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  • 1.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, no 4, 70-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Koning av båtmaster: Undersökning av möjligheter till effektivisering2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Taper making of boat masts is currently made with high work- and cassation costs. The main reasons are complex settings and varied demand, another is the craft like production method which makes the fixture use low.

    Due to a higher demand when new masts are being produced the work cost will sink relative to the turnover given that the workforce is unchanged. This assumes a higher productivity in the fixtures.

    To adapt the production to a higher demand and lower cassation costs measures will have to be made. A measure related to lower cassation costs is standardisation of the rail steering. To reduce the time for taper making the measure preloading is the single most affecting measure.

    The production of boat masts varies highly over the year with a top rate in spring and bottom rate in the winter. Taper making is also very craft like which makes the volume flexibility low due to the skill of the operators. Currently there are three operators who fully possess the ability. The others, mainly at another function of the mast division, can only relieve the taper operator.

    Among the suggested measures open fixture is mentioned in order to reduce the handling of masts. Currently, when handling longer masts, an AGV will have to be stopped by the operator in due to avoid collision. This problem occurs because of the fact that the fixture is being loaded in the length direction of the mast. With a new fixture, capable of cross loading, the time for handling will be reduced but the amount of time is difficult to estimate.

  • 3.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, 519-524 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, no 15, 1251-1263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-17 17:02
  • 5.
    Alayón González, Claudia Juliana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Research Trends in Quality Management over the years 2010-20112012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In current globalized and highly demanding markets, Quality does not constitute any more a competitive advantage for organizations. Instead, Quality represents a basic market entry requirement for organizations indistinguishable from the country or economic sector they belong to.

    Being conscious of the importance of Quality for all type of organizations, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the identification and better understanding of current trends in academic research on Quality Management. By analyzing a sample of 612 academic papers collected from five international Quality journals and two QMOD international conferences over 2010 and 2011, the author will study and reflect on the current trends of global academic research related to Quality Management.

    Literature review was used as research methodology for the thesis. Academic papers were categorized, classified and analyzed in order to identify current research trends on Quality Management.

    This work provides a snapshot of the current research trends on Quality Management. It benefits the educational sector, researchers, industry and practitioners by presenting an overview of the current research needs as well as potential future research topics.

    As a result of this study, five main trending research topics on Quality Management were identified: management systems standards, total quality management, service quality, customer related processes after delivering product/service and excellence models.

    China, India, USA, Sweden and UK were identified as the countries that have published the highest number of academic papers in international Quality journals during the studied period. Additionally, it was found a marked predominance of academic research on Quality Management towards the service sector.

    These results and the answers to five proposed research questions were discussed and solved in this report.

  • 6.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differences in Situational Awareness and How to Manage Them in Development of Complex Systems2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What’s up, Doc? Situational awareness (SA) is about being aware of what is going on. Already when a complex system is developed there is an opportunity to help a future user of the system to form a better SA. Let us make the best out of this opportunity! When assessing SA, differences in SA will sometimes appear. This dissertation is about SA, and how to manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. This topic is highly valid for development of a variety of complex systems, although most examples in this dissertation are from the aviation domain.

    Framed by state of the art literature, suggestions are made on theoretical improvements of SA theory, with a focus on differences. The difference between what you are required to be aware of and what you are aware of is suggested as a SA-indicator. Also, the difference between what you are aware of and what you think you are aware of is suggested as another SA-indicator. Further, differences within a team such as variations in degree of agreement could be used for team SA assessment.

    Also, the term situation management (SM) is suggested, with a proposed wider meaning than SA, including SA and every part of the perception action cycle, the management of mental resources, and external means of managing the situation. SM is a suitable term when developing complex systems due to the focus on the situation and how that could be managed, instead of only focusing on what is perceived by an individual or team.

    Assessing differences in SA and to differentiate between various types of differences are recognised as important prerequisites to effectively manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. Several assessment techniques are reviewed and especially advantages and disadvantages of the use of eye movements for SA assessment are described. With reference to the literature as well as to the appended papers differences in SA due to a) design alternatives, b) roles in the design-use process, c) context, and d) level of analysis, are described. Differences in SA are suggested to be regarded as both quantitative (i.e. high or low SA) and qualitative (e.g. various aspects of a situation are regarded).

    Approaches such as, SM, on-line evaluation of SA, simulator based design, as well as measuring and analysing SA on multiple levels simultaneously, are suggested as means to manage differences in SA in the development of complex systems.

    List of papers
    1. Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Show others...
    1999 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, Vol. 20, no 4, 171-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the multi-role combat aircraft Gripen, the monochrome head-down displays in the cockpit are to be upgraded in colour. In the present study, the effects of colour-coded displays on visual search and situation awareness (SA) were studied in a real-time simulation of an air-to-air mission with test pilots as subjects. Gripen's monochrome colour scheme was compared to two chromatic (dichrome, polychrome) colour schemes. A 3×2×2 factorial within subjects design was used; the three colour schemes each with two different background conditions (simple and complex) and two different symbol configurations. The pilot had two tasks during the simulation: (1) to track a manoeuvring aircraft within specified limits by using the head-up display (HUD), and (2) to detect the appearance of a priority target on the head-down horizontal-situation display (HSD). Deviations in flight path angle and reaction times for target detection were recorded. After the test runs, the pilot answered questions and ranked the colour schemes in different respects. The pilot also rated them for SA using a subjective rating technique on cognitive compatibility (CC-SART). The results show that colour is advantageous in comparison to the monochrome display: The ranks on situation awareness and preference ratings were higher for the chromatic schemes, and with the complex background, the reaction times were significantly lower for the polychrome colour code. In summary, the results indicate that colour can improve tactical SA in combat aircraft.

    Keyword
    Human factors, Aviation, Moving map cockpit displays, Horizontal-situation displays, Electronic maps, Colour coding
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12751 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00022-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, 172-181 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12752 (URN)
    Conference
    10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Linköping, Sweden, 21-23 August 2000
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    2006 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, Vol. 16, no 3, 263-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12753 (URN)10.1207/s15327108ijap1603_2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    2007 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12754 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-04-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    2002 (English)In: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, 494-502 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12755 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    2007 (English)In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, 337-358 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2013-06-28Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulator-Based Design: Methodology and vehicle display application2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-in-the-loop simulators have long been used in the research community as well as in industry. The aviation field has been the pioneers in the use of simulators for design purposes. In contrast, corresponding activities in the automotive area have been less widespread. Published reports on experimental activities based on human-in-the-loop simulations have focused on methods used in the study, but nobody seems to have taken a step back and looked at the wider methodological picture of Simulator-Based Design. The purpose of this thesis is to fill this gap by drawing, in part, upon the author’s long experience in this field.

    In aircraft and lately also in ground vehicles there has been a technology shift from pure mechanics to computer-based systems. The physical interface has turned into screen-based solutions. This trend towards glass has just begun for ground vehicles. This development in vehicle technology has opened the door for new design approaches, not only for design itself, but also for the development process. Simulator-Based Design (SBD) is very compatible with this trend. The first part of this thesis proposes a structure for the process of SBD and links it to the corresponding methodology for software design.

