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  • 1.
    Ahlen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Univ Newcastle, Australia.
    Akerberg, Johan
    ABB Corp, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Markus
    Scania CV, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Newcastle, Australia; Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; ABB Corp Res, Sweden.
    Iwaki, Takuya
    JGC Corp, Japan; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Knorn, Steffi
    Univ Newcastle, Australia; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Iggesund Mill, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; CALTECH, CA 91125 USA; MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Toward Wireless Control in Industrial Process Automation: A Case Study at a Paper Mill2019Ingår i: IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, ISSN 1066-033X, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 36-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensors and networks are used only occasionally in current control loops in the process industry. With rapid developments in embedded and highperformance computing, wireless communication, and cloud technology, drastic changes in the architecture and operation of industrial automation systems seem more likely than ever. These changes are driven by ever-growing demands on production quality and flexibility. However, as discussed in "Summary," there are several research obstacles to overcome. The radio communication environment in the process industry is often troublesome, as the environment is frequently cluttered with large metal objects, moving machines and vehicles, and processes emitting radio disturbances [1], [2]. The successful deployment of a wireless control system in such an environment requires careful design of communication links and network protocols as well as robust and reconfigurable control algorithms.

  • 2.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik.
    Nordin, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik.
    Implementation of SLAM Algorithms in a Small-Scale Vehicle Using Model-Based Development2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As autonomous driving is rapidly becoming the next major challenge in the auto- motive industry, the problem of Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) has never been more relevant than it is today. This thesis presents the idea of examining SLAM algorithms by implementing such an algorithm on a radio con- trolled car which has been fitted with sensors and microcontrollers. The software architecture of this small-scale vehicle is based on the Robot Operating System (ROS), an open-source framework designed to be used in robotic applications.

    This thesis covers Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)-based SLAM, FastSLAM, and GraphSLAM, examining these algorithms in both theoretical investigations, simulations, and real-world experiments. The method used in this thesis is model- based development, meaning that a model of the vehicle is first implemented in order to be able to perform simulations using each algorithm. A decision of which algorithm to be implemented on the physical vehicle is then made backed up by these simulation results, as well as a theoretical investigation of each algorithm.

    This thesis has resulted in a dynamic model of a small-scale vehicle which can be used for simulation of any ROS-compliant SLAM-algorithm, and this model has been simulated extensively in order to provide empirical evidence to define which SLAM algorithm is most suitable for this application. Out of the algo- rithms examined, FastSLAM was proven to the best candidate, and was in the final stage, through usage of the ROS package gMapping, successfully imple- mented on the small-scale vehicle.

  • 3.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, s. 31-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Olov
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rudol, Piotr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Model-Predictive Control with Stochastic Collision Avoidance using Bayesian Policy Optimization2016Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 4597-4604Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are increasingly expected to move out of the controlled environment of research labs and into populated streets and workplaces. Collision avoidance in such cluttered and dynamic environments is of increasing importance as robots gain more autonomy. However, efficient avoidance is fundamentally difficult since computing safe trajectories may require considering both dynamics and uncertainty. While heuristics are often used in practice, we take a holistic stochastic trajectory optimization perspective that merges both collision avoidance and control. We examine dynamic obstacles moving without prior coordination, like pedestrians or vehicles. We find that common stochastic simplifications lead to poor approximations when obstacle behavior is difficult to predict. We instead compute efficient approximations by drawing upon techniques from machine learning. We propose to combine policy search with model-predictive control. This allows us to use recent fast constrained model-predictive control solvers, while gaining the stochastic properties of policy-based methods. We exploit recent advances in Bayesian optimization to efficiently solve the resulting probabilistically-constrained policy optimization problems. Finally, we present a real-time implementation of an obstacle avoiding controller for a quadcopter. We demonstrate the results in simulation as well as with real flight experiments.

  • 5.
    Anistratov, Pavel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Computation of Autonomous Safety Maneuvers Using Segmentation and Optimization2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies motion planning for future autonomous vehicles with main focus on passenger cars. By having automatic steering and braking together with information about the environment, such as other participants in the traffic or obstacles, it would be possible to perform autonomous maneuvers while taking limitations of the vehicle and road–tire interaction into account. Motion planning is performed to find such maneuvers that bring the vehicle from the current state to a desired future state, here by formulating the motion-planning problem as an optimal control problem. There are a number of challenges for such an approach to motion planning; some of them are how to formulate the criterion in the motion planning (objective function in the corresponding optimal control problem), and how to make the solution of motion-planning problems efficient to be useful in online applications. These challenges are addressed in this thesis.

    As a criterion for motion-planning problems of passenger vehicles on doublelane roads, it is investigated to use a lane-deviation penalty function to capture the observation that it is dangerous to drive in the opposing lane, but safe to drive in the original lane after the obstacle. The penalty function is augmented with certain additional terms to address also the recovery behavior of the vehicle. The resulting formulation is shown to provide efficient and steady maneuvers and gives a lower time in the opposing lane compared to other objective functions. Under varying parameters of the scenario formulation, the resulting maneuvers are changing in a way that exhibits structured characteristics.

    As an approach to improve efficiency of computations for the motion-planning problem, it is investigated to segment motion planning of the full maneuver into several smaller maneuvers. A way to extract segments is considered from a vehicle dynamics point of view, and it is based on extrema of the vehicle orientation and the yaw rate. The segmentation points determined using this approach are observed to allow efficient splitting of the optimal control problem for the full maneuver into subproblems.

    Having a method to segment maneuvers, this thesis further studies methods to allow parallel computation of these maneuvers. One investigated method is based on Lagrange relaxation and duality decomposition. Smaller subproblems are formulated, which are governed by solving a low-complexity coordination problem. Lagrangian relaxation is performed on a subset of the dynamic constraints at the segmentation points, while the remaining variables are predicted. The prediction is possible because of the observed structured characteristics resulting from the used lane-deviation penalty function. An alternative approach is based on adoption of the alternating augmented Lagrangian method. Augmentation of the Lagrangian allows to apply relaxation for all dynamic constraints at the segmentation points, and the alternating approach makes it possible to decompose the full problem into subproblems and coordinating their solutions by analytically solving an overall coordination problem. The presented decomposition methods allow computation of maneuvers with high correspondence and lower computational times compared to the results obtained for solving the full maneuver in one step.

    Delarbeten
    1. Segmentation and Merging of Autonomous At-the-Limit Maneuvers for Ground Vehicles
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Segmentation and Merging of Autonomous At-the-Limit Maneuvers for Ground Vehicles
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Beijing, July 16-20, 2018, 2018, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the complexity of motion-planning optimizations, a segmentation and merging strategy for maneuvers is proposed. Maneuvers that are at-the-limit of friction are of special interest since they appear in many critical situations. The segmentation pointsare used to set constraints for several smaller optimizations for parts of the full maneuver, which later are merged and compared withoptimizations of the full maneuver. The technique is illustrated for a double lane-change maneuver.

    Nyckelord
    vehicle automation and control, ground vehicle motion-planning, aggressive maneuvers
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Reglerteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152222 (URN)
    Konferens
    The 14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Beijing, July 16-20, 2018
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-22 Skapad: 2018-10-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Efficient Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Maneuvers Using Duality-Based Decomposition
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Efficient Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Maneuvers Using Duality-Based Decomposition
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: IFAC PAPERSONLINE, ELSEVIER , 2019, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 78-84Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to decompose a motion-planning problem into several segments is presented. It is based on a modification of the original problem, such that certain variables at the splitting points are considered to be precomputed and thus fixed and the remaining variables are obtained by performing Lagrange relaxation. The resulting dual problem is split into several subproblems, allowing parallel computation. The method is formalized as a computational algorithm and evaluated in a safety critical double lane-change situation. The resulting maneuver has close-to-optimal behavior and, for certain initialization strategies, it is obtained in shorter computational time compared to computing the full maneuver in one step. (C) 2019, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER, 2019
    Nyckelord
    trajectory and path planning; autonomous vehicles; duality-based decomposition; motion control; safety; intelligent transportation systems
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Beräkningsmatematik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161215 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.09.013 (DOI)000486629500014 ()
    Konferens
    9th IFAC International Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control (AAC)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP) - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-25 Skapad: 2019-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-21
  • 6.
    Avindell, Ann-Sofi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    En fallstudie av hur gränssnittsriktlinjer kan skapas ur varumärke och existerande produktportfölj2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete beskriver en kvalitativ fallstudie som utförts för att undersöka hur ett företags produktportfölj samt varumärke kan skrivas in i gränssnittsriktlinjer för att framtida gränssnitt ska designas i enhetlighet med existerande produktportfölj samt varumärke. Fallstudien utfördes inom robotindustrin där en gränssnittsriktlinje utvecklades. Gränssnittet som var föremål för studien fanns på en handhållen enhet vilken används för att programmera och manövrera en robot. En arbetsgång i 13 steg togs fram, vilken anses kunna appliceras även på andra områden än robotindustrin för att skapa gränssnittsriktlinjer där både varumärke och produktportfölj tydligt framgår. En analys av de framtagna riktlinjerna efter utförd fallstudie, styrkte även denna uppfattning. Dock visade en andra analys att riktlinjerna verkar ha samma problem som visats i tidigare studier, nämligen att den största svårigheten är att få riktlinjer använda samt att finna en struktur i dokumentet och en nivå på riktlinjerna som passar in i användarnas behov. Studien har också visat på ett sätt att binda samma relevanta delar av både gränssnittsteorier, varumärkesteorier och teori kring interaktionsdesign.

