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  • 1.
    Bergman, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Beräkningsverktyg till strategisk planering av framtidens ledningsbundna infrastruktur: Utveckling av modell för LCC- och LCA-analyser av ledningsbunden infrastruktur2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new law concerning sustainability reporting for companies with important functions in society means that companies need a greater focus on sustainability and thus reduce environmental impacts. To enhance sustainability and awareness of the costs and the environmental impacts from its activities, a life-cycle perspective can lead to increased knowledge and understanding.Subsurface infrastructure such as electricity, fiber, water and sewage is now a prerequisite in society. Several of the networks used today was installed in the mid-1900s, which means that they soon have reached their life expectancy. With this follows increased maintenance work and costs for the companies that manage the networks. For example, the renewal of Swedish water and sewage means an annual investment of 1.9 billion SEK, which will have to be doubled over the next 50 years. 50% of the costs to perform maintenance operations with conventional technique is due to traffic shutdown and excavation.As a result of the problems above Tekniska verken has developed an innovation for the installation of piped infrastructure, which involves systems for electrical, optical, water, sewage, waste suction and district heating, placed in a culvert. The culvert is the first of its kind and is made of plastic with concrete chambers to connect the pipes and pull out the service lines. The first place that this infra-culvert is installed in is Vallastaden in Linköping, which is exploited for Bomässan 2017.To evaluate this technology a model was developed in this thesis that can be used to calculate the life cycle costs and environmental impact of infrastructure positioned in the culvert and compare this with conventional technique. The thesis had a limited data collection that only studied the costs and the environmental impact has not been studied. The model has been developed to take into account the infrastructure stochastic nature and can calculate the average cost and standard deviations, and performing detailed sensitivity analyzes. This type of model has a number of uses for companies managing infrastructure as it gives an idea of the expected costs and can evaluate the risks associated with investments.

  • 2.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable mobility in the sustainable city – what can Swedish towns learn from municipalities in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland?: (Hållbar mobilitet i den hållbara staden - vad kan svenska städer lära från kommuner i Danmark, Schweiz och Tyskland?)2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The project addresses the challenge of developing policies and incentives to achieve sustainable mobility in urban areas. 

  • 3.
    Fuller, Robert
    et al.
    School of Architecture and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong,Australia.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment2013In: Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By 2050, it is projected that Melbourne will have a population of between 5.6 and 6.4 million (DPCD, 2012), an increase of nearly 50% above its current level. Despite Melbourne's status as the world's most liveable city, a recent survey found that Australians in general found smaller cities are better places to live and bring up families (Perkins, 2013). The Grattan Institute's report entitled "The Cities We Need" was "an invitation to a conversation" about our future cities (Kelly, 2010:5). One idea not canvassed in the report was that of decentralization to accommodate Melbourne's projected growth. In its discussion paper, "Let's Talk about the Future", the Victorian State Government proposes that Melbourne become a 'polycentric city' linked to its regional cities (DPCD, 2012). While growth in the present regional cities is acknowledged, the possibility that these and other new regional cities could absorb the future population projected for Melbourne is not considered, nor that these regional cities could be transformed into 'sustainable cities'. This paper explores the idea that a network of smaller 'midi-cities, based on the sustainable city concept of Sweden, might provide a better alternative to concentrated growth in one city. Fifteen new cities of 150,000 would be required to absorb the projected extra 2.3 million Victorian residents. The paper analyses the energy, food, water and land requirements of a typical sustainable city. The new cities would require approximately 12% of the State's land area for food and energy supply, as well as the built environment.             

  • 4.
    Lidén, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards concurrent planning of railway maintenance and train services2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency in the public and freight transportation systems is of crucial importance for a society. Railways can offer high capacity and relatively low environmental impact, but require that several technical systems are tuned and operate well. Specifically there is a very tight interdependency between infrastructure and trains, which distinguishes railways from other transportation modes. Thus maintenance of all the subsystems is needed.

    Railways do also have some specific and complicating properties that influence maintenance and operations: Most activities need exclusive access to the infrastructure and - due to the geographic layout, safety requirements and partitioning of the subsystems - large portions of the network will be affected by each activity. Furthermore, several organisational units and resources are involved, ranging from governments and regulatory bodies, over operators and contractors to suppliers, technical experts and work forces. Thus railway maintenance is complicated to organize and consumes large budgets.

