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  • 1.
    Alici, Gursel
    et al.
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Mutlu, Rahim
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Melling, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd, Chuoku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Device Configurations2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 257-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on device configurations based on conjugated polymer transducers. After the actuation and sensing configurations in the literature are presented, some successful device configurations are reviewed, and a detailed account of their operation principles is described. The chapter is concluded with critical research issues. With reference to the significant progress made in the field of EAP transducers in the last two decades, there is an increasing need to change our approach to the establishment of new device configurations, novel device concepts, and cutting-edge applications. To this aim, we should start from the performance specifications and end up with the material synthesis conditions and properties which will meet the performance specifications (top-to-down approach). The question should be “what electroactive material or materials can be used for a specific purpose or application,” rather than looking for an application or a device concept suitable to the unique properties of the EAPs and transducers already made of these materials. The field is mature enough to undertake this paradigm change.

  • 2.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    dos Santos, Renato B.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Rivelino, Roberto
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Healing in Carbon Nitride Evidenced As Material Inflation and Superlubric Behavior2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16238-16243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N-2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, whereas the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  • 3.
    Bentzer, Justinius Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Textil, faner och jag: en möbelkollektion sprungen ur en undersökning av materialkombinationer faner och textil2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har ett intresse för att utforska och undersöka olika material och hur vi upplever dessa material. I detta examensarbete skapar jag två möbler genom en gestaltningsprocess som grundar sig i ett undersökande av materialkombinationen faner och textil. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar, en undersökande del där jag testar att kombinera olika faner, textilier och limmer, för att se hur jag upplever dessa och för att få en grund till min gestaltningsprocess. I den andra delen formger jag två möbler som har till syfte att väcka intresse för materialet hos betraktaren. Det blir ett klädskåp och en sittmöbel, som visar på olika sido !och mervärden med materialkombinationerna. Förhoppningsvis kan detta  arbete väcka intresset för nya materialkombinationer även hos er läsare.

  • 4.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural and Electronic Properties of Graphene on 4H- and 3C-SiC2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene is a one-atom-tick carbon layer arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Graphene was first experimentally demonstrated by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov in 2004 using mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (exfoliated graphene flakes), for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010. Exfoliated graphene flakes show outstanding electronic properties, e.g., very high free charge carrier mobility parameters and ballistic transport at room temperature. This makes graphene a suitable material for next generation radio-frequency and terahertz electronic devices. Such applications require fabrication methods of large-area graphene compatible with electronic industry. Graphene grown by sublimation on silicon carbide (SiC) offers a viable route towards production of large-area, electronic-grade material on semi-insulating substrate without the need of transfer. Despite the intense investigations in the field, uniform wafer-scale graphene with very high-quality that matches the properties of exfoliated graphene has not been achieved yet. The key point is to identify and control how the substrate affects graphene uniformity, thickness, layer stacking, structural and electronic properties. Of particular interest is to understand the effects of SiC surface polarity and polytype on graphene properties in order to achieve large-area material with tailored properties for electronic applications. The main objectives of this thesis are to address these issues by investigating the structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene grown on 4HSiC and 3C-SiC substrates with different surface polarities. The first part of the thesis includes a general description of the properties of graphene, bilayer graphene and graphite. Then, the properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC by sublimation are detailed. The experimental techniques used to characterize graphene are described. A summary of all papers and contribution to the field is presented at the end of Part I. Part II consists of seven papers.

    List of papers
    1. Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 085701-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and controlling growth of graphene on the carbon face (C-face) of SiC presents a significant challenge. In this work, we study the structural, vibrational, and dielectric function properties of graphene grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by high-temperature sublimation in an argon atmosphere. The effect of growth temperature on the graphene number of layers and crystallite size is investigated and discussed in relation to graphene coverage and thickness homogeneity. An amorphous carbon layer at the interface between SiC and the graphene is identified, and its evolution with growth temperature is established. Atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are combined to determine and correlate thickness, stacking order, dielectric function, and interface properties of graphene. The role of surface defects and growth temperature on the graphene growth mechanism and stacking is discussed, and a conclusion about the critical factors to achieve decoupled graphene layers is drawn. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117253 (URN)10.1063/1.4908216 (DOI)000351132500070 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Marie Curie actions [264613-NetFISiC]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [2011-4447, 2013-5580]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) under the VINNMER international qualification program [2011-03486]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF) [FFL12-0181]; FP7 EU project Nano-Rf [FP7-ICT-2011-8]; French ANR under the Grafonics Project [ANR-10-NANO-0004]; European Union Seventh Framework Programme under Graphene Flagship [604391]; Knut and Alice Wallenbergs foundation

    Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    2. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, p. 357-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    THz optical Hall effect, Epitaxial graphene, Free charge carrier properties
    National Category
    Physical Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Ceramics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132407 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.10.023 (DOI)000408756700015 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [2013-5580]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) under the VINNMER international qualification program [2011-03486, 2014-04712]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF) [FFL12-0181, RIF14-055]

    Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Demchyshyn, Stepan
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Melanie Roemer, Janina
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Groiss, Heiko
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Heilbrunner, Herwig
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Ulbricht, Christoph
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Apaydin, Dogukan
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Boehm, Anton
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Ruett, Uta
    DESY, Germany.
    Bertram, Florian
    DESY, Germany.
    Hesser, Guenter
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Clark Scharber, Markus
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Nickel, Bert
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Nanosyst Initiat Munich, Germany.
    Bauer, Siegfried
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaltenbrunner, Martin
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Confining metal-halide perovskites in nanoporous thin films2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 8, article id e1700738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the size and shape of semiconducting nanocrystals advances nanoelectronics and photonics. Quantumconfined, inexpensive, solution-derived metal halide perovskites offer narrowband, color-pure emitters as integral parts of next-generation displays and optoelectronic devices. We use nanoporous silicon and alumina thin films as templates for the growth of perovskite nanocrystallites directly within device-relevant architectures without the use of colloidal stabilization. We find significantly blue-shifted photoluminescence emission by reducing the pore size; normally infrared-emitting materials become visibly red, and green-emitting materials become cyan and blue. Confining perovskite nanocrystals within porous oxide thin films drastically increases photoluminescence stability because the templates auspiciously serve as encapsulation. We quantify the template-induced size of the perovskite crystals in nanoporous silicon with microfocus high-energy x-ray depth profiling in transmission geometry, verifying the growth of perovskite nanocrystals throughout the entire thickness of the nanoporous films. Low-voltage electroluminescent diodes with narrow, blue-shifted emission fabricated from nanocrystalline perovskites grown in embedded nanoporous alumina thin films substantiate our general concept for next-generation photonic devices.

  • 6.
    Du, Yong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jiayue
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible thermoelectric materials and devices2018In: APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 12, p. 366-388Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can directly convert waste heat into electrical power. In the last few decades, most research on thermoelectrics has focused on inorganic bulk thermoelectric materials and corresponding devices, and their thermoelectric properties have been significantly improved. An emerging topic is flexible devices, where the use of bulk inorganic materials is precluded by their inherent rigidity. The purpose of this paper is to review the research progress on flexible thermoelectric materials and generators, including theoretical principles for TEGs, conducting polymer TE materials, nanocomposites comprised of inorganic nanostructures in polymer matrices and fully inorganic flexible TE materials in nanostructured thin films. Approaches for flexible TEGs and components are reviewed, and remaining challenges discussed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • 7.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Bohlén, Martin
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Gkourmpis, Thomas
    Innovation & Technology, Borealis AB, Stenungsund, Sweden.
    Berlin, Mikael
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Bolton, Kim
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    A molecular-level computational study of the diffusion and solubility of water and oxygen in carbonaceous polyethylene nanocomposites2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 589-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect on the solubility, diffusion, and permeability of water and oxygen when adding graphene or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to polyethylene (PE). When compared with pure PE, addition of graphene lowered the solubility of water, whereas at lower temperatures, the oxygen solubility increased because of the oxygen–graphene interaction. Addition of SWCNTs lowered the solubility of both water and oxygen when compared with pure PE. A detailed analysis showed that an ordered structure of PE is induced near the additive surface, which leads to a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of both penetrants in this region. The addition of graphene does not change the permeation coefficient of oxygen (in the direction parallel to the filler) and, in fact, may even increase this coefficient when compared with pure PE. In contrast, the water permeability is decreased when graphene is added to PE. The addition of SWCNTs decreases the permeability of both penetrants. Graphene can consequently be added to selectively increase the solubility and permeation of oxygen over water, at least at lower temperatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 589–602

  • 8.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE Acreo, Sweden; LINTEC Corp, Japan.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability-functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors.