  • 7.
    Balakirsky, Stephen
    et al.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Carpin, Stefano
    University of California Merced.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Lewis, Michael
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Visser, Arnoud
    Universiteit van Amsterdam.
    Wang, Jijun
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Ziparo, Vittorio Amos
    Universita ́ di Roma “Sapienza”.
    Towards Heterogeneous Robot Teams for Disaster Mitigation: Results and Performance Metrics from Robocup Rescue2007Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 943-967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Search And Rescue is a growing area of robotic research. The RoboCup Federation has recognized this, and has created the new Virtual Robots competition to complement its existing physical robot and agent competitions. In order to successfully compete in this competition, teams need to field multi-robot solutions that cooperatively explore and map an environment while searching for victims. This paper presents the results of the first annual RoboCup Rescue Virtual competition. It provides details on the metrics used to judge the contestants as well as summaries of the algorithms used by the top four teams. This allows readers to compare and contrast these effective approaches. Furthermore, the simulation engine itself is examined and real-world validation results on the engine and algorithms are offered.

  • 8.
    Berger, Cyrille
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, KPLAB - Laboratoriet för kunskapsbearbetning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Toward rich geometric map for SLAM: online detection of planets in 2D LIDAR2013Ingår i: Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1897-8649, E-ISSN 2080-2145, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 35-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rich geometric models of the environment are needed for robots to carry out their missions. However a robot operating in a large environment would require a compact representation. In this article, we present a method that relies on the idea that a plane appears as a line segment in a 2D scan, and that by tracking those lines frame after frame, it is possible to estimate the parameters of that plane. The method is divided in three steps: fitting line segments on the points of the 2D scan, tracking those line segments in consecutive scan and estimating the parameters with a graph based SLAM (Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping) algorithm.

  • 9.
    Berger, Cyrille
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kvarnström, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Conte, Gianpaolo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Area Coverage with Heterogeneous UAVs using Scan Patterns2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR): proceedings, IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider a problem of scanningan outdoor area with a team of heterogeneous Unmanned AirVehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors (e.g. LIDARs).Depending on the availability of the UAV platforms and themission requirements there is a need to either minimise thetotal mission time or to maximise certain properties of thescan output, such as the point cloud density. The key challengeis to divide the scanning task among UAVs while taking intoaccount the differences in capabilities between platforms andsensors. Additionally, the system should be able to ensure thatconstraints such as limit on the flight time are not violated.We present an approach that uses an optimisation techniqueto find a solution by dividing the area between platforms,generating efficient scan trajectories and selecting flight andscanning parameters, such as velocity and flight altitude. Thismethod has been extensively tested on a large set of randomlygenerated scanning missions covering a wide range of realisticscenarios as well as in real flights.

  • 10.
    Biel, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ABB AB, Sweden.
    Efficient Trajectory Reshaping in a Dynamic Environment2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 15TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED MOTION CONTROL (AMC), IEEE , 2018, s. 54-59Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A general trajectory planner for optimal control problems is presented and applied to a robot system. The approach is based on timed elastic bands and nonlinear model predictive control. By exploiting the sparsity in the underlying optimization problems the computational effort can be significantly reduced, resulting in a real-time capable planner. In addition, a localization based switching strategy is employed to enforce convergence and stability. The planning procedure is illustrated in a robotics application using a realistic SCARA type robot.

  • 11.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Reenacting and Recombining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an “inner world” that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world – prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory–motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations and tested on a Robosoft Kompaï robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, toward a goal specified by top-down contextual information. The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where the execution of actions is inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory–motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an “inner world” generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly. We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior toward specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

  • 12.
    Burgard, W.
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Stachniss, C.
    University of Freiburg.
    Grisetti, G.
    University of Freiburg.
    Steder, B.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kümmerle, R.
    University of Freiburg.
    Dornhege, C.
    University of Freiburg.
    Ruhnke, M.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Tardós, Juan D.
    University of Freiburg.
    A Comparison of SLAM Algorithms Based on a Graph of Relations2009Ingår i: IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 2089-2095Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the problem of creating an objective benchmark for comparing SLAM approaches. We propose a framework for analyzing the results of SLAM approaches based on a metric for measuring the error of the corrected trajectory. The metric uses only relative relations between poses and does not rely on a global reference frame. The idea is related to graph-based SLAM approaches, namely to consider the energy that is needed to deform the trajectory estimated by a SLAM approach into the ground truth trajectory. Our method enables us to compare SLAM approaches that use different estimation techniques or different sensor modalities since all computations are made based on the corrected trajectory of the robot. We provide sets of relative relations needed to compute our metric for an extensive set of datasets frequently used in the SLAM community. The relations have been obtained by manually matching laser-range observations to avoid the errors caused by matching algorithms. Our benchmark framework allows the user an easy analysis and objective comparisons between different SLAM approaches.

  • 13.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, André
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modeling and Experiment Design for Identification of Wear in a Robot Joint under Load and Temperature Uncertainties based on Constant-speed Friction Data2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wear to friction are studied based on constant-speed friction data collected from dedicated experiments during accelerated wear tests. It is shown how the effects of temperature and load uncertainties produce larger changes to friction than those caused by wear, motivating the consideration of these effects. Based on empirical observations, an extended friction model is proposed to describe the effects of speed, load, temperature and wear. Assuming availability of such model and constant-speed friction data, a maximum likelihood wear estimator is proposed.  A criterion for experiment design is proposed which selects speed points to collect constant-speed friction data which improves the achievable performance bound for any unbiased wear estimator. Practical issues related to experiment length are also considered. The performance of the wear estimator under load and temperature uncertainties is found by means of simulations and verified under three case studies based on real data.

  • 14.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, André
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Saarinen, Kari
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sander Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Data-Driven Method for Monitoring of Repetitive Systems: Applications to Robust Wear Monitoring of a Robot Joint2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for monitoring of systems that operate in a repetitive manner. Considering that data batches collected from a repetitive operation will be similar unless in the presence of an abnormality, a condition change is inferred by comparing the monitored data against a nominal batch. The method proposed considers the comparison of data in the distribution domain, which reveals information of the data amplitude. This is achieved with the use of kernel density estimates and the Kullback-Leibler distance. To decrease sensitivity to unknown disturbances while increasing sensitivity to faults, the use of a weighting vector is suggested which is chosen based on a labeled dataset. The framework is simple to implement and can be used without process interruption, in a batch manner. The method was developed with interests in industrial robotics where a repetitive behavior is commonly found. The problem of wear monitoring in a robot joint is studied based on data collected from a test-cycle. Real data from accelerated wear tests and simulations are considered. Promising results are achieved where the method output shows a clear response to the wear increases.

  • 15.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, André
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Saarinen, Kari
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sander Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    A data-driven approach to diagnostics of repetitive processes in the distribution domain: Applications to gearbox diagnosticsin industrial robots and rotating machines2014Ingår i: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 1032-1041Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a data-driven approach to diagnostics of systems that operate in a repetitive manner. Considering that data batches collected from a repetitive operation will be similar unless in the presence of an abnormality, a condition change is inferred by comparing the monitored data against an available nominal batch. The method proposed considers the comparison of data in the distribution domain, which reveals information of the data amplitude. This is achieved with the use of kernel density estimates and the Kullback–Leibler distance. To decrease sensitivity to disturbances while increasing sensitivity to faults, the use of a weighting vector is suggested which is chosen based on a labeled dataset. The framework is simple to implement and can be used without process interruption, in a batch manner. The approach is demonstrated with successful experimental and simulation applications to wear diagnostics in an industrial robot gearbox and for diagnostics of gear faults in a rotating machine.

  • 16.
    Conte, Gianpaolo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rudol, Piotr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Korwel, Karol
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Performance evaluation of a light weight multi-echo LIDAR for unmanned rotorcraft applications2013Ingår i: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XL-1/W2, Copernicus Gesellschaft MBH , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a light-weight and low-cost airborne terrain mapping system. The developed Airborne LiDAR Scanner (ALS) sys- tem consists of a high-precision GNSS receiver, an inertial measurement unit and a magnetic compass which are used to complement a LiDAR sensor in order to compute the terrain model. Evaluation of the accuracy of the generated 3D model is presented. Additionally, a comparison is provided between the terrain model generated from the developed ALS system and a model generated using a commer- cial photogrammetric software. Finally, the multi-echo capability of the used LiDAR sensor is evaluated in areas covered with dense vegetation. The ALS system and camera systems were mounted on-board an industrial unmanned helicopter of around 100 kilograms maximum take-off weight. Presented results are based on real flight-test data.

