARCH, ISSN 2214-7594, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lions (Panthera leo) are popular zoo animals and obligate carnivores. In the past, zoos focused on the nutritional aspect of feeding, whereas today they also aim to encourage naturalistic feeding opportunities. AZAs Lion Care Manual recommends a frequent feeding schedule, while other sources highlight the benefits of unpredictable, infrequent feeding schedules. Further, the husbandry guidelines for lions by EAZA propose to feed lions separately. To assess how lions are affected by feeding frequency, we collected data on five event behaviour categories (social affiliative, agonistic, exploratory, marking, maintenance) and four state behaviour categories (inactive, active, feed, pace) of four captive lion prides held on either high frequency (HF: feeding pieces of meat on four to five occasions per week) or low frequency feeding (LF: feeding a whole carcass on one occasion per week). We found that some event behaviour categories (agonistic, exploratory and marking) and one state behaviour (feeding) were more frequent for lions on HF feeding. Lions on both feeding regimes engaged more often in agonistic behaviour and were more inactive on feeding days than fasting days. On fasting days, activity and pacing, as well as exploratory, maintenance, marking and social behaviour, were more frequent than on feeding days. During the consecutive fasting days, the lions on LF feeding were increasingly active in terms of walking, trotting and running. The results show that LF feeding with whole carcasses allowed the prides to resolve social discrepancies during feeding, which reduced aggression between feedings. LF feeding resulted in satiety of the lions to the extent of altered behaviour during feeding day and the first fasting day, whereas lions on HF feeding showed unvarying behaviour during feeding and fasting days suggesting a lack of satiety.

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