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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

  • 2.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018Inngår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, s. 227-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

  • 3.
    Ahlrot, Ulrica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Welfare in zoo kept felids: A study of resource usage2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large number of felid species being endangered they are subjects of conservation projects both in situ and ex situ. Keeping felids in zoos are problematic with stereotypic behaviours such as pacing and reproduction difficulties often occurring. The aim of this study was to review research and zoo husbandry knowledge about which resources are most important for the welfare of zoo kept felids, and in addition perform behavioural observations in seven felid species in four Swedish zoos to try to find an order of priority of resources. Observations were performed during opening hours in 36 sessions per species and zoo. The results showed that studies of felid resource usage are missing. Zoo husbandry practice is probably based mainly on traditions and anecdotal knowledge. The observations showed that except for minor differences felids behave similarly regardless of species but the use of resources varies. Small felid species seems to be hiding rather than pacing as a way of coping. Elevated resources and areas as well as numerous hiding places are important to felids but many factors might affect the choice of resting places. Therefore it is important to provide the felids with multiple choices. It is also important to evaluate both species and individuals when designing enclosures and providing resources. More multi-institutional studies with large number of individuals of all zoo kept felid species are needed to gather knowledge about felids needs and preferences of resources.

  • 4.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Variation in proactive - reactive personality types in the red junglefowl2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown in many species that individuals exhibit consistent differences in behaviour over time and/or across situations. These differences in behaviour are called personality. One way to categorise personality types typically used for rodents, is along a proactive-reactive gradient, which describes how individuals cope with stressful challenges. Proactive individuals pay less attention to their environment, form routines easily and take longer to adapt when routines are broken compared to reactive individuals. Avian species have to date rarely been described along this gradient, thus the generality of this description across species is unclear. The present study has investigated variation in proactivity-reactivity in red junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus). To observe the chicks’ coping styles, a proactive-reactive test was conducted where the chicks were trained to form a routine, which was then broken. Their behavioural response to this was recorded and used as a measure for proactivity-reactivity. The behavioural response was then linked to individual behavioural variation in additional personality assays. Individuals that were more vigilant in the proactive-reactive test often uttered stress calls and took longer to complete the test. In contrast, individuals that walked more and did not utter stress calls had a shorter time to complete the test. These findings can be used to describe proactive red junglefowl chicks; those that are more stressed when routines are broken, compared to calmer reactive individuals. I found no difference in routine formation between proactive and reactive red junglefowl chicks, suggesting that what describes proactive and reactive individuals may vary across species.

  • 5.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, s. 31-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. IFM.
    Dogs´understanding of human pointing gestures2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the ability for animals to understand human communication signals and the communication between animals and humans, scientists often investigate the understanding of human gestural cues. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) which have a long history of co-evolution with humans have been shown to make good use of human gestural cues. In the present study I investigated whether dogs in general understand a human pointing gesture and if there are differences between sex, age or breeds. In total 46 dogs of different breeds participated in the study. The study was carried out in a dog center in Linköping, Hundens och djurens beteendecenter. To test if dogs understand human pointing gestures, a two-way object choice test were used, where an experimenter pointed at a baited bowl at a distance of three meter from the dog. The results showed that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures. However, no significant differences were found for sex, age or breeds. As a conclusion, I found that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures, but sex, age or breed did not affect the ability.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Social environment influences impulsivity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition (i.e. how individuals perceive, process and react to environmental cues) is fundamental to all animals’ life. Despite this, what explains variation in cognitive abilities is still mainly unclear. Environment is assumed to influences cognitive variation, but the mechanisms for this are still unknown. According to the social intelligence hypothesis, living in a group with a rich social environment, generate challenges that can enhance cognitive abilities. Impulsivity (to not be able to inhibit impulses), one aspect of cognition, may be influenced by the social environment, however this has not yet been experimentally tested. Impulsivity can complicate life, both for humans and animals. In humans, high levels of impulsivity and lack of self-control are associated with addictions and psychiatric disorders, thus is considered to be maladaptive. In animals, impulsivity correlates with stereotypies. To improve our understanding of impulsivity, I experimentally investigated how early social environment affects individual variation in impulsivity. To test this, red junglefowl chicks were used because their group living nature, and our accumulated knowledge on their cognition and behaviour. To manipulate the social environment, chicks either grew up in larger groups (with 17 individuals) or smaller groups (with 7 individuals). During the chicks’ first five weeks of life, three aspects of impulsivity were tested; impulsive action, persistence (in a detour reaching test) and routine formation (in a reversal learning test). Chicks that grew up in larger groups tended to perform less impulsive actions, while social environment did not explain variation in persistence. Chicks from larger groups had less strong routine formation compared to chicks raised in smaller groups. This partially supports the social intelligence hypothesis, and suggest that early social life can affect cognitive traits and explain individual variation in such.

  • 8.
    Beltéky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Beatrix
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikkel-id e0177004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of domestication in animals has led to alterations in behavior, physiology and phenotypic traits, changes that may be driven by correlations with reduced fear of humans. We used Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all domesticated chickens selected for either high or low fear of humans for five generations to study the effects of selection on gene transcription in the cerebral hemisphere, which is heavily involved in behaviour control. A total of 24 individuals from the parental generation as well as from the fifth selected generation were used. Twenty-two genes were significantly differentially expressed at p < 0.05 after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Those genes that were upregulated in the low fearful animals were found to be involved in neural functions. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed enrichment for terms associated with behavioural processes. We conclude that five generations of divergent selection for high or low tameness has significantly changed gene expression patterns in the cerebral hemisphere in the Red Junglefowl population used here, which could underlie a range of changes in the domestic phenotype.

  • 9.
    Bergvall, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The domestication effects on social support in chickens (Gallus gallus)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are stressed they use a trait called social support to alleviate their stress responses. With domestication many traits from the ancestor red junglefowl have changed in the domesticated breed white leghorn. White leghorns are bred to be able to live in large groups where it becomes hard to recognize every chicken. They are therefore not as dependent of familiar stimuli birds for social support as red junglefowl. Our hypotheses were that red jungle males would be more interested in unfamiliar stimuli birds than white leghorn male before stress due to their territoriality. We tested total 56 chickens in an open field test. The test arena was divided in three zones and the time the focal birds spent in each zone was recorded. The focal bird was recorded in 300 seconds before being stressed by being suspended in a net and then recorded again in 300 seconds. The results showed that social support and social behaviour differs between females and males for both breeds. No significant differences were found between the breeds. There was a tendency for significant of breed (P=0.08) effects in the central zone unstressed. The two interactions before stressed between breed and sex, central zone (P<0.01) and unfamiliar zone (P<0.01) had significant effects. We observed fights between white leghorn males and familiar stimuli. Waltzing did also occur in red jungle males in front of unfamiliar. In conclusion, numeric differences can be seen but not large enough to be significant and our hypotheses are not confirmed.

