liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 331
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    A. Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    M-PSK and M-QAM Modulation/Demodulation of UWB Signal Using Six-Port Correlator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays high speed and high data rate communication are highly demanded. Consequently, wideband and high frequency transmitter and receivers should be designed. New transmitters and receivers should also have low power consumption, simple design and low manufacturing price in order to fulfill manufacturers’ requests for mass production. Having all above specifications, six-port correlator is a proper choice to be used as modulator and demodulator in transmitters and receivers.

    In this thesis the six-port correlator is introduced, modeled and simulated using Advanced Design System (ADS) software. A simple six-port transmitter/receiver system with a line of sight link is modeled and analyzed in BER, path length and noise terms. The modulation in this system is QAM, frequency is 7.5 GHz and symbol rate is 500 Msymbol/s.

    Furthermore two methods are proposed for high frequency and high symbol rate M-PSK and M-QAM modulation using six-port correlator. The 7.5 GHz modulators are modeled and simulated in ADS. Data streams generated by pseudo random bit generator with 1 GHz bandwidth are applied to modulators. Common source field effect transistors (FETs) with zero bias are used as controllable impedance termination to apply baseband data to modulator. Both modulators show good performance in M-PSK and M-QAM modulation.

  • 2.
    Ahani, Ghafour
    et al.
    Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraq.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ding, Wei
    Ranplan Wireless Network Design Ltd, England.
    On SC-FDMA Resource Allocation with Power Control2016In: 2016 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPUTER AIDED MODELLING AND DESIGN OF COMMUNICATION LINKS AND NETWORKS (CAMAD), IEEE , 2016, p. 112-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, single-carrier frequency division multiple accesses (SC-FDMA) is discussed. In particular, minimum stun power, subject to meeting users demand is considered. There are two channel allocation schemes, localized and interleaved. In localized scheme, a block of convective channels in the spectrum is allocated to each user. In interleaved scheme, channels will be spread out over the spectrum and will be distributed equidistantly. It has been previously assumed that when a block of channels is assigned to a user, the same amount of power will be allocated to each channel. However, the power could be used more efficiently without this assumption We show that the resulting power allocation problem can be solved in linear time and propose an optimal power allocation procedure. Next, the effect of this new power optimization procedure is investigated numerically. In the next part of paper, we prove that for the interleaved scheme, Minimum sum power problem with or without this new power optimization is polynomial solvable. Finally, we numerically compare localized and interleaved SC-FDMA with and without power optimization The results show that the localized scheme with the new power optimization yields the best performance

  • 3.
    Ahlqvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems.
    Evaluation of the Turbo-decoder Coprocessor on a TMS320C64x Digital Signal Processor2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One technique that is used to reduce the errors brought upon signals, when transmitted over noisy channels, is error control coding. One type of such coding, which has a good performance, is turbo coding. In some of the TMS320C64xTM digital signal processors there is a built in coprocessor that performs turbo decoding.

    This thesis is performed on the account of Communication Developments, within Saab AB and presents an evaluation of this coprocessor. The evaluation deals with both the memory consumption as well as the data rate. The result is also compared to an implementation of turbo coding that does not use the coprocessor.

  • 4.
    Ahlström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Signalprediktering i vitt gaussiskt brus med hjälp av ett adaptivt signalanpassat filter1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett signalanpassat filter har ett impulssvar som är den exiterandesignalens spegelbild . Ett dylikt filter maximerar vid en viss tidpunkt signalbrusförhållandet på utgången.

    Ett adaptivt transversalfilter styrt av en gradientkännande algoritm, vilken maximerar signalbrusförhållandet på filterutgången, har studerats. Det spegelvända impulssvaret har använts som prediktion av signalen. Denna prediktion har, vid simulering gjord på dator, ej visat sig vara bättre än en klassisk prediktion med en ren summering av brusstörda upplagor av signalen. Inte ens då dylika summerade upplagor av den brusstörda signalenanvänts som insignal till filtret har signalprediktionen via filtrets impulssvar uppvisat ett lägre kvadratiskt medelfel än d en klassiska.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Mohsin Niaz
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    LTE Uplink Modeling and Channel Estimation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates the uplink transmition from User Equipment (UE) to base station in LET (Long Term Evolution) and channel estimation using pilot symbols with parameter defined in 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) specifications. The purpose of the thesis was to implement a simulator which can generate uplink signal as it is generated by UE. The Third Generation (3G) mobile system was given the name LTE. This thesis focus on the uplink of LTE where single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) is utilized as a multiple access technique. The advantage over the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is used in downlink is to get better peak power characteristics. Because in uplink communication better peak power characteristic is necessary for better power efficiency in mobile terminals. To access the performance of uplink transmition realistic channel model for wireless communication system is essential. Channel models used are proposed by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the correct knowledge of these models is important for testing, optimization and performance improvements of signal processing algorithms. The channel estimation techniques used are Least Square (LS) and Least Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) for different channel models. Performance of these algorithms has been measured in term of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

  • 6.
    Akram, Awais
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ahmad, Hamad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Potential of existing UMTS Signaling Data for Cell Phone Positioning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current era of telecommunication the usage of cellular network has increased rapidly. Number of different new services are introduced i.e. navigation, friend finder, internet browsing, nearby filling stations, shopping centers, traffic information and emergency services. Most of these services are location based and needs the information of particular area to provide the exact services.

    The addition of location based services in 3G network opens the new ways of using Mobile devices due to which cellular networks has faced number of challenges in providing better positioning accuracy which is the main requirement for location based services. To bear these challenges everyday new ways of finding the accurate position are introduced but most them required upgraded networks or highly equipped terminal.

    In this thesis the purpose is to find the potential in UMTS signaling data to estimate the position of the user equipment as accurate as possible using the legacy terminals. In this thesis SFN-SFN observed time difference is explored and used in Database Correlation Method (DCM) in network based positioning. This thesis is done by first analyzing the RSCP for the particular area to verify the conditions of FCC. The data is collected in real environment through test drive using TEMS investigation tool and the available measurement reports from the terminal are used to design and implement the DCM Algorithm. Two new approaches are introduced in this thesis SFN-SFN OTD and Hybrid. In Hybrid RSCP and SFN-SFN OTD are used together.

    In conclusion, the final results from the performed experiments show improvement in estimated position accuracy by Hybrid technique which is a new step in finding the position of user equipment by DCM.