  • 17.
    de Leng, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Heintz, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Partial-State Progression for Stream Reasoning with Metric Temporal Logic2018Ingår i: SIXTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRINCIPLES OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND REASONING, ASSOC ADVANCEMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , 2018, s. 633-634Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formula progression procedure for Metric Temporal Logic (MTL), originally proposed by Bacchus and Kabanza, makes use of syntactic formula rewritings to incrementally evaluate MTL formulas against incrementally-available states. Progression however assumes complete state information, which can be problematic when not all state information is available or can be observed, such as in qualitative spatial reasoning tasks or in robot applications. Our main contribution is an extension of the progression procedure to handle partial state information. For each missing truth value, we efficiently consider all consistent hypotheses by branching progression for each such hypothesis. The resulting procedure is flexible, allowing a trade-off between faster but approximate and slower but precise partial-state progression.

  • 18.
    de Leng, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Heintz, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards Adaptive Semantic Subscriptions for Stream Reasoning in the Robot Operating System2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS), IEEE , 2017, s. 5445-5452Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern robotic systems often consist of a growing set of information-producing components that need to be appropriately connected for the system to function properly. This is commonly done manually or through relatively simple scripts by specifying explicitly which components to connect. However, this process is cumbersome and error-prone, does not scale well as more components are introduced, and lacks flexibility and robustness at run-time. This paper presents an algorithm for setting up and maintaining implicit subscriptions to information through its semantics rather than its source, which we call semantic subscriptions. The proposed algorithm automatically reconfigures the system when necessary in response to changes at run-time, making the semantic subscriptions adaptive to changing circumstances. To illustrate the effectiveness of adaptive semantic subscriptions, we present a case study with two SoftBank Robotics NAO robots for handling the cases when a component stops working and when new components, in this case a second robot, become available. The solution has been implemented as part of a stream reasoning framework integrated with the Robot Operating System (ROS).

  • 19.
    Dornhege, Christian
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Bendler, Johannes
    University of Freiburg.
    Bersan, Roxana
    University of Freiburg.
    Blohm, Philipp
    University of Freiburg.
    Gloderer, Martin
    University of Freiburg.
    Hertle, Andreas
    University of Freiburg.
    Liebetraut, Thomas
    University of Freiburg.
    Puyol, Diego Cerdan
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Nebel, Bernhard
    University of Freiburg.
    RoboCupRescue 2010 - Robot League Team RescueRobots Freiburg (Germany)2010Ingår i: RoboCup 2010 (CDROM Proceedings), Team Description Paper, Rescue Robot League, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the software and hardware system developed by the University of Freiburg team of search and rescue robots for the RoboCup Res- cue 2010 competition. This system is an extension to the software that finished in first place the 2005 and 2006 autonomy challenge, focusing on two key areas: autonomous navigation and manipulation. Our team, consisting mainly of students, originates from the former CS Freiburg team (RoboCupSoccer), the ResQ Freiburg team (RoboCupRescue Simulation), and RescueRobots Freiburg teams ’05 and ’06.

  • 20.
    Dornhege, Christian
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Behavior Maps for Online Planning of Obstacle Negotiation and Climbing on Rough Terrain2007Ingår i: In Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, s. 3005-3011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To autonomously navigate on rough terrain is a challenging problem for mobile robots, requiring the ability to decide whether parts of the environment can be traversed or have to be bypassed, which is commonly known as Obstacle Negotiation (ON). In this paper, we introduce a planning framework that extends ON to the general case, where different types of terrain classes directly map to specific robot skills, such as climbing stairs and ramps. This extension is based on a new concept called behavior maps, which is utilized for the planning and execution of complex skills. Behavior maps are directly generated from elevation maps, i.e. two-dimensional grids storing in each cell the corresponding height of the terrain surface, and a set of skill descriptions. Results from extensive experiments are presented, showing that the method enables the robot to explore successfully rough terrain in real-time, while selecting the optimal trajectory in terms of costs for navigation and skill execution.

  • 21.
    Dornhege, Christian
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Fully Autonomous Planning and Obstacle Negotiation on Rough Terrain Using Behavior Maps2007Ingår i: In Video Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2007, s. 2561-2562Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To autonomously navigate on rough terrain is a challenging problem for mobile robots, requiring the ability to decide whether parts of the environment can be traversed or have to be bypassed, which is commonly known as Obstacle Negotiation (ON). In this paper, we introduce a planning framework that extends ON to the general case, where different types of terrain classes directly map to specific robot skills, such as climbing stairs and ramps. This extension is based on a new concept called behavior maps, which is utilized for the planning and execution of complex skills. Behavior maps are directly generated from elevation maps, i.e. two-dimensional grids storing in each cell the corresponding height of the terrain surface, and a set of skill descriptions. Results from extensive experiments are presented, showing that the method enables the robot to explore successfully rough terrain in real-time, while selecting the optimal trajectory in terms of costs for navigation and skill execution.

  • 22.
    Dornhege, Christian
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Visual Odometry for Tracked Vehicles2006Ingår i: In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Workshop on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Localization and mapping on autonomous robots typically requires a good pose estimate, which is hard to acquire if the vehicle is tracked. In this paper we describe a solution to the pose estimation problem by utilizing a consumer-quality camera and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The basic idea is to continuously track salient features with the KLT feature tracker over multiple images taken by the camera and to extract from the tracked features image vectors resulting from the robot’s motion. Each image vector is taken for a voting that best explains the robot’s motion. Image vectors vote according to a previously trained tile coding classificator that assigns to each possible image vector a translation probability. Our results show that the proposed single camera solution leads to sufficiently accurate pose estimates of the tracked vehicle.

  • 23.
    Dornhege, Christian
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Kümmerle, Rainer
    University of Freiburg.
    Steder, Bastian
    University of Freiburg.
    Burgard, Wolfram
    University of Freiburg.
    Nebel, Bernhard
    University of Freiburg.
    SP-Freiburg TechX Challenge Technical Paper2008Ingår i: TechX Challenge, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce our team’s approach to the TechX Challenge, which is based on experiences gathered at RoboCup during the last seven years and recent efforts in robotic research. We particularly focus on Multi-Level Surface (MLS) maps based localization, behavior map based path planning and obstacle negotiation, robot motion planning using a probabilistic roadmap planner, vision and 3D laser supported target detection, which all will be more detailed in the following sections.

  • 24.
    Dysenius, Hannah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    Non-Linear Automatic Control of Autonomous Lawn Mower2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis contains modeling and nonlinear automatic control of an autonomous lawn mower. The vehicle shall be able to follow a magnetic field loop buried in the lawn on an arbitrary distance, including straddling. A unicycle model of the lawn mower has been derived based on previous work. The model holds for the assumption of non slip environment. Two diff erent control strategies have been implemented and evaluated in this thesis. One is based on feedback linearization  and with the feedback gain estimated using an LQ-controller. The other strategy is based on linearization at an equilibrium point  and also with the use of an LQ-controller. The only state that can be measured is the distance to the magnetic loop. In order to estimate the other states, an observer has been implemented using the linearized in an equilibrium point  model and a Kalman filter. The navigation of the autonomous lawn mower is performed using a magnetic loop buried in the lawn. The non-linearity of the magnetic field causes diffi culties when estimating the distance to the loop. One magnetic field strength corresponds to two distances to the magnetic loop. The nature of the magnetic field and the measurement noise causes the precision of the controller to be limited. The conclusion of this master thesis is that it is possible to navigate and follow the magnetic loop at a distance greater than 0.3 [m], but with overshoots during sharp turns. If the reference distance is smaller than that, the behavior of the robot will be oscillating when following the loop. The limitations of the controller performance is due to the lack of information which can be extracted from the measurements of the magnetic field.

  • 25.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sampling Based Motion Planning for Heavy Duty Autonomous Vehicles2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is undergoing a revolution where the more traditional mechanical values are replaced by an ever increasing number of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) where advanced algorithms and software development are taking a bigger role. Increased safety, reduced emissions and the possibility of completely new business models are driving the development and most automotive companies have started projects that aim towards fully autonomous vehicles. For industrial applications that provide a closed environment, such as mining facilities, harbors, agriculture and airports, full implementation of the technology is already available with increased productivity, reliability and reduced wear on equipment as a result. However, it also gives the opportunity to create a safer working environment when human drivers can be removed from dangerous working conditions. Regardless of the application an important part of any mobile autonomous system is the motion planning layer. In this thesis sampling-based motion planning algorithms are used to solve several non-holonomic and kinodynamic planning problems for car-like robotic vehicles in different application areas that all present different challenges.

    First we present an extension to the probabilistic sampling-based Closed-Loop Rapidly exploring Random Tree (CL-RRT) framework that significantly increases the probability of drawing a valid sample for platforms with second order differential constraints. When a tree extension is found infeasible a new acceleration profile that tries to brings the vehicle to a full stop before the collision occurs is calculated. A resimulation of the tree extension with the new acceleration profile is then performed. The framework is tested on a heavy-duty Scania G480 mining truck in a simple constructed scenario.