  • 10.
    Bjällerhag, Nathalie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Behaviours and experiences as indicators for the result in a behavioural test for dogs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) started a breeding program of military working dogs. The dogs leave SAF’s kennel at an age of 8 weeks and live with puppy raisers. To evaluate the suitability of dogs for military work the dogs conduct a behavioural test at an age of 15-18 months. An “Index value” is extracted from this behavioural test. The puppy raisers answered a modified version of Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) when the dogs were approximately 12 months old. Answered questionnaires and results from the behavioural test were obtained for 59 dogs. Dogs that had passed the behavioural test had tendency for higher scores for “Trainability” (p = 0.078) and “If lived with other animals” (p = 0.066). Failing dogs had significantly higher score for “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.006), ”Non-Social Fear” (p = 0.005), “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.021), “Hours of daily activation” (p = 0.001), “Mounting objects” (p = 0.012), and a tendency for higher risk of “Urinating when home alone” (p = 0.058). In a regressions between the “Index value” and the values of the questions from C-BARQ, the “Index value” was negatively correlated to “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.002), “Non-social Fear” (p = 0.003), and “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.006). The “Index value” was positively correlated to “Trainability” (p = 0.013), “Hours left home alone” (p=0.043), “Hyperactive” (p = 0.018), “Chases shadows/light spots” (p = 0.043), and a positive tendency for “Chewing on inappropriate objects” (p = 0.075). From a PCA at the categories in C-BARQ, 3 components were extracted. All three components had a correlation to the “Index value”. The results show that the use of C-BARQ can indicate whether the dog will pass the behavioural test or not.

  • 11.
    Björklund Aksoy, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. 2015.
    Effects of serotonin on personality in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality can be defined as a set of physiological and behavioral characteristics that differ between individuals, but are consistent over time and across situations. The evolution of individual differences in behavior that are consistent over time and situations is still not clear. Our understanding of why animals have personality can be improved by investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms of animal behavior. Serotonin is a key monoamine that serves as a physiological modulator of animal behavior. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a group of chemicals that increase levels of serotonin in the brain. Fluoxetine is one such chemical and is used to treat depression in humans. In the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), increased levels of serotonin have been linked to higher activity and boldness, which are both personality traits. In the current study, the effects of induced serotonin on activity, exploration, boldness and aggression was investigated. My results show that injecting fluoxetine causes substantial changes in behavioral traits used to describe personality in field crickets. This result is opposite to previous studies, as serotonin induced individuals were less active, less explorative, and won less fights, compared to control individuals. This could be due to serotonin existing naturally within the circulatory system of the field cricket, whereas fluoxetine is a manufactured chemical intended for human receptors, or that fluoxetine has a similar effect in modulating personality in field crickets as in humans. Since fluoxetine acts similarly in field crickets as in humans, an increased understanding of the effects of induced serotonin on different behaviors in field crickets could be beneficial for treating psychological illnesses.

  • 12.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The behavioural response of mice to predator odours2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to detect and react to a predator odour is crucial for prey species. In the present study 10 mice (Mus musculus) were used to test the behavioural response of mice towards two predator odours (3-methyl-1-butanethiol and 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol) and one fruity odour (n-pentyl acetate). All three odours were tested against a near odourless blank stimulus (diethyl phthalate). The animals were individually placed in a test chamber of two equally sized compartments divided by a vertical Plexiglas wall with a semicircular opening. Their proximity to the odours, placed beneath the floor in petri dishes in each compartment, was measured continuously with stop watches. The mice spent less time in proximity to 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate compared to diethyl phthalate (P<0,05). The mice did not prefer any specific compartment in the test with 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol compared to diethyl phthalate (P>0,05). The avoidance of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol and n-pentyl acetate can be explained either by neophobia, or in the case of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol that it contains sulphur. The lack of behavioural response towards 3-mercapto-3-methyl-butan-1-ol may be due to its loss of intensity over time. From this study it is not certain if mice have an innate fear of predator odours.

  • 13.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Behavioural differences between and within retriever breeds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The retriever breeds have the same origin and have long been used as a gundog for hunting of game, mostly birds. However, recently the retriever breeds have become a popular pet and show dog. This have affected the breeding of the dogs as the same traits are not bred for a gundog and a pet or show dog. Breeds as the Labrador retriever consists of a field- and common-type. The aim of this study is to investigate any differences between and within five of the retriever breeds in behaviours as retrieving, search and game reaction. 64 dogs undergoing the field trial Description of Function- Retriever was video recorded and scores from 430 dogs that have undergone field trials was obtained. Both differences between and within breeds were found when analysing both the videos and scores. In the video analysis, the Flatcoated retriever showed the most retrieving behaviours and was the most passive. The Nova scotia duck tolling retriever was in both the video and score analyses the most active breed. The Labrador retriever scored high in game reaction. The field- and mixed-types had almost always higher scores in behaviours linked to hunting, compared to the common-type. This supports findings that recent selection in breeding have a larger effect on behaviour than the origin uses of the dogs.

  • 14.
    Brodd, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The help-seeking behaviour of dogs (Canis familiaris)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication, the dog( Canis familiaris), have become skilful in understanding human communication and also in communicating with humans. The wolf ( Canis lupus), is not as skilled with this interspecific communication. When dogs are faced with an unsolvable problem, they seek help from human by e.g. gazing at them. This behaviour has been studied and both age and breed group differences have been showed. In this study, we presented dogs with a task that consisted of a solvable and unsolvable problem in order to see if they gazed at their owner and/or an unfamiliar person for help. Although we did not find any difference in breed groups regarding gazing at humans, we did find that adult dogs (dogs older than 2 years) gazed more frequently at their owner and for a longer duration than adolescent dogs (6 months to 2 years). This may be because the adult dogs have more experience of this communication with humans, as they have lived longer with them. These findings empathize the bond between a dog and its owner that seems to grow stronger during the dogs’ life.

  • 15.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Is personality dependent of growth rate in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Personality has been reported in a large variety of animal species, but it is not obvious why animals have personality. Variation in physiological traits, such as growth rate, should theoretically affect variation in behaviours and thus can explain why we observe variation in personalities. Growth rate is, theoretically, positively correlated with active personality types. Empirical studies have reported this pattern in different fish species, but there are not yet many studies on endothermic animals. I have therefore scored behaviours of 100 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks in four personality assays; novel arena, novel object, tonic immobility, and a proactive-reactive test, together with recording variation in growth rate of these individuals. The chicks individual growth rate (% day-1) were calculated and the relationship between personality and growth rate investigated. There was significant difference in growth rate between the sexes, where males grew faster than females, detected already at one week of age. However, no significant correlations between behavioural traits and growth rate were observed, indicating that personality seem to be independent of growth rate. Further studies should therefore investigate the generality of this finding, and alternative underlying mechanisms for variation in personality should be explored.