  • 7.
    Ali, Ahmed
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A study of security in wireless and mobile payments2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile payments are increasing in popularity in recent years. New mobile solutions are being developed in the form of new Internet capable mobile devices such as the IPhone and new wireless networks such as the LTE and WiMAX networks.

    This report will present, explain and compare some of the most popular wireless networks that enable mobile payments, from a security point of view. The chosen networks are 3G with connection to GSM, and WLAN networks. The main security mechanisms involved in each network, and how they work will be studied. Security requirements and some of the most important threats each network faces will be presented and discussed. The main purpose of the report is to examine if mobile payments offer an acceptable level of security to the average user.

  • 8.
    Almquist, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almquist, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study on Android games: 3G energy consumption, CPU-utilization and system calls2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of mobile games has increased drastically during the recent years andmany people use them as their main source of entertainment. Mobile gamescommunicate with other devices over the network which consumes a lot of energy,especially when connected to cellular networks (e.g., 3G). This high energy expensecan feel unjustified to the player since always-on network connectivity is not requiredin order to play most games.Furthermore, the number of malware-infected applications in offical applicationstores has increased significantly in the recent years. These malware-infectedapplications can gain unrestricted access and control of users phones which can be athreat to security. Information about the behaviour characteristics of games can beused to develop or improve systems for detecting malware applications.In this thesis, 20 popular Android games are analysed with a focus on the datacommunication, CPU utilization and system call behaviour. The main subject of thedata communication study is the 3G communication energy consumed by games. Thesystem call study aims at quantifying the number and type of calls used by games.This may be useful in a further study of harmful behaviour by apps.The profiling results presented in this report show that the communication energyvaries drastically among games. Games with a very similar gameplay can consumevery different amounts of energy which indicates that there is room for improvementsin many of the games. Ad-free games consume significantly less energy than gamesthat use in-app advertisements. The results show that improving the advertisementfetching policy could reduce the energy consumption of these games. The majority ofthe games can be played without network connectivity and therefore thecommunication energy consumed could be completely avoided. The thesis alsoshows that games use a wide variety of system calls and that many of the system callsare common among the games.

  • 9.
    Almquist, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Almquist, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Analysis of 360° Video Viewing Behaviours2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study users' viewing motions when watching 360° videos in order to provide information that can be used to optimize future view-dependent streaming protocols. More specifically, we develop an application that plays a sequence of 360° videos on an Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display and records the orientation and rotation velocity of the headset during playback. The application is used during an extensive user study in order to collect more than 21 hours of viewing data which is then analysed to expose viewing patterns, useful for optimizing 360° streaming protocols. 

  • 10.
    Almquist, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Almquist, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Communication Energy Overhead of Mobiles Games2015In: MobiGames '15: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Mobile Gaming, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a significant proportion of the mobile apps are games there has been little attention paid to their specific characteristics with respect to communication energy. In this paper we select 20 mobile games among the top 100 free Android games, and study their data patterns and communication energy use over a total of 25 hours of playing. The analysis of the energy for communication over 3G networks indicates that there is a wide variation among the games, the largest footprint being 8 times higher than the lowest one. The results also indicates both app-specific and category-specific relations between data pattern and energy use, as well as variations in CPU utilisation.

  • 11.
    Almén, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Band structure computations for dispersive photonic crystals2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic crystals are periodic structures that offers the possibility to control the propagation of light.

    The revised plane wave method has been implemented in order to compute band structures for photonic crystals. The main advantage of the revised plane wave method is that it can handle lossless dispersive materials. This can not be done with a conventional plane wave method. The computational challenge is comparable to the conventional plane wave method.

    Band structures have been calculated for a square lattice of cylinders with different parameters. Both dispersive and non-dispersive materials have been studied as well as the influence of a surface roughness.

    A small surface roughness does not affect the band structure, whereas larger inhomogeneities affect the higher bands by lowering their frequencies.

  • 12.
    Amarasuriya, Gayan
    et al.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vincent Poor, H.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Multiway Massive MIMO Relay Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 3837-3855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer techniques for multiway massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks are investigated. By using two practically viable relay receiver designs, namely 1) the power splitting receiver and 2) the time switching receiver, asymptotic signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) expressions are derived for an unlimited number of antennas at the relay. These asymptotic SINRs are then used to derive asymptotic symmetric sum rate expressions in closed form. Notably, these asymptotic SINRs and sum rates become independent of radio frequency-to-direct current (RF-to-DC) conversion efficiency in the limit of infinitely many relay antennas. Moreover, tight average sum rate approximations are derived in closed form for finitely many relay antennas. The fundamental tradeoff between the harvested energy and the sum rate is quantified for both relay receiver structures. Notably, the detrimental impact of imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the MIMO detector/precoder is investigated, and thereby, the performance degradation caused by pilot contamination, which is the residual interference due to nonorthogonal pilot sequence usage in adjacent/cochannel systems, is quantified. The presence of cochannel interference (CCI) can be exploited to be beneficial for energy harvesting at the relay, and consequently, the asymptotic harvested energy is an increasing function of the number of cochannel interferers. Notably, in the genie-aided perfect CSI case, the detrimental impact of CCI for signal decoding can be cancelled completely whenever the number of relay antennas grows without bound. Nevertheless, the pilot contamination severely degrades the sum rate performance even for infinitely many relay antennas.

  • 13.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zorzi, Mikele
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Capacity Gains due to Orthogonal Spectrum Sharing in Multi-Operator LTE Cellular Networks2012In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), 2012, p. 286-290Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Static spectrum allocation leads to resource wastage and inter-operator spectrum sharing is a possible way to improve spectrum efficiency. In this work, we assume that two cellular network operators agree upon sharing part of their spectrum, which can then be dynamically accessed by either of them in a mutually exclusive way. Our goal is to numerically assess the gain, in terms of cell capacity, due to such orthogonal spectrum sharing. Hence, we propose a centralized algorithm that performs coordinated scheduling, in order to numerically evaluate an upper bound on the achievable sum capacity. The algorithm is centralized and exploits complete information on both networks to perform the optimum allocation. The simulation results illustrate the impact of the multiuser diversity and the asymmetry in the traffic load among the networks on the overall achievable gain.