    This thesis treats the planning and scheduling problems that concern railway infrastructure maintenance and the coordination with train traffic. Mathematical methods and optimization are studied and used, with the aim of advancing the knowledge about models for solving such problems.

    The thesis contains three papers and presents: (1) A survey regarding railway maintenance activities, the major planning problems and the conducted research so far; (2) A model for quantitative comparison and assessment of competing capacity requests from train operations and maintenance; (3) An optimization model for integrated scheduling of both maintenance windows and train services.

    The work can be helpful for practitioners as well as researchers who want to take further steps in this interesting and challenging area. Based on the results that have been obtained, future research directions are presented that may lead towards practical use of concurrent planning of railway maintenance and train services.

    List of papers
    1. Railway infrastructure maintenance - a survey of planning problems and conducted research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Railway infrastructure maintenance - a survey of planning problems and conducted research
    2015 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia / [ed] Bruno F. Santos, Gonçalo H.A. Correia and Maarten Kroesen, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 10, p. 574-583Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway infrastructure maintenance consumes very large budgets, is complicated to organize and has numerous challenging planning problems. Specifically, the coordination with train traffic operation is of crucial importance. Despite this, little work has been conducted in the operations research area regarding infrastructure maintenance as compared to train traffic operations.

    The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the railway infrastructure maintenance field, the planning problems it contains and the research that has been conducted so far. We present (i) a catalogue of planning problems, based on a series of interviews with experts and planners representing all major stake holders in Sweden and (ii) an extensive literature overview covering more than 60 research references published until 2014 regarding the use of mathematical methods and optimization for solving such planning problems. From this we extract some statistics and a mapping which identify the major lines of work as well as future research possibilities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Series
    Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465 ; 10
    Keywords
    Maintenance planning, Operations research, Railway infrastructure
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121597 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2015.09.011 (DOI)000380503900059 ()
    Conference
    18th Euro Working Group on Transportation, EWGT 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, 14-16 July 2015
    Projects
    Efficient planning of railway infrastructure maintenance
    Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Dimensioning windows for railway infrastructure maintenance: Cost efficiency versus traffic impact
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensioning windows for railway infrastructure maintenance: Cost efficiency versus traffic impact
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration is introducing a new regime, called maintenance windows, for allocating train free slots reserved for maintenance tasks on the railway infrastructure. In this paper, a model for the assessment and the dimensioning of such maintenance windows is presented, which considers marginal effects on both the maintenance cost and the expected train traffic demand. The aim is to establish quantitative measures that can be used for comparing conflicting capacity requests from infrastructure maintenance and traffic operations on railway networks. The model is demonstrated in a cost benefit analysis for a real life case study on the Swedish Northern Main Line.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Maintenance planning; Cost benefit analysis; Railway infrastructure
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126777 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2016.03.002 (DOI)
    Projects
    Efficient planning of railway infrastructure maintenance
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2013/55886
    Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
    3. An optimization model for integrated planning of railway traffic and network maintenance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An optimization model for integrated planning of railway traffic and network maintenance
    2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 74, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Railway transportation systems are important for society and have many challenging and important planning problems. Train services as well as maintenance of a railway network need to be scheduled efficiently, but have mostly been treated as two separate planning problems. Since these activities are mutually exclusive they must be coordinated and should ideally be planned together. In this paper we present a mixed integer programming model for solving an integrated railway traffic and network maintenance problem. The aim is to find a long term tactical plan that optimally schedules train free windows sufficient for a given volume of regular maintenance together with the wanted train traffic. A spatial and temporal aggregation is used for controlling the available network capacity. The properties of the proposed model are analyzed and computational experiments on various synthetic problem instances are reported. Model extensions and possible modifications are discussed as well as future research directions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Railway scheduling, Maintenance planning, Optimization
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Sciences Computational Mathematics Computer Systems Other Computer and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132961 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2016.11.016 (DOI)000392038500020 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Transport Administration [TRV 2013/55886]

    Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-12-06 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Liu, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A systematic approach for major renovation of residential buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, buildings are responsible for about 40 % of total energy use and about 10 % of total CO2 emissions Today more than 60 % of existing Swedish residential buildings are over 40 years old and are in need of major renovation. In addition, 15 % of all multi-family buildings and 27 % of all single-family houses were built before 1945. The increased energy use and threat from CO2 emissions of the building sector create a need for energy efficiency. The important role that renovation of residential buildings will play in reducing the total energy used by the Swedish building sector as well as in reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions on both the national and global levels has been the impetus for the studies included in this thesis.