    In the second part of the thesis the focus changes from methodology to application and specifically to the design of three-dimensional situation displays. Such displays are supposed to support the human operator with a view of a situation beyond the more or less limited visual range. In the aircraft application interest focuses on the surrounding air traffic in the light of the evolving free-flight concept, where responsibility for separation between aircraft will be (partly) transferred from ground-based flight controllers to air crews. This new responsibility must be supported by new technology and the situational view must be displayed from the perspective of the aircraft. Some basic design questions for such 3D displays were investigated resulting in an adaptive interface approach, where the current situation and task govern the details of information presentation.

    The thesis also discusses work on situation displays for ground vehicles. The most prominent example may be the Night Vision system, where the road situation ahead is depicted on a screen in the cab. The existing systems are based on continuous presentation, an approach that we have questioned, since there is strong evidence for negative behavioral adaptation. This means, for example, that the driver will drive faster, since vision has been enhanced, and thereby consume the safety margins that the system was supposed to deliver. Our investigation supports a situation-dependant approach and no continuous presentation.

    In conclusion, the results from our simulator-based studies showed advantages for adaptive interface solutions. Such design concepts are much more complicated than traditional static interfaces. This finding emphasizes the need for more dynamic design resources in order to have a complete understanding of the situation-related interface changes. The use of human-in-the-loop simulators and deployment of Simulator-Based Design will satisfy this need.

  • 8.
    Alriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Aronsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Cross-functional Co-operation for Improved Product Development: - a case study at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and analyze relevant dimensions of cooperation between design and production related to product development. The study also focuses on suggesting improvements of the co-operation dimensions between production departments and the product development departments in the Product Development Process (PDP) at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB). SIT AB produces gas and steam turbines. Their increasing production pace and increasing number of product development projects have highlighted the importance of improved co-operations between departments within the company.

    We have developed an analysis model including the dimensions of co-operation we found relevant for the study. These are Timing of Upstream – Downstream Activities; Richness & Quality of Information; Frequency of Information Transmission; Direction of Communication; Formalization of Communication; Organizational Support; Goal Optimization; Attitudes in Cross-functional Teams; and Understanding of Tasks.

    For product development SIT AB follows an extensive process; the PDP. This is a sequential process where all activities are performed in sequence and therefore it obstructs the implementation of Concurrent Engineering. Concurrent Engineering aims to shorten development time and to consider the total job as a whole by performing independent activities in parallel. Hence, we argue that SIT AB should work toward a more integrated process with more parallel activities.

    The performance in all the dimensions of co-operation differ between large and small projects since the co-operation in large projects work much better than in small projects due to better followed process description; more face-to-face discussions; a better balance between informal and formal communication; and more focus on project goals and team building.

    The improvement proposals are presented in a separate chapter as actions classified according to the potential impact on the organization and the estimated difficulty to implement them. The proposals include for example: training more project managers; initiate work shop practice for design engineers; and give more and better explanations of decisions and actions.

  • 9.
    Altrén, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Lyth, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Solvency II - A compliance burden or an opportunity for the Swedish non-life insurance industry?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insurance companies and banks are of great importance to the economy, which is why their stability must be ensured. In order to prevent bankruptcies in the financial sector, these companies are subject to strict regulations, which set standards for risk management and the amount of reserve capital required. Such capital reserves act as safety buffers to protect the customers from extraordinary events. In the insurance industry, the reserve capital is referred to as the solvency margin.

    Solvency II is new set of insurance regulations that aims to set a common standard regarding solvency capital and risk management for insurance companies within the European Union. The potential costs and benefits of the regulations are of importance not only to insurance companies but also to those firms that offer services and products to the insurance industry in the field of risk management. Solvency II is often compared to the Basel II accord for banks, which had a strong business case in the way that banks could significantly lower their reserve capital and use it for other purposes. The question is, however, whether insurance companies can expect similar benefits from Solvency II.

    The purpose of this study is therefore to explain how the Solvency II regulations will affect risk management in the Swedish non-life insurance industry, and whether these changes can result in opportunities for insurance companies. This is achieved by studying the new regulations and conducting a number of interviews with insurance company representatives as well as industry experts. Four potential effects of Solvency II have been investigated: capital levels, insurance pricing, credit ratings and reinsurance.

    The findings of the study indicate that no obvious benefits related to the potential effects above can be realised by complying with Solvency II. The future capital requirements will come close to those already enforced by supervisors today, resulting in a minor change that can go both ways. Neither credit ratings nor reinsurance covers seem to become notably affected by Solvency II. As for insurance pricing, an increasingly sophisticated risk-based allocation of the cost of solvency capital provides the most notable opportunity of Solvency II, but at present, no conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of such changes. On the other hand, Solvency II will put pressure on improving systems to ensure the quality and traceability of data.

    Thus, the actual changes in risk management practices are not expected to be substantial among Swedish non-life insurance companies, and it therefore seems unlikely that insurance companies would be willing to invest as heavily in reaching Solvency II compliance as banks have done in Basel II.

  • 10.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, 572-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Cell för induktionshärdning: -En inledande studie för ett beslutsunderlag2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master´s thesis is performed by a student from the Master of Science program in mechanical engineering at Linköpings tekniska högskola. The scope of this thesis should be 30 points in the European scale. The content of the thesis is performed with and on behalf of AB Wahlquists Verkstäder in Linköping.

    Through collection from literature, verbal sources and visits to plants a short review of the technique behind induction hardening has been made. The review focuses on how it works, how it is developed, what limitations there are and the basics for the equipment. The scope of the review is based upon what the company desired to know initially about the subject.

    The underlying facts that were introduced in the review were used as a base for the discussions and ideas that have been presented as the proposals, for how the company can install induction hardening equipment in practice. These proposals are in line with the company´s desires. To make the final proposal more clear, calculations for investment costs, times in production and the stocking degree for the proposal have been presented.

    The important points of interest for the company to discuss in terms of synergy effects if they acquire the equipment have been introduced. These points are of greater or lesser importance depending on how this specific company chooses to set their value. However, the recommendation is that people with the correct knowledge reject or elucidates these points.

    The accomplished work has then been summarized and the final recommendations is, that the company needs to make further studies to be sure that they have enough work to put in the equipment. Otherwise it will be difficult to get a good pay off for the investment.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Wallin, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Modularised Passenger Seats2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this master’s thesis, with Scania CV AB in Södertälje as job initiator, has been to develop three different passenger seat concepts with focus on modularisation, functionality and production. The different concepts are: a foldable passenger seat, which is possible to fold away completely, a bench for two passengers, and a resting seat for resting during breaks when the vehicle is parked.

    The main tools used during the search for concept solutions have been brainstorming, morphological analyses, and evaluation matrixes. Prototypes have been made in order to visualise the ideas but also for the possibility to test them in a real truck cabin and by that find advantages but also flaws. Final product specifications has been made and with that guidelines for a continued development work.

    Experiences gained during this thesis work has been that by using ergonomic data and theories, well thought through designs, and standardised interfaces a good result can be achieved, which fulfils the demands and wishes placed on the future product.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrin och SPS: Möjligheter utifrån människa, teknik och organisation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utförs i samarbete med företaget Järn AB, vilket är ett svenskt företag med gjuteri, pulvermetallurgi samt bearbetningsverksamhet. Produkterna är av varierande typ, storlek och volym, avsedd för ett brett kundsegment däribland fordonsindustrin samt maskintillverkare. Företaget har mer än 500 anställda och namnet Järn AB är fiktivt.