    Furthermore, we present two different driver assistance systems for the complicated task of reversing with a truck with a dolly-steered trailer. The first is a manual system where the user can easily construct a kinematically feasible path through a graphical user interface. The second is a fully automatic planner, based on the CL-RRT algorithm where only a start and goal position need to be provided. For both approaches, the internal angles of the trailer configuration are stabilized using a Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller and path following is achieved through a pure-pursuit control law. The systems are demonstrated on a small-scale test vehicle with good results.

    Finally, we look at the planning problem for an autonomous vehicle in an urban setting with dense traffic for two different time-critical maneuvers, namely, intersection merging and highway merging. In these situations, a social interplay between drivers is often necessary in order to perform a safe merge. To model this interaction a prediction engine is developed and used to predict the future evolution of the complete traffic scene given our own intended trajectory. Real-time capabilities are demonstrated through a series of simulations with varying traffic densities. It is shown, in simulation, that the proposed method is capable of safe merging in much denser traffic compared to a base-line method where a constant velocity model is used for predictions.

    Delarbeten
    1. Sampling Recovery for Closed Loop Rapidly Expanding Random Tree using Brake Profile Regeneration
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sampling Recovery for Closed Loop Rapidly Expanding Random Tree using Brake Profile Regeneration
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015 IEEE, IEEE , 2015, s. 101-106Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an extension to the sampling based motion planning framework CL-RRT is presented. The framework uses a system model and a stabilizing controller to sample the perceived environment and build a tree of possible trajectories that are evaluated for execution. Complex system models and constraints are easily handled by a forward simulation making the framework widely applicable. To increase operational safety we propose a sampling recovery scheme that performs a deterministic brake profile regeneration using collision information from the forward simulation. This greatly increases the number of safe trajectories and also reduces the number of samples that produce infeasible results. We apply the framework to a Scania G480 mining truck and evaluate the algorithm in a simple yet challenging obstacle course and show that our approach greatly increases the number of feasible paths available for execution.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2015
    Serie
    IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, ISSN 1931-0587
    Nyckelord
    RRT, Autonomous vehicles, motion planning
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Reglerteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120929 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225670 (DOI)000380565800018 ()9781467372664 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), June 28 - July 1, 2015. COEX, Seoul, Korea
    Projekt
    iQMatic
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-31 Skapad: 2015-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-11-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Path tracking and stabilization for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using a cascaded control approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Path tracking and stabilization for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using a cascaded control approach
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2016 IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 1156-1161Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a cascaded approach for stabilizationand path tracking of a general 2-trailer vehicle configurationwith an off-axle hitching is presented. A low level LinearQuadratic controller is used for stabilization of the internalangles while a pure pursuit path tracking controller is used ona higher level to handle the path tracking. Piecewise linearityis the only requirement on the control reference which makesthe design of reference paths very general. A Graphical UserInterface is designed to make it easy for a user to design controlreferences for complex manoeuvres given some representationof the surroundings. The approach is demonstrated with challengingpath following scenarios both in simulation and on asmall scale test platform.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
    Nyckelord
    cascade control, control system synthesis, graphical user interfaces, linear quadratic control, mobile robot, path planning, piecewise linear techniques
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Reglerteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130950 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2016.7535535 (DOI)000390845600183 ()978-1-5090-1821-5 (ISBN)978-1-5090-1822-2 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    2016 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 19-22, 2016
    Projekt
    iQMatic
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-01 Skapad: 2016-09-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-17Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 26.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Motion planning for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using Closed-Loop RRT2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 3690-3697Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversing with a dolly steered trailer configura- tion is a hard task for any driver without extensive training. In this work we present a motion planning and control framework that can be used to automatically plan and execute complicated manoeuvres. The unstable dynamics of the reversing general 2- trailer configuration with off-axle hitching is first stabilised by an LQ-controller and then a pure pursuit path tracker is used on a higher level giving a cascaded controller that can track piecewise linear reference paths. This controller together with a kinematic model of the trailer configuration is then used for forward simulations within a Closed-Loop Rapidly Exploring Random Tree framework to generate motion plans that are not only kinematically feasible but also include the limitations of the controller’s tracking performance when reversing. The approach is evaluated over a series of Monte Carlo simulations on three different scenarios and impressive success rates are achieved. Finally the approach is successfully tested on a small scale test platform where the motion plan is calculated and then sent to the platform for execution. 

  • 27.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ward, Erik
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Interaction aware trajectory planning for merge scenarios in congested traffic situations2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 465-472Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many traffic situations there are times where interaction with other drivers is necessary and unavoidable in order to safely progress towards an intended destination. This is especially true for merge manoeuvres into dense traffic, where drivers sometimes must be somewhat aggressive and show the intention of merging in order to interact with the other driver and make the driver open the gap needed to execute the manoeuvre safely. Many motion planning frameworks for autonomous vehicles adopt a reactive approach where simple models of other traffic participants are used and therefore need to adhere to large margins in order to behave safely. However, the large margins needed can sometimes get the system stuck in congested traffic where time gaps between vehicles are too small. In other situations, such as a highway merge, it can be significantly more dangerous to stop on the entrance ramp if the gaps are found to be too small than to make a slightly more aggressive manoeuvre and let the driver behind open the gap needed. To remedy this problem, this work uses the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) to explicitly model the interaction of other drivers and evaluates the risk by their required deceleration in a similar manner as the Minimum Overall Breaking Induced by Lane change (MOBIL) model that has been used in large scale traffic simulations before. This allows the algorithm to evaluate the effect on other drivers depending on our own trajectory plans by simulating the nearby traffic situation. Finding a globally optimal solution is often intractable in these situations so instead a large set of candidate trajectories are generated that are evaluated against the traffic scene by forward simulations of other traffic participants. By discretization and using an efficient trajectory generator together with efficient modelling of the traffic scene real-time demands can be met.

  • 28.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Bo
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation and Optimization of Industrial Robot Families Using Different Kinematic Measures2010Ingår i: ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: Volume 7: 33rd Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Parts A and B, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2010, Vol. 7, nr PART B, s. 1047-1057Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, overall manipulability measure and stroke of workspace are proposed and evaluated as design criteria for optimal kinematics design of a family of industrial robots. The object of study is a 6 degree of freedom serial robot manipulator where individual family members (robots) share arms from a common platform. The paper presents a formal mathematical framework where the product family design problem is stated as an optimization problem and where optimization is used to find an optimal product family. The paper illustrates how the proposed kinematic design criteria may be used to support the optimal kinematics design of a family of industrial robots, and it also visualizes the tradeoff between the size of the common platform and the kinematics performance of individual robots. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

  • 29.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wäppling, Daniel
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hans
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Multi-Objective Optimization in Industrial Robotic Cell Design2010Ingår i: ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: Volume 1: 36th Design Automation Conference, Parts A and B, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2010, Vol. 1, s. 815-823Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has become a common practice to conduct simulation-based design of industrial robotic cells, where Mechatronic system model of an industrial robot is used to accurately predict robot performance characteristics like cycle time, critical component lifetime, and energy efficiency. However, current robot programming systems do not usually provide functionality for finding the optimal design of robotic cells. Robot cell designers therefore still face significant challenge to manually search in design space for achieving optimal robot cell design in consideration of productivity measured by the cycle time, lifetime, and energy efficiency. In addition, robot cell designers experience even more challenge to consider the trade-offs between cycle time and lifetime as well as cycle time and energy efficiency. In this work, utilization of multi-objective optimization to optimal design of the work cell of an industrial robot is investigated. Solution space and Pareto front are obtained and used to demonstrate the trade-offs between cycle-time and critical component lifetime as well as cycle-time and energy efficiency of an industrial robot. Two types of multi-objective optimization have been investigated and benchmarked using optimal design problem of robotic work cells: 1) single-objective optimization constructed using Weighted Compromise Programming (WCP) of multiple objectives and 2) Pareto front optimization using multi-objective generic algorithm (MOGA-II). Of the industrial robotics significance, a combined design optimization problem is investigated, where design space consisting of design variables defining robot task placement and robot drive-train are simultaneously searched. Optimization efficiency and interesting trade-offs have been explored and successful results demonstrated.

  • 30.
    Fåk, Joel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wilkinson, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Autonomous Mapping and Exploration of Dynamic Indoor Environments2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta exjobb beskriver delarna som krävs för att för bygga ett komplett system som autonomt kartlägger inomhusmiljöer i tre dimensioner. Robotplattformen är en Segway, som är kapabel att röra sig i ett plan. Segwayn, tillsammans med en tröghetssensor, två Microsoft Kinects och en bärbar dator utgör grunden till systemet, som kan delas i tre delar:

    • En lokaliserings- och karteringsdel, som i grunden är en SLAM-algoritm (simultan lokalisering och kartläggning)  baserad på registreringsmetoden Iterative Closest Point (ICP). Kartan som byggs upp är i tre dimensioner och ska dessutom hantera kartläggningen av dynamiska miljöer, något som orginalforumleringen av SLAM problemet inte klarar av.
    • En automatisk planeringsdel, som består av två delar. Dels ruttplanering som går ut på att hitta en väg från sin nuvarande position till det valda målet och dels målplanering som innebär att välja ett mål att åka till givet den nuvarande kartan och robotens nuvarande position.
    • Systemets tredje del är regler- och kollisionssystemen. Dessa system har inte varit i fokus i detta arbete, men de är ändå högst nödvändiga för att ett autonomt system skall fungera.