    The aim of the current research is to develop a methodology from a system perspective which can be used to analyze the energy use, optimal life cycle cost (LCC), energy efficiency measure (EEM) package, indoor environment, CO2 emissions, and primary energy use of a building or a community during major renovation. The developed methodology accomplished at three different levels, i.e. building level, cluster level and district level. The methodology considers both energy efficiency and economic viability during building renovation and will also play an important role in overall urban planning. The studied buildings include both non-listed and listed residential buildings and the tools used include building energy simulation (BES), survey, technical measurements, LCC optimization and building categorization.

    The results show that the combination of BES, technical measurements and surveys provides a holistic approach for evaluation of energy use and indoor environment of the studied residential buildings. The results from the current study also show that the 2020 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 20 %, for the building sector can be achieved by all the studied building types and that the total LCC of these buildings are below the cost-optimal point. In comparison, the 2050 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 50 %, for the building sector may be achieved by the non-listed buildings, but when the constraints relevant to listed buildings are added the cost-optimality changes as some EEMs in direct conflict with the building’s heritage value may not be implemented.

    The investigation of primary energy use and CO2 emissions by the residential buildings show that the higher the energy saving, the lower the primary energy use becomes, and vice versa. With the same energy saving, the heating system with higher primary energy factor results in higher primary energy use. From a CO2 emissions point of view, EEM packages proposed to help buildings connected to a CHP based district heating system, to reduce the energy use or LCC are not consistently effective. Since these EEM packages will reduce district heating demand, the electricity produced in the CHP plant will also decrease. When the biomass is considered a limited resource, measures such as investment in a biofuel boiler are not favourable from the CO2 emissions point of view. The current study has also shown that combining building categorization method and LCC optimization method will help the community to reduce its energy use, primary energy use and CO2 emissions in a systematic and strategic way.

    List of papers
    1. Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 704-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111051 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.044 (DOI)000345182000070 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, p. 32-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Multi-family building; Retrofit; Building energy simulation; Energy use; Indoor environment
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120720 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.021 (DOI)000358458100003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maney Publishing, 2014
    Keywords
    cultural significance; energy efficiency; heritage values; historic buildings; life-cycle cost
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109231 (URN)10.1179/1756750514Z.00000000055 (DOI)000338773000006 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
    Keywords
    LCC assessments; Environmental impacts; Energy efficiency measures package; Listed/non-listed building; Renovation; Energy targets
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133507 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.10.040 (DOI)000389087300072 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29
  • 6.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Evolution of Sweden's Urban Sustainability Marketing Tool: A Comparative Study of Two Major International Events2016In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014 and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city's administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of cities-customers, since most of these consist of invisible (i.e., energy), or hidden loops (i.e., waste and water). It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sense that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

  • 7.
    Mihaylov, Veselin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative life cycle impact assessment of a battery electric and a conventional powertrains for a passenger transport ferryboat: A case study of the entire integrated system for vessel propulsion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis represents a life cycle impact assessment of a state of the art electrically driven power train. It is expected to be installed in a diesel engine passenger ferry boat, currently transporting passengers in downtown Stockholm archipelago. The assessment has a comparative character in between the currently operating and the new power train in order to differentiate and recognize which of the two propulsion options is the environmentally preferable choice.

    The scope of the study is directed towards the thorough examination of both power trains so that it can represent most closely the two specific technological cases. Studied and assessed were the three main life cycle phases of each power train – raw materials acquisition and manufacturing, use phase and end of life phase. The fundament of the study involved creating environmental models for each and every component of the drive trains, the propulsion fuel and energy used, and the services related to waste treatment in the last phase of their functional life. The environmental models were later used to build live cycle inventories that served to derive the respectful impact from the item analyzed. The data used to model the battery electric power train was provided directly from the manufacturer, where the end of life procedures carried out were assumed where possible. The main battery pack for the electric power train was not modeled in terms of  end of life procedures due to insufficiency of information. Almost no generic information was available to model the diesel engine and it was calculated by creating auxiliary simplified cad models. The rest of the data required to achieve an environmental inventory regarding the power train was available from a subcontractor. Both studied options were modeled with allocation approach that includes the avoided production of materials at the waste treatment stage where there was sufficient information to do that. There was none to model the main battery packs avoided production which is a major component of the battery electric system. To model the use phase of the diesel engine power train, research data regarding combustion emissions and waterborne emissions was utilized. A number of electricity mix models were applied to create a sensitivity analysis of the operation phase of the battery electric power train. Chosen for baseline scenarios simulating the use phases of both power trains are use of Nordel market electricity mix and the combustion of low sulfur diesel with five volumetric percent rape methyl ester additive.