    Syftet med arbetet är att föreslå ett angreppssätt för hur Järn AB kan gå vidare med statistisk processtyrning (SPS). Detta angreppssätt ska baseras på erfarenheter från fordonsindustrin samt litteraturstudier. Studien kommer grunda sig utifrån perspektiven människa, teknik och organisation. Resultatet kommer även utmynna i ett praktiskt förslag som ger företaget konkreta exempel kring införandet av SPS.

    Förslagen i studien kommer grunda sig på fyra studiebesök som valts ut under arbetets gång. Tre av de valda företagen är framstående i kvalitetsfrågor inom svensk industri och det fjärde företaget jobbar med statistisk processtyrning i stor utsträckning. De besökta företagen har olika typer av processer, däribland gjuteri- och bearbetningsprocesser som också återfinns hos uppdragsgivaren. Det har också utförts en nulägesbeskrivning hos Järn AB för att se vilka möjligheter det finns med statistisk processtyrning och jämföra utgångsläget med studieobjekten. 

    Resultatet av studiebesöken gav att inget av de svenska företagen använde SPS i dagsläget även om vissa hade erfarenheter från ett tidigare användande och flera såg framtida möjligheter med SPS.

    Om personalen involveras i SPS-arbetet och får ansvaret för detta arbete så kommer det ge ökad motivation och större chans att skapa ett långsiktigt arbete. Det förutsätter att systemet är lättanvänt samt att användaren har fått rätt utbildning i området. Det är också viktigt att det går att justera en parameter i processen som är direkt kopplad till utfallet av SPS.

    De processer som visat sig lämpliga för SPS hos Järn AB är de bearbetningsprocesserna som inte är självjusterande. Gjuteri- och pulverpressning är relativt komplexa processer som gör det svårt att knyta specifika parametrar till utfallet och behöver mer utredning innan SPS kan införas.

    De styrdiagram som har visat sig lämpliga utifrån process- och hårdvarutekniska aspekter är R-diagram då dessa lämpar sig vid införandet av SPS på variabeldata och har stöd i föreslagen mjukvara. Vid ett senare skede är det också värt att titta på andra typer av styrdiagram som EWMA och CUSUM.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Def Research Agency, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Diptee, Darryl
    Naval Postgrad Sch, USA.
    Approaches to team performance assessment: a comparison of self-assessment reports and behavioral observer scales2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 2-3, 517-528 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human factors research popularly employs perception-based techniques to investigate team performance and its dependency to cognitive processes. Such studies frequently rely upon either observer-based or self-assessment techniques to collect data. In this study, we examined behavioral observer ratings and self-assessment ratings for measuring team performance in virtual teams, with team performance regarded as a combination of task outcome and team cognition. Juxtaposing self-assessments and observer ratings from a quasi-experiment comparing team performance rating techniques reveals that they indeed produce overall similar results, with both singling out teamwork effectiveness ratings as the strongest contributor to overall team performance. However, the comparisons show remarkably low correlation on individual questionnaire items. The most striking difference is that the team members self-assessments of workload are lower than the corresponding observer ratings. In particular, the self-assessments do not correlate at all with overall team performance, whereas the observers workload ratings are more consistent with contemporary research that suggests a strong correlation between workload and team performance, suggesting that observer-based techniques are more reliable than self-assessments for assessing workload. For other ratings, the results show that the two techniques are fairly equal, suggesting that the choice between methods to employ can be deferred to other considerations such as obtrusiveness, accessibility, and resource availability.

  • 15.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating optimization and simulation to gain more efficient airport logistics2009In: Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009), 2009, 1-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present airport logistics, which is a framework of resource management in the air transportation system. Focus is on the processes supporting turn-around. A detailed simulation model of various processes involved in turn-around is developed, by which the interaction between these processes are analyzed. We show that integrating optimization and simulation is a powerful tool to demonstrate efficiency improvements in airport logistics, using scheduling de-icing trucks as an example. An optimization algorithm for scheduling de-icing trucks is developed and simulations are performed comparing different schedules. The schedule obtained when considering total airport performance in the optimization algorithm gives minimum flight delay and waiting times in the simulations.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Kim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    de Ridder, Henk
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Förbättring av slangtillverkningen på BT : En produktionsteknisk studie2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The department for hydraulic hose manufacturing at BT Products has problems keeping up with today’s productionpase. The goal for this project is to identify and fix today’s problems and prepare the hosemanufacturing department for an increasment in productionpase from today’s 50 000 to 60 000 forklifts per year.

    To begin with an analysis of the situation today was made, this by observing and participating in the daily work at the department, interviewing the personal, collecting data and performing a timestudy. The results of the timestudy combined with the collected data were used to calculate the time needed to cope with today’s productionpase. The calculation showed that a little more than half the available time should be enough to do this and that the capacity of the machines is by far more than needed. The problems identified causing the department falling behind is mainly bad layout, ineffective operation routines, unnecessary operations and planning problems due to delays in the production.

    In order to fix these problems and prepare the hosemanufacturing department for the increased productionpase a series of suggestions for improvement has been developed. A suggestion for a new layout has been made in order to reach a better productionflow with less transports and unnecessary movements. An implementation of standardized operations should be made in order to be sure that the best operations routine always is used. Investments in new machines are not necessary to cope with the future productionpase unless they are bought in purpose to serve as safetycapacity. However investments in some smaller equipment are necessary to ease and improve the daily work at the department. Examples of equipment needed are a better hosereel, barcode reader and assemble equipment.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Leila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Ortiz, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    55+ - äldre anställdas föreställningar om att arbeta till pensionsålder och deras upplevelser av ett friskvårdsprojekt2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har genomförts på ett stålföretag som startade friskvårdsprojektet 55+ för anställda som är 55 år eller äldre. Syftet med denna studie är att få en bild över vad äldre anställda har för föreställningar om att arbeta till 65 och diskutera hur friskvårdsprojektet 55+ kan påverka deras förutsättningar att vara kvar i arbete till pensionsålder. I studien användes kvalitativ intervju som metod och undersökningsgruppen bestod av tio anställda på företaget.

    Förutsättningar som de intervjuade tog upp för att arbeta kvar rörde arbetet, hälsan, tajming med partner och ekonomin och många upplevde att de inte skulle kunna arbeta till 65 som de gör idag. Det fanns en besvikelse över att företaget inte längre erbjöd avtalspension i samma utsträckning som tidigare, eftersom de intervjuade mentalt hade förberett sig inför en pensionärstillvaro. Att de intervjuade från början inte var inställda på att arbeta till 65 kan ha påverkat deras upplevda förutsättningar i arbetet. De ställde dock om sina förväntningar och genom jämförelser med andra, såsom utländska kollegor, fann de sig i situationen. En osäkerhet över vad som gäller med pension fanns bland de intervjuade. Friskvårdprojektet kan ha fungerat hälsofrämjande, eftersom det för de intervjuade bidrog till ökad medvetenhet om hälsan. Det enligt oss största bidraget med friskvårdsprojektet var att deltagarna kände välbefinnande i att företaget satsade på just dem. Ett friskvårdprojekt kan därmed leda till ökad motivation hos äldre anställda att arbeta kvar till 65, men eftersom de intervjuade fortfarande upplevde hinder i arbetet skulle insatser även i arbetet kunna öka deras möjligheter och vilja att arbeta till 65.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Bohman, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Effektivisering av produktionsflöde: Införande av ny teststrategi2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ericsson AB in Katrineholm is a part of the Section Business Unit Network in the Ericsson Group. The plant's main task is to produce printed circuit boards in small volumes with a high product mix and focus on delivery and cost effectiveness. At the factory they produce printed circuit boards in the Module department.