  • 14.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Zhang, Haibin
    TNO ICT.
    Fahldieck, Torsten
    Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent.
    Zhang, Jianshu
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Szydelko, Michal
    Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+ .
    Schubert, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications HHI.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haardt, Martin
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Resource Allocation and Management in Multi-Operator Cellular Networks with Shared Physical Resources2012In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), IEEE , 2012, p. 296-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on next-generation cellular networks and discuss physical resources sharing among the operators. This implies cooperative usage of the available radio frequencies and also infrastructure sharing. In particular, we analyze the spectrum sharing gain achievable at different time scales and the main factors impacting on it. Then, we move towards a wider idea of resource sharing and consider a joint spectrum and infrastructure sharing (full sharing). We describe a two-layer resource management architecture that enables operators to reduce costs while still guaranteeing a good service level. The main findings of our investigations are to quantify the effectiveness of resource sharing and open up new perspectives for the operators of next-generation networks.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems.
    Algorithm for Handoff in VDL mode 42010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    VDL mode 4 is a digital data link operating in the VHF band, its mainly use is for the aviation industry.VDL4 can as an example provide with positioning data, speed information of aircrafts or vehicles equipped with a VDL4 transponder. A connection between the groundsystem and the airborne system is called a point to point connection, which can be used for various applications. This data link needs to be transferred between groundstations during flights in order maintain the connection, which is called handoff.

    The handoff process needs to be quick enough to not drop the link and at the same time a low rate of handoffs is desirable. The data link is regarded as a narrow resource and link management data for handoff is considered as overhead.

    This thesis studies how to make the handoff procedure optimal with respect to involved aspects. Previous research of handoff algorithms and models of the VHF-channel are treated. Standardized parameters and procedures in VDL4 and are explored in order to find an optimal solution for the handoff procedure in VDL4.

    The studied topics are analyzed and it is concluded to suggest an algorithm based on an adaptive hysteresis including signal quality and positioning data provided in VDL4. Standardized parameters which could be useful in the handoff procedure are commented, since the VDL4 standards are under development.

  • 16.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Askoxylakis, Ioannis
    FORTH, Institute of Computer Science, Greece.
    Fowler, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traganitis, Apostolos
    FORTH, Institute of Computer Science, Greece.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Security and Resilience in Cognitive Radio Networks2011In: European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics Magazine, ISSN 0926-4981, no 85, p. 48-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After more than a decade of research, system securityand resilience is now the major technological barrier forthe Cognitive Radio (CR) to be adopted by the telecommunication industry. New ideas are required tomake CR networks secure and robust against attacks taking advantage the inherent characteristics of the CR functionality. This work explores key points that urgentlyneed to be addressed.

  • 17.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Fully Decentralized and Load-Adaptive Fractional Frequency Reuse Scheme2011In: Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2011 IEEE 19th International Symposium on, 2011, p. 425-428Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new fully decentralized dynamic fractional frequency reuse (FFR)-based scheme for cellular OFDMA networks is introduced. FFR is a technique to mitigate inter-cell interference to improve the throughput of interference-limited users on the cell edge, to the expense of the rest of the cell's users and the aggregate throughput. The proposed scheme aims to limit the FFR-incurred loss of the center users' throughput, while still providing sufficient bandwidth for the cell edge users' communication. This is done by local information sharing and distributed optimization. The resulting flexibility of frequency reuse can be especially beneficial in scenarios with non-uniform and time-varying load. The optimization task is accomplished by solving a knapsack problem in each cell, where the goal is to maximize the center throughput while maintaining acceptable degradation on the cell edge with respect to the original FFR allocation. The performance improvement resulting from the distributed and dynamic FFR scheme is demonstrated by snapshot simulations on an 81-cells network with asymmetric cell load. The proposed scheme achieves up to a 62% gain in cell-center throughput with a cost of no more than 18% at the edges when compared to the classic FFR scheme. The overall system throughput improvement ranges from 22% to 58%.

  • 18.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Papadakis, Stefanos
    FORTH.
    Traganitis, Apostolos
    FORTH & UoC.
    Vasilios, Siris
    AUEB.
    Adjacent Channel Interference in 802.11a Is Harmful: Testbed Validation of a Simple Quantification Model2011In: IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE, ISSN 0163-6804, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 160-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless LAN radio interfaces based on the IEEE 802.11a standard have lately found widespread use in many wireless applications. A key reason for this was that although the predecessor, IEEE 802.11b/ g, had a poor channelization scheme, which resulted in strangling adjacent channel interference (ACI), 802.11a was widely believed to be ACI-free due to a better channelization combined with OFDM transmission. We show that this is not the case. ACI does exist in 802.11a, and we can quantify its magnitude and predict its results. For this, we present minor modifications of a simple model originally introduced by [1] that allow us to calculate bounding values of the 802.11a ACI, which can be used in link budget calculations. Using a laboratory testbed, we verify the estimations of the model, performing experiments designed to isolate the affected 802.11 mechanisms. This isolation was enabled by not using the wireless medium, and emulating it over cables and attenuators. Our results show clear throughput degradation because of ACI in 802.11a, the magnitude of which depends on the interfering data rates, packet sizes, and utilization of the medium.

  • 19.
    Arvanitaki, Antonia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pappas, Nikolaos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mohapatra, Parthajit
    Indian Inst Technol Tirupati, India.
    Carlsson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delay Performance of a Two-User Broadcast Channel with Security Constraints2018In: 2018 GLOBAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND NETWORKING SYMPOSIUM (GIIS), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the two-user broadcast channel with security constraints. We assume that one of the receivers has a secrecy constraint; i.e., its packets need to be kept secret from the other receiver. The receiver with secrecy constraint has full-duplex capability to transmit a jamming signal to increase its secrecy. We derive the average delay per packet and provide simulation and numerical results, where we compare different performance metrics for the cases when the legitimate receiver performs successive decoding and when both receivers treat interference as noise.

  • 20.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-scale Massive MIMO Network Evaluation Using Ray-based Deterministic Simulations2018In: 2018 IEEE 29TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale massive MIMO network deployments can provide higher spectral efficiency and better coverage for future communication systems like 5G. Due to the large number of antennas at the base station, the system achieves stable channel quality and spatially separable channels to the different users. In this paper, linear, planar, circular and cylindrical arrays are used in the evaluation of a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with outdoor and randomly distributed users. It is shown that the array configuration has a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays.