    For the purposes of the assessment eighteen midpoint impact indicators were used to cover the areas of global warming potential, human health and quality of eco systems. The results from the study show that the estimated impact from both power trains is small enough to have almost no influence on the results from the two baseline scenarios. Based on this it was concluded that for future research of similar cases either generic information can be used or a cut-off can be applied. After the assessment, more environmentally favorable was estimated the diesel engine power train because of the large burdens from the battery manufacturing in the battery electric option. Further assessment determined that the diesel engine power train again is less environmentally intensive than the battery electric with the main battery burdens excluded. In the overall life cycle impact assessment both power train showed different results in the different impact categories, which could not place a definitive propulsion option of choice. The conclusions from the analysis are that the diesel engine power train causes higher impact in the categories related to global warming, fossil depletion and in most ecosystems quality indicators. The battery electric version in its base line scenario, on the other hand, expresses higher impact in categories related to human health and in the remaining eco system quality midpoint-scores.

  • 8.
    Nyberg, Gert
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Per
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology,Göteborg, Sweden .
    Öborn, Ingrid
    Department Crop Production Ecology, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden; World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wredle, Ewa
    Department Animal Nutrition and Management, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jakinda Otieno, David
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mureithi, Stephen
    Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mwangi, Peter
    Department of Botany, Jomo-Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Said, Mohammed
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jirström, Magnus
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grönvall, Antonia
    Department Animal Nutrition and Management, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wernersson, Julia
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO), University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svanlund, Sara
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Saxer, Laura
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Geutjes, Lotje
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karmebäck, Vera
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wairore, John N
    Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wambui, Regina
    Department of Botany, Jomo-Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    De Leeuw, Jan
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Malmer, Anders
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: Transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands2015In: Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, ISSN 2041-7128, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dryland livestock production systems are changing in many parts of the world, as a result of growing human populations and associated pressure on water and land. Based on a combination of social and natural science methods, we studied a 30-year transformation process from pastoralism to a livestock-based agro-pastoral system in northwestern Kenya, with the overall aim to increase the understanding of the ongoing transition towards intensified agro-pastoralist production systems in dryland East Africa.

    Key to this transformation was the use of enclosures for land rehabilitation, fodder production, and land and livestock management. Enclosures have more soil carbon and a higher vegetation cover than adjacent areas with open grazing. The level of adoption of enclosures as a management tool has been very high, and their use has enabled agricultural diversification, e.g. increased crop agriculture, poultry production and the inclusion of improved livestock. Following the use of enclosures, livelihoods have become less dependent on livestock migration, are increasingly directed towards agribusinesses and present new opportunities and constraints for women. These livelihood changes are closely associated with, and depend on, an ongoing privatization of land under different tenure regimes.

    The results indicate that the observed transformation provides opportunities for a pathway towards a sustainable livestock-based agro-pastoral system that could be valid in many dryland areas in East Africa. However, we also show that emergent risks of conflicts and inequalities in relation to land, triggered by the weakening of collective property rights, pose a threat to the sustainability of this pathway. 