    The Module department has for a long time had a high output of non-approved circuit boards in their production. This has led to a growing stock of non-approved circuit boards on the company’s repair department.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how Ericsson in Katrineholm can increase the outflow of approved articles in their test process in the Module department. As a basis for drawing up proposals, a study of the production in the form of value flow maps was conducted. Information was collected from the various databases QSP, Testnet and C:M. Information was also gathered by informal interviews. The company's present situation has been studied using theories like flow time and utilization rates and from the collected information, proposals have been developed using the program Excel and C #.

    Analysis of the present situation revealed that the test strategy that they now are using is not working well enough, because printed circuit board that does not have any defects is sent to the repair department. The fact that the test stations are very unstable and that the test operators do not possess enough knowledge of each article is also factors causing non-defect products to be sent to the repair department.

    The report presents a new test strategy based on 5 different criteria on data gathered from the database SID 40 days back. Complementary information is also presented to the test operators to facilitate their work when it comes to making decisions if a card / unit will be tested again. By introducing the new test strategy a value of 1.6 for cards and 3.25 for units of million Swedish crowns would be sent directly to customer instead of being sent to the repair department. However, this would increase the utilization of the resources, by 9.2 % for cards and by 19.2 % for units, but the utilization is very low, which implies that it should not affect the system in largely. However, this requires that the test process is performing in the same way as it did the last 40 days.

    Finally the results are presented in a graphical interface to facilitate the operators in the Module department. The recommendations given to Ericsson regarding the new test strategy is that it should be used as a tool at first and if the latter is used it should be integrated into the regular test environment.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Eklund, Tommy
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Analysis and Actions for Robust ElectronicsProduction at Haldex Brake Products Ltd2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis report contains information about a project carried out at Haldex Brake Products that is situated in Redditch England. The Redditch site is part of the “Commercial Vehicle Systems” division within the Haldex group. Haldex Brake Products is designing and producing electronic anti lock brake systems. The latest product is called GEN2 and the project goal was to increase productivity and achieve more stability within the production processes of this product. The goal was achieved trough implementation suggestions affecting the three categories in overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Nine of the biggest implementations are presented in this report. Some of the suggestions are already implemented and some are under progress to be implemented. These implementations will result in an increase in productivity with additionally 953 products per week. The expected results are based on calculations on an average product. The report also contains suggestions for future actions to even more increase the efficiency of the production processes at Haldex Brake Products in Redditch.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Warell, Anders
    Lund University, Lund Sweden.
    Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, 2191-2198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will investigate the strategic design decision-making of an in-house designer in a company with a large product portfolio, with respect to how designers plan for future visual alterations of the product. In-house designers have to think strategically about the creation of recognition and differentiation through design because they influence the company’s overall strategies. Therefore, while balancing aesthetic and semiotic qualities of the product, designers have to consider current as well as future needs for recognition and product differentiation. The ability to do so is affected by cost and brand positioning strategy. An exploratory study was setup to investigate what design strategies could be found in an industrial design team employed by a company. The study exposed how in-house designers could strategically incorporate aesthetic flexibility in product parts in order to create opportunities for faster facelifts or redesigns. The importance of managing carry-over details in larger product portfolios was also discovered. To carry over parts from different products is an important way for a company to save money, development time and at the same time increase brand recognition through repetition. Carry-over can be an aid to enhance visual recognition, but it can also be a hindrance when the designer needs to create differencing design values. Most products have a lifespan before they need to be updated or redesigned, which depends on the competition in a product segment. This makes it extra important for designers to have an understanding of when to incorporate carry-over details and when not to. A model was created to describe how carry-over details, design cues and aesthetic flexibility could be managed in a product portfolio. The model is based on Rune Monö’s works and brand management literature, with an emphasis on the brand positioning framework of Point of Difference, Point of Parity and brand extension by Keller et al.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Validering av BME - ett verktyg för kartläggning av belastningsergonomi2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Volvo Personvagnars tillverkningsanläggning i Torslanda utanför Göteborg tillverkas personbilar av flera modeller och en mängd olika varianter av varje modell. I dagsläget är produktivitetskraven höga vilket medför risker för belastningsbesvär eller skador för

    operatörerna som monterar ihop bilen. Således blir belastningsergonomi en viktig del i arbetsmiljöarbetet.

    Man har på Volvo Personvagnars slutmonteringsanläggning i Torslanda utvecklat en beräkningsmodell för att beskriva belastningsergonomin i tillverkningen som man kallar BME (Beräknings Modell Ergonomi). Problemet består i att utvärdera validiteten hos BME utifrån ett

    personalekonomiskt perspektiv, det vill säga huruvida kostnader relaterade till sjukfrånvaro,sjukskrivningar, rehabilitering, personalomsättning och omplaceringar kan knytas till belastningsergonomi med hjälp av BME. Genom litteraturstudier, undersökningar om hur den belastningsergonomiska situationen förändrats sedan BME infördes samt genom studier av hur sjukdomsbilden ser ut kunde samband ställas upp mellan belastningsergonomisk tyngd och

    förekomst av skador.

  • 22.
    Backman, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Åkerfeldt, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Bridging the gap: finding the processes to adapt a repository-based knowledge management system to the knowledge intense sales organization at IBM Nordic2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For knowledge intense companies the knowledge and skills of its employees are much more valuable than any physical assets. To share knowledge between its employees, some companies launch knowledge sharing initiatives which aims to spread best practices and increase the expertise of the employees. These initiatives are often supported by technical systems, repositories, which store the information that is to be shared. This report discusses how the value of such a repository, a Wiki containing reference cases of SOA projects at IBM Nordic, can be increased by using processes that aims to better connect it to the organization.

    To do this, seven employees at IBM Nordic were interviewed. Four of them were sales people, the main user group of the Wiki. Two were employees at the SOA Acceleration Team, the group responsible for the Wiki. The last interviewee works at Learning and Knowledge, IBM’s internal department for organization-wide knowledge management and education. The answers were analyzed using a framework created using academic theory. This framework consists of four different areas of requirements for the processes connecting the Wiki to the organization. The analysis showed that for IBM the most important area to manage is enablement followed by governance, motivation and finally content.

    The report is concluded with recommendations for five processes to connect the Wiki to the organization. The process Internal selling aims to inform the sales people about the existence of the Wiki and how they are to use it. Ensure search engine compatibility makes sure that the sales people are able to find the contents of the Wiki via the intranet based search engines. The process for adding a new case description ensures that new case descriptions which are added to the Wiki is consistent and contains the right kind of information. By validating the case information that is added to the Wiki the acceleration team verifies that the information is correct, increasing its credibility. In the last process, ensure information congruence, the members of the acceleration team updates the guidelines on what information to collect and the information in the Wiki as the information need of the sales people changes. This is done on a regular basis and ensures that the information that is collected and stored is actually useful.

  • 23.
    Bahmai, Masoud
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean Implementation in Rosti AB: Improvement Opportunities and Challenges2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production has become a widespread production system to address the need of being more productive. Since three decades ago that some big automotive manufacturers started to adopt lean, many SME’s has adopt it and enjoy the outcomes. Literature have investigated the successful implementation of lean in these organizations, yet, very few papers have addressed the challenges toward adopting lean.

