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  • 1.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015Inngår i: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 70-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Koning av båtmaster: Undersökning av möjligheter till effektivisering2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Taper making of boat masts is currently made with high work- and cassation costs. The main reasons are complex settings and varied demand, another is the craft like production method which makes the fixture use low.

    Due to a higher demand when new masts are being produced the work cost will sink relative to the turnover given that the workforce is unchanged. This assumes a higher productivity in the fixtures.

    To adapt the production to a higher demand and lower cassation costs measures will have to be made. A measure related to lower cassation costs is standardisation of the rail steering. To reduce the time for taper making the measure preloading is the single most affecting measure.

    The production of boat masts varies highly over the year with a top rate in spring and bottom rate in the winter. Taper making is also very craft like which makes the volume flexibility low due to the skill of the operators. Currently there are three operators who fully possess the ability. The others, mainly at another function of the mast division, can only relieve the taper operator.

    Among the suggested measures open fixture is mentioned in order to reduce the handling of masts. Currently, when handling longer masts, an AGV will have to be stopped by the operator in due to avoid collision. This problem occurs because of the fact that the fixture is being loaded in the length direction of the mast. With a new fixture, capable of cross loading, the time for handling will be reduced but the amount of time is difficult to estimate.

  • 3.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016Inngår i: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, s. 519-524Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017Inngår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, nr 15, s. 1251-1263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

  • 5.
    Alayón González, Claudia Juliana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Research Trends in Quality Management over the years 2010-20112012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In current globalized and highly demanding markets, Quality does not constitute any more a competitive advantage for organizations. Instead, Quality represents a basic market entry requirement for organizations indistinguishable from the country or economic sector they belong to.

    Being conscious of the importance of Quality for all type of organizations, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the identification and better understanding of current trends in academic research on Quality Management. By analyzing a sample of 612 academic papers collected from five international Quality journals and two QMOD international conferences over 2010 and 2011, the author will study and reflect on the current trends of global academic research related to Quality Management.

    Literature review was used as research methodology for the thesis. Academic papers were categorized, classified and analyzed in order to identify current research trends on Quality Management.

    This work provides a snapshot of the current research trends on Quality Management. It benefits the educational sector, researchers, industry and practitioners by presenting an overview of the current research needs as well as potential future research topics.

    As a result of this study, five main trending research topics on Quality Management were identified: management systems standards, total quality management, service quality, customer related processes after delivering product/service and excellence models.

    China, India, USA, Sweden and UK were identified as the countries that have published the highest number of academic papers in international Quality journals during the studied period. Additionally, it was found a marked predominance of academic research on Quality Management towards the service sector.

    These results and the answers to five proposed research questions were discussed and solved in this report.

  • 6.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Differences in Situational Awareness and How to Manage Them in Development of Complex Systems2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Situationsmedvetenhet (Eng. Situational Awareness), (SA), handlar om att ha koll på läget och vara medveten om vad som händer. Redan då ett komplext system utvecklas får vi en möjlighet att påverka vilken SA en framtida användare av systemet kan komma att få. Det gäller att ta tillvara på detta tillfälle! Ibland uppträder skillnader i SA, beroende på en rad olika orsaker. Denna avhandling handlar om SA och hur man kan använda de skillnaderna vid utveckling av komplexa system. Detta är relevant vid utveckling av en rad olika typer av komplexa system, även om de flesta exempel i denna avhandling kommer från flygdomänen.

    Avhandlingen innehåller beskrivningar hämtade från litteratur inom området och förslag på utveckling av SA-teori utifrån fokus på just skillnader. Skillnaden mellan vad du behöver vara medveten om och vad du verkligen är medveten om föreslås ge en indikation om individens SA. Vidare föreslås skillnaden mellan vad du är medveten om och vad du tror dig vara medveten om också ge en indikation om individens SA. SA kan skattas för en grupp av människor som arbetar tillsammans, genom variationerna i hur samstämmiga deras uppfattningar är.

    Termen situationshantering (Eng. Situation Management), (SM), föreslås med en vidare mening än SA, inkluderande SA, men också varje del av perceptionscykeln, hantering av mentala resurser och hantering av situationen genom extern påverkan. SM är en väl lämpad term vid utveckling av komplexa system då fokus här är på situationen och hur den kan hanteras, snarare än fokus på vad en individ eller en grupp uppfattar.

    Att skatta skillnader i SA och att kunna särskilja olika typer av skillnader är viktiga förutsättningar för att kunna hantera skillnader i SA vid utveckling av komplexa system på ett bra sätt. I avhandlingen gås flera sätt att skatta sådana skillnader igenom och speciellt tas för- och nackdelar med ögonrörelsemätning upp. Med referens till litteraturen och till de bilagda artiklarna beskrivs skillnader i SA beroende på a) designalternativ, b) roller i processen från utveckling till användning c) kontext och d) analysnivå. Skillnaderna i SA föreslås ses som både kvantitativa (dvs. hög eller låg SA) och kvalitativa (tex. olika aspekter av en situation).

    Ansatser såsom SM, realtidsvärdering, mätning och analys av SA på flera nivåer samtidigt samt simulatorbaserad design föreslås för att hantera skillnader i SA vid utveckling av komplexa system.

    Delarbeid
    1. Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Vise andre…
    1999 (engelsk)Inngår i: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 171-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the multi-role combat aircraft Gripen, the monochrome head-down displays in the cockpit are to be upgraded in colour. In the present study, the effects of colour-coded displays on visual search and situation awareness (SA) were studied in a real-time simulation of an air-to-air mission with test pilots as subjects. Gripen's monochrome colour scheme was compared to two chromatic (dichrome, polychrome) colour schemes. A 3×2×2 factorial within subjects design was used; the three colour schemes each with two different background conditions (simple and complex) and two different symbol configurations. The pilot had two tasks during the simulation: (1) to track a manoeuvring aircraft within specified limits by using the head-up display (HUD), and (2) to detect the appearance of a priority target on the head-down horizontal-situation display (HSD). Deviations in flight path angle and reaction times for target detection were recorded. After the test runs, the pilot answered questions and ranked the colour schemes in different respects. The pilot also rated them for SA using a subjective rating technique on cognitive compatibility (CC-SART). The results show that colour is advantageous in comparison to the monochrome display: The ranks on situation awareness and preference ratings were higher for the chromatic schemes, and with the complex background, the reaction times were significantly lower for the polychrome colour code. In summary, the results indicate that colour can improve tactical SA in combat aircraft.

    Emneord
    Human factors, Aviation, Moving map cockpit displays, Horizontal-situation displays, Electronic maps, Colour coding
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12751 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00022-0 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    2000 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, s. 172-181Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12752 (URN)
    Konferanse
    10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Linköping, Sweden, 21-23 August 2000
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2015-03-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 263-275 Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2006
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12753 (URN)10.1207/s15327108ijap1603_2 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12754 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-08-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, s. 494-502Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12755 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2009-02-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, s. 337-358Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Opplag: 1
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-09 Laget: 2007-11-09 Sist oppdatert: 2013-06-28bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 7.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Simulator-Based Design: Methodology and vehicle display application2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-in-the-loop simulators have long been used in the research community as well as in industry. The aviation field has been the pioneers in the use of simulators for design purposes. In contrast, corresponding activities in the automotive area have been less widespread. Published reports on experimental activities based on human-in-the-loop simulations have focused on methods used in the study, but nobody seems to have taken a step back and looked at the wider methodological picture of Simulator-Based Design. The purpose of this thesis is to fill this gap by drawing, in part, upon the author’s long experience in this field.

    In aircraft and lately also in ground vehicles there has been a technology shift from pure mechanics to computer-based systems. The physical interface has turned into screen-based solutions. This trend towards glass has just begun for ground vehicles. This development in vehicle technology has opened the door for new design approaches, not only for design itself, but also for the development process. Simulator-Based Design (SBD) is very compatible with this trend. The first part of this thesis proposes a structure for the process of SBD and links it to the corresponding methodology for software design.

    In the second part of the thesis the focus changes from methodology to application and specifically to the design of three-dimensional situation displays. Such displays are supposed to support the human operator with a view of a situation beyond the more or less limited visual range. In the aircraft application interest focuses on the surrounding air traffic in the light of the evolving free-flight concept, where responsibility for separation between aircraft will be (partly) transferred from ground-based flight controllers to air crews. This new responsibility must be supported by new technology and the situational view must be displayed from the perspective of the aircraft. Some basic design questions for such 3D displays were investigated resulting in an adaptive interface approach, where the current situation and task govern the details of information presentation.

    The thesis also discusses work on situation displays for ground vehicles. The most prominent example may be the Night Vision system, where the road situation ahead is depicted on a screen in the cab. The existing systems are based on continuous presentation, an approach that we have questioned, since there is strong evidence for negative behavioral adaptation. This means, for example, that the driver will drive faster, since vision has been enhanced, and thereby consume the safety margins that the system was supposed to deliver. Our investigation supports a situation-dependant approach and no continuous presentation.

    In conclusion, the results from our simulator-based studies showed advantages for adaptive interface solutions. Such design concepts are much more complicated than traditional static interfaces. This finding emphasizes the need for more dynamic design resources in order to have a complete understanding of the situation-related interface changes. The use of human-in-the-loop simulators and deployment of Simulator-Based Design will satisfy this need.

  • 8.
    Alriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Aronsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Cross-functional Co-operation for Improved Product Development: - a case study at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and analyze relevant dimensions of cooperation between design and production related to product development. The study also focuses on suggesting improvements of the co-operation dimensions between production departments and the product development departments in the Product Development Process (PDP) at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT AB). SIT AB produces gas and steam turbines. Their increasing production pace and increasing number of product development projects have highlighted the importance of improved co-operations between departments within the company.

    We have developed an analysis model including the dimensions of co-operation we found relevant for the study. These are Timing of Upstream – Downstream Activities; Richness & Quality of Information; Frequency of Information Transmission; Direction of Communication; Formalization of Communication; Organizational Support; Goal Optimization; Attitudes in Cross-functional Teams; and Understanding of Tasks.

    For product development SIT AB follows an extensive process; the PDP. This is a sequential process where all activities are performed in sequence and therefore it obstructs the implementation of Concurrent Engineering. Concurrent Engineering aims to shorten development time and to consider the total job as a whole by performing independent activities in parallel. Hence, we argue that SIT AB should work toward a more integrated process with more parallel activities.

    The performance in all the dimensions of co-operation differ between large and small projects since the co-operation in large projects work much better than in small projects due to better followed process description; more face-to-face discussions; a better balance between informal and formal communication; and more focus on project goals and team building.

    The improvement proposals are presented in a separate chapter as actions classified according to the potential impact on the organization and the estimated difficulty to implement them. The proposals include for example: training more project managers; initiate work shop practice for design engineers; and give more and better explanations of decisions and actions.

  • 9.
    Altrén, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Lyth, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Solvency II - A compliance burden or an opportunity for the Swedish non-life insurance industry?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Insurance companies and banks are of great importance to the economy, which is why their stability must be ensured. In order to prevent bankruptcies in the financial sector, these companies are subject to strict regulations, which set standards for risk management and the amount of reserve capital required. Such capital reserves act as safety buffers to protect the customers from extraordinary events. In the insurance industry, the reserve capital is referred to as the solvency margin.

    Solvency II is new set of insurance regulations that aims to set a common standard regarding solvency capital and risk management for insurance companies within the European Union. The potential costs and benefits of the regulations are of importance not only to insurance companies but also to those firms that offer services and products to the insurance industry in the field of risk management. Solvency II is often compared to the Basel II accord for banks, which had a strong business case in the way that banks could significantly lower their reserve capital and use it for other purposes. The question is, however, whether insurance companies can expect similar benefits from Solvency II.

    The purpose of this study is therefore to explain how the Solvency II regulations will affect risk management in the Swedish non-life insurance industry, and whether these changes can result in opportunities for insurance companies. This is achieved by studying the new regulations and conducting a number of interviews with insurance company representatives as well as industry experts. Four potential effects of Solvency II have been investigated: capital levels, insurance pricing, credit ratings and reinsurance.

    The findings of the study indicate that no obvious benefits related to the potential effects above can be realised by complying with Solvency II. The future capital requirements will come close to those already enforced by supervisors today, resulting in a minor change that can go both ways. Neither credit ratings nor reinsurance covers seem to become notably affected by Solvency II. As for insurance pricing, an increasingly sophisticated risk-based allocation of the cost of solvency capital provides the most notable opportunity of Solvency II, but at present, no conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of such changes. On the other hand, Solvency II will put pressure on improving systems to ensure the quality and traceability of data.

    Thus, the actual changes in risk management practices are not expected to be substantial among Swedish non-life insurance companies, and it therefore seems unlikely that insurance companies would be willing to invest as heavily in reaching Solvency II compliance as banks have done in Basel II.

  • 10.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 572-606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Cell för induktionshärdning: -En inledande studie för ett beslutsunderlag2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är ett examensarbete utfört av en student vid civilingenjörsprogrammet i maskinteknik vid Linköpings tekniska högskola och omfattar 30 högskolepoäng enligt nya europeiska systemet. Examensarbetet är utfört vid företaget AB Wahlquists Verkstäder i Linköping. Vilket är en koncern inom verkstadsindustrin med cirka 180 anställda och har anläggningar i både Sverige och Estland.

    Genom insamling av fakta från både litteratur, muntliga källor och genom studiebesök på anläggningar har en kortare sammanställning om tekniken för induktionshärdning utförts. Sammanställningen behandlar hur tekniken går till, hur den används, vilka begränsningar som finns samt hur utrustningen fungerar. Utformandet är styrt och prioriterat efter vad som för företaget är intressant och valt att ligga till grund för den inledande vetskapen om tekniken.

    Den underliggande fakta som presenterats har därefter varit underlag för de diskussioner och idéer som presenterats i form av förslag på utformning av en induktionshärdningscell. Där förslaget på den utformade cellen är efter de önskemål som företaget valt att ställa. För att sedan kunna göra förslaget tydligare för företaget har beräkningar för investeringskostnader, tider i produktion och beläggningsgrad med aktuella detaljer utförts.

    De för AB Wahlquists Verkstäder viktiga punkter, som kan vara av vikt att diskutera i form av synergieffekter till en anskaffning av induktionshärdningsutrustning har presenterats. Punkterna är av stort värde eller har mindre påverkan beroende på hur det specifika företaget själva väljer att behandla dessa. Däremot rekommenderas i arbetet att personer med rätt kunskaper avfärdar eller belyser de presenterade punkterna.

    Det genomförda arbetet har sedan sammanställts och en slutgiltig rekommendation har utfärdats till företaget. Här ges en rekommendation till hur företaget ska gå vidare med sitt arbete för den aktuella anskaffningen och vad som behöver studeras ytterligare innan ett komplett beslutsunderlag kan utfärdas.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Wallin, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Modularised Passenger Seats2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this master’s thesis, with Scania CV AB in Södertälje as job initiator, has been to develop three different passenger seat concepts with focus on modularisation, functionality and production. The different concepts are: a foldable passenger seat, which is possible to fold away completely, a bench for two passengers, and a resting seat for resting during breaks when the vehicle is parked.

    The main tools used during the search for concept solutions have been brainstorming, morphological analyses, and evaluation matrixes. Prototypes have been made in order to visualise the ideas but also for the possibility to test them in a real truck cabin and by that find advantages but also flaws. Final product specifications has been made and with that guidelines for a continued development work.

    Experiences gained during this thesis work has been that by using ergonomic data and theories, well thought through designs, and standardised interfaces a good result can be achieved, which fulfils the demands and wishes placed on the future product.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Victor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrin och SPS: Möjligheter utifrån människa, teknik och organisation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utförs i samarbete med företaget Järn AB, vilket är ett svenskt företag med gjuteri, pulvermetallurgi samt bearbetningsverksamhet. Produkterna är av varierande typ, storlek och volym, avsedd för ett brett kundsegment däribland fordonsindustrin samt maskintillverkare. Företaget har mer än 500 anställda och namnet Järn AB är fiktivt.

    Syftet med arbetet är att föreslå ett angreppssätt för hur Järn AB kan gå vidare med statistisk processtyrning (SPS). Detta angreppssätt ska baseras på erfarenheter från fordonsindustrin samt litteraturstudier. Studien kommer grunda sig utifrån perspektiven människa, teknik och organisation. Resultatet kommer även utmynna i ett praktiskt förslag som ger företaget konkreta exempel kring införandet av SPS.

    Förslagen i studien kommer grunda sig på fyra studiebesök som valts ut under arbetets gång. Tre av de valda företagen är framstående i kvalitetsfrågor inom svensk industri och det fjärde företaget jobbar med statistisk processtyrning i stor utsträckning. De besökta företagen har olika typer av processer, däribland gjuteri- och bearbetningsprocesser som också återfinns hos uppdragsgivaren. Det har också utförts en nulägesbeskrivning hos Järn AB för att se vilka möjligheter det finns med statistisk processtyrning och jämföra utgångsläget med studieobjekten. 

    Resultatet av studiebesöken gav att inget av de svenska företagen använde SPS i dagsläget även om vissa hade erfarenheter från ett tidigare användande och flera såg framtida möjligheter med SPS.

    Om personalen involveras i SPS-arbetet och får ansvaret för detta arbete så kommer det ge ökad motivation och större chans att skapa ett långsiktigt arbete. Det förutsätter att systemet är lättanvänt samt att användaren har fått rätt utbildning i området. Det är också viktigt att det går att justera en parameter i processen som är direkt kopplad till utfallet av SPS.

    De processer som visat sig lämpliga för SPS hos Järn AB är de bearbetningsprocesserna som inte är självjusterande. Gjuteri- och pulverpressning är relativt komplexa processer som gör det svårt att knyta specifika parametrar till utfallet och behöver mer utredning innan SPS kan införas.

    De styrdiagram som har visat sig lämpliga utifrån process- och hårdvarutekniska aspekter är R-diagram då dessa lämpar sig vid införandet av SPS på variabeldata och har stöd i föreslagen mjukvara. Vid ett senare skede är det också värt att titta på andra typer av styrdiagram som EWMA och CUSUM.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Swedish Def Research Agency, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Diptee, Darryl
    Naval Postgrad Sch, USA.
    Approaches to team performance assessment: a comparison of self-assessment reports and behavioral observer scales2017Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, nr 2-3, s. 517-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human factors research popularly employs perception-based techniques to investigate team performance and its dependency to cognitive processes. Such studies frequently rely upon either observer-based or self-assessment techniques to collect data. In this study, we examined behavioral observer ratings and self-assessment ratings for measuring team performance in virtual teams, with team performance regarded as a combination of task outcome and team cognition. Juxtaposing self-assessments and observer ratings from a quasi-experiment comparing team performance rating techniques reveals that they indeed produce overall similar results, with both singling out teamwork effectiveness ratings as the strongest contributor to overall team performance. However, the comparisons show remarkably low correlation on individual questionnaire items. The most striking difference is that the team members self-assessments of workload are lower than the corresponding observer ratings. In particular, the self-assessments do not correlate at all with overall team performance, whereas the observers workload ratings are more consistent with contemporary research that suggests a strong correlation between workload and team performance, suggesting that observer-based techniques are more reliable than self-assessments for assessing workload. For other ratings, the results show that the two techniques are fairly equal, suggesting that the choice between methods to employ can be deferred to other considerations such as obtrusiveness, accessibility, and resource availability.

  • 15.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norin, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrating optimization and simulation to gain more efficient airport logistics2009Inngår i: Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009), 2009, s. 1-10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present airport logistics, which is a framework of resource management in the air transportation system. Focus is on the processes supporting turn-around. A detailed simulation model of various processes involved in turn-around is developed, by which the interaction between these processes are analyzed. We show that integrating optimization and simulation is a powerful tool to demonstrate efficiency improvements in airport logistics, using scheduling de-icing trucks as an example. An optimization algorithm for scheduling de-icing trucks is developed and simulations are performed comparing different schedules. The schedule obtained when considering total airport performance in the optimization algorithm gives minimum flight delay and waiting times in the simulations.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanik och hållfasthetslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Epiroc, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanik och hållfasthetslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hilding, D.
    Dynamore Nord AB, Brigadgatan 5, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Schill, M.
    Dynamore Nord AB, Brigadgatan 5, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sigfridsson, E.
    Epiroc, Sweden.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanik och hållfasthetslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Validation of a co-simulation approach for hydraulic percussion units applied to a hydraulic hammer2019Inngår i: Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN 0965-9978, E-ISSN 1873-5339, Vol. 131, s. 102-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a previously developed co-simulation approach has been adopted to simulate the responses of an existing hydraulic hammer product. This approach is based on a 1D system model representing the fluid components and a 3D finite element model representing the structural parts of the hydraulic hammer. The simulation model was validated against four experiments with different running conditions. The corresponding set-ups were analysed using the co-simulation method in order to evaluate the overall responses. A parameter study was also performed involving the working pressure and the restrictor diameter, with the objective to validate that a parameter change in the simulation model will affect the input and output power in the same direction as in the experiments. The experimental responses used in the validation were time history data of fluid pressure, component position and acceleration, and structural stresses. The experiments result in high frequency and high amplitude excitations of the hydraulic hammer and thus require a model with a high resolution of the model dynamics. The conclusion of the validation is that the simulation model is able to replicate the experimental responses with high accuracy including the high frequency dynamics. The favourable outcome of the validation makes the described co-simulation approach promising as an efficient tool for a wide range of other applications where short time duration mechanisms need to be studied.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    de Ridder, Henk
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Förbättring av slangtillverkningen på BT : En produktionsteknisk studie2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    BT Products avdelning för slangtillverkning har i dagsläget problem med att klara av dagens produktionstakt. Målet med detta arbete är att identifiera och komma till rätta med dagens problem samt förbereda avdelningen inför en taktökning från dagens 50 000 till 60 000 truckar per år.

    I arbetets första skede gjordes en beskrivning av nuläget. Detta genom att observera och aktivt delta i arbete på avdelningen, intervjua personal, samla in data och göra en tidsstudie. Med resultatet av tidsstudien och datainsamlingen gjordes en beräkning av hur mycket tid som behövs för att hinna med dagens produktionstakt. Beräkningen visade att drygt hälften av den tillgängliga tiden borde räcka för att klara denna och att maskinernas kapacitet gott och väl räcker till. De problem som identifierats som orsak till att produktionen ändå inte hinns med är främst dålig layout, ineffektiva arbetssätt, onödiga arbetsmoment samt planeringsproblem kopplat till eftersläpning i produktionen.

    För att åtgärda dessa problem och förbereda slangavdelningen för en 60 000 takt har en rad förbättringsförslag arbetats fram. Ett förslag på en ny layout har gjorts för att uppnå ett bättre flöde i produktionen med mindre transporter och färre onödiga förflyttningar. Ett införande av standardiserat arbete bör göras för att säkerställa att alltid det mest effektiva arbetssättet används. Fler maskiner behöver inte införskaffas för att klara av produktionen, om de inte köps in i syfte att användas som säkerhetskapacitet, men en del hjälputrustning bör införskaffas för att underlätta och förbättra arbetet på avdelningen. Exempel på detta är en bättre slangvinda, streckkodläsare och monteringsutrustning.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Leila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Ortiz, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    55+ - äldre anställdas föreställningar om att arbeta till pensionsålder och deras upplevelser av ett friskvårdsprojekt2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har genomförts på ett stålföretag som startade friskvårdsprojektet 55+ för anställda som är 55 år eller äldre. Syftet med denna studie är att få en bild över vad äldre anställda har för föreställningar om att arbeta till 65 och diskutera hur friskvårdsprojektet 55+ kan påverka deras förutsättningar att vara kvar i arbete till pensionsålder. I studien användes kvalitativ intervju som metod och undersökningsgruppen bestod av tio anställda på företaget.

    Förutsättningar som de intervjuade tog upp för att arbeta kvar rörde arbetet, hälsan, tajming med partner och ekonomin och många upplevde att de inte skulle kunna arbeta till 65 som de gör idag. Det fanns en besvikelse över att företaget inte längre erbjöd avtalspension i samma utsträckning som tidigare, eftersom de intervjuade mentalt hade förberett sig inför en pensionärstillvaro. Att de intervjuade från början inte var inställda på att arbeta till 65 kan ha påverkat deras upplevda förutsättningar i arbetet. De ställde dock om sina förväntningar och genom jämförelser med andra, såsom utländska kollegor, fann de sig i situationen. En osäkerhet över vad som gäller med pension fanns bland de intervjuade. Friskvårdprojektet kan ha fungerat hälsofrämjande, eftersom det för de intervjuade bidrog till ökad medvetenhet om hälsan. Det enligt oss största bidraget med friskvårdsprojektet var att deltagarna kände välbefinnande i att företaget satsade på just dem. Ett friskvårdprojekt kan därmed leda till ökad motivation hos äldre anställda att arbeta kvar till 65, men eftersom de intervjuade fortfarande upplevde hinder i arbetet skulle insatser även i arbetet kunna öka deras möjligheter och vilja att arbeta till 65.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Bohman, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Effektivisering av produktionsflöde: Införande av ny teststrategi2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ericsson AB in Katrineholm is a part of the Section Business Unit Network in the Ericsson Group. The plant's main task is to produce printed circuit boards in small volumes with a high product mix and focus on delivery and cost effectiveness. At the factory they produce printed circuit boards in the Module department.

    The Module department has for a long time had a high output of non-approved circuit boards in their production. This has led to a growing stock of non-approved circuit boards on the company’s repair department.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how Ericsson in Katrineholm can increase the outflow of approved articles in their test process in the Module department. As a basis for drawing up proposals, a study of the production in the form of value flow maps was conducted. Information was collected from the various databases QSP, Testnet and C:M. Information was also gathered by informal interviews. The company's present situation has been studied using theories like flow time and utilization rates and from the collected information, proposals have been developed using the program Excel and C #.

    Analysis of the present situation revealed that the test strategy that they now are using is not working well enough, because printed circuit board that does not have any defects is sent to the repair department. The fact that the test stations are very unstable and that the test operators do not possess enough knowledge of each article is also factors causing non-defect products to be sent to the repair department.

    The report presents a new test strategy based on 5 different criteria on data gathered from the database SID 40 days back. Complementary information is also presented to the test operators to facilitate their work when it comes to making decisions if a card / unit will be tested again. By introducing the new test strategy a value of 1.6 for cards and 3.25 for units of million Swedish crowns would be sent directly to customer instead of being sent to the repair department. However, this would increase the utilization of the resources, by 9.2 % for cards and by 19.2 % for units, but the utilization is very low, which implies that it should not affect the system in largely. However, this requires that the test process is performing in the same way as it did the last 40 days.

    Finally the results are presented in a graphical interface to facilitate the operators in the Module department. The recommendations given to Ericsson regarding the new test strategy is that it should be used as a tool at first and if the latter is used it should be integrated into the regular test environment.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Eklund, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Analysis and Actions for Robust ElectronicsProduction at Haldex Brake Products Ltd2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis report contains information about a project carried out at Haldex Brake Products that is situated in Redditch England. The Redditch site is part of the “Commercial Vehicle Systems” division within the Haldex group. Haldex Brake Products is designing and producing electronic anti lock brake systems. The latest product is called GEN2 and the project goal was to increase productivity and achieve more stability within the production processes of this product. The goal was achieved trough implementation suggestions affecting the three categories in overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Nine of the biggest implementations are presented in this report. Some of the suggestions are already implemented and some are under progress to be implemented. These implementations will result in an increase in productivity with additionally 953 products per week. The expected results are based on calculations on an average product. The report also contains suggestions for future actions to even more increase the efficiency of the production processes at Haldex Brake Products in Redditch.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Warell, Anders
    Lund University, Lund Sweden.
    Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding2015Inngår i: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, s. 2191-2198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will investigate the strategic design decision-making of an in-house designer in a company with a large product portfolio, with respect to how designers plan for future visual alterations of the product. In-house designers have to think strategically about the creation of recognition and differentiation through design because they influence the company’s overall strategies. Therefore, while balancing aesthetic and semiotic qualities of the product, designers have to consider current as well as future needs for recognition and product differentiation. The ability to do so is affected by cost and brand positioning strategy. An exploratory study was setup to investigate what design strategies could be found in an industrial design team employed by a company. The study exposed how in-house designers could strategically incorporate aesthetic flexibility in product parts in order to create opportunities for faster facelifts or redesigns. The importance of managing carry-over details in larger product portfolios was also discovered. To carry over parts from different products is an important way for a company to save money, development time and at the same time increase brand recognition through repetition. Carry-over can be an aid to enhance visual recognition, but it can also be a hindrance when the designer needs to create differencing design values. Most products have a lifespan before they need to be updated or redesigned, which depends on the competition in a product segment. This makes it extra important for designers to have an understanding of when to incorporate carry-over details and when not to. A model was created to describe how carry-over details, design cues and aesthetic flexibility could be managed in a product portfolio. The model is based on Rune Monö’s works and brand management literature, with an emphasis on the brand positioning framework of Point of Difference, Point of Parity and brand extension by Keller et al.

  • 22.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion.
    Irvall Karlsson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion.
    Genomloppstidssänkning för lågvolymstillverkning med hög variation: En kartläggning av värdeflödet i en tillverkningsprocess av hylsor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
  • 23.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wahlman, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lifelogging in User Experience Research: Supporting Recall and Improving Data Richness2017Inngår i: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, s. S3954-S3965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of lifelogging is to help users collect data for self-monitoring and reflection. We have in this study explored how lifelogging technology (a camera and a heart rate monitor) can change user experience (UX) research, and we describe a novel approach. Data was collected for three days with four participants, and a 4-6-hours co-creation workshop with stimulated recall interview was held with each of them to create an experience timeline. The timeline includes selfreported key experiences, lifelog stimulated experiences, heart rate, decisions, and valence. The results show that the number of experiences in the timeline that come from data points stimulated by the lifelogging, are as many as the self-reported data points. Lessons learned include that the use of lifelogging produces highly detailed UX research, but it is very time consuming, due to the sheer amount of data.

  • 24.
    Axelsson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Validering av BME - ett verktyg för kartläggning av belastningsergonomi2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Volvo Personvagnars tillverkningsanläggning i Torslanda utanför Göteborg tillverkas personbilar av flera modeller och en mängd olika varianter av varje modell. I dagsläget är produktivitetskraven höga vilket medför risker för belastningsbesvär eller skador för

    operatörerna som monterar ihop bilen. Således blir belastningsergonomi en viktig del i arbetsmiljöarbetet.

    Man har på Volvo Personvagnars slutmonteringsanläggning i Torslanda utvecklat en beräkningsmodell för att beskriva belastningsergonomin i tillverkningen som man kallar BME (Beräknings Modell Ergonomi). Problemet består i att utvärdera validiteten hos BME utifrån ett

    personalekonomiskt perspektiv, det vill säga huruvida kostnader relaterade till sjukfrånvaro,sjukskrivningar, rehabilitering, personalomsättning och omplaceringar kan knytas till belastningsergonomi med hjälp av BME. Genom litteraturstudier, undersökningar om hur den belastningsergonomiska situationen förändrats sedan BME infördes samt genom studier av hur sjukdomsbilden ser ut kunde samband ställas upp mellan belastningsergonomisk tyngd och

    förekomst av skador.

  • 25.
    Backman, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Åkerfeldt, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Bridging the gap: finding the processes to adapt a repository-based knowledge management system to the knowledge intense sales organization at IBM Nordic2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For knowledge intense companies the knowledge and skills of its employees are much more valuable than any physical assets. To share knowledge between its employees, some companies launch knowledge sharing initiatives which aims to spread best practices and increase the expertise of the employees. These initiatives are often supported by technical systems, repositories, which store the information that is to be shared. This report discusses how the value of such a repository, a Wiki containing reference cases of SOA projects at IBM Nordic, can be increased by using processes that aims to better connect it to the organization.

    To do this, seven employees at IBM Nordic were interviewed. Four of them were sales people, the main user group of the Wiki. Two were employees at the SOA Acceleration Team, the group responsible for the Wiki. The last interviewee works at Learning and Knowledge, IBM’s internal department for organization-wide knowledge management and education. The answers were analyzed using a framework created using academic theory. This framework consists of four different areas of requirements for the processes connecting the Wiki to the organization. The analysis showed that for IBM the most important area to manage is enablement followed by governance, motivation and finally content.

    The report is concluded with recommendations for five processes to connect the Wiki to the organization. The process Internal selling aims to inform the sales people about the existence of the Wiki and how they are to use it. Ensure search engine compatibility makes sure that the sales people are able to find the contents of the Wiki via the intranet based search engines. The process for adding a new case description ensures that new case descriptions which are added to the Wiki is consistent and contains the right kind of information. By validating the case information that is added to the Wiki the acceleration team verifies that the information is correct, increasing its credibility. In the last process, ensure information congruence, the members of the acceleration team updates the guidelines on what information to collect and the information in the Wiki as the information need of the sales people changes. This is done on a regular basis and ensures that the information that is collected and stored is actually useful.

  • 26.
    Bahmai, Masoud
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lean Implementation in Rosti AB: Improvement Opportunities and Challenges2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production has become a widespread production system to address the need of being more productive. Since three decades ago that some big automotive manufacturers started to adopt lean, many SME’s has adopt it and enjoy the outcomes. Literature have investigated the successful implementation of lean in these organizations, yet, very few papers have addressed the challenges toward adopting lean.

    In this thesis research a plastic package manufacturer is chosen as the case of study to implement some initiatives of lean production and study the challenges and outcomes of lean adoption. The efforts during the making the changes were focused on adopting the SMED and Root-Cause Analysis techniques, and also to reduce defect rate in one of the products.

    The findings indicate before any effort to implement lean production techniques, some social issues must be considered to reduce the risk of failure. The Rosti AB case indicated that promoting motivation among operators and resolving mistrust between managers and operators is essential to encourage them to participate in improvement changes.

    In order to promote motivation and eliminate mistrust to encourage operators to participate in improvement changes it is necessary to empower them in decision makings in improvement implementations.

  • 27.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klaus, Fichter
    Borderstep Institute/Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators and securing the inflow of tenants – the case of Green Garage Berlin2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 157, s. 76-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an attention in research and practise on entrepreneurial ecosystems, and how these, often using incubators, could support sustainable development through new firm start-ups. Despite the popularity of incubators in the literature and practise, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general or, more specifically, on processes that ensure a steady flow of tenants. Thus, this paper investigates how sustainable incubators ensures their inflow of tenants, how they organize their activities and whether the incubator environment affect tenant recruitment. A case study approach analysing the sustainability oriented incubator Green Garage Berlin have been used to generate an understanding of selection and recruitment processes as well the influence of external environments. The results show that regional and inter-regional co-operation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Incubator reputation and sufficient long term funding is also a key to success. A good practice case as Green Garage cannot simply be replicated, but require openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions.

  • 28.
    Beckius, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Hübel, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Vädrets påverkan på försäljningen inom svensk dagligvaruhandel: En studie om vädrets påverkan på ICA:s försäljning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [ar]

    ICA is the largest general dealer in the Swedish market as well as the largest supplier to the independent ICA-dealers. The principal and one of the biggest stakeholders of this thesis is the department Supply Chain Development who is responsible for the development of ICA’s Supply Chain.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how ICA’s sales are affected by weather and to make recommendations on how ICA should proceed with its work regarding this issue. By leveraging their forecasts by including weather, ICA hopes that their logistical metrics amount of spoilage, service levels and number of inventory days will improve. This thesis describes how ICA is working with weather currently, and furthermore it discusses the existing literature within this area. Extensive statistical surveys have been conducted in order to identify the products that are affected by weather, and to examine how they are affected by different weather variables. Finally, the thesis gives recommendations to ICA on how they can improve their forecasting by taking this study’s results into account.

    Presently ICA has no consistent approach when it comes to considering weather’s impact on sales. Each individual product planner uses his own experience and gut feeling and there is no central guidance or other quantitative information there to help them.

    This thesis is organised around two major statistical studies. First, a correlation study examines the correlation between sales and deviation from mean temperature. The weather parameter was selected following recommendations from earlier studies and from SMHI - the national weather institute in Sweden. The study was conducted on ICA’s entire assortment and identified which items that were affected by weather. These turned out to be about a hundred in number and were affected mainly during the summer; however a few items were also affected in the winter. Most of the affected items were rather logical regarding weather’s effects on sales and have also been pointed out by planners as products that are likely to be affected by weather. Following that, several regression analyses were conducted on the selected weather affected assortment.

    The regression analyses were conducted with various combinations of one or more weather parameters as explanatory variables. Surprisingly, in most cases the deviation from mean temperature alone was the parameter that best explained the variance in sales figures. The result or output of this thesis is a value for the expected change in sales for a selected assortment, given a change in deviation from mean temperature.

    The recommendations given at the end of this thesis explains how ICA in a simple and cost effective way could implement the study's results in their daily work. The proposal is to divide the work by what should be done centrally by the forecasting department, and by what should be done individually by each planner. The forecasting department should regularly collect weather forecasts over different time periods, calculate the deviation from mean temperature and distribute it to the supply planner. After that, it is up to the supply planners on how to best take advantage of this information by taking into account other unique factors affecting each category, such as campaigns, holidays and daily indexes that in many cases have more effect on sales than the weather.

  • 29.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring the strategic role of purchasing: An empirical comparison of purchasing practices and performance outcomes2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Bergelin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Wastesson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Vietnam: A Study of the Relation between Vietnamese Suppliers2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam is a developing country in South-East Asia with borders toward China, Laos and Cambodia. As other countries in the same area are far more developed, Vietnam can gain a lot from international trade. It is an important factor for a country to build prosperity and gain economic growth and thereby reach a higher standard of living. But for a company to succeed in the international market is a demanding task. Both internal and external factors that influence a company’s competence need to be taken into consideration. The awareness of Corporate Social Responsibility is increasing every day and it is becoming a more and more important factor for the end-customer as well as the buyers and suppliers. This Master Thesis deals with the relationship between Vietnamese suppliers and their international buyers and how Corporate Social Responsibility affects that relation.

    The result of the study shows that there are advantages for both the Vietnamese supplier and the international buyer. Companies that work together and care for each other will end up with a strong and long-term relation. Both the quality and the productivity increased and that the staff turn-over decreased when introducing CSR. One also has to understand that the international customers are in command and that the suppliers are merely following the customer’s demands. Furthermore, quality, price and delivery time are the most important factors when choosing a supplier but by working with CSR these factors will also be affected positively.

    It was also, apart from the main focus of this thesis, interesting to discover how corruption and cultural differences affected the supplier-buyer relation and also the discussion about whose responsibility it actually is to work with these issues; the buying rich customer or the relatively poor supplier?

  • 31.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sushandoyo, Dedy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hybrids versus diesel: The forgotten technological competition for sustainable solutions in the global automotive industry2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Berglund, Jimmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Eftermonterbart whiplash-skydd till BMW 5-serie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna examensrapport är att ta fram ett eftermonterbart whiplashskydd till BMW 5-serie. Detta eftersom att denna modell, jämfört med modeller i samma prisklass, har fått mycket dåliga resultat i två oberoende whiplashtest.

    Projektet resulterade i ett skydd som enkelt och tryggt kan monteras på nackstöden i bilen. Skyddet reducerar risken för en whiplashskada genom att minska det kritiska avståndet mellan huvud och nackstöd. Konstruktionen av skyddet är okomplicerad men designad så att den inte kan röra sig ur läge vid en kollision.

    För att nå fram till detta resultat har en designmetodik använts som är lämpad för just detta ändamål. Designmetodiken innefattar olika processer så som brainstorming och evalueringsmatris.

    Resultatet i denna rapport är endast ett koncept, så vidare utveckling krävs för att nå fram till en färdig produkt.

  • 33.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanik och hållfasthetslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students2015Inngår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary frameworks are needed to develop products that fit the human. Ergonomics is a multifaceted field that encompasses physical, cognitive and organizational aspects, and it is therefore a suitable subject to be taught to design engineering students.

    The objective of this paper was to describe and reflect upon how a systems perspective on Ergonomics is developed and conveyed in a course in Product Ergonomics to engineering students at the Design and Product Development (DPD) programme at Linköping University, Sweden. The paper is based on the authors’ experiences from teaching the course in Product Ergonomicsas well ason 52 students’ written reflections about their view on Ergonomics before and after taking the course.

    Means and ideas for teaching Ergonomics with a systems perspective included organizing a theoretical introduction into weekly themes and thereafter integrating and applying these themes in a product concept project under supervision of a multidisciplinary teacher team.

    The paper also reflects on how the systems perspective of Ergonomics is planned for and realized in the intended, implemented and attained curriculum.

  • 34.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Arbete och arbetsliv. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Development activities in product introductions – a cross functional approach2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Berglund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Turning Japanese?: Kulturella aspekter av införandet av ett nytt produktionssystem2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att införa ett nytt produktionssystem är ett stort projekt som påverkar arbetssättet för en stor del av de anställda i ett företag. Detta gör att det finns många ytor där problem kan uppstå och viljor kollidera. Stora förändringar kan riva upp invanda mönster och bryta mot den nuvarande kulturen i organisationen och därigenom skapa osäkerhet och ovilja gentemot förändringen.

    Denna rapport är tänkt att fungera som ett stöd för BT och Siemens i deras arbete med att införa nya, lean-baserade produktionssystem genom att försöka finna de kulturella hänsynstaganden som måste tas för att implementeringen av dessa ska bli framgångsrik. Specifikt syftar rapporten till att undersöka varför vissa människor är positiva till lean och varför vissa är kritiska. Vilka aspekter är det som folk finner attraktiva respektive mindre attraktiva?

    Resultaten av undersökningen visar på att medarbetarna finner grundläggande drag inom lean, såsom ständiga förbättringar samt medarbetarnas möjlighet att själva vara med och påverka, som positiva. Dessutom erbjuder lean enkla och effektiva verktyg som snabbt kan visa positiva resultat och därmed påverka de anställdas inställning positivt, exempelvis 5S. Det finns dock ett par frågor som företagen måste arbeta med:

    1) Information till de anställda:

    a. Hur når man på bästa sätt ut med information om det nya produktionssystemet till de anställda så att de får en korrekt bild av vad det innebär.

    b. Hur får man medarbetarna motiverade att disciplinerat arbeta efter de nya metoderna.

    2) Hur ska arbetet vid monteringslinor utformas för att det inte ska upplevas som monotont och styrt? Finns det något sätt att skapa en engagerande lina?

  • 36.
    Bergström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlström, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hur RFID kan påverka logistisk effektivitet: en studie av den svenska dagligvarubranschen2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Radio Frequency Identification, RFID, är en teknik för spårning och informationsbärande som har funnits i över 50 år. Det är dock inte förrän på senare år som användandet av tekniken har fått en bredare spridning. I Sverige finns idag ett flertal företag som har implementerat lösningar som bygger på RFID-teknik men samtliga är begränsade till att endast användas inom ett företag i ett slutet system. På frågan hur RFID-teknik och dess standard EPC påverkar företag i en supply chain, det vill säga i ett öppet system, finns inget klart svar utan detta bör undersökas för respektive bransch där ett införande kan vara intressant. Denna studie är en sådan undersökning, genomförd inom den svenska dagligvarubranschen, med följande syfte:

    Syftet med denna studie är att, på aktivitetsnivå, kartlägga flödet av fem utvalda produkter i dagligvarubranschen samt att för företag som ingår i dessa flöden skapa scenarier där RFID-teknik utnyttjas. Befintliga flöden liksom scenarier skall vidare analyseras för att identifiera möjliga effektivitetsförändringar till följd av användandet av RFID-teknik och dess standard EPC.

    Resultatet av studien visar att ett införande av RFID-teknik skulle ha både positiv och negativ inverkan på den logistiska effektiviteten för de studerade företagen. Den största negativa förändringen härrör till kostnader och investeringar som måste göras för att RFID-teknik skall kunna utnyttjas i flödena, medan de största positiva förändringarna kan kopplas till tidsvinster och förbättrad spårbarhet.

    En viktig slutsats är att det både för företag som idag använder streckkoder i stor utsträckning liksom för företag med lägre grad av streckkodsanvändning uppstår effektivitetsförbättringar. Storleken och omfånget på effektivitetsförbättringarna påverkas dock av graden av streckkodsanvändning i respektive företag. Positiva effektivitetsförändringar uppkommer främst genom att manuella kontroller kan elimineras och ersättas med automatiska avläsningar. Denna förändring minskar tidsförbrukningen i ett antal aktiviteter, vilket i sin tur påverkar kundservice och bidrar till kostnadsbesparingar. Ökade automatiska kontroller bidrar vidare till förbättrad spårbarhet i flödet. Med god kontroll av utflödet av varor kommer returflödet att effektiviseras och mer exakta återkallelser kan göras.

    RFID-teknik kräver även ett ökat informationsutbyte mellan företag i supply chain. Detta innebär att affärssystemen måste integreras för att möjliggöra kommunikation, något som kan bli kostsamt i ett initialskede. Om det genomförs kan det dock leda till stora effektivitetsförbättringar i form av ökad kundservice och minskade kostnader tack vare bland annat bättre prognoser. Sammantaget innebär slutsatserna för studien att det uppkommer både positiva och negativa effektivitetsförändringar vid ett införande av RFID/EPC i dagligvarubranschen, där de största negativa effektivitetsförändringarna uppstår i implementeringsfasen och de positiva effektivitetsförändringarna gradvis ökar och då blir bestående.

  • 37.
    Berzelius, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Borggren, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Framtidens distributionslogistik: - Effekter av en ökad centralisering hos ABB i Västerås2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary

    This final thesis has examined the effects of an increased centralization and better coord­in­ation of the distribution logistics at ABB in Västerås. The company is today strongly decent­ralized and there is a minimum of collaboration between the 20 business units. This is why the questions were raised; how could the business units coordinate outbound logistic activities and what effects would that provide. The obj­ect­ive of this final thesis is to provide basic data for a future decision-making which desc­r­ibe these effects.

    The report has mapped out the factors that are important to ABB in an evaluation of their logistic activities and how the outbound logistics work today. The four factors are cost efficiency, delivery service, environmental impact and logistics capability. It was noticed that the degree of collaboration was very low and the business units send their goods in three main directions: Gothenburg, Arlanda and Europe (except for deliveries within the Nordic countries). Today it is only the goods towards Arlanda which are joint­ly transported. In the other directions there are only a few business units who collaborate.

    Beside the primal task to negotiate general transport­ation agreements, the central logistic function (GFSM) at ABB has only a supporting roll in the work concerning logistics. The reason is not just that the business units have the real mandate over the logistics but also that the logistic focus in general is low. Furthermore is it hard for the freight managers (FM) at each business unit to change and improve the logistics, because they have other tasks to manage but also since their logistics skills in many cases are poor. The demands on the freight man­agers are also not expressed clearly enough and therefore they don’t know what is expected of them in their rolls as freight managers.

    Three development directions were identified and expressed as scenarios, see table 1. Scenario 1 represents an increased focus on the logistics and more distinct rolls for the GFSM and the FMs. Scenario 2 addresses an increased coordination of the physical flow of goods (exemplified as a consolidation of all truck transportations toward Gothenburg) where the freight managers are in charge of this coordination. Scen­ario 3 is a combi­nation of the first and second scenario and represents a centralization of the outbound logistics (exemplified as train with containers to Gothenburg).

    The conclusion was that:

    -   Scenario 1 entails an increased transparency, communication and central management with positive effects on costs, delivery service and on the environment in the long run. The scenario becomes a prerequisite for the execution of the two others. Therefore is it the first step for ABB if they wish to increase their coordination of physical goods or centralize their logistics operations.

    -   Scenario 2 envolves cost savings by a good 50 % because the collecting of the goods takes place at each business unit (unchanged amount of handling). These changes are something to attain since it, in addition to the cost savings, can imply an improved delivery service and doesn’t increase the emissions of CO2 compared with today!

    -   Scenario 3 results in a cost impairment since the cost reductions are too small for the distance Västerås-Gothenburg and are eliminated by the increased costs for handling of goods, warehousing and internal transportation. Nevertheless is train transportation within Sw­eden preferable out of an environmental perspective. All aspects considered, this scen­ario must consolidate more flows of goods and secure already existing knowledge before it becomes interesting to realize.

  • 38.
    Birgersson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsteknik.
    Reducering av ledtider samt framtagande av kalkylmodell2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Rimaster Kisa AB is a member of the Rimaster Group, the corporation was bought from Samhall AB in January 2007. The corporation is producing mechanichs needed by the Rimaster group as well for external costumers. Samhall AB is now functioning as a provider of labor for Rimaster Kisa, as the company is hiring personnel from Samhall AB. The company has earlier have had problems with their lead times being far too long. This has resulted in that the management decided to invest in a new edging press. Areas of work included in this thesis are, Investigating the investment of an edging machine, implementing of 5S and a new model of calculating prices of articles. The goal with the report is to reduce the corporations lead times.

    To reduce lead times the company has started working with 5S. This reports presents protocols to aid the employee responsible for the 5S work of the factory. The model for calculating prices is based on a model used by Rimaster Polen. The model has been modified for the needs of the factory in Kisa. The model calculates with parameters for the potential production capability, using this leads to a margin of error with prices higher than needed to be. The company should always be aware of this margin of error so that they do not loose clients because of it. When using this model the company protects themselves for the future. They are not as dependent of the cheap labor gained by Samhall AB. The model calculates cost factors ready to be implemented in the MRP-system, prices are then calculated with the MRP-system.

    Conclusion: The company should accept the offer made by Amada Implement the model for calculating prices fully, but be aware of its margin of error. Continue the work with 5S that has already been started. 

  • 39.
    Bjurman, Veronika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Kommunikation i sociala medier: Utformandet av en kommunikationsgrund till bloggen Chefs’ Table2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har inneburit en skillnad i det vardagliga kommunikationsmönstret hos människor och på senare tid också alltmer för företagen. Eftersom att företag hela tiden bör befinna sig där kunderna befinner sig innebär detta en nödvändig förändring av företagens kommunikationsmönster. Det bör speciellt ha betydelse för en organisation som enbart planerat existera på Internet. I de sociala medierna minskar företagets kontroll över kommunikationsbudskapet samtidigt som målgruppen är med och påverkar det i allt större utsträckning.

     

    Denna uppsats syftar till ta reda på hur sociala medier kan användas ur ett marknadsförings- och kommunikationsperspektiv för att möjliggöra att matbloggen Chefs’ Table får genomslag hos målgruppen. Kvalitativa intervjuer har gjorts för att ta reda på hur målgruppen upplever sociala medier och hur de vill bli tilltalade via dem. Vidare undersöks deras reaktioner på Chefs’ Table och hur bloggens kommunikation bör utformas för att tilltala dem. 

     

    Analysen av de kvalitativa intervjuerna visar att sociala medier främst används för att få utbyte och bekräftelse från andra människor. Utbytet kan gälla idéer, att följa eller delta i diskussioner, att få inspiration eller tips via länkning. Det som lockar målgruppen till en matblogg är recepten, möjlighet till interaktion, möjlighet att påverka innehåll och att andra tipsar om dess existens. Målgruppen vill bemötas och tillåtas interagera.

     

    Innehållet på bloggen Chefs’ Table bör ha ett personligt anslag, vara professionellt och utbildande men samtidigt lättsamt och underhållande. Dessutom ska det vara möjligt för besökaren att själv bestämma när och hur denne vill ta del av innehåll. Det är därutöver viktigt att det är möjligt att göra detta via flera olika sociala medier.  

     

    Rekommendationerna till bloggen Chefs’ Table som görs är att hålla en lättsam, men ändå professionell ton, erbjuda recept oavsett tillfälle samt ge instruktioner på ett pedagogiskt sätt men utan att vara för strikt. Chefs’ Table bör ha ett personligt anslag som inte försöker passa alla. Dessutom bör användarna uppmuntras till att delta i diskussioner samt tillåtas att ibland påverka innehållet.  

     

    Nyckelord: Sociala medier, blogg, Internet, målgrupp, kommunikation, kommunikationsbudskap, interaktion

  • 40.
    Björertz, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Development tool for push-buttons inside truck cabin2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When developing the driver interface in their trucks, Scania is highly concerned with creating a certain feeling. When pressing a push-button this Scania feeling shall be perceived. It is not obvious what the Scania feeling really is and there is no predefined method to create it. This Master Thesis takes aim at providing the means to improve the process of creating this feeling.

    First, the Scania feeling was studied via the results of an already made survey at Scania. This survey focused on subjective properties of push-buttons, rotary knobs and levers and related the properties to whether these objects had a Scania feeling or not. This existing data was analyzed statistically. The main task of this Master Thesis, however, was to create an environment where the feeling of a push-button could be tried out and described. This environment was created with a tool from Reachin Technologies AB. The environment is a virtual representation of a push-button module, created with computer haptics and graphics. The environment lets the user interact with a three dimensional view collocated with a force feedback device. The force feedback device lets the user feel what is seen through a pen like interface. The “tip” of the pen is used to touch what is seen in the 3D view. The virtual push-buttons was built from blueprints of real push-buttons to be able to evaluate to what extent the virtual buttons resembled the real ones.

    The statistical analysis made in this project does not support the notion of describing the Scania feeling with a set of subjective values. The virtual environment created proved to be very life like. The real push-button feeling could be recreated with high precision. When evaluated, the majority of test persons argued that it could be used in the development process.

  • 41.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Beräkningsmodellen BME och dess koppling till kvalitet och produktivitet2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är skrivet vid produktionsteknikavdelningen, på uppdrag av Volvo Personvagnar AB i Torslanda, Göteborg. Produktionsteknikavdelningen utför bland annat balansering i slutmonteringen. Slutmonteringen är det sista steget innan en bil är färdig att levereras till kund. Volvo Personvagnar har tagit fram ett verktyg BME (BeräkningsModell Ergonomi) för att kunna bedöma operatörens arbetsmiljö, speciellt den belastningsergonomiska arbetssituationen. Syftet med examensarbetet är att utvärdera hur verktyget BME går att koppla till utfallet i produktivitet och kvalitet i slutmonteringen i fabriken i Torslanda.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en koppling mellan arbetsmoment som bedöms som belastningstunga och antalet rapporterade fel. För varje ökat poäng i BME-bedömningen, det vill säga då den belastningsergonomiska situationen försämrades, ökade risken för fel med 20 fel på årsbasis. Risken för kvalitetsbrister var cirka fyra gånger högre för ergonomiskt krävande arbetsmoment än för andra.

    Det gick att finna ett samband mellan beläggningsgrad och poäng i BME-bedömningen för de belastningstunga arbetsstationerna. De av arbetsstationer som hade lägre beläggningsgrad hade erhållit högre poäng i BME-bedömningen. BME var ett viktigt verktyg vid förändringar eftersom det gav en bild av hur genomförda förändringar kom att påverka arbetsmiljön för operatören. Innan verktyget började användas fanns det inget som teknikerna kunde ha som grund för att utföra en bedömning av belastningsergonomin. Införandet av BME medförde att teknikerna fick större fokus på belastningsergonomi.

  • 42.
    Björkwall, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Ulfsparre, Ebba
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Quality Assurance in Tightening: How should Atlas Copco Tools and Assembly Systems develop this business?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A year ago, Atlas Copco Tools and Assembly Systems (ACTA) bought the Italian company BLM in order to increase their product range within Quality Assurance in Tightening (QAT). This was a strategic move for ACTA to strengthen the position on the QAT market. What ACTA should do to increase their QAT sales in the future has been the underlying problem for this study.

    The purpose for the master thesis is to analyse ACTA’s QAT market offer and to provide recommendations on how to develop this offer. The study has been divided into three parts. We have examined how ACTA’s QAT products meet the customers’ needs and if ACTA’s competitors do this in a better way. Secondly, we have analysed ACTA’s pricing in relation to what the customers are prepared to pay. The last part of the study includes an analysis of how ACTA’s selling process for the QAT offer matches the customers’ buying process. Interviews with 18 customers and some 20 people internally at ACTA in Germany and Sweden constitute the information base.

  • 43.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    A Preliminary Study of a Production System for Large Pumps in China2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    ITT Flygt är ett internationellt bolag som producerar mixers och dränkbara pumpar för den globala marknaden. Den största produktionsanläggningen är placerad i Sverige men det finns ett flertal fabriker runt om i världen, till exempel i Kina. Den kinesiska fabriken i Shenyang producerar pumpar som tillhör det lilla och mellanstora sortimentet. För att vinna fördelar på den kinesiska marknaden har ett projekt startas med målet att komplettera den befintliga tillverkningen i Kina med tillverkning av de största pumparna. Denna rapport beskriver en förstudie av ett produktionssystem anpassat för tillverkning av stora pumpar i Kina.

    En studie av det befintliga produktionssystemet för stora pumpar i Sverige ger en möjlighet att dela in tillverkningen i olika mindre delar, processer. Innehållet i varje process, gränssnitten mellan dem och de resurser som behövs för varje process kartläggs. Dessa parametrar tillsammans med en lista över befintliga resurser i Kina utgör grunden för att ta fram alternativ för det nya produktionssystemet i Kina. De befintliga resurserna i Kina kartläggs med hjälp av intervjuer och studiebesök till fabriken i Shenyang. Det finns ytterligare en fabrik i Kina som kan användas för tillverkningen av stora pumpar. Den är belägen i Nanjing och erbjuder en möjlighet att prova pumpar med befintlig utrustning.

    Bland de möjliga alternativen för ett nytt produktionssystem finns en lösning där alla processer görs i Shenyang men även flera alternativ där tillverkningen delas mellan de två fabrikerna för att utnyttja befintliga resurser så effektivt som möjligt. I jämförelsen mellan de olika alternativen belyses de möjliga lösningarnas fördelar och nackdelar för att ge en så god jämförelse mellan alternativen som möjligt.

    Rekommendationerna är baserade på praktiska aspekter och de teorier som presenteras i rapportens teoridel. Stor vikt har lagts vid förmågan att utnyttja befintliga resurser för att minimera investeringsbehovet och därigenom kompensera för de låga produktionsvolymer som blir aktuella för tillverkningen av stora pumpar i Kina. Det rekommenderade förslaget utnyttjar båda fabrikerna i Kina. Bearbetning och huvudmontering kan göras i Shenyang medan provning och de processer som kommer efter provningen bör göras i Nanjing. Målningens placering bör utredas ytterligare genom att jämföra kostnaderna för de investeringar som måste göras i de olika fabrikerna och väga dem mot fördelarna med att måla pumparna i Shenyang.

    Den rekommenderade lösningen beskrivs på en övergripande nivå där fokus lagts på ordningen i vilken de olika processerna utförs samt var processerna placeras. Nästa steg för företaget är att gå igenom förslaget på en mer detaljrik nivå och designa produktionssystemet mer i detalj för att förbereda för produktionen av stora pumpar i Kina.

  • 44.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials like carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) present highly appealing material properties, as they can combine high strength with low weight. In aerospace applications, these properties help to realize lightweight designs that can reduce fuel consumption. Within the aerospace industry, the use of these types of materials has increased drastically with the introduction of a new generation of commercial aircraft. This increased use of CFRP drives a need to develop more rational manufacturing methods.

    For aerospace applications, CFRP products are commonly manufactured from a material called prepreg, which consists of carbon fibers impregnated with uncured polymer resin. There are two dominant manufacturing technologies for automated manufacturing using prepreg, automated tape layup and automated fiber placement. These two technologies are not suitable for all types of products, either due to technical limitations or a combination of high investment costs and low productivity. Automation alternatives to the two dominant technologies have been attempted, but have so far had limited impact. Due to the lack of automation alternatives, manual manufacturing methods are commonly employed for the manufacturing of complex-shaped products in low to medium manufacturing volumes.

    The research presented in this thesis aims to explore how automated manufacturing systems for the manufacturing of complex CFRP products made from prepreg can be designed so that they meet the needs and requirements of the aerospace industry, and are suitable for low to medium production volumes. In order to explore the area, a demonstrator-centered research approach has been employed. A number of demonstrators, in the form of automated manufacturing cells, have been designed and tested with industrial and research partners. The demonstrators have been used to identify key methods and technologies that enable this type of manufacturing, and to analyze some of these methods and technologies in detail. The demonstrators have also been used to map challenges that affect the development of enabling methods and technologies.

    Automated manufacturing of products with complex shapes can be simplified by dividing the process into two steps. Thin layers of prepreg are laid up on top of each other to form flat laminates that are formed to the desired shape in subsequent forming operations. The key methods and technologies required to automate such a system are methods and technologies for automated prepreg layup, the automated removal of backing paper and the forming of complex shapes. The main challenges are the low structural rigidity and tacky nature of prepreg materials, the extensive quality requirements in the aerospace industry and the need for the systems to handle a wide array of prepreg shapes.

    The demonstrators show that it is possible to automate the manufacturing of complexshaped products using automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates. Tests using the demonstrators indicate that it is possible to meet the quality requirements that apply to manual manufacturing of similar products.

    Delarbeid
    1. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, s. 505-513Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-14 Laget: 2012-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17
    2. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Konferanse
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Merknad

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-16 Laget: 2013-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, automation, off-the-shelf, aerospace
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120300 (URN)
    Konferanse
    ICCM20 - The 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 19-24th July 2015, Copenhagen Denmark
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-27 Laget: 2015-07-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17
    4. Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 68-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Warrendale, USA: SAE International, 2016
    Emneord
    Composite, Manufacturing, Automation, Low-cost, Prepreg
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121602 (URN)10.4271/2015-01-2606 (DOI)000386445700008 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-28 Laget: 2015-09-28 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-02bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129925 (URN)
    Konferanse
    ECCM17 - 17th European Conference on Composite Materials 26-30th June 2016, Munich, Germany
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-07-01 Laget: 2016-07-01 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 45.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enabling Automation of Composite Manufacturing through the Use of Off-The-Shelf Solutions2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials offer an appealing combination of low weight and high strength that is especially sought after in high-performance applications. The use of composite materials has and is continuing to increase, and the use of the material has been shown to provide substantial weight savings in for example aircraft design. With an increased use of composite materials follows an increased demand for cost-efficient manufacturing methods.

    Composite products are in many cases manufactured either by manual operations or by the use of complex automated solutions associated with high investment costs. The objective for this research is to explore an approach to develop automated composite manufacturing based on commercially available off-the-shelf solutions as an alternative to the existing automated solutions for composite manufacturing.

    The research, which was carried out in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace sector, is based on a demonstrator-centered research approach. Three conceptual demonstrators, focusing on three different manufacturing methods and a number of physical demonstrators, are used to show that off-the-shelf solutions can be used for automated manufacturing of composite products.

    Two aspects that affect if it is possible to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing are the rigorous quality standards used by the aerospace industry and the great variety in product properties and material properties that is associated with composite manufacturing.

    The advantages in using off-the-shelf solutions has shown to be that the solutions generally are associated with low investments and that published information about the solutions, and the solutions themselves, is generally available for evaluation and testing. When working with the demonstrators it has been shown to be useful to break down a manufacturing system into basic tasks and consider off-the-shelf solutions for each particular task. This approach facilitates the search for a suitable off-the-shelf solution to solve a particular task. However, each of the separate tasks can affect other areas of the manufacturing system, and an overall systems perspective is required to find solutions that are compatible with the entire manufacturing system.

    Delarbeid
    1. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Konferanse
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Merknad

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-16 Laget: 2013-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, s. 8960-8969Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Electronic Publishing BytePress.com, 2013
    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, ultrasonic cutting, preform, RTM, automation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95875 (URN)978-0-9696797-1-4 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM19), July 28 - August 2, 2013, Montréal, Canada
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-05 Laget: 2013-08-05 Sist oppdatert: 2016-09-26
    3. Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

    Emneord
    composite, automation, off-the-shelf, adhesive joining
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109107 (URN)978-84-616-9798-4 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    16th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM16), June 22-26, 2014, Seville, Spain
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-08-08 Laget: 2014-08-08 Sist oppdatert: 2016-09-26
    4. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, s. 505-513Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Emneord
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-11-14 Laget: 2012-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17
  • 46.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, s. 505-513Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

  • 47.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alexandersson, Dan
    GKN Aerospace Applied Composites AB.
    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, s. 8960-8969Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

  • 48.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thuswaldner, Michael
    RUAG Space AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

  • 49.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

  • 50.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea SICOMP.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Åkermo, Malin
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

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