  • 16.
    Cederlund, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Behavioural responses of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and African lions (Panthera leo) to conspecific urine and to a component of tiger marking fluid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory signals are an important means of social communication among felids. However, not much is known about how individual volatiles of body-borne odours influence behavioural responses. 2-acetyl-1pyrroline has recently been identified as a characteristic component of tiger marking fluid, while being absent from lion marking fluid. One pride each of captive Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and African lions (Panthera leo) were presented with wooden logs impregnated with four different odours and their behaviour was observed. The tigers displayed significantly more interactions towards the marking fluid component (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline), the conspecific urine odour, and the fruity odour (iso-pentyl acetate) than towards the near odourless control (diethyl phthalate). The lions displayed significantly more behaviours towards conspecific urine than towards any of the other odours.  In general all lions interacted more with the logs than tigers. Hence, these results support the notion that 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is a species-specific odorant for tiger olfactory communication. Furthermore, the results show that a single compound (2-acetyl-1pyrroline) can elicit behavioural responses to the same degree as a complex chemical mixture (tiger urine). The high number of interactions performed by both species towards the wooden logs impregnated with conspecific urine suggests that conspecific odours are suitable to use as olfactory enrichment for captive felids.

  • 17.
    Cederlund, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Eye preference in humans and its correlation with eye dominance, visual acuity and handedness2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Handedness is the most obvious expression of lateralized behaviour in humans. However, there is only limited knowledge about other forms of lateralized behaviour, e.g. preferential use of an eye and whether these may correlate with handedness. Thus to investigate this, 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) between 11 and 80 years of age were assessed for their eye preference, eye dominance, visual acuity, and handedness. Eye preference was assessed by performing four different monocular tasks, eye dominance by performing the binocular Dolman test, visual acuity was assessed with a Snellen chart and handedness was surveyed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Regarding eye preference, the right eye was preferred by 69% of the subjects. 90 % of the subjects were consistent for their preferred eye across all four tasks. 66% of the subjects had a dominant right eye, 33% had left eye dominance and 1% could not be assessed using the Dolman test. 56% of the subjects differed in their visual acuity between both eyes, while 43% had the same visual acuity in both of their eyes. 86% of the subjects were right-handed while 4% were left handed and 10% were ambidextrous. Significant correlations were found between visual acuity and eye preference and between visual acuity and eye dominance. The study also found a positive correlation between handedness and eye preference. These results support the notion that there is a weak correlation between the different aspects of lateralized behaviour in humans. 

  • 18.
    Crespo Mingueza, Laia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Assessment of lateralized behaviour in free-ranging Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary origins of human handedness are still unknown. The study of lateralized behaviour in our closest relatives, the nonhuman primates, is useful to clarify how this trait appeared and evolved in our species. In the present study, lateralized behaviour was assessed in a population of 32 free-ranging Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) for thirteen spontaneous motor patterns, at individual and group levels, as well as the effect that age, sex and posture have on its strength and direction. The studied population of howler monkeys displayed only few significant lateral biases at the individual level with single motor patterns (Binomial tests, p≤0.05). No biases towards the use of a particular limb or side of the body were found at a population level. Therefore, even though some individuals showed significant limb/side preference with single motor patterns, no signs of task specialization, side specialization, or true handedness were found. Similarly, no effects of sex, age or posture were found on the direction or strength of lateralized behaviour. The general absence of limb/side preferences found in this population may be due to the constraints imposed by the arboreal life and/or the type of diet. Possible causal agents of the few significant individual biases found here may be the presence of handicaps and/or experience. Further research is needed in order to assess whether the lack of human-like handedness reported in this study is only specific to the studied population, a general phenomenon of the genus Alouatta or perhaps of all the Platyrrhini.

  • 19.
    Elebring, Viktoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Vad skiljer domesticerade värphöns från de röda djungelhönsen (Gallus gallus) i återhämtningsprocessen efter en standardiserad stressupplevelse?: En studie med ett didaktiskt perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att domesticerade höns påvisar en lägre nivå av rädsla jämfört med förfadern, de röda djungelhönsen. I denna studie testades 18 domesticerade White Leghorn (WL) och 18 röda djungelhöns (RJF). Målet med studien var att studera återhämtningen för de båda raserna vid en standardiserad stressupplevelse. Försöket gick ut på att hönsen vistades i enskilda burar och blev efter ett dygn utsatta av en akut stress. Därefter startades observationerna omedelbart för att se när hönsen återhämtade sig och återigen började visa naturliga beteenden. Utifrån alla hönsens resultat beräknades medelvärde och standardfel för varje ras och kön, som sedan jämfördes med variansanalys (repeated measures ANOVA). Beteenden som visade signifikanta resultat över tiden analyseras och visade i några fall tyda på en återhämtningsprocess. Överlag visade White Leghorn på en snabbare och effektivare återhämtning jämfört med de röda djungelhönsen. Resultatet tyder även på att honor har en snabbare återhämtning jämfört med hanar. Studien innehåller även ett didaktiskt moment då etologi studerades utifrån skolverkets föreskrifter om vad biologiundervisning ska innehålla för grundskolans senare år. Läroplanen och kursplaner studerades därefter och jämfördes med läroböcker.

  • 20.
    Ericsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stress in chickens: Effects of domestication and early experience on behaviour and welfare2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The domestication is the process where animals have adapted to human conditions. A prerequisite for domestication is tame behaviour towards humans and subsequently, selection for other desirable traits took place which led to changes in several behavioural and physiological parameters. The domestication of chickens (Gallus gallus) was initiated around 8000 years ago, and today we see clear phenotypic and genotypic alterations when comparing domestic breeds with the wild ancestor. Our modern domestic production breeds have been selected for, and still undergo heavy selection for high meat and egg yields. Beside obvious morphological changes, studies investigating behavioural differences between the ancestral Red Junglefowl and domestic breeds show, for example, differences in fearfulness, foraging strategies, exploratory behaviour and sociality. The modern production environments are intense and already from hatch chicks are exposed to harsh conditions. From an animal welfare perspective, the production environment contain many stressful aspects. The shift in stressor types between wild and captive conditions have likely contributed to alterations in stress tolerance when comparing domestic breeds to the wild ancestors. Previous research on mammalian models have underlined that early-life stressor exposure can induce negative consequences both immediately and in adulthood, but can also affect the offspring in a transgenerational fashion. The effects observed are for example disturbance of normal brain development, a hyper-reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) -axis, decreased immune function and increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction and abnormal behaviour. In chickens, the long-term effects of stress during the chick phase and during puberty are not well-investigated, and further, conflicting data has been presented on the hatchling HPA-axis reactivity.

    In this thesis, results from four projects are presented, which all concern stress and welfare at different ages in chickens. The development of the HPA-axis and how chicks respond to early stress both on the short- and long term was investigated. Furthermore, an experiment on the effects of stress exposure a different ages during puberty was conducted, in search of particularly stress-sensitive periods. Two papers address domestication effects on the stress response.