    In this thesis research a plastic package manufacturer is chosen as the case of study to implement some initiatives of lean production and study the challenges and outcomes of lean adoption. The efforts during the making the changes were focused on adopting the SMED and Root-Cause Analysis techniques, and also to reduce defect rate in one of the products.

    The findings indicate before any effort to implement lean production techniques, some social issues must be considered to reduce the risk of failure. The Rosti AB case indicated that promoting motivation among operators and resolving mistrust between managers and operators is essential to encourage them to participate in improvement changes.

    In order to promote motivation and eliminate mistrust to encourage operators to participate in improvement changes it is necessary to empower them in decision makings in improvement implementations.

  • 24.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klaus, Fichter
    Borderstep Institute/Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators and securing the inflow of tenants – the case of Green Garage Berlin2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 157, 76-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an attention in research and practise on entrepreneurial ecosystems, and how these, often using incubators, could support sustainable development through new firm start-ups. Despite the popularity of incubators in the literature and practise, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general or, more specifically, on processes that ensure a steady flow of tenants. Thus, this paper investigates how sustainable incubators ensures their inflow of tenants, how they organize their activities and whether the incubator environment affect tenant recruitment. A case study approach analysing the sustainability oriented incubator Green Garage Berlin have been used to generate an understanding of selection and recruitment processes as well the influence of external environments. The results show that regional and inter-regional co-operation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Incubator reputation and sufficient long term funding is also a key to success. A good practice case as Green Garage cannot simply be replicated, but require openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions.

  • 25.
    Beckius, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hübel, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Vädrets påverkan på försäljningen inom svensk dagligvaruhandel: En studie om vädrets påverkan på ICA:s försäljning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [ar]

    ICA is the largest general dealer in the Swedish market as well as the largest supplier to the independent ICA-dealers. The principal and one of the biggest stakeholders of this thesis is the department Supply Chain Development who is responsible for the development of ICA’s Supply Chain.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how ICA’s sales are affected by weather and to make recommendations on how ICA should proceed with its work regarding this issue. By leveraging their forecasts by including weather, ICA hopes that their logistical metrics amount of spoilage, service levels and number of inventory days will improve. This thesis describes how ICA is working with weather currently, and furthermore it discusses the existing literature within this area. Extensive statistical surveys have been conducted in order to identify the products that are affected by weather, and to examine how they are affected by different weather variables. Finally, the thesis gives recommendations to ICA on how they can improve their forecasting by taking this study’s results into account.

    Presently ICA has no consistent approach when it comes to considering weather’s impact on sales. Each individual product planner uses his own experience and gut feeling and there is no central guidance or other quantitative information there to help them.

    This thesis is organised around two major statistical studies. First, a correlation study examines the correlation between sales and deviation from mean temperature. The weather parameter was selected following recommendations from earlier studies and from SMHI - the national weather institute in Sweden. The study was conducted on ICA’s entire assortment and identified which items that were affected by weather. These turned out to be about a hundred in number and were affected mainly during the summer; however a few items were also affected in the winter. Most of the affected items were rather logical regarding weather’s effects on sales and have also been pointed out by planners as products that are likely to be affected by weather. Following that, several regression analyses were conducted on the selected weather affected assortment.

    The regression analyses were conducted with various combinations of one or more weather parameters as explanatory variables. Surprisingly, in most cases the deviation from mean temperature alone was the parameter that best explained the variance in sales figures. The result or output of this thesis is a value for the expected change in sales for a selected assortment, given a change in deviation from mean temperature.

    The recommendations given at the end of this thesis explains how ICA in a simple and cost effective way could implement the study's results in their daily work. The proposal is to divide the work by what should be done centrally by the forecasting department, and by what should be done individually by each planner. The forecasting department should regularly collect weather forecasts over different time periods, calculate the deviation from mean temperature and distribute it to the supply planner. After that, it is up to the supply planners on how to best take advantage of this information by taking into account other unique factors affecting each category, such as campaigns, holidays and daily indexes that in many cases have more effect on sales than the weather.

  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the strategic role of purchasing: An empirical comparison of purchasing practices and performance outcomes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bergelin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Wastesson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Vietnam: A Study of the Relation between Vietnamese Suppliers2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam is a developing country in South-East Asia with borders toward China, Laos and Cambodia. As other countries in the same area are far more developed, Vietnam can gain a lot from international trade. It is an important factor for a country to build prosperity and gain economic growth and thereby reach a higher standard of living. But for a company to succeed in the international market is a demanding task. Both internal and external factors that influence a company’s competence need to be taken into consideration. The awareness of Corporate Social Responsibility is increasing every day and it is becoming a more and more important factor for the end-customer as well as the buyers and suppliers. This Master Thesis deals with the relationship between Vietnamese suppliers and their international buyers and how Corporate Social Responsibility affects that relation.

    The result of the study shows that there are advantages for both the Vietnamese supplier and the international buyer. Companies that work together and care for each other will end up with a strong and long-term relation. Both the quality and the productivity increased and that the staff turn-over decreased when introducing CSR. One also has to understand that the international customers are in command and that the suppliers are merely following the customer’s demands. Furthermore, quality, price and delivery time are the most important factors when choosing a supplier but by working with CSR these factors will also be affected positively.

    It was also, apart from the main focus of this thesis, interesting to discover how corruption and cultural differences affected the supplier-buyer relation and also the discussion about whose responsibility it actually is to work with these issues; the buying rich customer or the relatively poor supplier?

  • 28.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sushandoyo, Dedy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybrids versus diesel: The forgotten technological competition for sustainable solutions in the global automotive industry2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Berglund, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Eftermonterbart whiplash-skydd till BMW 5-serie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this master thesis is to develop a post-mountable whiplash protection device for the BMW 5 Series. The reason for this is that the model has, in comparison to other models in the same price range, performed porely in two independent whiplash tests.

    The outcome of the project is a protection device that can be mounted in an easy and safe way on the headrests in the car. The protection device will reduce the risk of a whiplash injury by decreasing the critical distance between the head and the headrest. The protection device's design is simple, but engineered to prevent the device from moving out of position in case of a collision.

    In order to reach the result, a design method suitable for this kind of work has been used. The design method involves different processes like brainstorming and the use of an evaluation matrix.

    The result of the thesis is only conceptual, and further development is necessary to reach a final product.

  • 30.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary frameworks are needed to develop products that fit the human. Ergonomics is a multifaceted field that encompasses physical, cognitive and organizational aspects, and it is therefore a suitable subject to be taught to design engineering students.

    The objective of this paper was to describe and reflect upon how a systems perspective on Ergonomics is developed and conveyed in a course in Product Ergonomics to engineering students at the Design and Product Development (DPD) programme at Linköping University, Sweden. The paper is based on the authors’ experiences from teaching the course in Product Ergonomicsas well ason 52 students’ written reflections about their view on Ergonomics before and after taking the course.

    Means and ideas for teaching Ergonomics with a systems perspective included organizing a theoretical introduction into weekly themes and thereafter integrating and applying these themes in a product concept project under supervision of a multidisciplinary teacher team.

    The paper also reflects on how the systems perspective of Ergonomics is planned for and realized in the intended, implemented and attained curriculum.