  • 9.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Patterning of Highly Conductive Conjugated Polymers for Actuator Fabrication2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trilayer polypyrrole microactuators that can operate in air have previously been developed. They consist of two outer layers ofthe electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and one inner layer of a porous poly(vinylidene flouride) (PVDF) membranecontaining a liquid electrolyte. The two outer layers of PPy are each connected with gold electrodes and separated by the porousPVDF membrane. This microtool is fabricated by bottom-up microfabrication However, porous PVDF layer is not compatible with bottom upmicrofabrication and highly swollen SPE suffers from gold electrode delamination. Hence, in this MSc project/thesis a novelmethod of flexible electrode fabrication with conducting polymers was developed by soft lithography and drop-on-demandprinting. The gold electrodes were replaced by patterned vapor phase polymerized (VPP) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity and versatile process ability. The replacement of the stiff gold electrodes byflexible and stretchable PEDOT allowed high volume change of the material and motions. The PEDOT electrodes werefabricated by patterning the oxidant iron tosylate using microcontact printing and drop-on-demand printing. Moreover, thePVDF membrane has been replaced by a nitrile butadiene rubber/poly(ethylene oxide) semi-interpenetrating polymer network(IPN) to increase ion conductivity and strechability and hence actuator performance.

  • 10.
    Felekidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design Rule for Improved Open-Circuit Voltage in Binary and Ternary Organic Solar Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 42, p. 37070-37077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing different compounds to improve functionality is one of the pillars of the organic electronics field. Here, the degree to which the charge transport properties of the constituent materials are simply additive when materials are mixed is quantified. It is demonstrated that in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, hole mobility in the donor phase depends critically on the choice of the acceptor material, which may alter the energetic disorder of the donor. The same holds for electron mobility and disorder in the acceptor. The associated mobility differences can exceed an order of magnitude compared to pristine materials. Quantifying these effects by a state-filling model for the open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of ternary Donor:Acceptor(l):Acceptor(2) (D:A(1):A(2)) organic solar cells leads to a physically transparent description of the surprising, nearly linear tunability of the Voc with the A(1):A(2) weight ratio. It is predicted that in binary OPV systems, suitably chosen donor and acceptor materials can improve the device power conversion efficiency (PCE) by several percentage points, for example from 11 to 13.5% for a hypothetical state-ofthe-art organic solar cell, highlighting the importance of this design rule.

  • 11.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating electroactive scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulated Smart Material Surfaces for Bacterial Differentiation.2015In: Sweden-Japan Seminar on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology – SJS-Nano, Linköping, Sweden, 10-11 March 2015., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Stockholm. , 2015, p. 30-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. These preliminary investigations lay the foundation for the development of an electronically tunable array of sensors that will provide patterns of information that feed into computational recognition algorithms to enable swift diffentiation of bacterial species. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case.  The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to a number of different bacterial strains. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were seeded onto various PPy surfaces. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cell adhered to each surface were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the set of applied PPy areas.  Hence, these strains could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial strains in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 13. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable Conjugated Polymers for Bacterial Differentiation2015In: 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, 10-13 May 2015, Lisbon, Portugal., Elsevier, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacteria to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. In order to expand the number of individual sensors in the array, three different redox states (as fabricated, oxidised and reduced) of each PPy film were also employed. These dissimilar PPy surfaces were exposed to five different bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens, , which were seeded onto the various PPy surfaces. Fluorescent microscope images were taken and used to quantify the number of cells adhering to the surfaces.  Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacteria exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Statistical analysis and principal component analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the array of PPy surfaces. Hence, these bacteria could be discriminated by this simple label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 14.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Iglesias, Miguel Garcia
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Guilleme, Julia
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roelofs, W. S. Christian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Torres, Tomas
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain; IM DEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Meijer, E. W.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Ferroelectric self-assembled molecular materials showing both rectifying and switchable conductivity2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 9, article id e1701017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced molecular materials that combine two or more physical properties are typically constructed by combining different molecules, each being responsible for one of the properties required. Ideally, single molecules could take care of this combined functionality, provided they are self-assembled correctly and endowed with different functional subunits whose strong electronic coupling may lead to the emergence of unprecedented and exciting properties. We present a class of disc-like semiconducting organic molecules that are functionalized with strong dipolar side groups. Supramolecular organization of these materials provides long-range polar order that supports collective ferroelectric behavior of the side groups as well as charge transport through the stacked semiconducting cores. The ferroelectric polarization in these supramolecular polymers is found to couple to the charge transport and leads to a bulk conductivity that is both switchable and rectifying. An intuitive model is developed and found to quantitatively reproduce the experimental observations. In a larger perspective, these results highlight the possibility of modulating material properties using the large electric fields associated with ferroelectric polarization.