    In paper I, the results show that the HPA-axis is fully functioning at hatch, resulting in elevated corticosterone levels at exposure to stressful conditions. Breed differences indicate domestication effects on the reactivity and development of the HPA-axis; the Red Junglefowl displayed a lower corticosterone baseline and a lower stress response on day one, compared to a domestic breed, whereas the results were the opposite on day 23. Similar results were seen in paper IV, conducted on adult birds, where the Red Junglefowl had a more pronounced reaction to acute stress but a faster recovery period, both with respect to behaviour and physiology. In commercial hatcheries, chick are exposed to multiple potential stressors on their first day of life. In paper II, chicks who had experienced the potentially stressful environment in a commercial hatchery was compared to a quietly treated control group. The hatchery managed birds displayed a reduced growth pattern and tendencies towards altered vigilance and reduced locomotion was seen as an effect of stress in adulthood.

    In paper III, it was demonstrated that one week of stress exposure at different ages during the chick phase and puberty affect long-term behaviour and physiology, however depending on age of stress exposure, different parameters were affected. The early stress also induced transgenerational effects, most clearly on HPA-axis reactivity, and showed some overlapping differentially expressed genes.

    In summary, domestication has altered the acute stress coping behaviours as well as the development and reactivity of the HPA-axis both in young and adult birds. Furthermore, puberty can be regarded as an equally stress sensitive period as the chick stage and affect various behaviours, stress physiology and gene expression. The outcome can vary depending on timing and nature of stressor.

    Delarbeid
    1. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 133, s. 161-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due tothe domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses,withmodifiedendocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), thedomesticWhite Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed toan acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. Theywere then continuouslymonitored for theeffects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from thechicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples wereanalyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determinedusing validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behaviouralresponse was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baselinewithin 1 h. In WL, somebehaviourswere affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrationsof corticosterone increasedmore in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared toWL. A range of baseline levelsfor HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WLthan in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, butalso recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery ofdomesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    Emneord
    Corticosterone Recovery Restraint White Leghorn Red Junglefowl
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107167 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.024 (DOI)000340315100022 ()
    Merknad

    Funders: Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4731]; Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) [221-2011-1088]; ERC (project Genewell) [322206]; Swedish Centre of Excellence in Animal Welfare; ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-06-09 Laget: 2014-06-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05
  • 21.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Radesäter, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, nr 1774, s. 20132531-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability of ‘state’ has been suggested as an underlying factor explainingbehavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, andconsistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibilitythat stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored.Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression andconsistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status betweenrepeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallusdomesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies,and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected bysocial status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance,activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldnessappeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore,variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicatingthat individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence ofsocial status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate thatsocial states contribute to both variation and stability in behaviouralresponses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigatingand interpreting variation in personality.

  • 22.
    Favati, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Uden, Eva
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Personality remains: no effect of 3-week social status experience on personality in male fowl2018Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 312-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral responses of male fowl did not depend on social rank after 3 weeks in stable groups, but were consistent over time for an individual. Theory suggests that stable social states, for example, stable social hierarchies, may lead to consistent variation in behavior, that is, variation in personality. Our results suggest that variation in personality is not a consequence of variation in social status and that personality is more important than current social position in determining individual behavior in stable groups.Individuals often differ in behavior in a consistent way, that is, they show variation in personality. Understanding the processes explaining the emergence and maintenance of this variation is a current major topic in the field of animal behavioral research. Recent theoretical models predict that differences in various "states" can generate individual variation in behavior. Previous studies have mainly focused on endogenous states like metabolic rate or energy reserves, but theory also suggests that states based on social interactions could play important roles in shaping personality. We have earlier demonstrated short-term status-dependent variation in behavior in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), but whether such behavioral variation remains also after a longer period of time, is unknown. Therefore, we examine the influence of social status on variation in behavior, using experimental manipulation of social status in pairs of male domestic fowl. We scored males in 3 personality assays (novel arena test, novel object test, and aggression test) before and after 3 weeks in pairs as either dominant or subordinate. We observed individual consistency of behavior despite alteration of social status. We further found no support for social status acting as a state that generates variation in personality over the used time interval: social status had no significant effect on the change in behavioral responses between repeated personality tests. Our results suggest that personality is more important than current social situation for describing individual behavior in stable groups.

  • 23.
    Fischer, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Does Lifestyle Affect the Attachment between Dogs, Canis familiaris, and Their Owner?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the dog’s behaviour and the interactions between the dog and the owner   differ depending on lifestyle, breed or sex of the dog. For this we employed the Strange Situation Procedure, a test inspired from Mary Ainsworth´s study,   which investigated the attachment of human infants to their mothers. There were two breeds, Border collie and Shetland sheepdog and a total of 58 dogs that participated in this study. The two breeds were divided into two lifestyles, competition dogs and pet dogs. A PCA was used to find correlations between the behavioural variables and the factors were then analysed in a Mann Whitney U test to test the differences between breed, sex and lifestyle. In this study no differences in behaviour between the two lifestyles were shown. However, the results showed that there were some differences between the two breeds and between the two sexes in behavioural expressions. The differences between the breeds were quite expected because there are many different breeds today which are selected for various morphology and behavioural traits which could influence their behaviour. The difference in behaviour between the two sexes can be because of evolutionary heredity. Further studies on this subject should have bigger and more even sample size, longer separation time, a more balanced gender distribution of the owners and to also analyze the cortisol levels.

  • 24.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016Inngår i: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, s. 7-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 25.
    Grozelier, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Labrador and German shepherd breed differences in dog-human communication2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As our long-term companions, dogs’ communication with us is perhaps the most developed of all human- animal ones. This study was aimed to investigate breed differences of German Shepherds and Labradors in dog-human communication. This was obtained through two tests: a problem-solving task and a pointing test. These two tests target both directions of communication: how much dogs understand and respond to the pointing and how they communicate with humans when facing a problem. Additionally, hair cortisol was measured in the dogs and dog owners filled a behavioural questionnaire (C-BARQ). The main breed difference I found was that Labradors performed better in both tests. I also found that the latency of the dogs’ choices in the pointing test correlated with many factors, e.g. they chose quicker when: choosing correctly, when they had many physical contacts with the experimenter in the problem-solving task, when they were more intense, energetic dogs, when they had higher hair cortisol levels and when they had a confident body posture. This indicates that the latency of choice could depend on the confidence of the dog and on the trust in the experimenter as well as on energy level and focus ability. Overall, this study revealed a limited amount of breed differences, compared to a parallel study on Labrador types (hunting and show dogs), showing that intra-breed differences can be more important than inter-breed ones on a behavioural level. 