  • 31.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Development activities in product introductions – a cross functional approach2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Berglund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Turning Japanese?: Kulturella aspekter av införandet av ett nytt produktionssystem2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att införa ett nytt produktionssystem är ett stort projekt som påverkar arbetssättet för en stor del av de anställda i ett företag. Detta gör att det finns många ytor där problem kan uppstå och viljor kollidera. Stora förändringar kan riva upp invanda mönster och bryta mot den nuvarande kulturen i organisationen och därigenom skapa osäkerhet och ovilja gentemot förändringen.

    Denna rapport är tänkt att fungera som ett stöd för BT och Siemens i deras arbete med att införa nya, lean-baserade produktionssystem genom att försöka finna de kulturella hänsynstaganden som måste tas för att implementeringen av dessa ska bli framgångsrik. Specifikt syftar rapporten till att undersöka varför vissa människor är positiva till lean och varför vissa är kritiska. Vilka aspekter är det som folk finner attraktiva respektive mindre attraktiva?

    Resultaten av undersökningen visar på att medarbetarna finner grundläggande drag inom lean, såsom ständiga förbättringar samt medarbetarnas möjlighet att själva vara med och påverka, som positiva. Dessutom erbjuder lean enkla och effektiva verktyg som snabbt kan visa positiva resultat och därmed påverka de anställdas inställning positivt, exempelvis 5S. Det finns dock ett par frågor som företagen måste arbeta med:

    1) Information till de anställda:

    a. Hur når man på bästa sätt ut med information om det nya produktionssystemet till de anställda så att de får en korrekt bild av vad det innebär.

    b. Hur får man medarbetarna motiverade att disciplinerat arbeta efter de nya metoderna.

    2) Hur ska arbetet vid monteringslinor utformas för att det inte ska upplevas som monotont och styrt? Finns det något sätt att skapa en engagerande lina?

  • 33.
    Bergström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlström, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur RFID kan påverka logistisk effektivitet: en studie av den svenska dagligvarubranschen2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how the use of RFID and EPC would affect the Swedish food retail supply chain. This was done by mapping the flow of five different products in the supply chain at activity level. During this work, five manufacturers, two distribution centres and two retail stores were visited and carefully studied. These visits resulted in a flowchart for each company describing the product flow, with particular attention to the use of barcodes. The flowcharts were then used to create scenarios for each company, describing how the flow would change when using RFID-technology. The current flow for each company was then compared with its RFID scenario and analysed to see how logistic efficiency would be affected by the use of RFID-technology.

    The result of the study shows that all companies in the food retail supply chain would benefit from an implementation of RFID-technology. When comparing companies with a high usage of barcodes with companies where barcodes are little used, the conclusion can be drawn that both groups would experience improvements in different areas of logistic efficiency, but not necessarily to the same extent.

    When considering the drawbacks of using RFID, the greatest disadvantages are the large investments and costs of implementing the technology. The largest costs arise in modification of business systems and for hardware investments needed to utilize the technology.

    Apart from theses costs and investments, several positive changes in time consumption and traceability could be found. RFID/EPC makes it possible to replace manual checks with automatic ones, resulting in less time consumption and reduced staff throughout the supply chain. Furthermore, the possibility to trace every case and pallet results in more efficient and less expensive of product returns and recalls.

  • 34.
    Berzelius, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Borggren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Framtidens distributionslogistik: - Effekter av en ökad centralisering hos ABB i Västerås2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary

    This final thesis has examined the effects of an increased centralization and better coord­in­ation of the distribution logistics at ABB in Västerås. The company is today strongly decent­ralized and there is a minimum of collaboration between the 20 business units. This is why the questions were raised; how could the business units coordinate outbound logistic activities and what effects would that provide. The obj­ect­ive of this final thesis is to provide basic data for a future decision-making which desc­r­ibe these effects.

    The report has mapped out the factors that are important to ABB in an evaluation of their logistic activities and how the outbound logistics work today. The four factors are cost efficiency, delivery service, environmental impact and logistics capability. It was noticed that the degree of collaboration was very low and the business units send their goods in three main directions: Gothenburg, Arlanda and Europe (except for deliveries within the Nordic countries). Today it is only the goods towards Arlanda which are joint­ly transported. In the other directions there are only a few business units who collaborate.

    Beside the primal task to negotiate general transport­ation agreements, the central logistic function (GFSM) at ABB has only a supporting roll in the work concerning logistics. The reason is not just that the business units have the real mandate over the logistics but also that the logistic focus in general is low. Furthermore is it hard for the freight managers (FM) at each business unit to change and improve the logistics, because they have other tasks to manage but also since their logistics skills in many cases are poor. The demands on the freight man­agers are also not expressed clearly enough and therefore they don’t know what is expected of them in their rolls as freight managers.

    Three development directions were identified and expressed as scenarios, see table 1. Scenario 1 represents an increased focus on the logistics and more distinct rolls for the GFSM and the FMs. Scenario 2 addresses an increased coordination of the physical flow of goods (exemplified as a consolidation of all truck transportations toward Gothenburg) where the freight managers are in charge of this coordination. Scen­ario 3 is a combi­nation of the first and second scenario and represents a centralization of the outbound logistics (exemplified as train with containers to Gothenburg).

    The conclusion was that:

    -   Scenario 1 entails an increased transparency, communication and central management with positive effects on costs, delivery service and on the environment in the long run. The scenario becomes a prerequisite for the execution of the two others. Therefore is it the first step for ABB if they wish to increase their coordination of physical goods or centralize their logistics operations.

    -   Scenario 2 envolves cost savings by a good 50 % because the collecting of the goods takes place at each business unit (unchanged amount of handling). These changes are something to attain since it, in addition to the cost savings, can imply an improved delivery service and doesn’t increase the emissions of CO2 compared with today!

    -   Scenario 3 results in a cost impairment since the cost reductions are too small for the distance Västerås-Gothenburg and are eliminated by the increased costs for handling of goods, warehousing and internal transportation. Nevertheless is train transportation within Sw­eden preferable out of an environmental perspective. All aspects considered, this scen­ario must consolidate more flows of goods and secure already existing knowledge before it becomes interesting to realize.

  • 35.
    Birgersson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering .
    Reducering av ledtider samt framtagande av kalkylmodell2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rimaster Kisa AB is a member of the Rimaster Group, the corporation was bought from Samhall AB in January 2007. The corporation is producing mechanichs needed by the Rimaster group as well for external costumers. Samhall AB is now functioning as a provider of labor for Rimaster Kisa, as the company is hiring personnel from Samhall AB. The company has earlier have had problems with their lead times being far too long. This has resulted in that the management decided to invest in a new edging press. Areas of work included in this thesis are, Investigating the investment of an edging machine, implementing of 5S and a new model of calculating prices of articles. The goal with the report is to reduce the corporations lead times.

    To reduce lead times the company has started working with 5S. This reports presents protocols to aid the employee responsible for the 5S work of the factory. The model for calculating prices is based on a model used by Rimaster Polen. The model has been modified for the needs of the factory in Kisa. The model calculates with parameters for the potential production capability, using this leads to a margin of error with prices higher than needed to be. The company should always be aware of this margin of error so that they do not loose clients because of it. When using this model the company protects themselves for the future. They are not as dependent of the cheap labor gained by Samhall AB. The model calculates cost factors ready to be implemented in the MRP-system, prices are then calculated with the MRP-system.