  • 21.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance of a dense urban massive MIMO network from a simulated ray-based channel2019In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO network deployments are expected to be a key feature of the upcoming 5G communication systems. Such networks are able to achieve a high level of channel quality and can simultaneously serve multiple users with the same resources. In this paper, realistic massive MIMO channels are evaluated both in single and multi-cell environments. The favorable propagation property is evaluated in the single-cell scenario and provides perspectives on the minimal criteria required to achieve such conditions. The dense multi-cell urban scenario provides a comparison between linear, planar, circular, and cylindrical arrays to evaluate a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with both randomly distributed outdoor and indoor users. It is shown that the physical array properties like the shape and configuration have a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system-level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays. The differences in the performance of the various arrays utilizing the exact same network parameters and the same number of total antenna elements provide insights into the selection of these physical parameters for upcoming 5G networks.

  • 22.
    Avazkonandeh Gharavol, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robust Joint Optimization of MIMO Interfering Relay Channels with Imperfect CSI2011In: 2001 4th IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2011, , p. 5p. 209-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we deal with the problem of the joint optimization of the precoders, equalizers and relay beamformer of a multiple-input multiple-output interfering relay channel. This network can be regarded az a generalized model for both one-way and two-way relay channels with/without direct interfering links. Unlike the conventional design procedures, we assume that the Channel State Information (CSI) is not known perfectly. The imperfect CSI is described using the norm bounded error framework. We use a system-wide Sum Mean Square Error (SMSE) based problem formulation which is constrained using the transmit power of the terminals and the relay node. The problem at hand, from a worst-case design perspective, is a multilinear, and hence, a nonconvex problem which is also semiinfinite in its constraints. We use a generalized version of the Peterson’s lemma to handle the semi-infiniteness and reduce the original problem to a single Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). However, this LMI is not convex, and to resolve this issue we propose an iterative algorithm based on the alternating convex search methodology to solve the aforementioned problem. Finally simulation results, i.e., the convergence of the proposed algorithm and the SMSE properties, are included to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  • 23.
    Avazkonandeh Gharavol, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robust Joint Optimization of Non-regenerative MIMO Relay Channels with Imperfect CSI2011In: Conference Record of the Forty Fifth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR), 2011, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 1589-1593Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of joint optimization of the source precoder, the relay beamformer and the destination equalizer in a nonregenerative relay network with only a partial knowledge of the Channel State Information (CSI).

    We model the partial CSI using a deterministic norm bounded error model, and we use a system-wide mean square error performance measure which is constrained based on the transmit power regulations for both source and relay nodes.

    Most conventional designs employ the average performance optimization, however, we solve this problem from a worst-case design perspective.

    The original problem formulation is a semi-infinite trilinear optimization problem which is not convex.

    To solve this problem we extend the existing theories to deal with the constraints which are semi-infinite in different independent complex matrix variables.

    We show that the equivalent approximate problem is a set of linear matrix inequalities, that can be solved iteratively.

    Finally simulation results assess the performance of the proposed scheme.

  • 24.
    Avgouleas, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    IoT Networking Resource Allocation and Cooperation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) promises that "anything that can be connected, will be connected". It comprises of Information and Communication Technologies that interconnect billions of physical and visual things with some "basic" intelligence. The emerging IoT services will be able to react with minimal human intervention and further contribute to the big data era that requires real-time, ultrareliable, ubiquitous, scalable, and heterogeneous operation.

    This thesis is the result of our investigations on problems dealing with the evolution of such technologies. First, we explore the potential of using relay i.e., intermediate, nodes that assist users to transmit their packets in a a cellular network. Paper I provides insights into how adapting the cooperation of the relay's receiver and transmitter optimizes the network-wide throughput while the relay's queue stability is guaranteed.

    The next part of the thesis copes with the resource allocation of services on IoT devices equipped with multiple network interfaces. The resources are heterogeneous and can be split among dierent interfaces. Additionally, they are not interchangeable. In paper II, we develop optimization models for this resource allocation problem, prove the complexity of the models, and derive results that give intuition into the problems. Moreover, we propose algorithms that approximate the optimal solution and show under which circumstances this is possible.

    Finally, in paper III, we present a resource allocation problem specically for smart cities services. In comparison to the previous problem denition, resources are of one type but the IoT network device can oer capacities that vary over time. Furthermore, services have a tolerance regarding their preferred scheduling, namely, their allocation over time. We parametrize each service with a pricing function to indicate its tolerance to be served at the beginning of the scheduling window. We prove that the problem is computationally hard and provide numerical results to gain insight into how different pricing weight functions impact the allocations' distribution within the scheduling window.

    List of papers
    1. Probabilistic Cooperation of a Full-Duplex Relay in Random Access Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Cooperation of a Full-Duplex Relay in Random Access Networks
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, p. 7394-7404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the probabilistic cooperation of a full-duplex relay in a multiuser random-access network. The relay is equipped with on/off modes for the receiver and the transmitter independently. These modes are modeled as probabilities by which the receiver and the transmitter are activated. We provide analytical expressions for the performance of the relay queue, such as arrival and service rates, stability conditions, and the average queue size. We optimize the relays operation setup to maximize the network-wide throughput while, simultaneously, we keep the relays queue stable and lower the relays receptions and transmissions. Furthermore, we study the effect of the SINR threshold and the self-interference coefficient on the per-user and network-wide throughput. For low SINR threshold, we show under which circumstances it is beneficial to switch off the relay completely, or switch off the relays receiver only.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2017
    Keywords
    Cooperative communication; relays; relay networks; multiaccess communication; multiple access interference; internet of things (IoT); internet; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); body sensor networks (BSNs)
    National Category
    Computer Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139423 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2642540 (DOI)000403140800053 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [609094, 612361]

    Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2019-05-09
    2. Allocation of Heterogeneous Resources of an IoT Device to Flexible Services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allocation of Heterogeneous Resources of an IoT Device to Flexible Services
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices can be equipped with multiple heterogeneous network interfaces. An overwhelmingly large amount of services may demand some or all of these interfaces available resources. Herein, we present a precise mathematical formulation of assigning services to interfaces with heterogeneous resources in one or more rounds. For reasonable instance sizes, the presented formulation produces optimal solutions for this computationally hard problem. We prove the NP-completeness of the problem and develop two algorithms to approximate the optimal solution for big instance sizes. The first algorithm allocates the most demanding service requirements first, considering the average cost of interfaces resources. The second one calculates the demanding resource shares and allocates the most demanding of them first by choosing randomly among equally demanding shares. Finally, we provide simulation results giving insight into services splitting over different interfaces for both cases.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
    Keywords
    Internet of Things (IoT); mixed integer linear programming; network interfaces; optimization; resource management; scheduling algorithms
    National Category
    Communication Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135000 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2016.2535163 (DOI)000393047800006 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Excellence Center at Linkoping-Lund in Information Technology; European Union [324515, 612316, 609094]

    Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
  • 25.
    Avgouleas, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pappas, Nikolaos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Scheduling Services on an IoT Device Under Time-Weighted Pricing2017In: Conference Proceedings IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC): Workshop on "Communications for Networked Smart Cities", IEEE conference proceedings, 2017, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging vision of smart cities necessitates the use of Internet of Things (IoT) network devices to implement sustainable solutions that will improve the operations of urban areas. A massive amount of smart cities services may demand allocation of computational resources, such as processing power or storage, that IoT devices offer. Within this context, we present an IoT network device comprising interfaces with one specific computational resource available. The efficient utilization of available IoT resources would improve the Quality of Service (QoS) of the IoT network that serves the smart city. All resource allocations must be completed within a given scheduling window and every service is parametrized by a pricing weight function to indicate its tolerance to be served at the beginning of the scheduling window. We propose a mathematical optimization formulation to minimize the total cost of allocating all demands within the scheduling window considering the tolerance level of each service at the same time. Moreover, we prove that the problem is computationally hard and we provide numerical results to gain insight into the impact of different pricing weight functions on the allocations’ distribution within the scheduling window.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Novak, Cynthia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Support for Cell Broadcast as Global Emergency Alert System2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cell Broadcast (CB) is a possible technical realisation of a global emergency alert system. It is a technique used for sending short text messages to all mobile stations (MSs) in a defined geographical area. An potential effect of using CB is the increase in battery consumption of the MS due to the fact that an extra channel has to be used to make the service available even when the network is otherwise congested. Another part of the service which leads to a potential problem is making CB messages available in different languages. Investigating these problems is the objective of this thesis and the studies it includes. During the first part of the thesis, we measured the battery consumption of MSs in different modes of operation in order to analyse how CB affects the amount of current drained. The tests showed that battery consumption increased only slightly when CB messages were being received at the MS. Although some of the results can be, and are, discussed, we believe that CB would have a small effect on the power consumption of an MS, particularly in a context where it would be used for emergency warning messages only. This mentioned, it would however be wishful to confirm the conclusions further through the realisation of long-term testing. The second part of the thesis deals with the investigation of the MSs’ support for CB messages with different coding schemes. Based on the investigation’s result, we have come to the conclusion that in the long term the usage of different coding schemes on the same channel is preferred. However, the usage of one, global, emergency channel is hard to realise since that requires a standardisation between all countries. In our opinion this may be achieved first in the long run and until then, the usage of separate channels seems to be necessary.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Uplink Interference Management of High Bit Rate Users in Evolved WCDMA2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The WCDMA air interface, used in the third generation mobile communication systems, is currently being evolved to improve the uplink, i.e. the radio links carrying traffic from the mobile user to the fixed network. An enhanced uplink concept is being developed to meet the expected needs from future applications like multimedia and video-streaming. This thesis studies interference management when high bit rates are introduced in the enhanced uplink. The study is performed through theoretical assessments and simulations using WCDMA system simulators.

    An optimization scheme using a basic system throughput based scheduling is derived to attain a theoretical assessment of bit rate limits. The throughput optimization is achieved at the expense of user-experienced fairness. Users located on cell coverage area overlap show to be most complicated to manage.

    The need for interference management is primary when the network deployment consists of small cells while coverage requirements are most essential when the cell size increases. By exploiting the benefits of directional antennas the antenna tilt can be tuned to increase performance resulting in increased bit rates, increased system throughput and increased resource efficiency. The improvements are attained without trade-offs and the different components of the study concur unanimously.

  • 28.
    Bashar, Manijeh
    et al.
    Univ York, England.
    Quoc Ngo, Hien
    Queens Univ Belfast, North Ireland.
    Burr, Alister G.
    Univ York, England.
    Maryopi, Dick
    Univ York, England.
    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai
    Univ York, England.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the Performance of Backhaul Constrained Cell-Free Massive MIMO with Linear Receivers2018In: 2018 CONFERENCE RECORD OF 52ND ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2018, p. 624-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited-backhaul cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), in which the fog radio access network (F-RAN) is implemented to exchange the information between access points (APs) and the central processing unit (CPU), is investigated. We introduce a novel approach where the APs estimate the channel and send back the quantized version of the estimated channel and the quantized version of the received signal to the central processing unit. The Max algorithm and the Bussgang theorem are exploited to model the optimum uniform quantization. The ergodic achievable rates are derived. We show that exploiting microwave wireless backhaul links and using a small number of hits to quantize the estimated channel and the received signal, the performance of limited-backhaul cell-free Massive MIMO closely approaches the performance of cell-free Massive MIMO with perfect backhaul links.

  • 29.
    Bayarri Portolés, Laia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    Lossles Compression of ECG signals: Performance Analysis in a Wireless Network2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multimedia and digital systems there is a need toreduce the cost of storage and transmission of information. The storage requirementsfor long signals like 24-hour heart monitoring are very large sosignal compression is often employed. The cost reduction achieved throughcompression leads to a reduction in the amount of data that represents theinformation. At the same time, once the decompression procedure is done,the resulting signal must contain enough detail for the cardiologist to be ableto identify irregularities. \Lossy"compressors may hide such details, whereas\lossless" compressor preserves the signal exactly as captured.

    This thesis researches into the performance of several lossless compressionalgorithms widely used for image coding. The dierent compressiontechniques are evaluated not only in terms of compression ratio and compressionand decompression bandwidths achieved but also based on theirperformance when the compressed data must be sent over any of the availablewireless networks.

    This thesis documents the work of a master's degree project carried outduring the spring of 2009. The project is part of a research project withinthe Department of Biomedical Engineering at Linkopings Universitet. Theproject aims at researching and developing a data compression model fortransmitting medical signals. The model should be feasible and it shouldprove the advantages of data compression. These implementations are intendedto be used within a larger system allowing a patient to transmitmedical data from a remote location.

  • 30.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Available-Bandwidth Estimation in Packet-Switched Communication Networks2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents novel methods that are able to perform real-time estimation of the available bandwidth of a network path. In networks such as the Internet, knowledge of bandwidth characteristics is of great significance in, e.g., network monitoring, admission control, and audio/video streaming.

    The term bandwidth describes the amount of information a network can deliver per unit of time. For network end users, it is only feasible to obtain bandwidth properties of a path by actively probing the network with probe packets, and to perform estimation based on received measurements. In this thesis, two active-probing based methods for real-time available-bandwidth estimation are presented and evaluated.