  • 16.
    Ho Kim, Kyung
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; National Phys Lab, England.
    He, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kang, Hojin
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Woo Park, Yung
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermal Stability of Epitaxial Graphene Electrodes for Conductive Polymer Nanofiber Devices2017In: Crystals, ISSN 2073-4352, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used large area, monolayer graphene epitaxially grown on SiC (0001) as contact electrodes for polymer nanofiber devices. Our fabrication process, which avoids polymer resist residues on the graphene surface, results in graphene-polyaniline nanofiber devices with Ohmic contacts and electrical conductivity comparable to that of Au-nanofiber devices. We further checked the thermal stability of the graphene contacts to polyaniline devices by annealing up to T = 800 degrees C, the temperature at which polyaniline nanofibers are carbonized but the graphene electrode remains intact. The thermal stability and Ohmic contact of polymer nanofibers are demonstrated here, which together with the chemical stability and atomic flatness of graphene, make epitaxial graphene on SiC an attractive contact material for future all-carbon electronic devices.

  • 17.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical devices from polymer conductors and semiconductors2001In: Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology. Vol. 3 / [ed] K. H. Jürgen Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C. Flemings, Bernard Ilschner, Edward J. Kramer, Subhash Mahajan, and Patrick Veyssière, Oxford: Elsevier , 2001, 2, p. 2531-2535Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer (CP) actuators are devices where the volume of a CP material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. The volume change is extracted as a geo-metrical change in uni- or bimorphs, where the active material may be combined with the passive supporting material. In bimorphs, which have an active layer supported on a passive Ælm, bending of the assembly occurs as the dimensional change is driven by electrochemistry.

  • 18.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actuators, biomedicine, and cell-biology2012In: Volume 8340 Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012 / [ed] Y. Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. 834006-1-834006-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole are well-known for their volume changing capacity and their use as actuating material. Actuators based on polypyrrole have been demonstrated in dimensions ranging from centimetres down to micrometres as well as in linear strain and bending beam actuation modes. The polypyrrole (micro-)actuators can be operated in salt solutions including cell culture media and blood. In addition, polypyrrole is known to be biocompatible making them a good choice for applications within cell biology and medicine. Applications of polypyrrole actuators within micromechanical devices, such as microrobotics and valves, will be presented. Opportunities and devices for the medical device industry, especially vascular surgery will be shown. This includes a rotating PCTA balloon system, a steerable guide wire, and an implantable drug delivery system. In addition, novel mechanostimulation chips for cell biology will be introduced. Using these devices, we can stretch cells and show the cellular response to this mechanical stimulation. Since the dawn of eukaryotic cells many parallel molecular mechanisms that respond to mechanical stimuli have evolved. This technology allows us to begin the investigation of these mechanisms on a single cell level.

  • 19.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conducting Polymer Actuators for Medical Devices and Cell Mechanotransduction2013In: IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, 2013, IEEE , 2013, p. 1661-1666Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuators made of conjugated polymers such aspolypyrrole are interesting candidates as active elements inmedical devices since they can be fabricated in small sizes andoperated in saline solutions. In addition they can bemicrofabricated and integrated on silicon chips for instance forlab-on-a-chip and cell biology applications. Here, devicescomprising polypyrrole (PPy) microactuators for mechanicalstimulation of single cells are presented. In addition, novelinterfacing and patterning methods for conjugated polymer(micro-) actuators are reported that open up for enhancedfunctionality and increased complexity of micromanipulatorsand microrobotics for instance for biomedicine.

  • 20.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting polymers for cell biology and medical devices2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive fabrics for tissue engineering and softRobotics2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) such as conducting polymers are interesting materials not only forprinted, low cost electronics, photovoltaics and light emitting devices but also for use in soft actuators.These “smart” materials deform in response to electrical simulation and are often addressed asartificial muscles due to their functional similarity with natural muscles. The materials operate at lowvoltages, can use aqueous electrolytes and have been shown to be biocompatible. In addition since thematerials are both ion and electronic conductive they can be an interface between traditional hardelectronics that communicate by electrons and soft, wet biological materials such as tissue and cellsthat predominantly communicate by ionic signals. This makes the materials interesting candidates forbioelectronic applications including tissue engineering. Likewise the fact that they are lightweight andoperate silently makes them suitable as compliant actuators for soft robotics.Tissue engineering and stem cell therapy are the promising treatments of cardiac infarctions. Thestem cell niche is vital for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and tissue regeneration.An artificial carrier, e.g. a scaffold, is needed to introduce stem cells into the host tissue as directinjection of stem cells showed fast stem cell death. We are currently developing EAP scaffoldingfabrics for cardiac tissue engineering. The electrospun EAP scaffold mimics the extracellular matrixand provides a 3D microenvironment that can be easily tuned during fabrication, such as controllablefibre dimensions, alignment, and coating. In addition, the scaffold provides electrical andelectromechanical stimulation1 to the stem cells which are important external stimuli to stem celldifferentiation. This stimulation is expected to increase the differentiation ratio of stem cells intocardiomyocytes2,3. Excellent biocompatibility was achieved using primary cardiovascular progenitorcells4. We present the fabrication, electrochemical and electromechanical characterisation as well asthe response of the stem cells to the scaffolds and to the stimulation.Likewise we can use advanced textile technology to create a new type of soft actuators: electroactivetextiles. Textile technology allows for a rational assembly of fibres. We developed new EAP basedfibres, or yarn, employing a metal-free combined chemical-electrochemical synthesis route5 andassembled them in to EAP fabrics that show enhanced performance over individual fibres. We willpresent the fabrication and characterisation of these fibres and fabrics as well as their performance aslinear actuators.(1) Svennersten, K.; Berggren, M.; Richter-Dahlfors, A.; Jager, E. W. H. Lab on a Chip 2011, 11, 3287.(2) Shimizu, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Obi, S.; Kumagaya, S.; Masumura, T.; Shimano, Y.; Naruse, K.; Yamashita, J.K.; Igarashi, T.; Ando, J. Journal of Applied Physiology 2008, 104, 766.(3) Ghafar-Zadeh, E.; Waldeisen, J. R.; Lee, L. P. Lab on a Chip 2011, 11, 3031.(4) Gelmi, A.; Ljunggren, M.; Rafat, M.; Jager, E. W. H. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2014, 2, 3860.(5) Maziz, A.; Persson, N.-K.; Jager, E. W. H. In Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012;Bar-Cohen, Y., Ed.; SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering: San Diego, USA, 2015; Vol. 9430, p9430.

  • 22.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electroactive polymers for bioelectronics and mechanostimulation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polypyrrole microactuators working in air2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Patterning of polypyrrole trilayer actuators working in air for microrobotics2012In: EuroEAP 2012 online proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the areas of cell biology, biomedicine and minimal invasive surgery, there is a need for soft and flexible manipulators for handling biological objects, such as single cells and tissues. Polypyrrole (PPy) trilayer actuators are an attracting option since they use low power, are soft and can be operated without the need of an external electrolyte. The PPy trilayer actuator is made of three layers laminated together: two outer two layers of PPy and a middle, insulating layer of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) to separate the two electrodes and contain the electrolyte. To date, only simple, individual actuators as have been fabricated and characterized. For the applications mentioned previously there is a need to be able to also fabricate complex structures, comprising individual addressable microactuators, for instance, in the form of multi-degree of freedom legs and microrobotic grippers.

    We have developed different microfabrication and patterning methods for both thick, membrane PVDF- and thin film PVDF-based trilayer actuators, which require different processing steps, thus extendeding our processing capabilities. We will present these new processing methods and initial articulated microactuator devices, i.e. actuators comprising individually controllable actuators/segments.

  • 25.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical Devices from Conjugated Polymers2016In: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering / [ed] Saleem Hashmi, Oxford: Elsevier, 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators are devices where the volume of a conjugated (or conducting) polymer material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. This volume change can be utilized to construct actuators, for instance as a single layer or fiber resulting in a linear actuator or assembled into a multilayer structure where the active material is combined with a passive supporting material forming bending actuator.

  • 26.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Masurkar, Nirul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nworah, Nnamdi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Individually controlled conducting polymer tri-layer microactuators2013In: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXVII), 2013 Transducers & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, p. 542-545Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are currently developing a range of microdevices based on polypyrrole (PPy) tri-layer microactuators that function in air. Here, we present recently developed microfabrication and patterning methods using photolithography for both thick, membrane and thin film poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) based PPy tri-layer actuators. We fabricated monolithically integrated, articulated actuator devices, i.e. comprising individually controllable actuators. We also introduce an interface for such PPy actuators based on a flexible printed circuit board, comprising the electrical contacts, into which the actuator device was inserted.

    Compartive evaluations showed that the microfabricated tri-layer actuators functioned as good as the normally fabricated actuators. The new interface seemed to actually improve the actuator performance.

  • 27.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Microfabrication2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 293-318Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, first some basic principles of photolithography and general microfabrication are introduced. These methods have been adapted to fit the microfabrication of conducting polymer actuators, resulting in a toolbox of techniques to engineer microsystems comprising CP microactuators, which will be explained in more detail. CP layers can be patterned using both subtractive and additive techniques to form CP microactuators in a variety of configurations including bulk expansion, bilayer, and trilayer actuators. Methods to integrate CP microactuators into complex microsystems and interfaces to connect them to the outside world are also described. Finally, some specifications, performance, and a short introduction to various applications are presented.

  • 28.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institute.
    Mechanotransduction in micturition studied using micromechanical stimulation chips2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Johansson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Sundin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Produktutformning och materialval för formsprutning: beträffande polymera material2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Injection molding is a manufacturing method that requires specific features to attain manufacturability. Gating suitability requires analysis and mere guidelines do not always provide the correct gate placement. Material selection requires a pronounced specification and is preferably supervised by an expert. Guidelines concerning design for manufacturing and assembly include, among other things, recommendations directly affecting the shape of the product. The aim for this bachelor thesis is to aid product developers and designers in taking manufacturing aspects into account early in the product development process. This is achieved by providing them with guidelines regarding material selection, injection molding, as well as design for manufacturing and assembly. The thesis is limited to thermoplastic materials suitable for injection molding and its results are based off thorough literature research, interviews and case studies. This bachelor thesis project, which is conducted at Linköping University,is a part of a project calledSafe manual assembly tools, and the resulting portable enabling device developed in Safe manual assembly toolsis used as case studies in this thesis. The case studies include: evaluation of concepts concerning manufacturability; material selection; and injection molding analysis through the software Moldflow. The thesis results in guidelines concerning design for manufacturing and assembly, injection molding and material selection. The case study is requited with concept selection suggestions, a selection of material that meets the specification of requirements stated in Safe manual assembly tools and design recommendations that aim to improve the manufacturability of the concept. This bachelor thesis concludes that design alterations striving to meet requirements for manufacturability should be made early in the devolpment process. Visiting the polymer-based product manufacturing industry offers better insight into which requirements that need to be fulfilled to make a product producible. Injection molding simulation software, if such is available, should be used in combination with design guidelines.The thesis also concludes that material selection is simplified through early contact with suppliers of material. Material selection is based off the specification of requirements and therefore requirements specified in the specification should be clarified and have their plausibility confirmed before the selection takes place.