  • 9.
    Reindl, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementing energy measures in renovations for multi-family dwellings: Influence and practice of professionals2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging buildings will sooner or later be in need of renovation, which opens opportunities to reduce energy use. Even if economically feasible energy measures or technologies exist, they are not always implemented, leading to an energy efficiency gap. This dissertation deals with how energy measures are handled and why they are enabled or disabled during the planning and design of renovations. During renovations, different kinds of building professionals are engaged, here referred to as middle professionals. The meeting practice of the professionals is investigated, with a focus on how the middle professionals exert influence from the middle-out and to the top and bottom, and how and why they enable or disable measures aimed at energy efficiency or reduction. Three renovation projects are followed in the municipality-owned housing company Stångåstaden, in Linköping, Sweden. The housing company’s goal is to reduce the amount of purchased energy by 25% by 2025. Methods applied during the research are semi-structured interviews, participant observations and document analysis. The conclusions show that energy measures were implemented, but more can be done in renovations. Predefined meeting agendas make the process efficient but not flexible, thus it can be difficult to introduce innovations and alternative ways of thinking into the process. The professionals usually selected measures they had used before. Energy calculations attracted little interest compared to the aggregated knowledge from previous projects, and experience and tacit knowledge were highly valued. This and more lead to a renovation process where it is difficult for energy to enter the current meeting practice.

  • 10.
    Söderström, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regional Environmental Governance and Avenues for the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Baltic Sea Area2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the avenues for the ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region. This region is one of the most contaminated water bodies in the world, although the first Regional Seas Convention was created here and theregion has a long history of cooperation and environmental protection. The current environmental governance arrangements are examined with specific focuson governance structures, cross-sectoral integration and ecological boundaries.The ecosystem approach to management as both a tool and vision of holistic management of natural resources is traced through the evolution of environmental governance, as well as its manifestation in contemporary environmental policies in the region. It is found that the major EU directives, as well as HELCOM polices, promote the ecosystem approach and that its presence has increased inrecent years; it is now the major guiding principle in European marine governance. However, the governance structures impede implementation indifferent ways. The environmental problem areas in the region all require different governance arrangements, thus obstructing a holistic approach. The environmental problems per se also affect each other, necessitating far-reaching sectoral integration and cross-border cooperation, which at present is the major obstacle regarding implementation. The contemporary trends combining solid regionalisation through HELCOM with increased Europeanisation and macro regionalisation by different EU initiatives offer some promise, but the cross sectoral impediments must be resolved if the ecosystem approach is to become apractical approach and not just a policy principle.

    List of papers
    1. 'Environmental governance' and 'ecosystem management': avenues for synergies between two approaches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Environmental governance' and 'ecosystem management': avenues for synergies between two approaches
    2016 (English)In: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this article examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bucks: InderScience Publishers, 2016
    Keywords
    environmental governance; ecosystem management; environmental policy scale; environmental policy level; multi-stakeholder participation; science-policy interfaces; multiple stakeholders; literature review; interdisciplinary research.
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Environmental Management Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133973 (URN)10.1504/IER.2016.074871 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional interplay in the Baltic Sea Region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional interplay in the Baltic Sea Region
    2017 (English)In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 619-631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the use of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Based on selected criteria for EAM, the article traces and compares the impact of EAM on HELCOM’s Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD). Starting from the assumption that institutional interplay determines the impact of the EAM on marine policies, the article examines how different forms of interplay (interplay through cognition, commitment and compliance) affect the spread of EAM and its implementation in the BSR. The study finds strong interplay between HELCOM’s BSAP and the EU’s MSFD. Although HELCOM is still an important player in marine governance in the BSR, since it includes Russia, taking over responsibilities for the implementation of EU legislation has repercussions and affects its independence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    Keywords
    ecosystem approach to management, environmental governance, Baltic Sea Action Plan, EU Water Framework Directive, EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive
    National Category
    Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Public Administration Studies Environmental Management Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141009 (URN)10.1002/eet.1775 (DOI)000418257500008 ()
    Note

    EET-16-0094.R1

    Funding agencies: Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies; BONUS+ programme - EU

    Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization
    2015 (English)In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Farnham: Ashgate, 2015
    Keywords
    Miljövetenskapliga studier; Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133975 (URN)9781409447276 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2017-01-17Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Germany / Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional interplay in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 619-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the use of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Based on selected criteria for EAM, the article traces and compares the impact of EAM on HELCOM’s Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD). Starting from the assumption that institutional interplay determines the impact of the EAM on marine policies, the article examines how different forms of interplay (interplay through cognition, commitment and compliance) affect the spread of EAM and its implementation in the BSR. The study finds strong interplay between HELCOM’s BSAP and the EU’s MSFD. Although HELCOM is still an important player in marine governance in the BSR, since it includes Russia, taking over responsibilities for the implementation of EU legislation has repercussions and affects its independence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

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