    Detta examensarbete bidrar med följande: Octomap, ett ramverk för kartläggningen i 3D, har utökats för att hantera kartläggningen av dynamiska miljöer; En ny metod för målplanering, baserad på bildbehandling läggs fram; En kalibreringsprocedur för roboten är framtagen som ger den fullständiga posen i förhållande till roboten för varje Kinect.

    Resultaten visar att vår kalibreringsprocedur ger en nogrann pose for för varje Kinect, vilket är avgörande för att systemet ska fungera. Metoden för kartläggningen av dynamiska miljöer visas prestera bra i grundläggande situationer som uppstår vid kartläggning av dynamiska miljöer. Vidare visas att målplaneringsalgoritmen ger ett snabbt och enkelt sätt att planera mål att åka till. Slutligen utvärderas hela systemets autonoma kartläggningsförmåga, som ger lovande resultat. Dock lyfter resultat även fram problem som begränsar systemets prestanda, till exempel Kinectens onoggranhet och korta räckvidd samt brus som läggs till och förstärks av de olika subsystemen.

  • 31.
    Garcia, Raphael Rustici
    et al.
    Aeronaut Inst Technol ITA, Brazil.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, Andre
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Villani, Emilia
    Aeronaut Inst Technol ITA, Brazil.
    Relevant factors for the energy consumption of industrial robots2018Ingår i: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 40, nr 9, artikel-id UNSP 464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the energy consumption of industrial robots in the context of automotive industry. The purpose is to identify the most influencing parameters and variables and to propose best practices with focus on energy efficiency. The analysis approach is composed of three experiments performed in a simulation environment that test different values of programming parameters and variables, such as joint speed, acceleration, robot payload. The first experiment focuses on energy consumption of robots at standstill. The second one considers the robot moving along different paths. Finally, the third one analyses how the joint friction is affected by load, speed and temperature and how it influences the energy consumption. Results show that at standstill, it is important to reduce dwell time, select an energy efficient position and reduce the programmed value of the timer responsible for turning off the servomotors. While moving, it is important to select maximum continuous termination for intermediate points and avoid low speeds. Regarding friction variation, results show that at high motor speed, low temperatures increase energy consumption. In order to evaluate the contribution of the best practices in a real environment, they are applied to a welding robotic cell of an automotive industry.

  • 32.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On Safe Collaborative Assembly With Large Industrial Robots2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis pertains to industrial safety in relation to human-robot collaboration. The aim is to enhance understanding of the nature of systems where large industrial robots collaborate with humans to complete assembly tasks. This understanding may support development and safe operations of future collaborative systems.

    Industrial robots are widely used to automate manufacturing operations across several industries. The automotive industry is the largest user of robots and have identified robot-based automation as a strategy to improve efficiency in manufacturing operations.

    Recently, a class of machines referred to as collaborative robots have been developed by robot manufacturers to support operators in assembly tasks. The use of these robots to support human workers in an industrial context are referred to as collaborative operations.

    Presently, collaborative robots have limited reach and load carrying capacity compared to standard industrial robots. Large/standard industrial robots are widely used for applications such as welding or painting. They can, in principle support operators in assembly tasks as well.

    Two laboratory demonstrators representing the final results from a series of research activities will be presented. They were developed to investigate issues related to personnel and process safety while working with large industrial robots in collaborative operations. The demonstrators were partially based on assembly workstations that are currently operational and they exemplify challenges faced by the automotive industry.

    Demonstrator-based Research, a methodology for collaborative research that emphasizes development of demonstrators as a research tool, forms the rationale for carrying out research operations presented in this thesis. An evaluation of the laboratory demonstrators by industrial participants suggests an increased interest and confidence in collaborative operations with large robots. The demonstrators have served as a tentative platform for participants to identify and discuss manufacturing and safety challenges in relation to their organization.

    A main outcome presented in this thesis relates to specifying requirements for introducing robots in a human-populated environment. Introducing robotic systems in new environments requires reconsideration of the nature of the hazards particular to the domain. An analysis of the laboratory demonstrators suggest that, in addition to hazards associated with normal functioning of the system, limitations in human cognition must be considered. These results will be exemplified and discussed in the context of situational and mode awareness. Additionally, a model of a collaborative workstation will be presented in terms of three constituents – workspace, tasks and interaction.

    This is particularly significant considering the direction of present-day research aimed at introducing robots across various industries and working environments. In response to this trend, this thesis discusses the relevance of Interactive Research and its emphasis on joint learning that goes on between academic researchers and industrial participants as a valuable principle for collaborative research.

    Delarbeten
    1. Design Criteria for a Conceptual End-effector for Physical Human-Robot Production Cell
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Design Criteria for a Conceptual End-effector for Physical Human-Robot Production Cell
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Gothenburg: Chalmers Conferences , 2014, s. 1-7Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed, precision and repeatability are virtues of industrial robots which are relied on by manufacturing firms but also necessitates segregating them within controlled fenced areas. Therefore, industrial robots cannot cooperate with line workers in assembling task. With recent developments in robotics, new possibilities have emerged that can enable manufacturing firms to be flexible and cost effective. This paper presents preliminary results from investigations into the possibility of a man-machine production cell where plastic panels are assembled under the car. A conceptual man-machine collaborative production cell will be presented detailing characteristics required to ensure safety.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Gothenburg: Chalmers Conferences, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Human-Robot Collaboration, Mixed-model assembly Line, Flexible Manufacturing.
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123649 (URN)9789198097412 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 6th Swedish Production Symposium, Clarion Hotel Post September 16-18, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Projekt
    Collaborative Team of Man and Machine ToMM
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-04 Skapad: 2016-01-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Risk Assessment Process for Collaborative Assembly - A Job Safety Analysis Approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Risk Assessment Process for Collaborative Assembly - A Job Safety Analysis Approach
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS (CATS), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 44, s. 199-203Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    International safety standards state that risk assessment is the first step in understanding and eliminating hazardous work environment. The traditional method of risk assessment using Job Safety Analysis, where sequential tasks of the operator are analysed for potential risks, needs to be adapted to applications where humans and robots collaborate to complete assembly tasks. This article proposes a novel approach by placing equal emphasis on various participants working within their workspaces. An industrial case study wil be used to showcase the merits of the process when used at an early stage in the development of a collaborative assembly cell. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Nyckelord
    Human Robot Collaboration; Risk Assessment; Safety Standards; Collaborative Assembly
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129505 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.334 (DOI)000376432200033 ()
    Konferens
    6th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-20 Skapad: 2016-06-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20
    3. Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment: An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment: An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai and Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, nr Supplement C, s. 430-435Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process which involves risk analysis where the probable hazards are identified and corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed where a large industrial robot is being used as a intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly cell which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Serie
    Procedia CIRP
    Nyckelord
    Human Robot Collaboration, Safety Standards, Collaborative Assembly, Hand-Guided Robot
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142319 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.160 (DOI)000418465500073 ()2-s2.0-85028677171 (Scopus ID)
    Konferens
    Manufacturing Systems 4.0 – Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA
    Anmärkning

    Manufacturing Systems 4.0 – Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-25 Skapad: 2017-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Risk Assessment for Collaborative Operation: A Case Study on Hand-Guided Industrial Robots
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Risk Assessment for Collaborative Operation: A Case Study on Hand-Guided Industrial Robots
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Risk Assessment / [ed] Valentina Svalova, London/Rijeka: InTech, 2018, s. 167-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process, which involves risk analysis, where probable hazards are identified, and then corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article, the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed, where a large industrial robot is used as an intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits, such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly workstation, which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants. The hazards associated with hand-guided collaborative operations will also be presented.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London/Rijeka: InTech, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Hand-guided robots, industrial system safety, collaborative operations, human-robot collaboration, risk assessment, hazards
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145504 (URN)10.5772/intechopen.70607 (DOI)9789535137986 (ISBN)9789535140634 (ISBN)9789535137993 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-02 Skapad: 2018-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, s. 246-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Activities to support manufacturing research are carried out with the intention to gain knowledge of industrial problems and provide solutions that addresses these issues. In order for solution to be viable to the industry, research activities are carried out in close collaboration with participants from the industry, academia and research institutions. Interactive research approach motivates participants with multi-disciplinary perspective to collaborate and emphasizes joint learning in the change process. This article, presents a methodology, where participants with different expertise can collaborate to develop safety solutions. The concept of a demonstrator, which represents cumulative result of a series of research activities, is presented as a tool to showcase functioning and design intent in a collaborative research environment. The results of a pilot study, where manufacturing professionals evaluated design decisions that resulted in a demonstrator, will be presented. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Collaborative robots; Industrial Safety; University-Industry Collaboration; Risk Assessment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158894 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2018.10.043 (DOI)000471035200031 ()
    Konferens
    28th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2018), June 11-14, 2018, Columbus, OH, USAGlobal Integration of Intelligent Manufacturing and Smart Industry for Good of Humanity, Edited by Dušan Šormaz, Gürsel Süer, F. Frank Chen
    Anmärkning

    This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 28th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing(FAIM2018) Conference.