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Jannie Frida Linn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Thermoregulatory behavior and habitat use of Liolaemus aparicioi at two different altitudes2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoregulation of lizards depends highly on the environment they inhabit. Thermoregulation is crucial for physiological processes and affects therefore the life history of the lizard. High altitudes are characterized by a colder climate than on lower altitudes, and these environmental factors affects the thermoregulation of lizards. Lizards can however adapt to colder climates by adjusting their physiology and/or behavior. In this study two populations of Liolaemus aparicioi, an endemic lizard inhabiting the valleys close to La Paz, were observed at two different altitudes to investigate any differences in behavior or habitat use that could compensate for the high altitude. The behavioral displays associated to thermoregulation and the use of habitat were recorded in order to assess how they allocated their time and how they used the habitat available. The mean values of most parameters measured indicated that the population on the high altitude do compensate for the high altitude by behavior and habitat use.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Jennie Frida Linn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thermoregulating behavior and habitat use of Liolaemus aparicioi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoregulation of lizards depends highly on the environment they inhabit. Thermoregulation is crucial for physiological processes and affects therefore the life history of the lizard. High altitudes are characterized by a colder climate than on lower altitudes, and these environmental factors affects the thermoregulation of lizards. Lizards can however adapt to colder climates by adjusting their physiology and/or behavior. In this study two populations of Liolaemus aparicioi, an endemic lizard inhabiting the valleys close to La Paz, were observed at two different altitudes to investigate any differences in behavior or habitat use that could compensate for the high altitude. The behavioral displays associated to thermoregulation and the use of habitat were recorded in order to assess how they allocated their time and how they used the habitat available. The mean values of most parameters measured indicated that the population on the high altitude do compensate for the high altitude by behavior and habitat use.

  • 28.
    Gustavsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Evaluation of varied enrichment schedules for two feline and one primate species at Parken Zoo2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of varied enrichment and feeding schedules were conducted on three spices, drill, Pallas’s cat and cheetah, at Parken Zoo in Sweden. Varied schedules of enrichment and feeding are used to prevent the animals from knowing when the administration of these events are going to happen since anticipation can lead to a number of negative changes in the behaviours of the animals. Scan sampling was used to gather behavioural data of the animals and the data was then used to answer a number of questions about the extent of success of the varied schedule: 1.Is the varied schedule experienced as unpredictable for the animals? 2. Are there any negative behaviours associated with the scheduled enrichments? 3. What are the reactions to the enrichment being withheld at certain days? The results showed that the animals did not perceive the scheduled events as predictable; pacing in cheetahs and aggressive behaviours in Pallas’s cats seemed to be directly associated with the events; active behaviours in the drills decreased and aggressiveness increased as an immediate result of withholding enrichment. Implications for the animals and the zoo in light of the results are discussed.

  • 29.
    Hakansson, Franziska
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Copenhagen.
    Effect of daytime and age on the avoidance and approach behaviour of commercial Danish broiler chicken2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As activity levels of intensively managed broiler chicken vary over time, detailed knowledge on their influence is potentially useful to further adjust welfare assessment schemes. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of daytime and age on the performance of broiler chicken in two applied fear tests.On-farm studies were carried out in 14 flocks of intensively managed broiler chicken. A forced and a voluntary approach test were conducted during morning and evening hours and at three different ages (1: 6-12d; 2: 21-24d; 3: prior to slaughter). At each observation, avoidance distances (AD) and the number of animals voluntarily approaching (VA) an observer were collected.No significant correlation was found between daytime and AD or VA. When tested at different ages, daytime and VA were significantly correlated (1: r= 0.56*; 2: r= 0.40*; 3: r= 0.64*), but the results were not consistent. At three weeks the VA was found to be higher in the morning but at younger age and prior to slaughter, more birds approach an observer in the evening. Both, approach and avoidance peaked at three weeks and decreased prior to slaughter. Further, the effect of differing observer locations in the chicken house on the behavioural response of broiler chicken was studied. A higher proportion of birds voluntarily approached an unknown human in the area close to the main entrance door, but the avoidance behaviour was not affected.From the results of this study I conclude, that the time of assessment has no effect on avoidance or approach behaviour of commercial slow-growing broiler chicken. However, fear related behaviour changed depending on age. This makes the applied tests potentially applicable independent of daytime restrictions when performed with birds of the same age.

  • 30.
    Hanson, Michaela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Facial expressions and other behavioral responses to pleasant and unpleasant tastes in cats  (Felis silvestris catus)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior and facial expressions performed by cats have been reported to be visibly affected by the perceived taste quality of a food item. The goal of the present study was to assess how cats react to pleasant and unpleasant tastes. The facial and behavioral reactions of 13 cats to different concentrations of L-Proline and quinine monohydrochloride as well as mixtures with different concentrations of the two substances were assessed using a two-bottle preference test. The cats were videotaped during the tests and the frequency and duration of 50 different behaviors was analyzed in Noldus the Observer XT. The cats responded to tastes regarded as pleasant by having their eyes less than 50 % open for significantly longer periods of time compared to a water control. Tongue protrusions were also observed significantly more frequently when the cats sampled from a solution with a preferred taste compared to a water control. When encountering solutions of quinine monohydrochloride or mixtures containing quinine monohydrochloride the cats were observed to perform tongue protrusion gapes much more frequently compared to a water or L-Proline control. Even though the cats did not significantly differ in the number of times they licked at spouts containing the 50 mM L-Proline and 500 mM quinine monohydrochloride mixture compared to a 50 mM L-Proline, no masking effect could be confirmed as there was no increase in the acceptance of the mixture was observed. The present study suggests that the knowledge about behavioral responses to pleasant or unpleasant taste can be utilized in future studies on how cats perceive different tastes.

  • 31.
    Hedlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Personality and production in dairy cows2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in animal personality, in other words, behavioural responses consistent within individuals over time and/or across contexts, is predicted to be related to life-history traits, such as growth rate and investment in reproduction. How this translates into relationships between personality and milk production in dairy cows is however scarcely investigated and previous studies are showing contradicting results. To further investigate this relationship, individual consistencies in behaviour were related to milk production in two breeds of dairy cows (Swedish red and white cattle, SRB, and Holstein). Variation was found among the breeds in consistency of behaviours and both SRB and Holstein cows were highly consistent over time in stepping behaviour during milking and frequency of performed abnormal behaviours in home pen. Overall were Holstein cows consistent in more observed behaviours than SRB. Variation in neophobia and responses to social separation were more flexible, both among breeds and over time. Nevertheless, behaviour showed limited relationship with milk production. To conclude, the tests here carried out are useful in describing personality in cows; however, personality showed no relationship with milk production, encouraging future studies to explore this expected relationship further in other breeds and species.

  • 32.
    Heurlin, Jasmine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Behavioral synchronization between dogs and owners.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs have lived with us for thousands of years, so we have learned to understand one another. Dogs have been shown to synchronize their behavior with humans. Behavioral synchronization is characterizes by doing the same thing at the same time and in the same place as someone else. This synchronization is often dependent on the relationship and the emotional state of the individuals. The main aim in this study was to develop a method to test behavioral synchronization and also to investigate how this, but also other behaviors, are effect by preceding human-dog interactions. Privately owned dogs (N=21) were tested with three different treatments (play, pet or ignore). The test procedure consisted of the owner walking or standing still in a predefined pattern, while their dog was freely roaming. This study showed that dogs adapted their movement pattern to their owners. This was similar to previous studies showing that the method developed can be used to test behavioral synchronization between owner and dog. Dogs explored the test arena less after play interaction and they also tended to seek more eye contact with their owners, but the interactions did not affect how much time spent in human proximity, how much they followed them or on dogs movement pattern.