    The first method, BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time), uses Kalman filtering for the analysis of received probe packets. BART is examined analytically and through experiments which are carried out in wired and wireless laboratory networks as well as over the Internet and commercial mobile broadband networks. The opportunity of tuning the Kalman filter and enhancing the performance by introducing change detection are investigated in more detail. Generally, the results show accurate estimation with only modest computational efforts and minor injections of probe packets.

    However, it is possible to identify weaknesses of BART, and a summary of these as well as general problems and challenges in the field of available-bandwidth estimation are laid out in the thesis. The second method, E-MAP (Expectation-Maximization Active Probing), is designed to overcome some of these issues. E-MAP modifies the active-probing scheme of BART and utilizes the expectation-maximization algorithm before filtering is used to generate a bandwidth estimate.

    Overall, this thesis shows that in many cases it is achievable to obtain efficient and reliable real-time estimation of available bandwidth by using light-weight analysis techniques and negligible probe-traffic overhead. Hence, this opens up exciting new possibilities for a range of applications and services in communication networks.

  • 31.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Performance Study of Bandwidth Measurement Tools over Mobile Connections2009In: 2009 IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference Spring: Proceedings, IEEE , 2009, p. 2978-2982Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the present available bandwidth on a network path is essential in numerous contexts, such as network management and streaming applications. A network path nowadays often contains at least one wireless link. This is obviously true for mobile users having a wireless connection to the Internet through a laptop or mobile terminal. The existing tools for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth are developed and optimized for paths with only guided media links. Since the characteristics for wired links and radio links differ in many aspects, such as fluctuations in capacity and stability, the network tools need to be evaluated also for network paths containing wireless links. In this investigation we have performed experiments over a high-speed downlink UMTS channel. This makes the present paper unique in the sense that it evaluates and analyzes the applicability of available-bandwidth measurement tools over a radio interface in a wide-area mobile communication network. For the experiments, a commercial mobile network has been used. The measurements show that it is feasible to achieve reliable estimates under certain circumstances. However, some cases pose challenges which motivate further studies.

  • 32.
    Bergquist, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    CPM for RLS system2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this thesis is to create a continuous phase modulated radio system with a recursive least square equalizer. The two tested channel models are typical urban and rural area. The result of the performance of this radio system is displayed in Matlab plots as the bit error rate. Three error rates are displayed; with error correction, without error correction and the rate of received incorrect message bursts. Conclusions are also drawn of the performance of the radio system in kbit/sec of bandwidth when the different channel models are used. The performance is also divided into how the equalizer handles inter symbol interference or a fading channel without inter symbol interference.

  • 33.
    Bergström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ericsson Research.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ericsson Research.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    TOA Estimation Improvements in Multipath Environments by Measurement Error Models2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many positioning systems rely on accuratetime of arrival measurements. In this paper, we addressnot only the accuracy but also the relevance of Time ofArrival (TOA) measurement error modeling. We discusshow better knowledge of these errors can improve relativedistance estimation, and compare the impact of differentlydetailed measurement error information. These models arecompared in simulations based on models derived froman Ultra Wideband (UWB) measurement campaign. Theconclusion is that significant improvements can be madewithout providing detailed received signal information butwith a generic and relevant measurement error model.

  • 34.
    Beyer, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Suraprapapich, S.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, USA .
    Tu, C. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, USA .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strong room-temperature optical and spin polarization in InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 20, p. 203110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Room-temperature optical and spin polarization up to 35% is reported in InAs/GaAs quantum dots in zero magnetic field under optical spin injection using continuous-wave optical orientation spectroscopy. The observed strong spin polarization is suggested to be facilitated by a shortened trion lifetime, which constrains electron spin relaxation. Our finding provides experimental demonstration of the highly anticipated capability of semiconductor quantum dots as highly polarized spin/light sources and efficient spin detectors, with efficiency greater than 35% in the studied quantum dots.

  • 35.
    Bjärmark, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Strandberg, Marco
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Hardware Accelerator for Duo-binary CTC decoding: Algorithm Selection, HW/SW Partitioning and FPGA Implementation2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication is always struggling with errors in the transmission. The digital data received from the radio channel is often erroneous due to thermal noise and fading. The error rate can be lowered by using higher transmission power or by using an effective error correcting code. Power consumption and limits for electromagnetic radiation are two of the main problems with handheld devices today and an efficient error correcting code will lower the transmission power and therefore also the power consumption of the device.

    Duo-binary CTC is an improvement of the innovative turbo codes presented in 1996 by Berrou and Glavieux and is in use in many of today's standards for radio communication i.e. IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) and DVB-RSC. This report describes the development of a duo-binary CTC decoder and the different problems that were encountered during the process. These problems include different design issues and algorithm choices during the design.

    An implementation in VHDL has been written for Alteras Stratix II S90 FPGA and a reference-model has been made in Matlab. The model has been used to simulate bit error rates for different implementation alternatives and as bit-true reference for the hardware verification.

    The final result is a duo-binary CTC decoder compatible with Alteras Stratix II designs and a reference model that can be used when simulating the decoder alone or the whole signal processing chain. Some of the features of the hardware are that block sizes, puncture rates and number of iterations are dynamically configured between each block Before synthesis it is possible to choose how many decoders that will work in parallel and how many bits the soft input will be represented in. The circuit has been run in 100 MHz in the lab and that gives a throughput around 50Mbit with four decoders working in parallel. This report describes the implementation, including its development, background and future possibilities.

  • 36.
    Björklund, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applications of Resource Optimization in Wireless Networks2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for wireless communications is increasing every year, but the available resources are not increasing at the same rate. It is very important that the radio resources are used in an efficient way allowing the networks to support as many users as possible. The three types of networks studied in this thesis are frequency hopping GSM networks, ad hoc multi-hop networks and WCDMA networks.

    One type of network with a promising future is ad hoc multi-hop networks. The users in this kind of networks communicate with each other without base stations. Instead the signal can be sent directly between two users, or relayed over one or several other users before the final destination is reached. Resources are shared by letting the users transmit in time slots. The problem studied is to minimize the number of time slots used, when the users broadcast. Two different optimization models are developed for assigning time slots to the users. A reduction of the number of time slots means a shorter delay for a user to transmit next time.