    Conclusion: The company should accept the offer made by Amada Implement the model for calculating prices fully, but be aware of its margin of error. Continue the work with 5S that has already been started. 

  • 36.
    Bjurman, Veronika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    Kommunikation i sociala medier: Utformandet av en kommunikationsgrund till bloggen Chefs’ Table2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has led to a difference in people’s daily communication patterns, recently also increasingly so for businesses. This means a change in how the marketing and communication among companies should be carried out, since a company always should be present where its customers are. This is probably especially important for an organization planning to exist on the Internet alone. In social media, the target group is particularly important in the development of communication messages. However, for the company, this also means decreased control over the communication with customers.

     

    This thesis aims to find out how social media can be used from a marketing and communications perspective to enable the food blog Chefs' Table to reach and maintain a successful relation with the target group. Qualitative interviews have been used in order to find out how the target group perceives social media and how they want to be contacted through them. Further, their reactions to the blog Chefs' Table and how the communication of the blog should be designed to appeal to them were investigated.

     

    The analysis of the qualitative interviews shows that social media primarily are used to receive feedback and acknowledgement from other people. This could include participation in discussions or exchange of inspiration, ideas and tips through linking. The recipes, the opportunity for interaction or to influence the content and that others spread the word of its existence are the features that attract the target audience to a food blog. The target group would like to receive feedback and be allowed to interact.

     

    The content on the blog should have a personal appropriation, be professionally educational but easy going and entertaining. In addition it should be possible to decide when and how to view content, thus it is important that the target group is offered the possibility to choose among several different communication channels.

     

    The recommendations for Chefs’ Table are that they should have a light-hearted, yet professional tone, offer recipes whatever the occasion and give instructions in an educational way wihout being too strict. Chefs’ Table should have a personal touch that does not try to fit everyone. In addition, users should be encouraged to participate in discussions and sometimes be allowed to influence the contents of the blog.

     

    Keywords: Social media, blog, Internet, target group, communication, communication messages, interaction

     

  • 37.
    Björertz, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Development tool for push-buttons inside truck cabin2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When developing the driver interface in their trucks, Scania is highly concerned with creating a certain feeling. When pressing a push-button this Scania feeling shall be perceived. It is not obvious what the Scania feeling really is and there is no predefined method to create it. This Master Thesis takes aim at providing the means to improve the process of creating this feeling.

    First, the Scania feeling was studied via the results of an already made survey at Scania. This survey focused on subjective properties of push-buttons, rotary knobs and levers and related the properties to whether these objects had a Scania feeling or not. This existing data was analyzed statistically. The main task of this Master Thesis, however, was to create an environment where the feeling of a push-button could be tried out and described. This environment was created with a tool from Reachin Technologies AB. The environment is a virtual representation of a push-button module, created with computer haptics and graphics. The environment lets the user interact with a three dimensional view collocated with a force feedback device. The force feedback device lets the user feel what is seen through a pen like interface. The “tip” of the pen is used to touch what is seen in the 3D view. The virtual push-buttons was built from blueprints of real push-buttons to be able to evaluate to what extent the virtual buttons resembled the real ones.

    The statistical analysis made in this project does not support the notion of describing the Scania feeling with a set of subjective values. The virtual environment created proved to be very life like. The real push-button feeling could be recreated with high precision. When evaluated, the majority of test persons argued that it could be used in the development process.

  • 38.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Beräkningsmodellen BME och dess koppling till kvalitet och produktivitet2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är skrivet vid produktionsteknikavdelningen, på uppdrag av Volvo Personvagnar AB i Torslanda, Göteborg. Produktionsteknikavdelningen utför bland annat balansering i slutmonteringen. Slutmonteringen är det sista steget innan en bil är färdig att levereras till kund. Volvo Personvagnar har tagit fram ett verktyg BME (BeräkningsModell Ergonomi) för att kunna bedöma operatörens arbetsmiljö, speciellt den belastningsergonomiska arbetssituationen. Syftet med examensarbetet är att utvärdera hur verktyget BME går att koppla till utfallet i produktivitet och kvalitet i slutmonteringen i fabriken i Torslanda.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en koppling mellan arbetsmoment som bedöms som belastningstunga och antalet rapporterade fel. För varje ökat poäng i BME-bedömningen, det vill säga då den belastningsergonomiska situationen försämrades, ökade risken för fel med 20 fel på årsbasis. Risken för kvalitetsbrister var cirka fyra gånger högre för ergonomiskt krävande arbetsmoment än för andra.

    Det gick att finna ett samband mellan beläggningsgrad och poäng i BME-bedömningen för de belastningstunga arbetsstationerna. De av arbetsstationer som hade lägre beläggningsgrad hade erhållit högre poäng i BME-bedömningen. BME var ett viktigt verktyg vid förändringar eftersom det gav en bild av hur genomförda förändringar kom att påverka arbetsmiljön för operatören. Innan verktyget började användas fanns det inget som teknikerna kunde ha som grund för att utföra en bedömning av belastningsergonomin. Införandet av BME medförde att teknikerna fick större fokus på belastningsergonomi.

  • 39.
    Björkwall, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Ulfsparre, Ebba
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Quality Assurance in Tightening: How should Atlas Copco Tools and Assembly Systems develop this business?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A year ago, Atlas Copco Tools and Assembly Systems (ACTA) bought the Italian company BLM in order to increase their product range within Quality Assurance in Tightening (QAT). This was a strategic move for ACTA to strengthen the position on the QAT market. What ACTA should do to increase their QAT sales in the future has been the underlying problem for this study.

    The purpose for the master thesis is to analyse ACTA’s QAT market offer and to provide recommendations on how to develop this offer. The study has been divided into three parts. We have examined how ACTA’s QAT products meet the customers’ needs and if ACTA’s competitors do this in a better way. Secondly, we have analysed ACTA’s pricing in relation to what the customers are prepared to pay. The last part of the study includes an analysis of how ACTA’s selling process for the QAT offer matches the customers’ buying process. Interviews with 18 customers and some 20 people internally at ACTA in Germany and Sweden constitute the information base.

  • 40.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    A Preliminary Study of a Production System for Large Pumps in China2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ITT Flygt is an international company that produces mixers and submersible pumps for a global market. The main production site is located in Sweden but there are other production plants all over the world, for instance in China. The plant in Shenyang, China, manufactures small and midsize pumps but in order to gain advantages on the Chinese market a project to start production of the largest pumps in China has been initiated. This thesis describes a study of possible alternatives for a production system dedicated to the production of large pumps in China.

    A study of the existing production system for large pumps in Sweden gives a chance to divide the production into smaller parts, processes, to facilitate the future work. The content of each process, the interfaces between the processes and the resources needed for each process are examined. These parameters and the list of existing resources in China are used in the process of generating alternatives for the new production system in China. The list of existing resources in China is created by the means of interviews and studies of Flygt’s factory in Shenyang. There is also another factory in China that can be used for the new production system. This plant, located in Nanjing, can also be used for testing pumps and for other processes, but it has not been visited.

    The possible alternatives include a solution where all the processes are performed in Shenyang and several different options where the work is divided among the two plants in order to utilize the existing resources in the best possible way. In the discussion of possible alternatives their strengths and weaknesses are discussed so that all the proposed ideas are compared relative to each other.

    The recommendations are based on practical aspects as well as theories presented in the theoretical framework. Much emphasis is given to the ability to use existing knowledge and resources in order to minimize the need for investments to compensate for the low volume of large pumps that initially will be produced in China. The recommended system is a solution where both plants are used. The machining and main assembly should be located in Shenyang and the testing and all the processes following the testing should be located in Nanjing. The location of the washing and painting process has to be analyzed further by comparing the costs for needed investments. The costs should also be compared to the advantages of locating the washing and painting process in Shenyang.

    The recommended solutions are discussed on a comprehensive level, mainly focusing on the location and the order of the processes. The next step for the company is to design the processes in detail in order to prepare for the production of large pumps in China.

  • 41.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials like carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) present highly appealing material properties, as they can combine high strength with low weight. In aerospace applications, these properties help to realize lightweight designs that can reduce fuel consumption. Within the aerospace industry, the use of these types of materials has increased drastically with the introduction of a new generation of commercial aircraft. This increased use of CFRP drives a need to develop more rational manufacturing methods.

    For aerospace applications, CFRP products are commonly manufactured from a material called prepreg, which consists of carbon fibers impregnated with uncured polymer resin. There are two dominant manufacturing technologies for automated manufacturing using prepreg, automated tape layup and automated fiber placement. These two technologies are not suitable for all types of products, either due to technical limitations or a combination of high investment costs and low productivity. Automation alternatives to the two dominant technologies have been attempted, but have so far had limited impact. Due to the lack of automation alternatives, manual manufacturing methods are commonly employed for the manufacturing of complex-shaped products in low to medium manufacturing volumes.

    The research presented in this thesis aims to explore how automated manufacturing systems for the manufacturing of complex CFRP products made from prepreg can be designed so that they meet the needs and requirements of the aerospace industry, and are suitable for low to medium production volumes. In order to explore the area, a demonstrator-centered research approach has been employed. A number of demonstrators, in the form of automated manufacturing cells, have been designed and tested with industrial and research partners. The demonstrators have been used to identify key methods and technologies that enable this type of manufacturing, and to analyze some of these methods and technologies in detail. The demonstrators have also been used to map challenges that affect the development of enabling methods and technologies.

    Automated manufacturing of products with complex shapes can be simplified by dividing the process into two steps. Thin layers of prepreg are laid up on top of each other to form flat laminates that are formed to the desired shape in subsequent forming operations. The key methods and technologies required to automate such a system are methods and technologies for automated prepreg layup, the automated removal of backing paper and the forming of complex shapes. The main challenges are the low structural rigidity and tacky nature of prepreg materials, the extensive quality requirements in the aerospace industry and the need for the systems to handle a wide array of prepreg shapes.

    The demonstrators show that it is possible to automate the manufacturing of complexshaped products using automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates. Tests using the demonstrators indicate that it is possible to meet the quality requirements that apply to manual manufacturing of similar products.

    List of papers
    1. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, 505-513 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-05-17
    2. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Note

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, off-the-shelf, aerospace
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120300 (URN)
    Conference
    ICCM20 - The 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 19-24th July 2015, Copenhagen Denmark
    Available from: 2015-07-27 Created: 2015-07-27 Last updated: 2017-05-17
    4. Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2016 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Warrendale, USA: SAE International, 2016
    Keyword
    Composite, Manufacturing, Automation, Low-cost, Prepreg
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121602 (URN)10.4271/2015-01-2606 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129925 (URN)
    Conference
    ECCM17 - 17th European Conference on Composite Materials 26-30th June 2016, Munich, Germany
    Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 42.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enabling Automation of Composite Manufacturing through the Use of Off-The-Shelf Solutions2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials offer an appealing combination of low weight and high strength that is especially sought after in high-performance applications. The use of composite materials has and is continuing to increase, and the use of the material has been shown to provide substantial weight savings in for example aircraft design. With an increased use of composite materials follows an increased demand for cost-efficient manufacturing methods.

    Composite products are in many cases manufactured either by manual operations or by the use of complex automated solutions associated with high investment costs. The objective for this research is to explore an approach to develop automated composite manufacturing based on commercially available off-the-shelf solutions as an alternative to the existing automated solutions for composite manufacturing.

    The research, which was carried out in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace sector, is based on a demonstrator-centered research approach. Three conceptual demonstrators, focusing on three different manufacturing methods and a number of physical demonstrators, are used to show that off-the-shelf solutions can be used for automated manufacturing of composite products.

    Two aspects that affect if it is possible to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing are the rigorous quality standards used by the aerospace industry and the great variety in product properties and material properties that is associated with composite manufacturing.

    The advantages in using off-the-shelf solutions has shown to be that the solutions generally are associated with low investments and that published information about the solutions, and the solutions themselves, is generally available for evaluation and testing. When working with the demonstrators it has been shown to be useful to break down a manufacturing system into basic tasks and consider off-the-shelf solutions for each particular task. This approach facilitates the search for a suitable off-the-shelf solution to solve a particular task. However, each of the separate tasks can affect other areas of the manufacturing system, and an overall systems perspective is required to find solutions that are compatible with the entire manufacturing system.

    List of papers
    1. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Note

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, 8960-8969 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Electronic Publishing BytePress.com, 2013
    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, ultrasonic cutting, preform, RTM, automation
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95875 (URN)978-0-9696797-1-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM19), July 28 - August 2, 2013, Montréal, Canada
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2016-09-26
    3. Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

    Keyword
    composite, automation, off-the-shelf, adhesive joining
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109107 (URN)978-84-616-9798-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    16th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM16), June 22-26, 2014, Seville, Spain
    Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2016-09-26
    4. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, 505-513 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-05-17
  • 43.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, 505-513 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

  • 44.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alexandersson, Dan
    GKN Aerospace Applied Composites AB.
    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System2013In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, 8960-8969 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

  • 45.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuswaldner, Michael
    RUAG Space AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry2014In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

  • 46.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

  • 47.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea SICOMP.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Åkermo, Malin
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods2016In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

  • 48.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry2016In: SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

  • 49.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

  • 50.
    Blom, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie av elektrolytpolering vid HZ Rostfria AB2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med examensarbetet har varit att undersöka möjligheter och förutsättningar för verkstadsföretaget HZ Rostfria AB, med verksamhet i Sandviken, att införskaffa utrustning för elektrolytpolering av rostfria detaljer.

    För att kunna få en helhetsbild över hur elektrolytpoleringsbranschen ser ut i Sverige har de företag som öppet annonserar med att de arbetar med elektrolytpolering studerats. Företagen har studerats utifrån en rad kriterier, där den huvudsakliga inriktningen på verksamheten samt företagens läge geografiskt relativt Sandviken ansetts vara de viktigaste.

    Utöver de företag som arbetar med elektrolytpolering har även olika tekniker för att åstadkomma elektrolytpolering studerats. Teknikerna har studerats med de produkter som idag tillverkas, samt som i framtiden skulle kunna komma att tillverkas av HZ Rostfria AB i åtanke.

    I och med att elektrolytpolering klassas som en miljöfarlig verksamhet har även frågor rörande tillstånd för verksamheten studerats. Det primära har varit att studera processen som leder fram till att tillstånd för verksamheten erhålls, vilket per automatik också innefattat att studera vilka insatser som krävs av företaget.

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