  • 33.
    Hottges, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Madeleine
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Hard, Therese
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How does feeding regime affect behaviour and activity in captive African lions (Panthera leo)?2019Inngår i: JOURNAL OF ZOO AND AQUARIUM RESEARCH, ISSN 2214-7594, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 117-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lions (Panthera leo) are popular zoo animals and obligate carnivores. In the past, zoos focused on the nutritional aspect of feeding, whereas today they also aim to encourage naturalistic feeding opportunities. AZAs Lion Care Manual recommends a frequent feeding schedule, while other sources highlight the benefits of unpredictable, infrequent feeding schedules. Further, the husbandry guidelines for lions by EAZA propose to feed lions separately. To assess how lions are affected by feeding frequency, we collected data on five event behaviour categories (social affiliative, agonistic, exploratory, marking, maintenance) and four state behaviour categories (inactive, active, feed, pace) of four captive lion prides held on either high frequency (HF: feeding pieces of meat on four to five occasions per week) or low frequency feeding (LF: feeding a whole carcass on one occasion per week). We found that some event behaviour categories (agonistic, exploratory and marking) and one state behaviour (feeding) were more frequent for lions on HF feeding. Lions on both feeding regimes engaged more often in agonistic behaviour and were more inactive on feeding days than fasting days. On fasting days, activity and pacing, as well as exploratory, maintenance, marking and social behaviour, were more frequent than on feeding days. During the consecutive fasting days, the lions on LF feeding were increasingly active in terms of walking, trotting and running. The results show that LF feeding with whole carcasses allowed the prides to resolve social discrepancies during feeding, which reduced aggression between feedings. LF feeding resulted in satiety of the lions to the extent of altered behaviour during feeding day and the first fasting day, whereas lions on HF feeding showed unvarying behaviour during feeding and fasting days suggesting a lack of satiety.

  • 34.
    Huq, Md. Nazmul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The genetic basis of a domestication trait in the chicken: mapping quantitative trait loci for plumage colour2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication is the process by which animals become adapted to the environment provided by humans. The process of domestication has let to a number of correlated behavioural, morphological and physiological changes among many domesticated animal species. An example is the changes of plumage colour in the chicken. Plumage colour is one of the most readily observable traits that make distinction between breeds as well as between strains within a breed. Understanding the genetic architecture of pigmentation traits or indeed any trait is always a great challenge in evolutionary biology. The main aim of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the red and metallic green coloration in the chicken plumage. In this study, a total of 572 F8 intercross chickens between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn were used. Phenotypic measurements were done using a combination of digital photography and photography manipulating software. Moreover, all birds were genotyped with 657 molecular markers, covering 30 autosomes. The total map distance covered was 11228 cM and the average interval distance was 17 cM. In this analysis, a total of six QTLs (4 for red and 2 for metallic green colour) were detected on four different chromosomes: 2, 3 11 and 14. For red colour, the most significant QTL was detected on chromosome 2 at 165 cM. An additional QTL was also detected on the same chromosome at 540 cM. Two more QTLs were detected on chromosomes 11 and 14 at 24 and 203 cM respectively. Additionally, two epistatic pairs of QTLs were also detected. The identified four QTLs together can explain approximately 36% of the phenotypic variance in this trait. In addition, for metallic green colour, one significant and one suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 2 and 3 at 399 and 247 cM respectively. Moreover, significant epistatic interactions between these two QTLs were detected. Furthermore, these two QTLs together can explain approximately 24% of the phenotypic variance in this trait. These findings suggest that the expression of pigmentation in the chicken plumage is highly influenced by both the epistatic actions and pleiotropic effects of different QTLs located on different chromosomes.

  • 35.
    Jansson, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen chicks. Chicks were exposed to stress and/or environmental enrichment, and tested in a cognitive judgment bias test before and after collective unpredictable stressors were presented. The results showed that chicks living in enriched environments were faster to reach all cues after the collective stressors than chicks living in non-enriched environments. Individual differences are often observed in animals, even when raised under identical conditions; therefore I also investigated if variation in personality influence cognitive judgment bias. Red junglefowl chicks were thereby raised in equal environments and exposed to personality assays in addition to a cognitive judgment bias test. I demonstrated that less nervous chicks were more optimistic towards ambiguous and negative cues than more nervous chicks. Also previous studies have found indications of connections between cognitive bias and environment or personality. I conclude that environmental enrichment can buffer the influence of stress on cognitive judgment bias and that personality has a small influence on interpretations of stimuli. In the future, experiments in this field should focus on exploring more aspects on how cognitive biases occurs to improve our understanding of cognitive processes.

  • 36.
    JEAN-LOUIS, Uranie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Effect of sensory enrichments on the behaviour of captive Northern lynx (Lynx lynx lynx) and assessment of automated behaviour monitoring technologies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Captive environments like zoo exhibits offer limited space, lacking many of the environmental stimuli that are present in the wild. This may reduce animal welfare and potentially lead to the development of stereotypic behaviour like pacing. Environmental enrichment is used to prevent and reduce pacing and enhance animal well-being. The aim of this project was to evaluate sensory enrichments, and the effect of such enrichment on pacing in a group of Northern lynx by means of new, automated monitoring technologies in combination with traditional visual observations. The lynxes were exposed to valerian, catnip and cinnamon as olfactory enrichment. The acoustic enrichments were play-backed mouse squeals, roe deer barking and lynx vocalizations, and live crickets. The responses of the lynx were recorded by logging their subcutaneous HDX pit tags, and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) tags mounted on collars and using a wildlife camera. The results showed that catnip elicited clear “catnip responses” i.e sniffing, rubbing, biting and licking. The sounds were found to attract the lynxes and increase their arousal. One of the sounds, the lynx calls, elicited social behaviour. However, none of the sensory treatments reduced pacing. The combination of these automated technologies with visual observation was powerful to evaluate the effect of enrichment on captive lynxes and to monitor their activity patterns and stereotypic behaviours. Sensory enrichment could also be used in the wild as lures to attract lynxes to BLE or HDX PIT tag logging stations and to wildlife cameras, as part of monitoring a lynx population. 

  • 37.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hunden som skäms: myt eller sanning?2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hundar har en unik förmåga att förstå och kommunicera med oss människor, utvecklad under årtusenden av nära samliv. Faktum är att de på många sätt förstår oss bättre än vad vi själva gör. Under senare år har forskarna på allvar börjat glänta på dörren till hundarnas inre liv. Vi har lärt oss att deras tankar och känslor framförallt kretsar runt en sak: relationen till människor.

    Här kan du läsa om de nya rönen kring hundarnas intelligens och känsloliv. Skäms de verkligen när de gjort något förbjudet? Har de sinne för rättvisa och blir de svartsjuka? Hur ser deras tidsuppfattning ut? Hur mycket förstår de av vårt språk? De nya insikterna i hundarnas innersta tankar gör det svårt att någonsin betrakta dem på samma sätt igen.