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-07-16 Skapad: 2019-07-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20
    6. Understanding situational and mode awareness for safe human‑robot collaboration: case studies on assembly applications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Understanding situational and mode awareness for safe human‑robot collaboration: case studies on assembly applications
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, E-ISSN 1863-7353, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order for humans and robots to collaborate on an assembly line, safety of operations is a prerequisite. In this article, two assembly stations where a large industrial robots collaborate with humans will be analysed with the aim to 1. determine the characteristics of hazards associated with human-robot interaction and 2. design solutions that can mitigate risks associated with these hazards. To support the aim of this article, a literature review will attempt to characterize automation and detail the problems associated with human-automation interaction. The analysis points at situational awareness and mode-awareness as contributing factors to operator and process safety. These underlying mechanisms, if recognised by the risk assessment team as hazards, can mitigate risks of operator injury or production delays. This article details the function of visual and physical interfaces that allow operators to comprehend system-state in order to avoid undesirable situations

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Situational awareness, Mode awareness, Human-robot collaboration (HRC), Industrial safety
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160304 (URN)10.1007/s11740-018-0868-2 (DOI)000457944600001 ()2-s2.0-85058656783 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova, 2015-03722
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-17 Skapad: 2019-09-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-20Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 33.
    Haghshenas, Hamed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ABB AB, Sweden.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Convex Optimization Approach to Time-Optimal Path Tracking Problem for Cooperative Manipulators2019Ingår i: IFAC PAPERSONLINE, ELSEVIER , 2019, Vol. 52, nr 10, s. 400-405Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the time-optimal path tracking problem for a cooperative robotic system. The considered system is composed of two two-link planar manipulators with non-actuated end-effectors rigidly grasping a bar. Given a predefined geometric path, the objective is to cooperatively move the bar along the path in minimum time subject to inequality constraints on the joint torques. We show that this problem can be cast as a convex optimization problem by using the existing results for a single manipulator, and also the fact that the desired motion of the bar can be achieved by incorporating its dynamics into the manipulators dynamics. We illustrate our results in simulation. (C) 2019, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Hamp, Q.
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Reindl, L.
    University of Freiburg.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Lessons Learned from German Research for USAR2011Ingår i: IEEE Int. Workshop on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present lessons learned in USAR research within the framework of the German research project I-LOV. After three years of development first field tests have been carried out by professionals such as the Rapid Deployment Unit for Salvage Operations Abroad (SEEBA). We present results from evaluating search teams in simulated USAR scenarios equipped with newly developed technical search means and digital data input terminals developed in the I- LOV project. In particular, the “bioradar”, a ground-penetrating radar system for the detection of humanoid movements, a semi-active video probe for rubble pile exploration of more than 10 m length, and the decision support system FRIEDAA were evaluated and compared with conventional search methods. Results of this evaluation indicate that the developed technologies foster advantages in USAR, which are discussed in this paper.

  • 35.
    Hamp, Quirin
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Gorgis, Omar
    University of Freiburg.
    Labenda, Patrick
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Neumann, Marc
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Predki, Thomas
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Heckes, Leif
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, KPLAB - Laboratoriet för kunskapsbearbetning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reindl, Leonard
    University of Freiburg.
    Study of efficiency of USAR operations with assistive technologies2013Ingår i: Advanced Robotics, ISSN 0169-1864, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 337-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents presents a study on eciency of Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions that has been carried out within the framework of the German research project I-LOV. After three years of development, first field tests have been carried out in 2011 by professionals such as the Rapid Deployment Unit for Salvage Operations Abroad (SEEBA). We present results from evaluating search teams in simulated USAR scenarios equipped with newly developed technical search means and digital data input terminals developed in the I-LOV project. In particular, USAR missions assisted by the “bioradar”, a ground-penetrating radar system for the detection of humanoid movements, a semi-active video probe of more than 10 m length for rubble pile exploration, a snake-like rescue robot, and the decision support system FRIEDAA were evaluated and compared with conventional USAR missions. Results of this evaluation indicate that the developed technologies represent an advantages for USAR missions, which are discussed in this paper. 

  • 36.
    Hedberg, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Norén, Johan
    ABB Robotics, Sweden.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ABB Robotics, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Industrial Robot Tool Position Estimation using Inertial Measurements in a Complementary Filter and an EKF2017Ingår i: 20th IFAC World Congress, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 50, s. 12748-12752Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     In this work an Inertial Measurement Unit is used to improve tool position estimates for an ABB IRB 4600 industrial robot, starting from estimates based on motor angle forward kinematics. A Complementary Filter and an Extended Kalman Filter are investigated. The Complementary Filter is found to perform on par with the Extended Kalman Filter while having lower complexity both in the tuning process and the filtering computations.

  • 37.
    Hinzmann, Timo
    et al.
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Stastny, Thomas
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Conte, Gianpaolo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rudol, Piotr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Galceran, Enric
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Siegwart, Roland
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Gilitschenski, Igor
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Collaborative 3D Reconstruction Using Heterogeneous UAVs: System and Experiments2017Ingår i: 2016 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EXPERIMENTAL ROBOTICS, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 1, s. 43-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates how a heterogeneous fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can support human operators in search and rescue (SaR) scenarios. We describe a fully autonomous delegation framework that interprets the top-level commands of the rescue team and converts them into actions of the UAVs. In particular, the UAVs are requested to autonomously scan a search area and to provide the operator with a consistent georeferenced 3D reconstruction of the environment to increase the environmental awareness and to support critical decision-making. The mission is executed based on the individual platform and sensor capabilities of rotary-and fixed-wing UAVs (RW-UAV and FW-UAV respectively): With the aid of an optical camera, the FW-UAV can generate a sparse point-cloud of a large area in a short amount of time. A LiDAR mounted on the autonomous helicopter is used to refine the visual point-cloud by generating denser point-clouds of specific areas of interest. In this context, we evaluate the performance of point-cloud registration methods to align two maps that were obtained by different sensors. In our validation, we compare classical point-cloud alignment methods to a novel probabilistic data association approach that specifically takes the individual point-cloud densities into consideration.

  • 38.
    Honarpardaz, M.
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feng, X.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Finger design automation for industrial robot grippers: A review2017Ingår i: ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, ISSN 0921-8890, Vol. 87, s. 104-119Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing robust end-effector plays a crucial role, in performance of a robot workcell. Design automation of industrial grippers fingers/jaws is therefore of the highest interest in the robot industry. This paper systematically reviews the enormous studies performed in relevant research areas for finger design automation. Key processes for successfully achieving automatic finger design are identified and research contributions in each key process are critically reviewed. The proposed approaches in each key process are analyzed, verified and benchmarked. The most promising methods to accomplish finger design automation are highlighted and presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Finger Design Automation for Industrial Robots: A Generic and Agile Approach2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    ROBOT fingers play a crucial role in the success and performance of workcells, as fingers are the only interfaces that connect the robot to the physical working environment. Fingers are responsible for grasping and manipulating workpieces without dropping or damaging them. Designing industrial robot fingers to accomplish assigned tasks is therefore tremendously complex and requires high skills in robotics and designing at the same time.

    Today, there is a trend toward products with short lifecycles and, as a result, many robot industries have focused on enhancing the competitiveness of robotic automation in the agile market. SARAFun and Factory-in-a-day are two large European Commission projects which are formed to enable a non-expert user to integrate a robot system for an assembly task in one single day. Currently, fingers of industrial grippers (e.g. parallel- jaw) are designed manually, a process that requires several exhaustive and time- consuming trial and error iterations even for highly skilled specialists. The average iteration time is about three to four working days and the total time for designing fingers can amount to around two weeks depending on the complexity requirements.

    The present iterative procedure of manual finger design is unable to fulfil the demands of ‘‘burst’’ production (i.e. ramp up to full volume in a very short time, run production for 3–12 months, and then change to produce a new product). Finger design automation has therefore been increasingly attracting the attention of the robot industry. However, very few researchers have studied finger design automation and unfortunately no one has validated the proposed approaches with a generic experimental method.