    The rapid growth of the number of subscribers in cellular networks requires efficient cell planning methods. The trend of smaller cell sizes in urban areas for higher capacity raise the need for more efficient spectrum usage. Since the infrastructure of a second generation cellular system, such as GSM, already exists, and the available bandwidth of an operator is limited, frequency planning methods are of utmost importance. Because of the limited bandwidth in a GSM network, the frequencies must be reused. When planning a GSM network the frequencies can not be reused too tightly due to interference. The frequency planning problem in a GSM network is a very complex task. In this thesis an optimization model for frequency assignment in a frequency hopping GSM network is developed. The problem is to assign frequencies to the cells in the network, while keeping the interference to a minimum. Different meta heuristic methods such as tabu search and simulated annealing are used to solve the problem. The results show that the interference levels can be reduced to allow a capacity increase.

    The demand for sending more information over the wireless communication systems requires more bandwidth. Voice communication was handled well by the second generation cellular systems. The third generation of mobile telecommunication systems will handle data transmissions in a greater extent. The last type of network considered in the thesis is a WCDMA cellular network. The aim is to schedule the transmission of packet data from the base station to the users. Scheduling models that maximize the utility are developed for both the downlink shared channel and the high speed downlink shared channel.

  • 37.
    Björkman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Architecture for a remote diagnosis system used in heavy-duty vehicles2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnosis system of a Scania vehicle is an indispensable tool for workshop personnel and engineers in their work. Today Scania has a system for fetching diagnostic information from field test vehicles remotely and store them in a database, so called remote diagnosis. This saves the engineers much time by not having to visit every vehicle. The system uses a Windows based on-board PC in the vehicle called an Interactor. The Interactor has a telematic unit for communication with Scanias Fleet Management System and the CAN-bus in the vehicle. In the next generation of the Interactor, its telematic unit is to be replaced by a Linux based telematic unit called the Communicator 200 (C200). The purpose of this master project is to create a new architecture for a remote diagnosis system that uses the new telematic unit Communicator 200.


    The thesis gives an analysis of the current remote diagnosis system used at Scania and proposes an architecture for a new generation remote diagnosis system using the C200. Also a system for demonstrating how to perform remote diagnosis over the C200 has been built. The thesis describes the operation and how the demonstration system was implemented.

  • 38.
    Björnson, Emil
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Kountouris, Marios
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO Systems with Non-Ideal Hardware: Energy Efficiency, Estimation, and Capacity Limits2014In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 7112-7139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of large-scale antenna arrays can bring substantial improvements in energy and/or spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to the greatly improved spatial resolution and array gain. Recent works in the field of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) show that the user channels decorrelate when the number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) increases, thus strong signal gains are achievable with little interuser interference. Since these results rely on asymptotics, it is important to investigate whether the conventional system models are reasonable in this asymptotic regime. This paper considers a new system model that incorporates general transceiver hardwareimpairments at both the BSs (equipped with large antenna arrays) and the single-antenna user equipments (UEs). As opposed to the conventional case of ideal hardware, we show that hardwareimpairments create finite ceilings on the channel estimation accuracy and on the downlink/uplink capacity of each UE. Surprisingly, the capacity is mainly limited by the hardware at the UE, while the impact of impairments in the large-scale arrays vanishes asymptotically and interuser interference (in particular, pilot contamination) becomes negligible. Furthermore, we prove that the huge degrees of freedom offered by massive MIMO can be used to reduce the transmit power and/or to tolerate larger hardware impairments, which allows for the use of inexpensive and energy-efficient antenna elements.

  • 39.
    Björnson, Emil
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Ottersten, Björn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Multi-Objective Signal Processing Optimization: The Way to Balance Conflicting Metrics in 5G Systems2014In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cellular networks is driven by the dream of ubiquitous wireless connectivity: any data service is instantly accessible everywhere. With each generation of cellular networks, we have moved closer to this wireless dream; first by delivering wireless access to voice communications, then by providing wireless data services, and recently by delivering a Wi-Fi-like experience with wide-area coverage and user mobility management. The support for high data rates has been the main objective in recent years [1], as seen from the academic focus on sum-rate optimization and the efforts from standardization bodies to meet the peak rate requirements specified in IMT-Advanced. In contrast, a variety of metrics/objectives are put forward in the technological preparations for fifth-generation (5G) networks: higher peak rates, improved coverage with uniform user experience, higher reliability and lower latency, better energy efficiency (EE), lower-cost user devices and services, better scalability with number of devices, etc. These multiple objectives are coupled, often in a conflicting manner such that improvements in one objective lead to degradation in the other objectives. Hence, the design of future networks calls for new optimization tools that properly handle the existence of multiple objectives and tradeoffs between them.

  • 40.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Paris Saclay, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Massive MIMO Has Unlimited Capacity2018In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 574-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of cellular networks can be improved by the unprecedented array gain and spatial multiplexing offered by Massive MIMO. Since its inception, the coherent interference caused by pilot contamination has been believed to create a finite capacity limit, as the number of antennas goes to infinity. In this paper, we prove that this is incorrect and an artifact from using simplistic channel models and suboptimal precoding/combining schemes. We show that with multicell MMSE precoding/combining and a tiny amount of spatial channel correlation or large-scale fading variations over the array, the capacity increases without bound as the number of antennas increases, even under pilot contamination. More precisely, the result holds when the channel covariance matrices of the contaminating users are asymptotically linearly independent, which is generally the case. If also the diagonals of the covariance matrices are linearly independent, it is sufficient to know these diagonals (and not the full covariance matrices) to achieve an unlimited asymptotic capacity.

  • 41.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy / CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO Networks: Spectral, Energy, and Hardware Efficiency2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) is the latest technology that will improve the speed and throughput of wireless communication systems for years to come. Whilst there may be some debate over the origins of the term Massive MIMO and what it precisely means, this monograph describes in detail how the research conducted in the past decades lead to a scalable multiantenna technology that offers great throughput and energy efficiency under practical conditions. Written for students, practicing engineers and researchers who want to learn the conceptual and analytical foundations of Massive MIMO, in terms of spectral, energy, and/or hardware efficiency, as well as channel estimation and practical considerations, it provides a clear and tutorial like exposition of all the major topics. It also connects the dots of the research literature covering numerous topics not easily found therein. Massive MIMO Networks is the first monograph on the subject to cover the spatial chan el correlation and consider rigorous signal processing design essential for the complete understanding by its target audience.

