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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Role of Logistics in Retailers' Corporate Strategy: A Driver for Growth and Customer Value2010Inngår i: Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, ISSN 1625-8312, E-ISSN 1624-6039, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 14-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the role of logistics and supply chain management (SCM) in retailers’ corporate strategy and is based on reviewing multiple qualitative case studies of companies in the Swedish food retail sector. The article proposes that the role of logistics for what is referred to in this paper as modern retailers is twofold: to create profitability and to support growth and market expansion. International modern retailers are empirically compared with similar companies in the Swedish market. The dominating Swedish food retailers have taken command in the food supply chain but are primarily concerned with traditional logistics roles in cost cutting. This role is perfectly fine as long as the strategic intent of the companies is focused on market retention and not on geographical expansion and/or new marketing or store concepts. We argue that the success of modern retailers in terms of growth rate, profitability, and market expansion is explained to a large extent by the role of logistics in corporate strategy—when the role for supporting growth and increasing customer value from high-performance supply capabilities is a driver for market expansion. However, in many of our cases the traditional logistics roles of cutting costs and lead-times is still the dominating pattern that limits the possibility of expanding into new markets. Better knowledge of logistics’ role in retail corporate strategy can help companies develop and improve their strategic intent as well as redefine the role of logistics.

  • 2.
    Achten, Peter A J
    et al.
    Innas BV, Breda, Netherlands.
    Vael, Georges E M
    Innas BV, Breda, Netherlands.
    Heybroek, Kim
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Efficient hydraulic pumps, motors and transformers for hydraulic hybrid systems in mobile machinery2011Inngår i: VDI-Fachkonferenz Getriebe in Mobilen Arbeitsmaschinen, Düsseldorf: VDI-Wissensforum , 2011, s. 1-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed simulation of a large 33 metric ton wheel loader, carrying out the short loading cycle, has been performed. Two systems have been compared and examined side by side:

    • The conventional system, having a mechanical transmission for driving the wheels and a conventional load sensing hydraulic circuit for the work and steering cylinders.
    • A new hydraulic hybrid system for the wheel drive and the implements, applying new and efficient hydrau- lic pumps and motors.The core of the new system is the hydraulic transformers which convert and control all the hydraulic power flows inside the loader.

    The new system results in a reduction of the fuel consumption of about 50% in the analyzed cycle. The new transmission and hydraulic system also results in a strong reduction of the cooler demands.

  • 3.
    Adebring, Carl Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Zachrisson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Leverantörsrelationer på Volvo Aero Corporation: En modell för val av lämplig strategi för leverantörshantering2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Volvo Aero Corporation är en stor leverantör till de tre stora flygmotortillverkarna, General Electric, Pratt & Whitney och Rolls Royce. Komponenter som företaget producerar används i över 80 % av dagens kommersiella motorer. Nya motorprogram, där Volvo Aero eftersträvar att ha en mer aktiv roll gällande design och utveckling, har lett till nya utmaningar för företaget. Samtidigt har en komplicerad leverantörsmarknad, bland annat på grund av konsolidering, blivit svårare att hantera. Av denna anledning finns ett intresse av att förbättra företagets relationer och samarbeten med sina leverantörer, bland annat för att höja effektiviteten och sänka kostnader och ledtider.

    I ett led att klara detta, gav Volvo Aero oss uppgiften att studera och analysera teorier kring hantering av leverantörsrelationer för att se om vi kunde hitta passande modeller som är applicerbara på de nya situationer som företaget står inför.

    Vi utförde studier av en mängd teorier, och sökte att finna vilka som passade Volvo Aeros situation bäst. Många av de teorier vi funnit har sitt ursprung i fordonsindustrin eller Lean produktion, men vi har även använt mer generella teorier. Vi identifierade från dessa teorier de parametrar som har inflytande på vilken typ av förhållande företaget bör ha. Vi sökte speciellt efter de nyckelparametrar som bestämmer förutsättningarna för relationen, exempelvis maktbalansen eller mängden anpassningar och investeringar som företagen gjort.

    Utifrån detta har vi skapat en modell bestående av de teorier vi funnit relevanta, där vi applicerar parametrar specifika för en given relation. Modellen ger sedan underlag för att dra slutsatser om vilka strategier som är lämpliga för relationen givet den förenklade verklighet som parametrarna beskriver.

    Vi applicerade denna modell på tre specifika fall, och gjorde dessutom en generell analys av företaget leverantörsrelationer. De specifika fallen utgjordes av leverantörsrelationer som vi valt ut tillsammans med Volvo Aero. I den generella analysen tvingades vi till ett mer abstrakt resonemang, men vi baserade även där analysen på de parametrar och teorier som utgjorde modellen.

    Vad vi fann med analysen var att modellen fungerade på önskat sätt, och att det var möjligt att applicera teorierna på företaget med till synes goda resultat. Vi kan från detta även dra slutsatsen att modellen är applicerbar även på andra leverantörsrelationer, så väl som på andra företag, men då eventuellt med mindre justeringar.

  • 4.
    Aeeni, Soheila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Development of an Open-source Multi-objective Optimization Toolbox2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial trend is currently to increase product customization, and at the same time decrease cost, manufacturing errors, and time to delivery. These are the main goal of the e-FACTORY project which is initiated at Linköping university to develop a digital framework that integrates digitization technologies to stay ahead of the competitors. e-FACTORY will help companies to obtain a more efficient and integrated product configuration and production planning process.

    This thesis is a part of the e-FACTORY project with Weland AB which main mission is the optimization of spiral staircase towards multiple disciplines such a scost and comfortability. Today this is done manually and the iteration times are usually long. Automating this process could save a lot of time and money.

    The thesis has two main goals, the first part is related to develop a generic multi-objective optimization toolbox which contains NSGA-II and it is able to solve different kinds of optimization problems and should be easy to use as much as possible. The MOO-toolbox is evaluated with different kinds of optimization problems and the results were compared with other toolboxes. The results seem confident and reliable for a generic toolbox. The second goal is to implement the optimization problem of the spiral staircase in the MOO-toolbox. The optimization results achieved in this thesis shows the benefits of optimization for this case and it can be extended by more variables to obtain impressive results.

  • 5.
    Ahrén, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Dahllöf, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Utformning av planerings- och styrningssystem för tillverkning av luckor till Boeing 787: en studie vid Saab Aerostructures2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Saab Aerostructures är en del av Saab-koncernen och företaget utvecklar och tillverkar strukturer för flygindustrin. Tillverkningen av stridsflygplan är den dominerande verksamheten, men antalet civila projekt ökar stadigt. I många av de civila projekten verkar Saab Aerostructures som underleverantör till antingen Boeing eller Airbus. Det finns flera skillnader mellan de militära och de civila projekten, exempelvis är leveranstakten betydligt högre i de civila projekten. I och med de förändrade förutsättningarna görs försök med att tillämpa lean production. Detta har påbörjats i två pilotprojekt varav ett är tillverkningen av luckor till Boeing 787.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att komma med rekommendationer för hur produktionen av luckor till Boeing 787 skall planeras och styras. Då företaget började använda ett nytt ERP-system under hösten 2006, är det även av intresse att se hur detta system skall användas utefter de rekommendationer som uppkommer. För att utreda dessa frågor undersöks både produktionsstrategiska och operativa aspekter i de två produktionsavsnitten Sammanbyggnad och Kompositverkstad.

    Sammanlagt tillverkas sju olika luckor, varav de två största produceras i en lina som håller en jämn produktionstakt. Projektet är försenat, bland annat på grund av svårigheter att tillverka de 20 kompositartiklar som ingår i de tre största luckorna. Komposittillverkningen sker i en funktionell verkstad, med många transporter mellan byggnader för att knyta ihop flödet. Undersökningen visar att Saab Aerostructures har en mismatch mellan planeringsstrategin och den kapacitetsstrategi som tillämpas i Kompositverkstaden. Företaget försöker följa den efterfrågan de olika projekten har, men har samtidigt ont om kapacitet. Det leder till överbeläggning och leveranssvårigheter. På grund av kapacitetsbristen bör en cyklisk planering användas i Kompositverkstaden, där flaskhalsen styr takten. På detta sätt kan kötiderna i verkstaden minskas. Kompositverkstaden bör bli mer flödesinriktad för att minska ledtider och få till en enklare styrning. På detta sätt blir det möjligt att hålla en jämn leveranstakt även för dessa artiklar.

    Tillverkningstider, kötider och transporttider i ERP-systemet bör anpassas efter den cykliska planeringen som tas fram. Att uppdatera dessa tider blir extra viktigt i inkörningsförloppet, då tiderna är betydligt längre och varierar kraftigt. På grund av den hantverksmässiga produktionen i Kompositverkstaden och den stora kassationsrisken som föreligger är det viktigt att införa säkerhetsmekanismer. När den cykliska planeringen tas fram bör en säkerhetsledtid användas för de operationer som har stor variation i operationstid. För att inte linan skall stå stilla vid störningar är det även viktigt att skapa buffertar, dels innan linan men även framför den flaskhals som identifieras i flödet.

    Produktionstakten för kompositartiklarna är högre än takten i Sammanbyggnad, vilket inte stöds av ERP-systemet. För att systemet ändå skall föreslå rätt antal tillverkningsorder bör en kassationsfaktor användas. På detta sätt ges stöd för den långsiktiga planeringen. Slutligen visar undersökningen att styrning via ett kanbansystem ej bör genomföras, främst på grund av de höga kassationstalen och produktionsupplägget som en funktionell verkstad.

  • 6.
    Alder, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Ekonomiska informationssystem.
    Peterson, Jimmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Ekonomiska informationssystem.
    Enhanced knowledge utilization for increased project efficiency: A study of knowledge management in a project environment at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the prevailing uncertain and ever-changing business environment knowledge has become the single certain source for sustainable competitive advantage. Learning from past mistakes and avoiding reinventing the wheel are crucial tasks and no organization can today afford not to look for ways to make the best use of its knowledge. With Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT) being an actor in a complex and high-technology industry managing and leveraging the organization’s knowledge becomes essential. It came to the authors’ attention that the project manager department (GL) within the gas division of SIT experienced a need for improved processes for managing and utilizing the organization’s knowledge-base.

    On the first of January 2010 Siemens carried out a major reorganization, which affected SIT and the GL department by merging two previously separate departments of project managers into one unit. With efforts underway to harmonize the two department’s former working methods the situation implies timeliness for conducting a study on how to improve the company’s knowledge management initiative. This master thesis hence evolved to focus on examining and point out the improvement opportunities that exist with regards to knowledge sharing between projects, and between projects and the organization, and how tools and processes should be designed to collect, preserve, disseminate and reuse experiences, knowledge and lessons learned within a project-based organization in the best possible way.

    The research approach of the study was of a qualitative character including interviews with the 16 project managers of GL and other key employees both at SIT and at Siemens Oil & Gas division’s new CS and IP business units. Combined with meeting participation and observations of the project managers in their daily operations an increased understanding of the current situation at SIT and GL emerged; an understanding needed to identify the reasons and factors affecting the low degree of retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base; an understanding leading up to the development of a model highlighting the important aspects for successful knowledge management initiatives, and how these aspects correlate.

    In order to improve the knowledge utilization a continuous lessons learned gathering throughout the project life-cycle needs to be implemented. This is primarily achieved through collecting lessons learned at the regular project meetings together with special lessons learned workshops. The collection and reutilization of knowledge hence needs to be integrated with the project management process. Improving the different forums available for knowledge sharing is also needed to enable an increased level of transformation of human capital into structural capital; augmenting the organization’s knowledge-base. Providing forums for knowledge sharing together with a visualized management support through actions, feedback and the introduction of a culture aimed at organizational learning further enhance the retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base.

    Although the approach of this study is based on a case study of the SIT organization the conclusions are regarded to be of value for other project-based organizations and thus rending the conclusions to be generalized and used within other lines of business. The generic conclusion of this study is that in order to implement a successful knowledge management initiative all factors of the model need to be considered and attended too.

  • 7.
    Allen, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Scania CV AB.
    A Method for Reducing Ash Volume in Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters: Water Injection as a Service Tool to Improve Fuel Consumption and Particulate Filter Service Life2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 8.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Berggren, ChristianLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Sussex.
    Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften presenterar ett urval resultat och texter från forskningsprogrammet ”Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi” (Knowledge Integration and Innovation in Transnational Enterprise, KITE) som finansierats av Riksbankens Jubileumsfond i två faser under åren 2007–2015. I programmet har vi analyserat hur företag, speciellt i tekniktunga industrier, påverkas av den allt mer globala konkurrensen om nya produkter och tjänster, hur nya specialiserade kunskaper växer fram och tas tillvara, och hur de kan förenas med existerande kunskapsbas. I denna skrift finns studier på tre olika nivåer: branschnivån, med analyser av innovationsprocesser och kunskapsutmaningar i industriella sektorer; företagsnivån, med skildringar av förändringar i företagens interna organisering av kunskapsbildande processer och undersökningar av nya former för utbyte och samspel mellan företag; samt mikronivån, med undersökningar av samspelet mellan individuella specialister inom företag. Skriften vänder sig både till den intresserade allmänheten och till forskare med annan vetenskaplig bakgrund. Fokus är på internationellt konkurrerande branscher och företag, men analyserna av kunskapens delning och sammanflätning, separation och integration, har bäring också på andra kunskapsintensiva sektorer och verksamheter, från statliga verk till sjukvård.

    En vetenskaplig presentation av programmets forskning under de första fyra åren finns i boken Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms (redigerad av Berggren, Bergek, Bengtsson, Hobday & Söderlund och utgiven av Oxford University Press 2011). En uppföljande volym, Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries, planeras av samma förlag 2016 (redigerad av Tell, Berggren, Brusoni & Van de Ven). I den medverkar ett antal internationella författare vilket visar kunskapsområdets globala tyngd och intresse. Under programmets drygt åtta år har deltagarna publicerat ett mycket stort antal artiklar, konferensbidrag, bokkapitel och liknande. För dessa hänvisar vi till programmets hemsida www.liu.se/kite.

    Vi har under hela programperioden arbetat intensivt med att diskuteraoch konstruktivt kritisera och utveckla varandras bidrag. Därför har det varit naturligt att denna skrift inbegriper många programdeltagares medverkan. En presentation av samtliga medverkande finns i slutet av denna skrift. Följande KITE-forskare har medverkat i nedan angivna kapitel:

    Hans Andersson (kapitel 4)

    Lars Bengtsson (kapitel 7)

    Marie Bengtsson (kapitel 3)

    Anna Bergek (kapitel 2)

    Christian Berggren (kapitel 1)

    Karin Bredin (kapitel 6)

    Cecilia Enberg (kapitel 5, 7)

    Mattias Johansson (kapitel 4)

    Nicolette Lakemond (kapitel 7)

    Lars Lindkvist (kapitel 3)

    Thomas Magnusson (kapitel 1)

    Camilla Niss (kapitel 6)

    Jonas Söderlund (kapitel 6)

    Fredrik Tell (kapitel 5)

    Vi vill också tacka Jenny Björkman på Riksbankens Jubileumsfond och Makadam förlag för deras engagerade arbete med redigering och produktion av slutresultatet.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Leveraging inventors' creativity2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While creativity is often understood as the generation of valuable novelty, we extend that view into a framework based on well-known and established models from the creativity literature. In addition to generation of novelty which forms our frameworks first dimension, we add selection of novelty, and type of creative contribution.  

    Based on interviews with inventors and managers in three large, patent-intensive firms, representing completely different industries, we show how the framework can be employed in order to better understand in what ways different practices exploit and/or support the inventors’ creative abilities. By relating the practices not to creativity in general but to components of creativity (c.f Amabile 1997) the paper enriches the discussion of how inventors’ can be leveraged in technology-based firms.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Hydrauliskt säkerhetsblock: Hur ett ventilblock konstrueras upp till PLe enligt ISO 138492019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been done in collaboration with Camatec Industriteknik AB, who wanted to investigate how to manufacture hydraulic valve blocks, safety blocks, according to ISO 13849 and the PL scale. As this standard is being increasingly implemented in everything from industrial machines to mobile hydraulics, it is desired to conduct an early investigation on the possibilities of producing valve blocks in compliance with this standard. The work lasted for a period of 10 weeks and was carried out at LiU (Linköpings Universitet) and Camatec's office in Karlstad. It started by determening whether a design could comply with the PL scale from the standard and if so, how. A requirement specification was compiled based on the requirements that concerned the block itself. An existing concept proposal was iterated and formed the basis for a calculation model. With a preliminary stress-value, several materials were found based on recommendations and databases that met the set requirements. The materials were weighted in a weighting matrix and two final materials was determined. A final concept was made including a fatigue analysis with the selected materials. When material selection, construction and calculation were completed, a drawing was created that was used for manufacturing quotes. The result was a construction with two different material proposals. One version is designed for an MTTFD value of 150 years and the other for an infinite MTTFD. Depending on other components of a system, these safety blocks are compatible up to PLe, the highest level in the scale. When implementing this safety block, other parts of the system must meet the set requirements, it is recommended that the development of ISO 13849 is carefully followed in the future.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Exklusiva urmärken: en branschundersökning med avseende på positionering och val av urverk2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för armbandsur är stor, och den del av denna marknad som utgörs av exklusiva ur med högt pris tycks ha helt andra egenskaper än den för armbandsur i övrigt. Hur övertygas en konsument om att ett mekaniskt ur som avviker flera sekunder per dygn är att föredra framför ett elektroniskt som avviker några sekunder på ett år?

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en övergripande bild av marknaden för exklusiva ur och urverk, samt att analysera ett antal av de aktörer som finns på marknaden utifrån val av urverk och positionering.

    Rapporten beskriver elva exklusiva urmärken, med avseende på hur man i sin marknadskommunikation positionerar sig på marknaden. Märkena placeras in i en modell med två huvudsakliga dimensioner: pris och påverkan. Rapporten belyser även de mekaniska urverken. Vilka tillverkar dem? Hur används de, och vilken effekt får valet av urverk på märkenas prisläge och påverkan?

    Bland de märken som ingår i undersökningen visar rapporten att främst en tillverkare av urverk anlitas i mycket stor utsträckning: det Schweiziska företaget ETA. Med ett undantag - Rolex - köper samtliga av de i undersökningen ingående märkena urverk från ETA.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Redesign av reduktionsutrustning i asselvalsverk inom stålindustri: Ett examensarbete utfört på konstruktionsbyrån BEKAB mot stålindustriföretaget Ovako2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för sömlösa stålrör med stora ytterdiametrar i förhållande till tunna väggtjocklekar har ökat tillsammans med att högre hållfasthet i olika stålsorter tillkommit. Detta gör det möjligt att tillverka lättare, billigare och mer materialeffektiva stålprodukter med samma eller högre hållfasthet som tidigare.

    Denna nya utvecklingsriktning medför förändringar och utmaningar i en av företaget Ovakos produktionslinor i Rörverk 5 Hofors, vilket de har behov av att samarbeta med maskinkonstruktionsföretaget BEKAB för att utvärdera och utveckla.

    I Ovakos produktionslina i Rörverk 5 finns en del av ett asselvalsverk som kallas för "förreducerare". Denna del av asselvalsverket ser Ovako ett stort intresse i att utvärdera och utveckla för att bättre anpassas till den nya utvecklingsriktningen.  En känd utmaning hos förreduceraren sen tidigare är att den från början är framtagen för att reducera ner ett kvalitetsproblem hos rörprodukterna som kallas för trattbildning. Projektet fördjupar sig därför inom trattbildning för att bättre förstå grunden till förreducerarens nuvarande design för att därefter genomföra en redesign av förreduceraren.

    I en nulägesanalys av nuvarande förreducerare framkommer ett flertal olika produktionsutrustningsproblem med tillhörande kvalitetsproblem hos rörprodukterna. Projektet väljer därmed att fokusera på de produktionsutrustningsproblem som ger störst effekt för förreduceraren om de löstes. Detta resulterar i ett nytt produktkoncept av förreduceraren i form av en visuell 3D-CAD-modell med tillhörande hållfasthetsberäkningar och materialoptimering.

    Studien behandlar ämnen som design, konstruktion, produktutveckling, hållfasthet samt materialoptimering.

  • 13.
    André, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimization of Valve Damping2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Öhlins CES Technologies in Jönköping have in the last 30 years been developing control valves for semi active suspension systems used in the car industry. The system, marketed by Öhlins under the brand name CES (Continuously controlled Electronic Suspension), enables a wide working range and ability to adapt to the current road conditions. By controlling  the valve in different ways there are also possibilities to decide on a specfic damper characteristic such as sport or comfort.

    The CES valve is working as a pilot controlled pressure regulator and is continuously controlled with help of an electro magnet. The CES valve is mounted in a uniflow damper which in turn guarantees the flow through the valve to go in only one direction independently ofdamper stroke direction.

    The rst part of the thesis investigates the damping characteristics in the latest model of the CES valve (i.e the CES8700). A simulation model is made to approximate the damping in the solenoid plunger. Questions that are answered are: How is damping dened, what creates damping in the valve, how large is the damping, what parameters aect the damping. The second part of the thesis investigates new and already prototyped damping concepts with help of simulation. This has been done in order to optimize the valve damping and in turn the damper performance. The simulation results show that the valve dynamics can be improved but often at the expense of a slower valve.

  • 14.
    Arana Escobedo, André
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gunnarsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hydraulic Energy Efficiency of Concepts on an Articulated Hauler: Design and evaluation of different hydraulic concepts with focus on energy efficiency2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis has evaluated dierent system designs for the hydraulic system on an articulated hauler at Volvo Construction Equipment (CE). The current system suers from great losses when running on low pump displacement settings. This is due to large installed displacements as a result of regulations and market demands. New system concepts have been generated and simulations in Matlab and Amesim show that some of the concepts can be implemented in order to increase energy eciency up to 65%. However, increasing eciency does in most cases also increase cost, making some of the concepts unrealistic to implement. The suggested solution for Volvo CE is to remove one pump and allow for the fan pumps to supply oil to the steering and dumping, as described in the Displacement reduction concept. They should also examine the possibility to implement clutches further.

  • 15.
    Arnstedt, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Tullsson, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Förbudet mot utsläpp av toalettavfall från fritidsbåtar på svenskt vatten och dess potentiella bidrag till hållbar utveckling i Östersjön: En kvalitativ undersökning av fritidsbåtsägares syn på förbudet och förslag för ökad efterlevnad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de största utmaningarna i dagens samhälle är att säkerställa hållbar utveckling, vilket ingick i FN:s sjunde milleniemål med måldatum 2015. Östersjön är ett särskilt känsligt innanhav med en hotad biologisk mångfald och en utbredd övergödningsproblematik. År 2001 gav Helcom, en samarbetsorganisation för alla Östersjöländer, rekommendationen att införa ett förbud mot utsläpp av toalettavfall från fritidsbåtar som ett steg i att begränsa tillförseln av näringsämnen till Östersjön. Den 1 april år 2015 infördes förbudet i Sverige. Under de följande månaderna blev förbudet mycket uppmärksammat i media och det har sedan dess förekommit en stor kvantitet synpunkter på förbudet. Från april till oktober 2015 inkom 182 anmälningar gällande brister i hamnars mottagande av toalettavfall till Transportstyrelsen.

    Studien syftar till att utvärdera förbudets potentiella bidrag till hållbar utveckling, att undersöka fritidsbåtsägares syn på utsläppsförbudet samt att ge förslag till förbättringar för att förbudet enklare ska kunna efterlevas för fritidsbåtsägare. Studien genomfördes med en kombination av olika metoder. Huvudmomentet utgjordes av kvalitativa intervjuer med fritidsbåtsägare. Som komplement skickades en webbenkät till 109 personer. Svarsfrekvensen beräknades till 92 procent, vilket belyser det stora engagemang som funnits i att delta i studien. Därutöver sammanställdes de brister och synpunkter som rapporterats in till Transportstyrelsen. Författarna har även deltagit i seminarier.

    Resultaten visar att majoriteten av fritidsbåtsägarna anser att förbudet är korrekt och att principen att inte släppa ut toalettavfall i Östersjön är riktig. Enligt webbenkäten skulle 64 av 99 personer tömma båtens septiktank i havet om det inte fanns någon fungerande mottagningsanordning inom deras färdväg. Situationen speglas även i förbättringsförslagen då det mest frekvent förekommande förslaget är att bygga ut nätet med mottagningsanordningar och att säkerställa att befintliga anordningar är i drift och fungerar. Fritidsbåtsägarna gav flera argument både för och emot förbudet och hade även synpunkter på förbudets utformning. Två vanligt förekommande argument för förbudet var vikten av att ta ansvar för sina egna utsläpp och den sanitära olägenheten att bada i samma vatten som någon släpper ut toalettavfall i. Tre vanliga motargument var att regleringar för andra aktörer som jordbruk, industrier och kommunala bräddavlopp bör införas innan regleringar för fritidsbåtsägare, att toalettavfallet sprids ut i en så stor volym vatten och att båtliv ska innebära frihet.

    Förbudet kan bidra till hållbar utveckling ur såväl det sociala, ekonomiska och ekologiska perspektivet trots att utsläpp av näringsämnen från fritidsbåtar utgör en mindre andel av de totala utsläppskvantiteterna. Flera av Östersjöns ekosystemtjänster hotas av övergödning, exempelvis livsmedelsproduktion, biologisk mångfald och estetiska värden. Författarna till denna rapport anser därmed att alla ekonomiskt rimliga åtgärder kan motiveras ur ett ekosystemtjänstperspektiv för att inte riskera kommande generationers möjlighet att uppfylla sina behov. Förbudet bidrar ytterligare till den sociala dimensionen av hållbarhet genom att det medför en ökad medvetenhet kring problematiken relaterad till Östersjöns miljötillstånd. Författarna rekommenderar i första hand att det byggs flera landtoaletter och sugtömningsanordningar. Placeringen av dessa bör ses över av en aktör med ett övergripande ansvar. Spridning av information kring var det finns utplacerade mottagningsanordningar rekommenderas, exempelvis via en applikation i mobiltelefonen och utmärkning på sjökort. Därutöver bör information om vilka regler som gäller för fritidsbåtsägare och hamnansvariga spridas, samt tydliga användarinstruktioner på mottagningsanordningarna vara mer frekvent förekommande.

  • 16.
    Asp, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Järlstig, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Planning interior lighting in a truck cab: A thesis in visual ergonomics2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A long-haulage truck cab from Scania is an environment that involves various activities and combines a working place with compact living which sets different requirements on the lighting environment depending on the activity. Truck drivers have different requirements in means of visual ergonomics and preference on the lighting design. A conclusion in this thesis is that different user in various activities sets different requirements on lighting design in a truck cab. 

    Lighting planning in a truck cab with new lighting technologies such as LED (Light Emitting Diode) and OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) stands for a paradigm shift in lighting planning and lighting design. The new technologies enables more integration in the interior, more diverse lighting which means more effort is needed to succeed in good visual ergonomics, light distribution, aesthetic expression and branding. 

    Studies have shown that by blue enriched light can be used as a tool to affect the humans’ sleep-awake rhythm. With the new paradigm shift with LED and OLED comes an opportunity to change the colour temperature of the lighting and use blue-enriched light as a tool to possibly create a better working environment for shift working truck drivers using warmer light at night and colder light in the morning. 

    In this thesis two main studies has been conducted, the first was regarding product and user knowledge and the second was a lighting study. From these studies we have concluded three analyses and suggested a lighting planning guide for Scania that takes into account future lighting planning with new technology for a better working environment for long-haulage truck drivers.

  • 17.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design Rules for High Damping in Mobile Hydraulic Systems2013Inngår i: 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 13-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the damping in pressure compensated closed centre mobile working hydraulic systems. Both rotational and linear loads are covered and the analysis applies to any type of pump controller. Only the outlet orifice in the directional valve will provide damping to a pressure compensated system. Design rules are proposed for how the system should be dimensioned in order to obtain a high damping. The volumes on each side of the load have a high impact on the damping. In case of a small volume on the inlet side, the damping becomes low. However, the most important thing is to design the outlet orifice area properly. There exists an optimal orifice dimension for maximized damping; both smaller and larger orifice areas give lower damping independently of the volumes. This paper presents a method to dimension the outlet orifice area and the load volumes in order to obtain a desired system damping. Experimental results, which confirm the theoretical expectations, are also presented. The conclusions are that it is possible to obtain a high damping contribution from the outlet orifice if the system is dimensioned correctly. However, the energy efficiency needs to be considered while improving the damping

  • 18.
    B M, Shiva Kumar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Ramanujam, kathiravan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Thermal Simulation of Hybrid Drive System2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Safety, performance and driving comforts are given high importance while developing modern day cars. All-Wheel Drive vehicles are exactly designed to fulfill such requirements. In modern times, human concern towards depleting fossil fuels and cognizance of ecological issues have led to new innovations in the field of Automotive engineering. One such outcome of the above process is the birth of electrical hybrid vehicles. The product under investigation is a combination of all wheel drive and hybrid system. A superior fuel economy can be achieved using hybrid system and optimized vehicle dynamic forces are accomplished by torque vectoring action which in turn provides All-Wheel Drive capabilities.

    Heat generation is inevitable whenever there is a conversion of energy from one form into another. In this master thesis investigation, a thermal simulation model for the product is built using 1D simulation tool AMESim and validation is done against the vehicle driving test data. AMESim tool was chosen for its proven track record related to vehicle thermal management. The vehicle CAN data are handled in MATLAB. In a nutshell, Simulation model accounts for heat generation sources, oil flow paths, power loss modeling and heat transfer phenomena.

    The final simulation model should be able to predict the transient temperature evolution in the rear drive when the speed and torque of motor is supplied as input. This simulation model can efficiently predict temperature patterns at various locations such as casing, motor inner parts as well as coolant at different places. Various driving cases were tried as input including harsh (high torque, low speed) ones. Simulation models like this helps Engineers in trying out new cooling strategies. Flow path optimization, flow rate, convection area, coolant pump controlling etc are the few variables worth mentioning in this regard.

  • 19.
    Barath, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kullberg, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Utveckling av väska med verktyg för service av gasfjäder: Ett examensarbete hos Strömsholmen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Strömsholmen är en världsledande tillverkare av gasfjädrar och gashydrauliska system. De tillverkar gasfjädrar under tre olika varumärken; Kaller, Hyson och Fibro. Strömsholmen erbjuder kunder att köpa serviceutrustning så att gasfjädrarna kan repareras eller underhållas. En del av serviceutrustningen är en serviceväska med serviceverktyg. I detta examensarbete har serviceväskan och verktygen i väskan utvecklats vidare och designats om för att vara mer användarvänliga, bättre representera varumärkena samt reducera kostnaden. Fokus har legat på väskan samt ett verktyg som demonterar låsringar i gasfjädrar.

    Examensarbetet inleddes med en omfattande nulägesundersökning för att ta reda på hur en service går till, vem som utför service, varför behovet av service uppstår och hur kontexten för service av gasfjädrar ser ut. Det genomfördes observationer, intervjuer och användbarhetstest. Materialet som samlades in analyserades och baserat på analysen sammanställdes en kravspecifikation. Konceptutvecklingsfasen genomfördes med olika metoder för att generera idéer och göra ett konceptval för hur servicesystemet i den nya väskan skulle se ut. Detaljdesignfasen fokuserade på att specificera utseendet och funktionen för främst låsringsverktyget och väskan. Även de övriga verktygen fick förbättringsförslag av varierande detaljnivå.

    Resultatet utvärderades utifrån kraven. De flesta kraven uppfylldes.

  • 20.
    Benjaminsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Nya renings- och uppgraderingstekniker för biogas2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic mate-rial. In Sweden, biogas predominately comes from sewage water sludge and landfills or from organic waste of households and industries. Small scale digestion plants at farms are espe-cially expected to contribute to increased biogas production in the future. Biogas can be ob-tained directly in it’s raw form and used as fuel in a combustion chamber. However, gas en-gines require biogas purification from hydrogen sulphide and drying from water to avoid cor-rosion. In order to increase the calorific value, carbon dioxide is separated and the Swedish Standard Type A requires the methane content to be 97 % for vehicle gas.

    In the gas treatment process from biogas to vehicle gas, the upgrading step when carbon diox-ide is separated represents the highest cost since conventional upgrading techniques require high investments. This makes the upgrading costs for smaller biogas plants relatively high. In this master thesis, six upgrading methods have been evaluated and four of them are expected to be commercialized within two years. The following upgrading methods are of interest for Sweden:

    - In situ methane enrichment; air desorbs carbon dioxide from the sludge in a

    desorption column. The method is intended for digestion of sewage water sludge and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,13 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow 62,5 Nm3/h.

    - Small scale water scrubber; carbon dioxide is absorbed in water under enhanced pressure. The upgrading process is very similar to the conventional water scrub-bing technique and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,42 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 12 Nm3/h.

    - Cryogenic upgrading; the biogas is chilled to under -85 °C under a pressure of at least 5,2 barg and carbon dioxide can be separated in the liquid phase. The total upgrading cost is approximately 0,12 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 150 Nm3/h. The total upgrading cost can be reduced if the recovered liquid carbon dioxide can be sold.

    - Membrane technique; biogas is upgraded with polymeric membranes that are per-meable for carbon dioxide but not for methane molecules. The method is expected to be adaptable for both smaller and bigger biogas plants and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,14 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 180 Nm3/h.

    All above mentioned upgrading techniques have methane losses less than two percent and all methods except for the in situ methane enrichment are expected to upgrade biogas to vehicle gas according to the Swedish Standard. In situ methane is expected to upgrade biogas up to 95 % methane content.

    By combustion of unpurified landfill gas in a gas engine, corrosive combustion products and white deposits are formed. Purification of landfill gas can decrease maintenance costs for gas engines. Two landfill gas purification methods have been evaluated and with the first method, contaminants are trapped in ice crystals when the gas is chilled to -25 °C. The second method purifies landfill gas with condensed carbon dioxide.

    An important result of the master thesis is that the in situ methane enrichment has a chance to become an interesting alternative for smaller sewage treatment plants but the method requires additional upgrading to reach 97 % methane content. The most important conclusion is that cryogenic upgrading and membrane technique are expected to satisfy the Swedish Standard. The methods have relatively low upgrading costs and the methane losses are less than two percent. This gives them a good chance to establish in Sweden.

  • 21.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Universiteit Utrecht & EAWAG.
    Technological innovation systems in contexts: Conceptualizing contextual structures and interaction dynamics2015Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 16, s. 51-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This paper addresses interactions between technological innovation systems (TIS) and wider “context structures”. While TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual influences, we suggest that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more elaborated conceptualization of TIS context structures and TIS–context interactions. For that purpose, we identify and discuss four especially important types of context structures: technological, sectorial, geographical and political. For each of these, we provide examples of different ways in which context structures can interact with a focal TIS and how our understanding of TIS dynamics is enhanced by considering them explicitly. Lessons for analysts are given and a research agenda is outlined.

  • 22.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Policy to Promote NTBFs: A Tentative Framework2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    karabag, solmaz filiz
    Dhruba, J B
    Drivers of a successful acquisition: The case of Jaguar Land Rover’s acquisition by Tata.: The case of Jaguar Land Rover’s acquisition by Tata.2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Jaguar and Land Rover are two British premium automobile brands that were acquired by Indian car maker Tata Motors from Ford in the year 2008 for $2.3 billion. Literatures, in the past, have discussed several mergers and acquisition cases from the automobile industry. Although, being one of the largest & successful acquisitions in the industry, this acquisition has not received scholarly attention. What make the acquisition more interesting is the fact that Tata being an Indian low-cost car manufacturer attains success in handling a premiere brands like Jaguar Land Rover, while Ford in spite of its huge experience and size in the industry, failed to live up to the expectation.

    Since the acquisition has taken place, sales and profits of Jaguar Land Rover have seen a tremendous growth. In 2014, financial experts estimated that the valuation of Jaguar Land Rover increased from $2.3 billion to $14 billion in just 5 years. This paper aims to identify the various factors behind Tata-Jaguar Land Rover’s success story by comparing the post-acquisition strategies adopted by the two owners, Ford and Tata and thus, create the opportunity for the following research question:

    RQ1. What are the reasons behind Jaguar Land Rover’s success under Tata’s leadership?

    As Tata is a low cost car manufacturer and Jaguar Land Rover is a premium car maker, literature suggest some major challenges for maintaining the brand image of luxury products after change of such ownerships. In Tata-Jaguar Land Rover case, maintaining the ‘Country of origin, manufacturing and design’ status was found to be a serious challenge for Jaguar Land Rover. This research aims to identify the branding hurdles for Jaguar Land Rover after the change of ownership from Ford to Tata with the help of the following research question:

    RQ2. How has Jaguar Land Rover managed the brand image of “Premium British Brands’’ after the acquisition despite the new owner being a low cost car maker from India?

    This paper uses qualitative study primarily based on ten interviews with top management portfolio holders from Ford, Jaguar Land Rover and Tata as well as industry experts to study the differences in post-acquisition strategies adopted by the two owners. The preliminary findings show that market expansion and increased R&D investments are the major drivers behind the success of the Tata’s acquisition. The study reveals that Ford used organizational integration strategies, which limited the quality of decision making of Jaguar Land Rover management team. On the other hand, Tata has implemented “Separation strategy” and empowered decentralized decision making to Jaguar Land Rover’s managers. That has allowed Jaguar Land Rover to reinvest their profits in technology development and promotion of their brand image. In addition to increased investments and separation strategy, both Jaguar Land Rover and Tata have adopted effective pre and post acquisition communication strategies to develop trust among the internal and external stakeholders, which helped Jaguar Land Rover to sustain its brand image of being a “Premium British Car Maker”.

  • 24.
    Berzelius, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Borggren, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Framtidens distributionslogistik: - Effekter av en ökad centralisering hos ABB i Västerås2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary

    This final thesis has examined the effects of an increased centralization and better coord­in­ation of the distribution logistics at ABB in Västerås. The company is today strongly decent­ralized and there is a minimum of collaboration between the 20 business units. This is why the questions were raised; how could the business units coordinate outbound logistic activities and what effects would that provide. The obj­ect­ive of this final thesis is to provide basic data for a future decision-making which desc­r­ibe these effects.

    The report has mapped out the factors that are important to ABB in an evaluation of their logistic activities and how the outbound logistics work today. The four factors are cost efficiency, delivery service, environmental impact and logistics capability. It was noticed that the degree of collaboration was very low and the business units send their goods in three main directions: Gothenburg, Arlanda and Europe (except for deliveries within the Nordic countries). Today it is only the goods towards Arlanda which are joint­ly transported. In the other directions there are only a few business units who collaborate.

    Beside the primal task to negotiate general transport­ation agreements, the central logistic function (GFSM) at ABB has only a supporting roll in the work concerning logistics. The reason is not just that the business units have the real mandate over the logistics but also that the logistic focus in general is low. Furthermore is it hard for the freight managers (FM) at each business unit to change and improve the logistics, because they have other tasks to manage but also since their logistics skills in many cases are poor. The demands on the freight man­agers are also not expressed clearly enough and therefore they don’t know what is expected of them in their rolls as freight managers.

    Three development directions were identified and expressed as scenarios, see table 1. Scenario 1 represents an increased focus on the logistics and more distinct rolls for the GFSM and the FMs. Scenario 2 addresses an increased coordination of the physical flow of goods (exemplified as a consolidation of all truck transportations toward Gothenburg) where the freight managers are in charge of this coordination. Scen­ario 3 is a combi­nation of the first and second scenario and represents a centralization of the outbound logistics (exemplified as train with containers to Gothenburg).

    The conclusion was that:

    -   Scenario 1 entails an increased transparency, communication and central management with positive effects on costs, delivery service and on the environment in the long run. The scenario becomes a prerequisite for the execution of the two others. Therefore is it the first step for ABB if they wish to increase their coordination of physical goods or centralize their logistics operations.

    -   Scenario 2 envolves cost savings by a good 50 % because the collecting of the goods takes place at each business unit (unchanged amount of handling). These changes are something to attain since it, in addition to the cost savings, can imply an improved delivery service and doesn’t increase the emissions of CO2 compared with today!

    -   Scenario 3 results in a cost impairment since the cost reductions are too small for the distance Västerås-Gothenburg and are eliminated by the increased costs for handling of goods, warehousing and internal transportation. Nevertheless is train transportation within Sw­eden preferable out of an environmental perspective. All aspects considered, this scen­ario must consolidate more flows of goods and secure already existing knowledge before it becomes interesting to realize.

  • 25.
    Beuttenmüller, Frank
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Designing the Communication interface between R&D Units and manufacturing2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis presents a theoretical analysis of the interface between the Research&Development units and manufacturing. Streamlining this interface becomes more and more crucial for the smooth and high volume production. A literature research and a theoretical analysis of the crucial elements of inter-departmental communication between design and manufacturing build the basis for an improved communication model. The model acts as a guideline for the implementation of change processes. It emphasises the importance of both structural and individual elements of interventions. Both elements are important and necessary for the success, but their moment of result separates them. Hybrid methods counterbalance these differences. A first questionnaire issues the actual level of communication at the involved companies; a second questionnaire ascertains the attitude of the employees towards the proposed interventions. The model as a framework can be applied in general to all organisations, since the interventions that are necessary to be implemented are resulting from the analysis of the specific environments.

  • 26.
    Bildsten, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Applying the Krajlic-model to the Construction sector - the case of a prefab housing factory2010Inngår i: Proceedings 26th Annual ARCOM Conference. Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2010, Vol. 2 / [ed] Charles Egbu, 2010, s. 1029-1037Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purchasing strategies in the construction industry have been considered by many writers in construction management as short-term and arms-length. However, a different picture is portrayed in the manufacturing industry, where the purchasing strategies are mostly long-term to secure supply for production. Industrialized building is at the crossroad between construction and manufacturing, which raises the question of what purchasing strategies are applied. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the Kraljic model (1983) can be applied in an industrialized housing factory. The purchasing strategies were studied through interviews with the CEO of a timber housing manufacturer in northern Sweden. Industrialized housing manufacturers can take advantage of standardized construction systems and secure production flows that eliminate waste and improve quality. Evidence proves that long-term relationships similar to those in the manufacturing industry also exist in the construction industry regarding factory production. The analysis of these strategies suggests that the total product offer, including logistic services, plays an important role in choosing supplier.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem.
    Karlström, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem.
    Enabling Testing of Lateral Active Safety Functions in a Multi-rate Hardware in the Loop Environment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the development of vehicles moves towards shorter development time, new ways of verifying the vehicle performance is needed in order to begin the verification process at an earlier stage. A great extent of this development regards active safety, which is a collection name for systems that help both avoid accidents and minimize the effects of a collision, e.g brake assist and steering control systems. Development of these active safety functions requires extensive testing and verification in order to guarantee the performance of the functions in different situations. One way of testing these functions is to include them in a Hardware in the Loop simulation, where the involved hardware from the real vehicle are included in the simulation loop.

    This master thesis investigates the possibility to test lateral active safety functions in a hardware in the loop simulation environment consisting of multiple subsystems working on different frequencies. The subsystems are all dependent of the output from other subsystems, forming an algebraic loop between them. Simulation using multiple hardware and subsystems working on different frequencies introduces latency in the simulation. The effect of the latency is investigated and proposed solutions are presented. In order to enable testing of lateral active safety functions, a steering model which enables the servo motor to steer the vehicle is integrated in the simulation environment and validated.

  • 28.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Toward sustainability with the coordinated freight distribution of municipal goods2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 194-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities play an important role in the development of sustainable societies, particularly by way of public procurement. Within this area, municipal governments can significantly impact the environment by placing environment-conscious demands on the products and services purchased. At the same time, municipalities are largely responsible when it comes to decreasing the fastest growing source of CO2 emissions in urban areas: road transport. Yet, while much has been done to curb the environmental impact of passenger transport, freight transport seems to have been nearly forgotten. Some Swedish municipalities have set a good example by coordinating the distribution of goods to their facilities and by separating the purchases of goods from those of distribution services. Although municipalities claim that cooperation and knowledge dissemination are central to developing sustainability management, it remains unclear how such should be applied to coordinated urban freight distribution. This paper thus aims to describe and analyse activities in Swedish municipalities' developmental processes of promoting the coordinated freight distribution of goods, in order to identify which activities of knowledge dissemination and collaboration should be prioritised. Empirical data were gathered from interviews, the Internet, and brochures for initiatives taken by Swedish municipalities. Results indicate that the initiatives demonstrate several similarities and differences, as well as provide examples of how knowledge can be integrated into municipal organisation. Above all, results indicate a need for increased collaboration among actors to make freight transport in Swedish cities more efficient, as well as that increased knowledge transfer can help municipalities to overcome several of their weaknesses.

  • 29.
    Björnfot, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Sustainable Power Production in Chile2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    This report is about how Chile can find its way towards a sustainable power production. The two major Chilean electric systems are modeled and optimized by a special optimization program for energy systems called MODEST. The model is then altered so that new sustainable energy sources can be put into the system. If these new energy sources are more economically beneficial they will enter the system. The time period that is modeled is the years 2006 to 2010 and the demand for electricity is rising between these years. 7 different scenarios where the terms for fossil fuels and renewable energies are changed in different ways is tested to see what can be done to introduce more sustainable energy into the system. The different changes include tax on carbon dioxide emissions, subsidies for new sustainable energy sources and limits in carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that:

    • Taxes are an ineffective way to get more sustainable energy but can work to reduce emissions. The tax could be used to fund subsidies for cleaner energies.

    • Subsidies can work to bring in more sustainable energy and if there is a possibility to use the clean development mechanisms available within the Kyoto protocol. Then it does not have to be subsidies but investments from companies in countries that have signed the Kyoto protocol.

    • Waste to energy is the most cost effective new energy source, although it is questionable however this is really a renewable energy source. The author thinks that although it might not be renewable it is certainly sustainable within a foreseeable future.

    • A natural gas shortage will have serious effects on the system and should be avoided at least until there are enough alternative fuels available. It is therefore important to continue encourage the development of sustainable power sources.

    • Carbon dioxide limits could be used in Chile. If they are at reasonable levels they do not need to cost that much and could really help the sustainable energy sources to become more interesting for investors.

  • 30.
    Blomquist, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Wygler, Franz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Analysing and Reengineering the Order Process at Noblessa Sverige AB: A Pre-Study for an ERP System Implementation2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When implementing an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, the system has to be adapted to the organisation. But just as important, the business processes of the organisation have to be reengineered in order to take full advantage of the ERP system. Noblessa Sverige AB, which is a sales company to the German kitchen producer Nobilia, has been growing remarkably since the start 2001 and has begun discussing an ERP system purchase. The order process of today has reached the limit of its capacity and something has to be done in order to meet the increasing sales volume.

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to analyse and reengineer the order process as a preparation for an ERP system implementation. The outcome of this thesis is a suggestion of a process model of the order process, which also can be used as a foundation for a requirements specification for the ERP system purchase. In order to take advantage of the benefits of the existing order process, the reengineering starts with mapping the current process.

    Noblessa Sverige AB is a company that is growing and changing from one day to another. Changes have arisen during the writing of this thesis which has made the work even more interesting and challenging. The most important change is the opening of a central warehouse in Norrköping, which has been taken in consideration when we designed the new process model.

    After mapping and achieving an understanding of the current order process, we found a few things that could be improved. Above all, there exist many manual tasks that can be automated with the ERP system. Furthermore, there are tasks that should be moved from one department or function to another because it is more suitable to perform them there. We also found that Noblessa Sverige AB should improve the integration and cooperation with its suppliers, especially Nobilia. Nobilia is the main owner and main supplier of Noblessa Sverige AB, the conditions for cooperation are therefore very good.

  • 31.
    Borg Bagge, Christian Borg Bagge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. -.
    Stability Criteria of Inline Axial Piston Pumps with Eccentric Control System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the stability criteria of an inline axialpiston pump with an eccentric control system. The hydrostatic/hydrodynamic bearings of the swash plate was inspected with model building and simulation as method. The general approach has been to regard the swash plate as stiff, leading to the hydrostatic friction between the swash plate and the pump house to be considered more or less constant. Recent research treat the swash plate as bendable which could lead to the swash plate bearings’ friction being replaced from mixed friction to a full contact interaction between the swash plate and the pump house, with an increased friction as result. This increase in friction is theorized to increase the stability ofthe pump by limiting the movement of the swash plate in comparison to the fully lubricated bearing. 

  • 32.
    Borén, Sven
    et al.
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Ny, Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Robért, Karl-Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 62-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coordinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sustainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation.

  • 33.
    Brandon, Jonna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Selander, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Process improvement: A study of Industrialisation processes at Flextronics2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Flextronics Industrialization Group (FIG) is an international company specialised in Industrialisation services for the mobile phone industry. Industrialisation services include everything that is done to prepare a product for high-volume manufacturing. This mainly involves developing production processes, production equipment, test processes and test equipment. The high-volume manufacturing is located in low-cost countries.

    This study has been performed at FIG in Linköping, where the work is carried out as projects. In 2004, a new project model called the Product Development Process (PDP) was introduced at Flextronics worldwide. As the name implies, the PDP was originally created to support product development projects, which is why it has been hard to completely utilize the PDP at FIG. The PDP has so far been considered more trouble than support. This has lead to that project managers at FIG are working differently.

    The purpose of this master thesis was to develop an application of the PDP suitable for the Industrialisation projects performed at FIG. During our work internal PDP documentation was studied and interviews with project managers and sub-project managers were performed. Review meetings were held frequently during the entire study and our solutions were revised several times.

    Our work has above all resulted in new processes applicable for Industrialisation projects. To make these Industrialisation processes easy to follow we have produced a guideline. This guideline provides a framework for Industrialisation projects at FIG and explains the interconnection between the PDP and our new Industrialisation PDP application. It also includes detailed descriptions of the Industrialisation processes, checklists, decision structure, project organisation and project roles and responsibilities. Due to confidentiality reasons, our solutions could not be included in their entirety in this report.

    We believe that the Industrialisation PDP application will improve the work at FIG. It will be easier to follow a working method that is adapted to the specific business. Using the same working methods will support the project work, improve the way of working and make it more efficient.

  • 34.
    Braun, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Multi-Threaded Real-Time Simulations of Fluid Power Systems Using Transmission Line Elements2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for large-scale real-time simulations of fluid power systems is in-creasing, due to growing demands for added functionality. Real-time simulationscan be used in for example hardware-in-the-loop experiments and embeddedcontrol systems. In order to achieve real-time performance, it is often necessaryto use small or simplified models, reducing the usefulness and accuracy of theresults. This article proposes the use of transmission line modelling (TLM) forexploiting multi-core hardware in real-time and embedded systems. The charac-teristics of the TLM method are analysed to identify difficulties and possibilities.A method for how to parallelise TLM models is then presented. Subsequently, aprogramming interface for implementing the parallel models in the target systemsis introduced. Practical experiments show that the approach works and that themethod is applicable. So far, however, it has required great effort on the part ofthe engineer, both when it comes to programming, compiling and importing themodel into the target environments, although some attempts to automate the pro-cedure have been successful, reducing the level of complexity.

  • 35.
    Byers, Steven
    et al.
    College of Business, Idaho State University, USA.
    Groth, John
    Texas A & M University, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using portfolio theory to improve resource efficiency of invested capital2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 156-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited literature provides concrete, theory-based methods for quantifying the effects of sharing capital. This paper describes the potential contribution of portfolio theory to quantify the effects and optimize the employment of capital (human, tangible, financial, and service employing capital) in a theoretical and quantitative manner in the context of sustainability. Insights illustrate how portfolio principles can yield benefits, including the fulfillment of needs using fewer resources, consistent with sustainability. In particular, “pooling” assets to meet uncertain demands from different users of an asset pool may yield benefit from diversification effects. Suggests future research avenues such as the management of high-value, critical-value, and expiring resources to support sustainability.

  • 36.
    Bäckman, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Kling, Josef
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Development of a Methodology for Efficient FEM Pre-processes to Aid Simulation-driven Design2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With both tougher competition and legislations, companies always strive to improve their products while cutting unnecessary costs. This master’s thesis investigates if the after-treatment systems department at the heavy-duty vehicle company Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden can improve their development process by implementing automated FEM pre-processes for welded sheet metal components. The research is based upon theory from various fields within product development, knowledge-based engineering, FEM and design optimization, contributing to an understating of what effects this project could have on the development process as a whole.

    Large parts of the pre-processes used at the department today were identified as repetitive and suitable for automation. Using a simplified CAD model of an after-treatment system as a case study, a methodology for more efficient FEM pre-processes was developed. The methodology includes changes to the workflow between the design engineer and the CAE engineer as well as a software that automatically meshes welded sheet metal products. First of all, the design engineer inserts lines representing the weld positions in the CAD model and exports the model to the CAE engineer. Hereafter, the CAE engineer simply selects necessary settings for the mesh and launches the developed software that automatically meshes the sheet metal components as well as identifies and meshes the welds.

    The technique used to mesh the welds in HyperMesh fails for certain weld characteristics, resulting in a robustness of 54 % of the total weld length for the worst case in the case study. These characteristics are welds crossing other welds, welds adjacent to a sharp corner and welds containing a sharp corner. By excluding these problem areas when defining the lines in CATIA, the robustness increases substantially to between 72 % and 88 % of the total weld length in the case study, where the exclusion zones represent 3 % of the total weld length.

    Based on the case study, the developed methodology could potentially shorten the iterative development process between the design and CAE engineer with a total of 25 %, while the CAE engineer’s tasks in the development process can be cut with up to 60 %. This allows for more time being focused on value-adding tasks, resulting in higher quality products and an increased profit for the company.

  • 37.
    Camarinha-Matos, Luis M
    et al.
    Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon.
    Pereira, Pedro
    Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon.
    Emerging Trends in Technological Innovation: First IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2010, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, February 22-24, 2010. Proceedings2010Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctoral programs in science and engineering are important sources of innovative ideas and techniques that might lead to new products and technological innovation. Certainly most PhD students are not experienced researchers and are in the process of learning how to do research. Nevertheless, a number of empiric studies also show that a high number of technological innovation ideas are produced in the early careers of researchers. The combination of the eagerness to try new approaches and directions of young doctoral students with the experience and broad knowledge of their supervisors is likely to result in an important pool of innovation potential.

    The DoCEIS doctoral conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Engineering aims at creating a space for sharing and discussing ideas and results from doctoral research in these inter-related areas of engineering. Innovative ideas and hypotheses can be better enhanced when presented and discussed in an encouraging and open environment. DoCEIS aims to provide such an environment, releasing PhD students from the pressure of presenting their propositions in more formal contexts.

    The first edition of DoCEIS, which was sponsored by SOCOLNET, IFIP and IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, attracted a considerable number of paper submissions from a large number of PhD students (and their supervisors) from 15 countries. This book comprises the works selected by the International Program Committee for inclusion in the main program and covers a wide spectrum of topics, ranging from collaborative enterprise networks to microelectronics. Thus, novel results and ongoing research in the following areas were presented, illustrated, and discussed:

    • Value systems alignment in enterprise networks
    • Collaborative networks governance and support
    • Information modelling and management- Risk assessment and decision support based on imprecise information
    • Evolvable manufacturing systems and cooperative robotics
    • Systems modelling and control
    • Advances in telecommunications and electronics
    • Sensorial perception and signal processing
    • Energy systems and novel electrical machinery

    As a gluing element, all authors were asked to explicitly indicate the (potential) contribution of their work to technological innovation.

    We expect that this book will provide readers with an inspiring set of promising ideas, presented in a multi-disciplinary context, and that by their diversity these results can trigger and motivate new research and development directions.

    We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions. We also appreciate the dedication of the DoCEIS Program Committee members who both helped with the selection of articles and contributed with valuable comments to improve their quality.

    February 2009

    LuÌs M. Camarinha-Matos

    Pedro Pereira

    Luis Ribeiro

  • 38.
    Castillo Ellström, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    A Guideline for Conducting Form Analysis of Branded Products: The Development of a Design Guideline Framework for Product-Producing Companies in a Brand Management Context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the research and development of a framework for creating design guidelines, aimed towards product-producing companies as a part of a brand extension strategy. The thesis answers two research questions:

    RQ1: What strategies could be used to analyze visual form and product design as a part of a brand extension strategy for a product-producing company?

    RQ2: How can an existing visual brand identity be utilized during the product development process and redefined for new product categories?

    The thesis is divided into a literature review and a case application of the presented theories on a real-world product development process. The literature review includes three central frameworks. Firstly, a theoretical framework including theories regarding brand management, product design and form, design syntactics and product architecture is introduced. The theoretical framework also includes product modularity which is specifically included for the case application. These theories are used to create a form analysis framework, which is the second element of the literature review. The third element of the literature review is a framework for how to create design guidelines, based on explicit and implicit design features. The design guideline framework is built from insights and theories found in literature used throughout the literature review.

    The case application focuses on the development of a new concept and design guidelines for a modular Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) for a case company. The case application utilizes the created theoretical frameworks for a real-world product development process. The created concept envisions the visual brand language of the case company, while also serving as the foundation for the design guideline development.

    The form analysis framework is used to understand product design and form on already existing products within a product category. A total of six analyses are introduced, all with their own respective focus on different fields of study and area of application. The form analysis framework investigates three areas of application: Internal and external factors as well as the existing product family of a company. Applying the form analysis framework to the case show that these methods are suitable for analyzing the visual form of products.

    By examining the internal factors of the case company, such as analyzing existing products and prior design guidelines, a format for key design principles can be created. Based on these design principles and insights from the form analysis, the visual brand identity can be transferred to a new product category and described through redefined design guidelines. Findings show that certain design features, such as color and usage of logotype, are the most suitable for acting as identity carriers. Utilizing these can bring cohesiveness to a product portfolio. It can be concluded that the use of explicit and implicit design features is a viable way to holistically describe and articulate product design.

  • 39.
    Chen, Lujie
    et al.
    CEIBS, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Xiande
    CEIBS, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Price, Lydia
    CEIBS, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Wenwen
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Supply chain collaboration for sustainability: A literature review and future research agenda2017Inngår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 194, s. 73-87Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology is altering business strategies and innovation capabilities while increasing the possibilities of production and process innovation. Supply chain collaboration undertaken for the sake of sustainability is currently speeding up this process of change; a growing pool of research is exploring the links between sustainability collaboration and company performance on economic, environmental, and social metrics. It is a good time to review the literature to reveal what has been studied and what are the gaps in the current body of knowledge, and also to comment on what the future research agenda should include. For these purposes, the authors conducted a systematic literature review and a quantitative bibliometric analysis. Results indicate that research about supply chain collaboration for the purpose of sustainability is gaining growing attention in the business field; however, environmental and economic considerations still dominate the research, while there is a lack of consideration about social concerns such as child labor and personal development. In addition, the collaboration partners under investigation have mainly been the company and its customers and suppliers, whereas competitors and other horizontal collaboration partners have received little attention.

  • 40.
    Cramér, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Matsson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Customization Through Standardization: a study on Atlas Copco Tools & Assembly Systems’ market offer of fixtured tools to the motor vehicle industry2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Atlas Copco Tools & Assembly Systems (ACTA) is world leader in industrial tools and assembly systems for safety-critical joints. One of the products the company sells is fixtured nutrunners, mainly to the motor vehicle industry. The margins on these highly customized products have been decreasing – much depending on changes in the purchasing behavior of the automotive industry.

    Traditionally, the marketing of the fixtured nutrunners has been concentrated to the parts of the product instead of the final product. Today, there is a belief within the organization that many of the sold customized products could be replaced by more standardized applications. There is also a wish to turn the focus of the market offer from the parts towards the final application. These beliefs and wishes resulted in this thesis, with the purpose to propose a new market offer to increase profitability and give more customer benefits.

    To reach this purpose we started out with theoretical studies of several different areas. Among those was mass customization, a strategy that combines the benefits of mass production with those of customization. We also performed a prestudy at the headquarters of ACTA in Sickla and visited major customers in Sweden. Using our collected knowledge from the theoretical studies and the prestudy, we conducted an in-depth case study by interviewing customers and people working at ACTA, both in Sweden and in the USA, in order to analyze today’s situation. In the analysis, we found several problems with today’s offer. For instance, we found that similar products are solved with unique solutions, which has lead to poor cost control and has made it difficult for ACTA to assure the quality of the ordered products. A further problem is the poor sales support and the lack of traceability of sold systems, which reduces sales and leads to unnecessary special solutions. A problem linked to that is the difficulties in getting accurate and sufficient information from the customer, which leads to extra errors and a lot of extra work.

    To solve these problems, we recommend ACTA to implement a mass customization strategy. Of course, not all of ACTA’s products can be mass customized, but to a large extent it should be possible. To implement a mass customization strategy, we argue that ACTA should take three measures, namely design standard products, modularize the products, and implement a computerized configuration tool. We also suggest that the implementation of the new market offer should be done stepwise. With the proposed new market offer, we believe that ACTA can increase profitability in the area of fixtured nutrunners without losing the flexibility of the products.

  • 41.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Afazeli, Siamack
    MBA ProMA Program.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran2015Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 938-957Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance of pharmaceutical enterprises in Iran, an area which has remained largely unresearched. The study seeks to address the following three research objectives: first, to assess the export performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; second, to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the domestic market; and third, to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance. Although existing literature claims that local performance (rivalry) leads to export performance, this study reveals that in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, export involvement and performance enhance local market performance. The study provides empirical evidence on the relationship between export performance and domestic market performance, and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons why the traditional views did not explain the situation. A comprehensive literature review was used to build our conceptual and analytical framework upon the Export Performance (EXPERF) model for export performance evaluation. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and assessment indicators of Innovativeness, Learning and Lean indices were used for measuring domestic performance. By using clustering, six clusters of similar companies were identified and the centroids of the six clusters chosen to verify the relationship between export performance and domestic performance. Correlation analyses confirmed that there was a significant positive relation between export performance and domestic performance. This means that export performance results in better domestic performance, and vice versa.

  • 42.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pugna, Adrian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Potra, Sabina
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Negrea, Romeo
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Mocan, Marian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    A greenhouse approach for value cultivation2016Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, nr 7-8, s. 836-852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper explores design requirements to take into consideration when designing and developing new products or services. The purpose of this article is to develop a strategic approach for analysing variations between potential customer needs in order better to understand what qualities should be further cultivated before product launch. This new approach is called A Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation. Case study data of a new web-based customisation service for a Romanian shoe manufacturing company has been re-analysed by using questionnaire data on 166 respondents perceptions on 14 attributes importance and value. A nonlinear regression model was developed and used to understand relations between importance and value. Such relations were used together with the Greenhouse Model to better understand the service attributes potential life cycles if selected for further cultivation. The Greenhouse Model envisages new perspectives of the evaluation of customer needs to support strategic decision-making regarding further value cultivation for profound affection (= customer delight). Even if there is a need for further tests the suggested Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation is regarded as a new and original contribution to the theory of attractive quality creation which deepens its position in the theory of attractive quality and transforms it into a practical management tool to support new product and service design.

  • 43.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Editorial Material: Untitled in TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and BUSINESS EXCELLENCE, vol 26, issue 9-10, pp 933-9372015Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 933-937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 44.
    Danielsson, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementations of the Convolution Operation1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this article surveys a large number of implementations of the convolution operation (which is also known as the sum-of-products, the inner product) based on a systematic exploration of index permutations. First we assume a limited amount of parallelism in the form of an adder. Next, multipliers and RAM:s are utilized. The so called distributed arithmetic follows naturally from this approach.

    The second part brings in the concept of pipelining on the bitlevel to obtain high throughput convolvers adapted for VLSI-design (systolic arrays). The serial/parallel multiplier is analyzed in a way that unravels a vast amount new variations. Even more interesting, all these new variations can be carried over to serial/parallel convolvers. These novel devices can be implemented as linear structures of identical cells where the multipliers are embedded at equidistant intervals.

  • 45.
    de Brun Mangs, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Tillquist, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system.
    Evaluation of a Programmable Hydraulic Valve for Drill Rig Applications2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of intelligent systems can be seen in every industry. Integrated sensors and processors are used with internal control systems to create better performance for mobile hydraulic applications.

    The report describes how an evaluation was made to see if the productivity of a drill rig could be increased. This was done by implementing a programmable hydraulic valve to control the hydraulic drilling functions. The productivity would be increased by reducing the downtime due to jamming in the drill hole. Jamming occur when the system does not compensate for changes in rock conditions. By conducting a series of tests in a controlled environment with simulated loads, the response time of the CMA system and original system could be determined and compared. The CMA system had a response time that was 60-64% faster than the original system.

    Two different implementations of a controller was tested. Ziegler-Nichols method was used to get the initial value of the PI parameters. The controller that was implemented onboard the valve’s CPU was considered more successfull to reduce jamming.

    A drill test was conducted to ensure that the programmable valve could handle a drilling procedure with the controller that was implemented onboard the valve’s CPU. The valve handled the drilling procedure well.

  • 46.
    Dell'Amico, Alessandro
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norlin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sethson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigation of a Digital Hydraulic Actuation System on an Excavator Arm2013Inngår i: 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 505-511Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital hydraulics is an ongoing trend that offers many interesting advantages and possibilities. Digital refers to that the system output is discrete, e.g. using an on/off valve with only discrete values or a finite amount of flow steps available. The advantages mentioned when compared to analogue systems are better performance, robust and fault tolerant, and amplitude independent bandwidth. On the other side noise and pressure pulsations must be handled, the physical size can be a problem, and the system requires complicated control. When considering control of linear motion, there are mainly two branches, controlling the flow with several parallel connected on/off valves, which generates discrete output flow values, or switching valves, which in theory can generate any mean output flow. The latter only requires one valve for each flow path but the demand for fast valves is very high, while the former requires many valves but avoids high frequent switching. With the introduction of a multi-chamber cylinder, secondary control is now also possible for linear motion. This paper is a first step in the investigation of the system applied to an excavator arm. The cylinder has four chambers, each with different area. Three pressure lines are used and a valve-pack of 27 on/off valves. The valve-pack connects the three pressure lines with each chamber generating 81 available force steps. The scope has been to start out with relative simple control of the velocity of the cylinder. To handle unnecessary switching of valves, different penalty strategies were tested. The results are promising where relatively smooth control could be achieved at the same time challenges with the system were identified. Next step is to investigate the force transients due to different capacitance in all four chambers as well as mode control for better accuracy. Energy potential compared to original system remains to investigate as well.

  • 47.
    Ding, Huiping
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Qilan
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Peoples R China.
    An, Zhirong
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Collaborative mechanism of a sustainable supply chain with environmental constraints and carbon caps2016Inngår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 181, s. 191-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative impacts on environment such as carbon emissions and pollution resulting from the business activities of firms in a supply chain have attracted great attention worldwide. Hence, one of the crucial issues for supply chain management is the trade-off between economic objectives and environmental sustainability. This paper focuses on investigating the government policy incentive mechanism, with which supply chain members are motivated to work collaboratively to reduce carbon and pollutant emissions by investing in producing environmental-friendly products (EFP). Such a mechanism affects the transfer price through negotiation between the supply chain firms, and consequently it has an impact on the supply chains value transition and profit allocation. A collaborative supply chain decision-making framework is formulated with environmental constraints and carbon caps; its objective is to maximize the net present value of an integrated supply chain as well as satisfy the interests of its individual members. Our key contribution lies in exploring a decision-making mechanism for an environmentally sustainable supply chain that is jointly constrained by environmental carrying capacities and carbon caps, and also takes into account government policy incentives. The results show that collaboration between supply chain members plays a crucial role in improving their environmental performance, as the transfer price is determined through negotiations to share government subsidies to satisfy the individual interests of supply chain members while the level of pollutants and carbon emissions are in compliance with environmental standards.(C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Djordjevic, Miroljub
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Häggqvist, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simuleringsbaserad material och produktionsstyrning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruppen Kvantitativ Logistik (KL) vid Linköpings Universitet har under en längre tid efterfrågat en simuleringsbaserad utbildningsmiljö där produktionsplanering kan upplevas i form av planering, omplanering och kapacitetsberäkningar. 

    Denna utbildningsmiljö ska framförallt användas för att utbilda andra studenter inom produktionsplanering. Miljön ska bestå av ett användarinterface där all data om produktionen framgår, en simuleringsmodell som utgör själva fabriken samt en sammanhållande struktur som möjliggör styrning av de båda komponenterna. Dessutom skall ett antal scenarion skapas som skall ligga till grund för de lärandemoment som MPCW hanterar.

    Fyra fiktiva produktstruktur skapades, på så sätt att deras komplexitet och djup var tillfredsställande. Dessa strukturer ligger till grund för de MRP- och sedermera CRP-beräkningar som används för att styra de ursprungliga aktiviteterna.

    Resultatet av examensarbetet är ett verktyg som kan användas för att simulera produktionsplaneringsarbete. Verktyget består av två huvuddelar, den ena är ett GUI (Graphical User Interface) i Excel som kallas för MPCW (Material Planning and Control Workbench) och en simuleringsmodell. Dessa delar jobbar tillsammans via Excel och VBA. Allt kontrolleras genom MPCW:s GUI och det är i MPCW som användaren sitter och styr produktionsplaneringen genom att analysera och bearbeta tillgänglig information. Användaren har möjlighet att erhålla information i MPCW i form av MRP tablåer som bygger på en huvudplan, information om produktionskapacitet och beläggning på maskinerna i fabriken.

    Vad gäller vidare arbete med modellen, så kommer det alltid finnas utrymme för förbättring, framförallt vad gäller fabriken. Detta då en simulerad fabrik naturligtvis aldrig kan avbilda en riktig fabrik helt och hållet, särskilt då den modellerade fabriken inte bygger på en verklig fabrik.

  • 49.
    Ekelund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Make or buy?: Developing a generic framework for make-or-buy decisions at Cardo AB2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cardo AB is an international corporate group that has performed major organizational changes the last few years. These changes utilize possible synergies that exist in a corporate group. One of the initiatives is that Cardo wants to develop a model for make-or-buy decisions. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is stated as:

    The study’s purpose is to develop a generic model for make-or-buy decisions at Cardo.

    To develop the model, a theoretical study was conducted, where four main aspects were identified: core capability, risk, cost and relationship. For each aspect, a tool to define what the aspects consist of was identified. The aspects were combined together into a model, called model version 1. To enhance and adjust the model to suit Cardo’s situation, an empirical study was conducted. In the empirical study, it was investigated how different sites within Cardo are currently working with make-or-buy decisions. Moreover, in the empirical study it was also revealed how Cardo is dealing with each of the aspects identified in theory. The combination of theory and empirical study formed the enhanced model, called model version 2. The last step in the procedure was to let several end-users review the model and suggest improvements. After this step, the final model was formed, called model version 3.The model combines the best practices from Cardo with the latest theoretical aspects. Using this model will help Cardo deal with make-or-buy decisions in a structured way. The model highlights the importance of connecting business strategy with the core capabilities of Cardo and provides a tool to identify this connection. Furthermore, the model highlights risks connected to outsourcing and provides tools to identify these risks. The model also applies a total cost approach. To calculate the different costs, a model is presented that functions as a guide when quantifying costs. Lastly, the model shows the importance of developing a proper relationship with the supplier according to the strategic importance of the product.Cardo AB is an international corporate group that has performed major organizational changes the last few years. These changes utilize possible synergies that exist in a corporate group. One of the initiatives is that Cardo wants to develop a model for make-or-buy decisions. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is stated as:The study’s purpose is to develop a generic model for make-or-buy decisions at Cardo.To develop the model, a theoretical study was conducted, where four main aspects were identified: core capability, risk, cost and relationship. For each aspect, a tool to define what the aspects consist of was identified. The aspects were combined together into a model, called model version 1. To enhance and adjust the model to suit Cardo’s situation, an empirical study was conducted. In the empirical study, it was investigated how different sites within Cardo are currently working with make-or-buy decisions. Moreover, in the empirical study it was also revealed how Cardo is dealing with each of the aspects identified in theory. The combination of theory and empirical study formed the enhanced model, called model version 2. The last step in the procedure was to let several end-users review the model and suggest improvements. After this step, the final model was formed, called model version 3.The model combines the best practices from Cardo with the latest theoretical aspects. Using this model will help Cardo deal with make-or-buy decisions in a structured way. The model highlights the importance of connecting business strategy with the core capabilities of Cardo and provides a tool to identify this connection. Furthermore, the model highlights risks connected to outsourcing and provides tools to identify these risks. The model also applies a total cost approach. To calculate the different costs, a model is presented that functions as a guide when quantifying costs. Lastly, the model shows the importance of developing a proper relationship with the supplier according to the strategic importance of the product.

  • 50.
    Ekermann, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Konceptstudie för att korta bromssträckan hos personbilar i nödsituationer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån en problemställning formulerad av Trafikverkets skyltfond har produktutvecklingsföretaget Prodelox drivit ett projekt med syfte att testa kreativa idéer för att minska bromssträckan för personbilar i nödsituationer. Som en del i projektet har ett examensarbete genomförts vilket resulterat i denna rapport. Examensarbetet ämnar sammanställa en mängd idéer på alternativa metoder att bromsa bilar, för att sedan välja ut tre av dessa för praktiska tester. Idén med att korta bromssträckan grundar sig i trafiksäkerhetsarbetet i kombination med introduktionen av nya tekniska system som kan förutspå kollisioner. Om en kollision kan förutses är det av största intresse att kunna bromsa in bilen så mycket som möjligt innan detta sker för att minska skadorna och rädda liv. Ur ett förutsättningslöst perspektiv har kreativa idéer tagits fram. Rapporten tar dessutom upp och sammanfattar friktionsteorier och fordonsdynamiska aspekter att ta hänsyn till vid utvecklingsarbetet.

    Projektet följer en produktutvecklingsmetodik presenterad av Ulrich och Eppinger (2008) och omfattningen är utvecklingsfasens tidiga steg. Genom två iterationer utvecklas koncept genom framtagande av kravspecifikation, konceptgenerering, och konceptval. Idéer testas löpande genom fysiska såväl som virtuella prototyper under hela processen.

    Den första utvecklingsiterationen resulterar i 17 konceptidéer innefattande olika typer av bromsmetoder. Koncepten delas in i kategorierna ökad friktion, ökad normalkraft, spjärn mot asfalten, aerodynamik och magnetism. Tre koncept väljs ut och utvecklas vidare: Koncept Ankare, Gummiplatta och Avverkan.

    Utvecklingen av koncept Ankare resulterar i ett koncept där en infästning i asfalten sker i farten under bilen med hjälp av krutdrivna spikpistoler. Fästet förbinds med bilen med ett textilband kallat Tear Webbing. Det är två sydda remmar som producerar en konstant kraft då remmarna slits isär och sömmarna rivs upp. Bandet testas praktiskt och ger en bromseffekt på uppemot 1,5 g-krafter, medan de krutdrivna spikpistolerna inte kan testas i farten inom ramen för detta projekt.

    Koncept Gummiplatta bygger på att en stor gummiyta placerad under bilen trycks ner i marken och lyfter framvagnen på bilen. Olika gummibelägg testas med förhoppningen att hitta ett gummibelägg med goda friktionsegenskaper. Ökad area och optimerade materialegenskaper kan i teorin leda till bättre friktion. Konceptet testas på både vått och torrt väglag genom en konstruktion under testbilens framvagn. Fyra olika gummiprover jämförs med bilens vanliga bromsar. Endast ett gummi, naturgummi, presterar bättre än referensen i tester från 50 km/h, medan resten resulterar i längre bromssträcka. Vid tester från 100 km/h presterar samtliga gummiprover sämre än referensbromsningarna.

    Koncept Avverkan baseras på idén att en större kraft än friktionskraften kan fås ut om ett hårt material trycks ner i asfaltens yta och river upp densamma. Deformationerna av asfalten åstadkommer den bromsande kraften. I test av konceptet höll inte konstruktionen, men retardationen som utvecklades innan konstruktionen gav vika kom upp i 1,2 g-krafter, något som visar på att konceptet har kapacitet att korta bromssträckan.

    Som fortsättning på detta projekt föreslås flera vägar att gå. Koncepten Ankare och Avverkan visar på stor potential att korta bromssträckan och nya projekt med syfte att fortsatt utveckla och testa dessa koncept föreslås. Även andra projekt som ligger utanför syftet av denna rapport, så som en idé för att minska dubbdäcksanvändningen, föreslås för utredning i framtida studier.

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