    This research therefore proposes the generic optimized finger design (GOFD) framework in order to automate the design process of robotic fingers. The framework is optimized to reduce the design process time while maintaining high reliability and performance of the fingers. The functionality and general applicability of the framework is examined in various case studies and applications with a diverse range of workpieces. In order to be able to benchmark the functionality of robotic fingers, an experimental method is also developed to measure the stability and performance of the fingers in industrial practice. The proposed experimental method is employed to evaluate the functionality of the GOFD fingers and compare it with that of other fingers. Results are comprehensively analysed and the strengths and weaknesses of each method are highlighted. This thesis thus presents a design automation processes that automates the design procedure for robotic fingers, together with an experimental method to compare the performance of different finger designs. The introduced GOFD method can help robot industries comply with the trending agile market. Moreover, scholars who are inexpert in robotics may benefit from utilizing GOFD in their research to generate functional fingers.

    Delarbeten
    1. Finger design automation for industrial robot grippers: A review
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Finger design automation for industrial robot grippers: A review
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, ISSN 0921-8890, Vol. 87, s. 104-119Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Designing robust end-effector plays a crucial role, in performance of a robot workcell. Design automation of industrial grippers fingers/jaws is therefore of the highest interest in the robot industry. This paper systematically reviews the enormous studies performed in relevant research areas for finger design automation. Key processes for successfully achieving automatic finger design are identified and research contributions in each key process are critically reviewed. The proposed approaches in each key process are analyzed, verified and benchmarked. The most promising methods to accomplish finger design automation are highlighted and presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Grippers fingers; Design automation; Grasp synthesis; Grasp analysis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Robotteknik och automation
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134073 (URN)10.1016/j.robot.2016.10.003 (DOI)000390507700008 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Community [644938 - SARAFun]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-26 Skapad: 2017-01-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-09
    2. GENERIC AUTOMATED FINGER DESIGN
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>GENERIC AUTOMATED FINGER DESIGN
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2016, VOL 5B, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, artikel-id V05BT07A071Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finger design automation for grippers is one of the areas of highest interest for robot industries. The few studies that have been carried out in the finger design automation research area are limited to objects with specific geometrical properties (e.g. polyhedral). This paper introduces the Generic Automated Finger Design (GAFD) method that contains the essential key processes for automatic design of reliable fingers. The proposed method is implemented on two geometrically complex workpieces and appropriate fingers are designed. The results are discussed in detail and benchmarked against existing approaches.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135414 (URN)10.1115/DETC2016-60514 (DOI)000393365000071 ()978-0-7918-5016-9 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Community [644938]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-14 Skapad: 2017-03-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-09
    3. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2016 SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATION SCIENCE (ICMEAS 2016), IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2016, Vol. 157, artikel-id 012015Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016
    Serie
    IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Byggproduktion
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133767 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/157/1/012015 (DOI)000389913900014 ()
    Konferens
    2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Automation Science (ICMEAS)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-09 Skapad: 2017-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-22
    4. Experimental verification of design automation methods for robotic finger
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experimental verification of design automation methods for robotic finger
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 94, s. 89-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Design automation of industrial grippers is a hot research topic for robot industries. However, literature lacks a standard experimental method to enable researchers to validate their approaches. Thus, this paper proposes a generic experimental method to verify existing finger design approaches. The introduced method is utilized to validate the methods Generic Automated Finger Design (GAFD), Manually Designed Fingers (MDF) and the eGrip tool. Experimental results are compared and the strengths and weaknesses of each method are presented. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Grippers; Fingers; Design automation; Robotics; Experimental method
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Robotteknik och automation
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139386 (URN)10.1016/j.robot.2017.04.011 (DOI)000404201700009 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Communitys Framework Programme Horizon 2020 [644938 - SARAFun]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-07 Skapad: 2017-08-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-09
    5. Fast Grasp Tool Design: From Force to Form Closure
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fast Grasp Tool Design: From Force to Form Closure
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2017 13th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), IEEE , 2017Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel technique which integratesautomatic, part centered design of customized fingertips with agrasp planning stage for arbitrary parts of an assembly process.Starting with a set of CAD models of parts in an assemblysequence, force closure grasps are generated for each part in asampling process. By employing the sampled force closure grasppositions in the second stage, the fingertip shape model isadapted to obtain form closure grasps at the specific grasplocations on the part. This approach significantly reduces theprocess time of designing fingers. Furthermore, the methodincreases the robustness of the fingers grasp for preciseassemblies. The proposed fast generic automated finger design(FGAFD) method is able to design fingers for variousgeometrically complex workpieces. The designed fingers areexperimentally verified. The results are discussed in detail andbenchmarked against existing approaches.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2017
    Serie
    Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), ISSN 2161-8089
    Nyckelord
    Grasp Planning; Finger Design; Design Automation; Grasp Synthesis; Robotics;
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Robotteknik och automation
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143804 (URN)10.1109/COASE.2017.8256199 (DOI)978-1-5090-6781-7 (ISBN)978-1-5090-6782-4 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 20-23 Aug. 2017
    Projekt
    SARAFun
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Horisont 2020, 644938
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-18 Skapad: 2017-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-07-03
    6. Fast finger design automation for industrial robots
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fast finger design automation for industrial robots
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 113, s. 120-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Finger design automation is highly demanded from robot industries to fulfill the requirements of the agile market. Nevertheless, literature lacks a promising approach to automate the design process of reliable fingers for industrial robots. Hence, this work proposes the generic optimized finger design (GOFD) method which automates the design process of single- and multi-function finger grippers. The proposed method includes an optimization algorithm to minimize the design process time. The method is utilized to generate fingers for several groups of objects. Results show that the GOFD method outperforms existing methods and is able to reduce the design time by an average of 16,600 s. While the proposed method substantially reduces the design process time of fingers, the quality of grasps is comparable to the traditional exhaustive search method. The grasp quality of GOFD deviates only 0.47% from the absolute best grasp known from the exhaustive search method in average. The designed fingers are lastly manufactured and experimentally verified.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Design automation, Fingers design, Multi-function fingers, Industrial grippers, Optimization, Robotics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Design Robotteknik och automation
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153950 (URN)10.1016/j.robot.2018.12.011 (DOI)000459358000010 ()2-s2.0-85060074455 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: European Communitys Framework Programme Horizon 2020 [644938 - SARAFun]

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-21 Skapad: 2019-01-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-29Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 40.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fast finger design automation for industrial robots2019Ingår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 113, s. 120-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finger design automation is highly demanded from robot industries to fulfill the requirements of the agile market. Nevertheless, literature lacks a promising approach to automate the design process of reliable fingers for industrial robots. Hence, this work proposes the generic optimized finger design (GOFD) method which automates the design process of single- and multi-function finger grippers. The proposed method includes an optimization algorithm to minimize the design process time. The method is utilized to generate fingers for several groups of objects. Results show that the GOFD method outperforms existing methods and is able to reduce the design time by an average of 16,600 s. While the proposed method substantially reduces the design process time of fingers, the quality of grasps is comparable to the traditional exhaustive search method. The grasp quality of GOFD deviates only 0.47% from the absolute best grasp known from the exhaustive search method in average. The designed fingers are lastly manufactured and experimentally verified.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-01-11 11:40
  • 41.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Meier, Martin
    Neuroinformatics Group, Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC), Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Haschke, Robert
    Neuroinformatics Group, Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC), Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Fast Grasp Tool Design: From Force to Form Closure2017Ingår i: 2017 13th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), IEEE , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel technique which integratesautomatic, part centered design of customized fingertips with agrasp planning stage for arbitrary parts of an assembly process.Starting with a set of CAD models of parts in an assemblysequence, force closure grasps are generated for each part in asampling process. By employing the sampled force closure grasppositions in the second stage, the fingertip shape model isadapted to obtain form closure grasps at the specific grasplocations on the part. This approach significantly reduces theprocess time of designing fingers. Furthermore, the methodincreases the robustness of the fingers grasp for preciseassemblies. The proposed fast generic automated finger design(FGAFD) method is able to design fingers for variousgeometrically complex workpieces. The designed fingers areexperimentally verified. The results are discussed in detail andbenchmarked against existing approaches.

  • 42.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ABB Corporate Research Centre, Sweden.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feng, X.
    ABB Corporate Research Centre, Sweden.
    Experimental verification of design automation methods for robotic finger2017Ingår i: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 94, s. 89-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design automation of industrial grippers is a hot research topic for robot industries. However, literature lacks a standard experimental method to enable researchers to validate their approaches. Thus, this paper proposes a generic experimental method to verify existing finger design approaches. The introduced method is utilized to validate the methods Generic Automated Finger Design (GAFD), Manually Designed Fingers (MDF) and the eGrip tool. Experimental results are compared and the strengths and weaknesses of each method are presented. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 43.
    Höggren, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindmark, Love
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Methods for locating signal jammers with a UAV2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trådlös kommunikation idag är den moderna tidens sätt att transportera data från en plats till en annan. En nackdel med det är att en störsändare kan förhindra kommunikation mellan den sändande och mottagande antennen. Denna nackdel kan utnyttjas både inom militära och civila tillämpningar. Detta examensarbete undersöker två metoder för att lokalisera en störsändare över ett öppet fält med hjälp av en drönare, då fri sikt råder mellan drönare och störsändare. Dessa två olika metoder är baserade på olika tekniker, antenner och flygmönster.

  • 44.
    Jaxne, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Control system for automated industry applied with LEGO Mindstorms2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa ett examensarbete på kandidatnivå inom elektronik. Arbetet har syftat till att skapa en modell av en automatiserad industri i en liten skala. Modellen skulle vara enkel att använda för att visualisera hur automatisering fungerar i praktiken och hur ett styrsystem byggs. För att få ett bra genomförande och en verklighetstrogen modell studerades exempel från industrin och metoder för att optimera. Eftersom enkelhet var viktigt byggdes styrsystemet från grunden för att få full kontroll över systemet. En modell byggdes med LEGO® Mindstorms® som mekanisk grund och två robotar programmerades i C# att hantera ett orderflöde. Orderflödet styrdes från ett webbaserat användargränssnitt och kommunikationen hanterades genom en databas.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorseende. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Visual Stereo Odometry for Indoor Positioning2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis a visual odometry system is implemented and explained. Visual odometry is a technique, which could be used on autonomous vehicles to determine its current position and is preferably used indoors when GPS is notworking. The only input to the system are the images from a stereo camera and the output is the current location given in relative position.

    In the C++ implementation, image features are found and matched between the stereo images and the previous stereo pair, which gives a range of 150-250 verified feature matchings. The image coordinates are triangulated into a 3D-point cloud. The distance between two subsequent point clouds is minimized with respect to rigid transformations, which gives the motion described with six parameters, three for the translation and three for the rotation.

    Noise in the image coordinates gives reconstruction errors which makes the motion estimation very sensitive. The results from six experiments show that the weakness of the system is the ability to distinguish rotations from translations. However, if the system has additional knowledge of how it is moving, the minimization can be done with only three parameters and the system can estimate its position with less than 5 % error.

  • 46.
    Kenn, Holger
    et al.
    University of Bremen.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Towards the Integration of Real-Time Real-World Data in Urban Search and Rescue Simulation2007Ingår i: MobileResponse, 2007, Vol. 4458, s. 106-115Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The coordinated reaction to a large-scale disaster is a challenging research problem. The Robocup rescue simulation league addresses this research problem but is currently lacking an interface to real-world real-time data to test the validity of both simulation and simulated reactions. In this paper, we describe a wearable-computing-based real world interface to the Robocup Resuce simulation software and provide some updated results of preliminary evaluations.

  • 47.
    Khan, Fahad Shahbaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorseende. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rao, Muhammad Anwer
    Department of Information and Computer Science, Aalto University School of Science, Aalto, Finland.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Computer Vision Center, CS Department, Universitet Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Felsberg, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorseende. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laaksonen, Jorma
    Department of Information and Computer Science, Aalto University School of Science, Aalto, Finland.
    Deep Semantic Pyramids for Human Attributes and Action Recognition2015Ingår i: Image Analysis: 19th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 15-17, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] Paulsen, Rasmus R., Pedersen, Kim S., Springer, 2015, Vol. 9127, s. 341-353Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Describing persons and their actions is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, scale and viewpoint in real-world images. Recently, semantic pyramids approach [1] for pose normalization has shown to provide excellent results for gender and action recognition. The performance of semantic pyramids approach relies on robust image description and is therefore limited due to the use of shallow local features. In the context of object recognition [2] and object detection [3], convolutional neural networks (CNNs) or deep features have shown to improve the performance over the conventional shallow features.

    We propose deep semantic pyramids for human attributes and action recognition. The method works by constructing spatial pyramids based on CNNs of different part locations. These pyramids are then combined to obtain a single semantic representation. We validate our approach on the Berkeley and 27 Human Attributes datasets for attributes classification. For action recognition, we perform experiments on two challenging datasets: Willow and PASCAL VOC 2010. The proposed deep semantic pyramids provide a significant gain of 17.2%, 13.9%, 24.3% and 22.6% compared to the standard shallow semantic pyramids on Berkeley, 27 Human Attributes, Willow and PASCAL VOC 2010 datasets respectively. Our results also show that deep semantic pyramids outperform conventional CNNs based on the full bounding box of the person. Finally, we compare our approach with state-of-the-art methods and show a gain in performance compared to best methods in literature.

  • 48.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    University of Freiburg.
    Mapping and Exploration for Search and Rescue with Humans and Mobile Robots2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) is a time critical task since all survivors have to be rescued within the first 72 hours. One goal in Rescue Robotics is to support emergency response by mixed-initiative teams consisting of humans and robots. Their task is to explore the disaster area rapidly while reporting victim locations and hazardous areas to a central station, which then can be utilized for planning rescue missions. To fulfill this task efficiently, humans and robots have to map disaster areas jointly while co- ordinating their search at the same time. Additionally, robots have to perform subproblems, such as victim detection and navigation, autonomously. In disaster areas these problems are extraordinarily challenging due to the unstructured environment and rough terrain. Furthermore, when communication fails, methods that are deployed under such conditions have to be decentralized, i.e. operational without a central station. In this thesis a unified approach joining human and robot resources for solving these problems is contributed. Following the vision of combined multi-robot and multi-human teamwork, core problems, such as position tracking on rough terrain, mapping by mixed teams, and decentralized team coordination with limited radio communication, are directly addressed. More specific, RFID-SLAM, a novel method for robust and efficient loop closure in large-scale environments that utilizes RFID technology for data association, is contributed. The method is capable of jointly improving multiple maps from humans and robots in a centralized and decentralized manner without requiring team members to perform loops on their routes. Thereby positions of humans are tracked by PDR (Pedestrian Dead Reckoning), and robot positions by slippage- sensitive odometry, respectively. The joint-graph emerging from these trajectories serves as an input for an iterative map optimization procedure. The introduced map representation is further utilized for solving the centralized and decentralized coordination of large rescue teams. On the one hand, a deliberate method for combined task assignment and multi-agent path planning, and on the other hand, a local search method using the memory of RFIDs for coordination, are proposed. For autonomous robot navigation on rough terrain and real-time victim detection in disaster areas an efficient method for elevation map building and a novel approach to genetic MRF (Markov Random Field) model optimization are contributed. Finally, a human in the loop architecture is presented that integrates data collected by first responders into a multi-agent system via wearable computing. In this context, the support and coordination of disaster mitigation in large-scale environments from a central-command-post-perspective are described. Methods introduced in this thesis were extensively evaluated in outdoor environments and official USAR testing arenas designed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Furthermore, they were an integral part of systems that won in total more than 10 times the first prize at international competitions, such as the RoboCup world championships.

  • 49.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Freiberg.
    Behrens, Nils
    University of Bremen.
    Kenn, Holger
    University of Bremen.
    Wearable Computing Meets Multiagent Systems: A Real-World Interface for the RoboCupRescue Simulation Platform2006Ingår i: First International Workshop on Agent Technology for Disaster Management at AAMAS06, 2006, s. 116-123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One big challenge in disaster response is to get an overview over the degree of damage and to provide this information, together with optimized plans for rescue missions, back to teams in the field. Collapsing infrastructure, limited visibility due to smoke and dust, and overloaded communication lines make it nearly impossible for rescue teams to report the total situation consistently. This problem can only be solved by efficiently integrating data of many observers into a single consistent view. A Global Positioning System (GPS) device in conjunction with a communication device, and sensors or simple input methods for reporting observations, offer a realistic chance to solve the data integration problem. We propose preliminary results from a wearable computing device, acquiring disaster relevant data, such as locations of victims and blockades, and show the data integration into the RoboCupRescue Simulation platform, which is a benchmark for MAS within the RoboCup competitions. We show exemplarily how the data can consistently be integrated and how rescue missions can be optimized by solutions developed on the RoboCupRescue simulation platform. The preliminary results indicate that nowadays wearable computing technology combined with MAS technology can serve as a powerful tool for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR).

  • 50.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Brenner, Michael
    University of Freiburg.
    Bräuer, Tobias
    University of Freiburg.
    Dornhege, Christian
    University of Freiburg.
    Göbelbecker, Moritz
    University of Freiburg.
    Luber, Matthias
    University of Freiburg.
    Prediger, Johann
    University of Freiburg.
    Stückler, Joerg
    University of Freiburg.
    ResQ Freiburg: Team Description and Evaluation2004Ingår i: RoboCup 2004 (CDROM Proceedings), Team Description Paper, Rescue Simulation League, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ResQ Freiburg is the world champion of the 2004 RoboCup competition in the Rescue simulation league. RoboCupRescue is a large-scale multi-agent simulation of urban disasters where, in order to save lives and minimize damage, rescue teams must effectively cooperate despite sensing and communication limitations. To accomplish this, ResQ Freiburg introduced new methods for hierarchical path planning, death-time prediction of civilians, coordination of multi-agent city exploration, as well as an any-time rescue sequence optimization based on genetic algorithms. To evaluate the usefulness of these techniques we performed an extensive evaluation of the log files of the best participating teams in the competition. Our analysis explains the reasons for our team’s success, and thus could also provide an evaluation tool for future competitions.

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