  • 42.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Three Practical Aspects of Massive MIMO: Intermittent User Activity, Pilot Synchronism, and Asymmetric Deployment2015In: 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers three aspects of Massive MIMO (multiple- input multiple-output) communication networks that have received little attention in previous works, but are important to understand when designing and implementing this promising wireless technology. First, we analyze how bursty data traffic behaviors affect the system. Using a probabilistic model for intermittent user activity, we show that the spectral efficiency (SE) scales gracefully with reduced user activity. Then, we make an analytic comparison between synchronous and asynchronous pilot signaling, and prove that the choice between these has no impact on the SE. Finally, we provide an analytical and numerical study of the SE achieved with random network deployment.

  • 43.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Optimizing Multi-Cell Massive MIMO for Spectral Efficiency: How Many Users Should Be Scheduled?2014In: 2014 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, GlobalSIP 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, p. 612-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO is a promising technique to increase the spectral efficiency of cellular networks, by deploying antenna arrays with hundreds or thousands of active elements at the base stations and performing coherent beamforming. A common rule-of-thumb is that these systems should have an order of magnitude more antennas, N, than scheduled users, K, because the users' channels are then likely to be quasi-orthogonal. However, it has not been proved that this rule-of-thumb actually maximizes the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we analyze how the optimal number of scheduled users, K*, depends on N and other system parameters. The value of K* in the large-N regime is derived in closed form, while simulations are used to show what happens at finite N, in different interference scenarios, and for different beamforming.

  • 44.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Matthaiou, Michail
    Chalmers, Sweden; Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO with Non-Ideal Arbitrary Arrays: Hardware Scaling Laws and Circuit-Aware Design2015In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4353-4368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are cellular networks where the base stations (BSs) are equipped with unconventionally many antennas, deployed on co-located or distributed arrays. Huge spatial degrees-of-freedom are achieved by coherent processing over these massive arrays, which provide strong signal gains, resilience to imperfect channel knowledge, and low interference. This comes at the price of more infrastructure; the hardware cost and circuit power consumption scale linearly/affinely with the number of BS antennas N  . Hence, the key to cost-efficient deployment of large arrays is low-cost antenna branches with low circuit power, in contrast to today's conventional expensive and power-hungry BS antenna branches. Such low-cost transceivers are prone to hardware imperfections, but it has been conjectured that the huge degrees-of-freedom would bring robustness to such imperfections. We prove this claim for a generalized uplink system with multiplicative phase-drifts, additive distortion noise, and noise amplification. Specifically, we derive closed-form expressions for the user rates and a scaling law that shows how fast the hardware imperfections can increase with N  while maintaining high rates. The connection between this scaling law and the power consumption of different transceiver circuits is rigorously exemplified. This reveals that one can make the circuit power increase as N − −  √   , instead of linearly, by careful circuit-aware system design

  • 45.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthaiou, Michail
    Chalmers, Sweden; Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Pitarokoilis, Antonios
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Distributed Massive MIMO in Cellular Networks: Impact of Imperfect Hardware and Number of Oscillators2015In: 23rd European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 2436-2440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combines the array gain of coherent MIMO processing with the proximity gains of distributed antenna setups. In this paper, we analyze how transceiver hardware impairments affect the downlink with maximum ratio transmission. We derive closed-form spectral efficiencies expressions and study their asymptotic behavior as the number of the antennas increases. We prove a scaling law on the hardware quality, which reveals that massive MIMO is resilient to additive distortions, while multiplicative phase noise is a limiting factor. It is also better to have separate oscillators at each antenna than one per BS

  • 46.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; CentraleSupelec, France.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Bell Labs, Germany.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Multi-User MIMO Systems: Is Massive MIMO the Answer?2015In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 3059-3075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assume that a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is designed from scratch to uniformly cover a given area with maximal energy efficiency (EE). What are the optimal number of antennas, active users, and transmit power? The aim of this paper is to answer this fundamental question. We consider jointly the uplink and downlink with different processing schemes at the base station and propose a new realistic power consumption model that reveals how the above parameters affect the EE. Closed-form expressions for the EE-optimal value of each parameter, when the other two are fixed, are provided for zero-forcing (ZF) processing in single-cell scenarios. These expressions prove how the parameters interact. For example, in sharp contrast to common belief, the transmit power is found to increase (not to decrease) with the number of antennas. This implies that energy-efficient systems can operate in high signal-to-noise ratio regimes in which interference-suppressing signal processing is mandatory. Numerical and analytical results show that the maximal EE is achieved by a massive MIMO setup wherein hundreds of antennas are deployed to serve a relatively large number of users using ZF processing. The numerical results show the same behavior under imperfect channel state information and in symmetric multi-cell scenarios.

  • 47.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; CentraleSupelec, France.
    Kountouris, Marios
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Designing Wireless Broadband Access for Energy Efficiency: Are Small Cells the Only Answer?2015In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATION WORKSHOP, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 136-141Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van der Perre, Liesbet
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Buzzi, Stefano
    Univ Cassino and Lazio Merid, Italy; CNIT, Italy.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massive MIMO in Sub-6 GHz and mmWave: Physical, Practical, and Use-Case Differences2019In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of base stations (BSs) and access points (APs) with a large number of antennas, called Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output), is a key technology for increasing the capacity of 5G networks and beyond. While originally conceived for conventional sub-6 GHz frequencies, Massive MIMO (mMIMO) is also ideal for frequency bands in the range 30-300 GHz, known as millimeter wave (mmWave). Despite conceptual similarities, the way in which mMIMO can be exploited in these bands is radically different, due to their specific propagation behaviors and hardware characteristics. This article reviews these differences and their implications, while dispelling common misunderstandings. Building on this foundation, we suggest appropriate signal processing schemes and use cases to efficiently exploit mMIMO in both frequency bands.

  • 49.
    Blad, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axell, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in the Presence of CFO: New Algorithms and Empirical Evaluation Using USRP2012In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), IEEE , 2012, p. 159-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we consider spectrum sensing of OFDM signals. We deal withthe inevitable problem of a carrier frequency offset, and propose modificationsto some state-of-the-art detectors to cope with that. Moreover, the (modified)detectors are implemented using GNU radio and USRP, and evaluated over aphysical radio channel. Measurements show that all of the evaluated detectorsperform quite well, and the preferred choice of detector depends on thedetection requirements and the radio environment.

  • 50.
    Blom, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Pure Ciphers1979Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The algebraic structure of the set of enciphering trans formations of a pure cipher is analysed. An alternative definition of pure ciphers is given and necessary and sufficient conditions for the product of two pure ciphers to be pure is found.

1234567 1 - 50 of 331
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf