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  • 1.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technol, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Kangas, Pasi
    Sandvik Mat Technol, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Super and hyper duplex stainless steels: structures, properties and applications2016In: 21ST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE, (ECF21), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 2, 1755-1762 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In oil-gas industry, the exploration and development are now targeted to the deep reservoirs with high pressures, high temperatures and extreme corrosive environments. This requires that the materials used should have a good combination of extra high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to meet these challenges, hyper duplex stainless steels have recently been developed. These materials have nitrogen contents up to about 0.5% and PRE-values close to 50, and show both highest corrosion pitting resistance and highest strength among the existing duplex stainless steels. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on hyper duplex stainless steels. It will mainly focus on the material development, microstructures, corrosion properties such as critical pitting corrosion temperature and crevice corrosion resistance, heterogeneous deformation behaviour of duplex stainless steel, and mechanical properties such as tensile properties and fatigue properties. These properties and the ratios of strength/weight will then be compared with those of other type of duplex stainless steels. The potential applications for hyper duplex stainless steels are also discussed. Copyright (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2. Chen, Jiaxin
    et al.
    Obitz, C
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forssgren, B
    CORROSION KINETICS OF NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS WITH HIGH CHROMIUM CONTENTS UNDER SIMULATED BWR NORMAL WATER CHEMISTRY CONDITIONS AND HIGH FLOW VELOCITY2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light water reactors corrosion-induced material degradation is a critical issue not only for material integrity but also for plant radiation field build-up. In BWRs nickel-base alloys, such as Alloy 600, Alloy 82 and Alloy 182, are applied in various parts of reactor components including welds. However, their corrosion mechanisms are not very well understood. Although the complex compositions of different nickel-base alloys generally prohibit us to single out some specific alloy constituent having a major impact on alloy corrosion rate, a higher chromium content is often thought to be beneficial to forming a more protective oxide film against corrosion attack. In this paper we report a corrosion kinetics study on high chromium nickel-base alloy welding consumables, Alloy 52M and Alloy 152, under simulated BWR normal water chemistry conditions and high flow velocity for up to nine weeks exposure. The corrosion rates are derived from measurements of weight losses of test coupons, oxide thicknesses with infrared ellipsometry, and microstructures of oxide films with electron microscopy. The obtained corrosion rates are then compared to that for Alloy 182, Alloy 82 and Alloy 600. The results show that the corrosion rate for Alloy 52M is similar to those for Alloy 182, whereas the rate for Alloy 152 is reduced to less than half. These observations indicate that the corrosion kinetics for nickel-base alloys is complex and alloy chromium content alone is not a dominant factor in influencing alloy corrosion rate.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Robert
    et al.
    Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Berlin, Germany.
    Yuan, Kang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Corrosion of NiCoCrAIY Coatings and TBC Systems Subjected to Water Vapor and Sodium Sulfate2015In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 24, no 6, 953-964 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are commonly used in gas turbines for protection against high-temperature degradation. Penetration of the ceramic top coat by corrosive species may cause corrosion damage on the underlying NiCoCrAlY bond coat and cause failure of the TBC system. In the current study, four oxidation/corrosion conditions were tried: (i) lab air, (ii) water vapor, (iii) sodium sulfate deposited on the specimens, and (iv) water vapor + sodium sulfate. The test was done at 750 °C in a cyclic test rig with 48 h cycles. The corrosion damage was studied on NiCoCrAlY-coated specimens, thin APS TBC specimens, and thick APS TBC specimens. Water vapor was found to have very minor influence on the oxidation, while sodium sulfate increased the TGO thickness both for NiCoCrAlY specimens and TBC-coated specimens; the influence of the TBC thickness was found to be very small. Sodium sulfate promoted thicker TGO; more Cr-rich TGO; the formation of Y oxides, and internally, Y sulfides; pore formation in the coating as well as in the substrate; and the formation of a Cr-depleted zone in the substrate.

  • 4.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Hernblom, Johan
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Peltola, Timo
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Darley, Glenn
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    UNS S31035/1.4990-a newly developed high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel for advanced high efficient coal fired power plants2016In: ADVANCES IN MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY FOR FOSSIL POWER PLANTS: PROCEEDINGS FROM THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, 2016, ASM INTERNATIONAL , 2016, 310-317 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy requirement and environmental concerns have promoted a development in higher efficiency coal fired power technologies. Advanced ultra-super critical power plant with an efficiency of higher than 50% is the target in the near future. The materials to be used due to the tougher environments become therefore critical issues. This paper provides a review on a newly developed advanced high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel, Sandvik Sanicro 25, for this purpose. The material shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than any other austenitic stainless steels available today, and has recently obtained two AMSE code cases. This makes it an interesting option in higher pressures/temperature applications. In this paper, the material development, structure stability, creep strength, steam oxidation and hot corrosion behaviors, fabricability and weldability of this alloy have been discussed. The conclusion is that the Sanicro 25 is a potential candidate for superheaters and reheaters in higher-efficiency coal fired boilers i.e. for applications seeing up to 700 degrees C material temperature.