  • 38.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour2013Inngår i: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 113, nr 3, s. 447-454Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environmentand genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of inputfrom environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigeneticmarkings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modificationscan affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations cantransfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modificationsare examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylationof histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, theevidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation isreviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inheritedeither through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularlyinteresting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly bemediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serveas substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose fordirected, non-random mutations.

  • 39.
    Johanna, Axelsson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Turn-taking in interspecies vocal communication: A study of dog-human interactions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs are well adapted to a life close to humans and are capable of understanding several human social cues. Turn-taking is a fundamental phenomenon in human conversations, yet no research of turn-taking in interspecies vocal communication has been done. This pilot study therefore aimed to develop a test method in order to analyze if turn-taking occurs in interspecies vocal communication between dogs and humans and if turn-taking can be correlated with specific behaviors in dogs. By analyzing a vocal conversation between seven dogs and their owners during a request situation in their home environment, this study found support for turn-taking existence in dog-human vocal communications. In general, owner-dog vocal communication could be linked to positive events, such as tail wagging and eye contact. Meanwhile, a lower frequency of vocal turn- taking could be linked to stress related behaviors, such as lip licking. Owner in dyads where more vocal overlap occurred tended to score the owner-dog relationship and communication abilities with lower grades, suggesting the absence of turn-taking was experienced as unpleasant for the owner as well. In conclusion, findings from current study highlight the unique coevolution of dogs and humans and opens up for future research of turn-taking in interspecies vocal communication.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Physiological stress and behavioural differences in broiler breeder hens subjected to daily and 5:2 feed restriction regimens2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Feed restriction in the parental stock of meat producing chickens, broiler breeders, is essential in order to decrease the high growth rate that they are genetically selected for. The feed restriction does however lead to chronic hunger and stress. Stress can be measured by counting H/L ratios and the method of manually counting H/L ratios was evaluated. The method was not a good way to ensure reliable individual H/L ratios but still gives an H/L ratio indication on a group level and was therefore still used in the study. Two different feeding regimens were investigated in the study: 5:2 skip-a-day (SKIP) with two fasting days and daily feed restriction (CTRL), with chickens sampled at 9 and 12 weeks of age. There was no significant difference in body mass between the treatments at either age. SKIP chickens had significantly higher H/L ratios compared to CTRL at 12 weeks of age (P=0.020), but both treatments had H/L ratios above the reported limit of stress (0.5). The SKIP group on a feeding day significantly increased plasma glucose levels during the day (10.3 to 11.5 mmol/L, P=0.020) and had significantly higher liver mass and liver glycogen levels compared to the CTRL (P≤0.001). The SKIP group were also less fearful on fasting days and significantly less active than the CTRL (P≤0.050), regardless of age or daily feed differences. The conclusion was that both treatments were stressed but skip-a-day chickens were habituated to their regimen and did not experience worse welfare than daily fed broiler breeders.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Problem solving and seeking assistance in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating how the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) solves a physical problem we get an insight into the importance of human directed inter-species social behaviors. The aim for this project was to investigate the probability of dogs to “ask for help” from their owner in comparison to an unknown person when faced with an unsolvable problem. It was hypothesized that the dog would ask for help from their owner regardless of age, sex or breed

    A total of 50 pet dogs participated in the experiment, 29 males and 21 females from a total of 28 breeds. The dogs were divided into two age groups ( Nadolescent=14, Nadult=34). When comparing age group differences results showed that adult dogs looked significantly more and longer at the owner than adolescent dogs. Comparison of breed categories showed that companion dogs gazed more at the test leader than other breeds, although no significance was detected. This contradicts the hypothesis and could be due to the high social qualities the breed category of companion dogs hold. Only a tendency was detected when comparing the sexes. There were no significant differences between gazing at the test leader and the owner when comparing all the dogs with each other, regardless of age, breed or sex. It was concluded that most differences was due to individual variation. For future studies it would be favorable to have fewer breeds to compare and a larger sample of dogs to work with in order to get results not solely depending on high variance.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Nathalie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi.
    Teat position and personality in piglets, Sus scrofa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate if difference in personality is depended on the teat positions in piglets, Sus scrofa, 63 piglets, from 21 litters, were studied. The piglets were at an age between 9 and 31 days. 3 piglets in each of the 21 litters, one that suckled at an anterior teat, one at a middle teat, and one at a posterior teat, were studied during lactation, undisturbed activity, and introduction to a novel object respectively to new straw. In total thirteen behaviors were recorded. The only significant difference between the teat position were disputes during suckling (P=0.018). There was a tendency of playing during undisturbed activity (P=0.062) between the teat positions. There were significant differences between the litters for every behavior except for inactive piglet lying alone (P=0.108) and when exploring new straw (P=0.584). There is only evidence for behavioral differences for the frequency of disputes during suckling between piglets at different teat positions. A principal component analysis, which accounted for 64.2 % of the variance, suggested four personality traits: exploration (19.2 %), playfulness (17.5 %), interest in food (14.8 %), and interest in straw (10.9 %). However, no significant differences were found for these components for the different teat positions.

  • 43.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The effect of rope and an activation ball on the performance of harmful social behaviors in pigs2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread problem in the housing of captive animals is the occurrence and development of abnormal behaviors. In the pig breeding industry the abnormal behaviors causing the biggest welfare problems are stereotypies such as tail-biting, ear-biting, equipment-biting and belly-nosing. In this study a rope and an activation ball were tested as curative treatments to reduce the performance of these stereotypies by inducing the underlying innate behaviors. A total of 141 pigs spread over 18 pens were used as test-subjects. They were divided into three groups which were introduced to one of the two enrichments or no enrichment at all. Both the enrichments contained characteristics which mostly targeted exploratory and foraging needs and, if functional, were thought to mainly have an effect on tail-biting, ear-biting and equipment-biting. The pigs were observed both at initial contact with the enrichments and after having familiarized with them for three days, and the amount of registered enrichment interaction and performed stereotypies were used to evaluate the effect of the enrichment objects. In both enrichment treatments the enrichments occupied the pigs both on day one and after three days. The presence of equipment-biting was successfully reduced on both day one and day three while the presence of tail-biting and ear-biting only were initially reduced. No effect was found on belly-nosing in either enrichment treatment. This suggests that both enrichments are functional over time and efficient in reducing some types of harmful social behaviors. However, belly-nosing would need to be targeted with a different kind of object.

  • 44.
    Karczmarz, Veronika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Evaluation of live fish as an echolocation enrichment for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and dolphinarias rarely get an outlet for their echolocation abilities as their pool environment is often quite barren. Not much research has been carried out on enrichments promoting echolocation for dolphins in human care. In the present study a setup with live fish was compared to a setup with air-filled floats (providing strong sonar targets, similar to the swim bladders of large fish) and a control setup. A PCL (porpoise click logger) was used to record the echolocation click trains produced by the dolphins and aimed at the three setups. Behavioural data was also collected from video footage. Both the PCL data and all the behavioural observations indicated that the fish setup was more interesting than the float and the control setup, for the dolphins to echolocate towards. However, there were some contradictions with some parameters, where the floats and control seemed to be more interesting. This was probably due to the location of the PCL hydrophone in relation to the floats and fish, and not because the dolphins had a real bigger interest in these setups. To increase the possibility for dolphins to perform more echolocation in human care and increase their welfare, live fish can be recommended as echolocation enrichment.