  • 5.
    Jonnalagadda, Krisha Praveen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Failure mechanisms in APS and SPS thermal barrier coatings during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are advanced material systems that are being used in the hot sections of gas turbines such as combustor, turbine blades, and vanes. The top ceramic coating in TBCs provides insulation against the hot gases and the intermediate metallic bond coat provides oxidation and corrosion resistance to the underlying turbine components.

    Durability of thermal barrier coatings is very important for the overall performance of the gas turbine. TBCs can fail in several different ways and there is a combination of more than one failure mechanism in most situations. One of the most widely used TBC is atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Both the deposition technique and the TBC material have certain limitations. The main aim of this research is to study new TBC materials and/or new deposition techniques and compare with the conventional YSZ and understand their failure mechanisms during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion.

    Thermal cyclic oxidation of a newly developed high purity nano YSZ thermal barrier coating has been studied. Cross sectional analysis of exposed as well as completely failed samples showed a mixed-type failure caused by crack propagation parallel to the bond coat/top coat interface. The majority of the damage occurred towards the end of the coating life. A finite element model has been developed to study the probability of crack growth along different paths that leads to the final failure.

    Hot corrosion mechanism in suspension plasma sprayed two-layer gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, three-layer dense gadolinium zirconate/gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, and a single-layer YSZ has been studied in the presence of sodium sulfate and vanadium pentoxide. The test results showed that gadolinium zirconate coatings were more susceptible to corrosion compared to YSZ coatings despite gadolinium zirconate coatings having lower reactivity with the corrosive salts.

    Thermal cycling behavior of a high chromium bond coat has been studied. Cross-sectional analysis showed formation of sandwich type microstructure with chromium rich oxide and alumina as the top and the bottom layers.

    Inter-diffusion of minor elements between different MCrAlY coatings – substrate systems has been studied using, diffusion simulation software, DICTRA. The simulation results showed that the diffusion of minor elements in the coatings is dependent on the rate of β phase depletion in the beginning. After the depletion of β phase there was no clear dependence of the coating composition on the diffusion of minor elements.

    List of papers
    1. Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1, 140-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Springer, 2017
    Keyword
    gadolinium zirconatehot corrosionmulti-layer thermal barrier coatingssuspension plasma sprayingvanadium pentoxide + sodium sulfate
    National Category
    Corrosion Engineering Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134375 (URN)10.1007/s11666-016-0486-5 (DOI)000392060300014 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden

    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2017-03-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Thermal fatigue failure of thermal barrier coatings with a high-Cr MCrAIY bond coat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal fatigue failure of thermal barrier coatings with a high-Cr MCrAIY bond coat
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC), 2016, Vol. 324, 273-278 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were air-plasma sprayed onto Hastelloy X substrates. The TBCs consisted of a high-Cr MCrAlY (M for Ni and Co) bond coat and a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat. The TBC samples were thermally cycled between 100 ºC and 1100 ºC with 1 hour dwell time at 1100 ºC. The thermal fatigue failure of the TBCs was investigated via microstructure analyses. The final fatigue failure of the TBCs was caused by the formation of interface-parallel cracks in the YSZ top coat. The formation of the cracks was found to be strongly related to the oxidation behaviour of the MCrAlY bond coat. The development of the oxide layers was therefore studied in detail. A thermokinetic model was also used to deepen the understanding on the elemental diffusion behavior in the materials.

    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Chemistry Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134377 (URN)
    Conference
    International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC), May 10-12, 2016, China
    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2017-02-16Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Jonnalagadda, Krisha Praveen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, Austria.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Department of Engineering Science University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    Department of Engineering Science University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Department of Engineering Science University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO42017In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1, 140-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

  • 7.
    Yuan, Kang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Finspang, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hot Corrosion Behavior of HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi Coatings in a Sulphate Environment2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 122, no part A, 47-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi coatings were tested at 900 °C in a hot corrosion environment containing sodium–potassium sulphates. The HVOF spraying caused the typical splat-on-splat structure. The results after the hot corrosion testing showed that the corrosion preferentially occurred at the coating surface and the splat boundaries. The oxidation along the splat boundaries can isolate the splat from the underlying coating matrix. In those isolated splats or coating parts, internal oxidation and nitridation of Al took place, following that the Al-depleted coating fragments were then oxidized to spinels. For those coatings which had a worse splat boundary quality (i.e. with higher porosity and intersplat oxides) or had a worse coating surface quality (i.e. with more small coating fragments therefore more interfaces), heavier corrosion attack was observed on those coatings due to the corrosion of the splats or the coating fragments. The results indicated that the as-sprayed coating quality including porosity and surface morphology was important for the hot-corrosion resistance of the coatings.

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