  • 45.
    Karczmarz, Veronika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thermal comfort in young broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) inferred from metabolic expenses.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) curve lies between the ambient temperatures (Ta) where an endothermic animal uses the least amount of energy to maintain a balance between the heat production from the animal’s own metabolism and the heat lost to the environment. If the animal is exposed to Ta’s over the upper critical temperature (UCT), which is the highest temperature that is still in the TNZ, the animals have to use energy to cool down. If they are exposed to temperatures lower than the lower critical temperature (LCT), which is the lowest temperature that is still in the TNZ, the animal have to use energy to warm up. In the present study oxygen consumption was measured at different Ta’s to determine the TNZ in two and three week old broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Two different protocols were used and compared, a pseudorandom protocol in which chickens were exposed to seven temperatures in two hour periods for each run and a more typical progressive protocol in which Ta decreased gradually, one or two degrees per hour. The TNZ in two weeks old chickens was between 30.7 ˚C- 36.4 ˚C and between 28.8 ˚C- 32.7 ˚C in the three weeks old chickens. In chickens the TNZ shifts remarkably during the first few weeks of life towards lower temperatures as the animals acquire thermoregulatory competence. The method with a pseudorandom protocol takes more factors, like activity, into consideration than a typical progressive protocol.

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Correlation between owner-assessed behaviour characteristics and stress behaviour in dogs2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in dogs can contribute to behavioural problems which may lead to rehoming or euthanasia of the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate how dog characteristics correlated to stress, whether it is possible to detect behavioural problems in order to treat the dogs. Twenty-two dogs were evaluated according to their behavioural problem by a veterinarian and a dog trainer. The dogs participated in a behavioural and physiological test, and the results were compared to characteristics gathered by a Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), filled in by the dogs’ owners. The result showed that the total amount of stress related behaviour correlated positively to the C-BARQ score for attachment and attention-seeking behaviour and had a tendency of positive correlation to energy level and owner-directed aggression. Both the veterinarian behavioural problem score and trainer behavioural problem score had a tendency of positive correlation to stranger-directed fear. Dogs that, according to the C-BARQ, were found to be very attached and attention-seeking, showed high energy level or owner-directed aggression were likely to show stress related behaviours during the test in my study. By addressing the stress, the behavioural problems may be eased.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    The Rowan Ranger Chicken Breed - a Suitable Alternative for the Organic Chicken Meat Industry2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The only available broiler strain to use in organic chicken meat production, until recently, has been conventional fast growing broiler hybrids. The Rowan Ranger is a broiler strain that has a naturally slower growth rate which makes this strain suitable for organic farming, meeting the demands of KRAV without being subjected to a feed restriction. One of the farms in Sweden using Rowan Ranger in their organic production is Bosarp farm in Skåne County where they produce KRAV certified chickens and where the animals used in this study were raised. This study compared differences between a naturally slow growing strain of chicken to a fast growing strain to see whether there were differences in behaviour between the two, if one of the strains was more susceptive to stress than the other and whether they differed in outdoor use and activity level. Regardless of strain, chickens used the outdoor perimeter the same, although the Rowan Rangers did not range as far from the chicken house as Ross 308. Even so, they seem to be more suitable in an organic setting than Ross 308 due to the fact that they seem less hungry and more content, this based on the fact that they perform less feeding behaviour and spend more time laying down. Also, they grow nicely to slaughter weight with a good diet quality whereas Ross 308 need to be qualitative feed restricted to do the same, giving the Rowan Rangers better welfare.

  • 48.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of domestication on social support in chickens (Gallus gallus)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Social support is thought to give animals benefits from social partners, such as improved coping with challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in social support in the red junglefowl (RJF) and a domestic layer strain, the White Leghorn (WL). A runway test consisting of two compartments with unfamiliar and familiar stimulus animals was used to measure social motivation before and after a stressful experience. Total number of test animals was 56 divided into four groups; male and female WL as well as male and female RJF. Results showed that females preferred to stay close to familiar conspecifics after stress treatment. Before stress treatment there was little difference between either sex of WL while RJF males and females chose different zones. Females preferred familiar conspecifics, indicating that they rely more on familiar social stimuli for social support. Males of the two breeds behaved differently towards stimulus animals. WL males showed aggression towards familiar stimulus animals while RJF males directed aggression towards unfamiliar stimulus animals. Indication of sexual behavioural dimorphism was supported while further research is needed in domestication effects on social support in chickens.

  • 49.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Lovisa H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Pauline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sorensen, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Activity, social and sexual behaviour in Red Junglefowl selected for divergent levels of fear of humans2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id e0204303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The domesticated phenotype is a set of behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that is common for domesticated species. Previous research has found that selection for tameness only can give rise to correlated selection responses that resemble the domesticated phenotype. It has therefore been suggested that tameness may drive the domesticated phenotype as correlated traits. We selected Red Junglefowl for divergent levels of fear of human for eight generations and assessed possible correlated selection responses in other behaviours in semi-natural settings. Behavioural studies were carried out on birds from generations six to eight, and at different ages, in order to study possible effects on general activity, social behaviour and male courtship behaviour. We found that the differences between selection lines changed with age. Adult low fear birds were generally more active and high fear males showed a more intense courtship behaviour. Our study shows that several behaviours can be modified through correlated selection responses by selection on reduced fear of humans only, emphasising the putative role of tameness as a driver of domestication related phenotypes.

  • 50.
    Kopsch, Nora Tabea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    A cooperation experiment in captive white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative behaviours among individuals play a crucial role in social interactions. There is a special interest in investigating the occurrence of cooperation among apes, because this knowledge could as well shed light on evolutionary processes and help understand the origin and development of cooperation in humans and primates in general. Gibbons are phylogenetically intermediate between the great apes and monkeys, and therefore represent a unique opportunity for comparisons. The aim of the present study was to discover whether or not gibbons (Hylobates lar) show cooperative behaviours among each other. In order to test for the respective behaviours, the gibbons were presented with a commonly used experimental cooperative problem-solving task. Additionally, social behaviours were recorded during behavioural observations. The gibbons in this study did not exhibit cooperative behaviours during the problemsolving task. Behavioural observations revealed that the gibbons spent significantly more time ‘out of arm’s reach to everyone’, suggesting that they are less involved in social interactions than other, more cooperative apes. Both findings combined support the “social brain hypothesis”, which predicts that cognitive abilities are constrained by the complexity of the animals’ social life. Based on previous findings of occurrences of cooperative behaviours in two other primate lineages (i.e. New World monkeys and Old World monkeys) it was suggested that cooperation in primates was a matter of a convergent evolutionary processes rather than a homologous trait.

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