  • 30.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic electronics for precise delivery of neurotransmitters2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic materials, that is, carbon-based compounds that conduct electricity, have emerged as candidates for improving the interface between conventional electronics and biological systems. The softness of these materials matches the elasticity of biological tissue better than conventional electronic conductors, allowing better contact to tissue, and the mixed ionic-electronic conductivity can improve the signal transduction between electronic devices and electrically excitable cells. This improved communication between electronics and tissue can significantly enhance, for example, electrical stimulation for therapy and electrical recording for diagnostics.

    The ionic conductivity of organic electronic materials makes it possible to achieve ion-specific ionic currents, where the current consists of migration of specific ions. These ions can be charged signalling substances, such as neurotransmitters, that can selectively activate or inhibit cells that contain receptors for these substances. This thesis describes the development of chemical delivery devices, where delivery is based on such ion-specific currents through ionically and electronically conducting polymers. Delivery is controlled by electrical signals, and allows release of controlled amounts of neurotransmitters, or other charged compounds, to micrometer-sized regions.

    The aims of the thesis have been to improve spatial control and temporal resolution of chemical delivery, with the ultimate goal of selective interaction with individual cells, and to enable future therapies for disorders of the nervous system. Within the thesis, we show that delivery can alleviate pain through local delivery to specific regions of the spinal cord in an animal model of neuropathic pain, and that epilepsy-related signalling can be suppressed in vitro. We also integrate the delivery device with electrodes for sensing, to allow simultaneous electrical recording and delivery at the same position. Finally, we improve the delay from electrical signal to chemical delivery, approaching the time domain of synaptic signaling, and construct devices with several individually controlled release sites.

    List of papers
    1. Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics
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    2015 (English)In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id e1500039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. Keywords

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Association of the Advances of Science, 2015
    Keywords
    pain, neuromodulation, in vivo, organic electronics, bioelectronics
    National Category
    Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Medical Materials Other Medical Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117968 (URN)10.1126/sciadv.1500039 (DOI)000216593600006 ()
    Projects
    OBOE miljö
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2010-00507
    Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-03-09
    2. Controlling Epileptiform Activity with Organic Electronic Ion Pumps
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling Epileptiform Activity with Organic Electronic Ion Pumps
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    2015 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, no 20, p. 3138-3144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In treating epilepsy, the ideal solution is to act at a seizure's onset, but only in the affected regions of the brain. Here, an organic electronic ion pump is demonstrated, which directly delivers on-demand pure molecules to specific brain regions. State-of-the-art organic devices and classical pharmacology are combined to control pathological activity in vitro, and the results are verified with electrophysiological recordings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2015
    Keywords
    Organic Bioelectronics, Organic Electronic Ion Pump, PEDOT:PSS, Neuroengineering
    National Category
    Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119247 (URN)10.1002/adma.201500482 (DOI)000354823600002 ()25866154 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [602102]; A*MIDEX [A_M-AAP-ID-13-24-130531-16.31-BERNARD-HLS]; Swedish Innovation Office (VINNOVA); Swedish Research Council [621-2011-3517]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0302]; National Science Foundation [DMR-1105253]; ANR [ANR-13-BSV5-0019-01]; Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale [DBS20131128446]; Fondation de lAvenir; Onnesjo Foundation; Region PACA; Microvitae Technologies; Orthogonal, Inc.; Marie Curie Fellowships

    Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2017-11-22
    3. Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site
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    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 34, p. 9440-9445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Local control of neuronal activity is central to many therapeutic strategies aiming to treat neurological disorders. Arguably, the best solution would make use of endogenous highly localized and specialized regulatory mechanisms of neuronal activity, and an ideal therapeutic technology should sense activity and deliver endogenous molecules at the same site for the most efficient feedback regulation. Here, we address this challenge with an organic electronic multifunctional device that is capable of chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site, at the single-cell scale. Conducting polymer electrodes recorded epileptiform discharges induced in mouse hippocampal preparation. The inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was then actively delivered through the recording electrodes via organic electronic ion pump technology. GABA delivery stopped epileptiform activity, recorded simultaneously and colocally. This multifunctional “neural pixel” creates a range of opportunities, including implantable therapeutic devices with automated feedback, where locally recorded signals regulate local release of specific therapeutic agents.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    National Academy of Sciences, 2016
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130851 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1604231113 (DOI)000381860800035 ()27506784 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:We thank Gaelle Rondeau and the staff of the clean room in Centre Microelectronique de Provence (CMP) for technical support during fabrication. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement 602102 (EPITARGET) and Initiative of Excellence Aix-Marseilles project MIDOE (A_M-AAP-ID-13-24-130531-16.31-BERNARD-HLS). Funding was also provided by the Swedish Innovation Office (2010-00507), the Swedish Research Council (621-2011-3517), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW Scholar, 2012.0302). The authors also thank the National Science Foundation Grant DMR-1105253 for partial support of this work, the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the project PolyProbe (ANR-13-BSV5-0019-01), Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale under Grant Agreements DBS20131128446 and ARF20150934124, Fondation de l'Avenir, the Onnesjo Foundation, the Region Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, and Microvitae Technologies. J.R. and L.K. acknowledge support from Marie Curie Fellowships. The fabrication of the device was performed, in part, at CMP.

    Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release
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    2016 (English)In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 2, no 11, article id e1601340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters. However, this technology, the organic electronic ion pump, has been limited to a single delivery point, or several simultaneously addressed outlets, with switch-on speeds of seconds. We report on a vertical neurotransmitter delivery device, configured as an array with individually controlled delivery points and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. This is achieved by supplementing lateral electrophoresis with a control electrode and an ion diode at each delivery point to allow addressing and limit leakage. By delivering local pulses of neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal dynamics approaching synaptic function, the high-speed delivery array promises unprecedented access to neural signaling and a path toward biochemically regulated neural prostheses.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S), 2016
    National Category
    Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Computer Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133161 (URN)10.1126/sciadv.1601340 (DOI)000391267800033 ()27847873 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-12 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 31.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Zhiyang
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-601 17 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Meyerson, Björn A.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linderoth, Bengt
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id e1500039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. Keywords

  • 32.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    et al.
    Osaka Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alici, Gursel
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Okuzaki, Hidenori
    Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Applications2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 385-412Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial muscles are the longtime dream of human being to replace the existing engines, motors, and piezoelectric actuators because of the low-noise, environment-friendly, and energy-saving actuators (or power force generators). This chapter describes applications of conducting polymers (CPs) to EAPs such as bending actuators, microactuators, and linear actuators. The bending actuators were applied to diaphragm pumps, swimming devices, and flexural-jointed grippers with the trilayer configurations. On the other hand, the microactuators have the advantage of short diffusion times and thus fast actuation. Since the CP actuators operate in any salt solutions, such as a saline solution, cell culture media, and biological liquid, the PPy microactuators have potential applications in microfluidics and drug delivery, cell biology, and medical devices. Furthermore, the linear actuators were developed for the applications to the Braille cells, artificial muscles for soft robots.

  • 33.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication and adhesion of conjugated polymer trilayer structures for soft, flexible micromanipulators2016In: Proc. SPIE 9798, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2016, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9797, p. 97980N-1-97980N-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are developing soft, flexible micromanipulators such as micro- tweezers for the handling and manipulation of biological species including cells and surgical tools for minimal invasive surgery. Our aim is to produce tools with minimal dimensions of 100 μm to 1 mm in size, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology. However, the displacement of the current developed micromanipulator remains limited due to the low ionic conductivity of the materials. Here, we present developed methods for the fabrication of conjugated polymer trilayer structure which exhibit potential to high stretchability/flexibility as well as a good adhesion between the three different layers. The outcomes of this study contribute to the realisation of low-foot print devices articulated with electroactive polymer actuators for which the physical interface with the power source has been a significant challenge limiting their application. Here, we present a new flexible trilayer structure, which will allow the fabrication of metal-free soft microactuators.

  • 34.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft lithography for conjugated polymer microactuators fabrication2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft, flexible micromanipulators comprising polypyrrole trilayer microactuators2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 94301R-1-94301R-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the areas of cell biology, biomedicine and minimal invasive surgery, there is a need for soft, flexible and dextrous biocompatible manipulators for handling biological objects, such as single cells and tissues. Present day technologies are based on simple suction using micropipettes for grasping objects. The micropipettes lack the possibility of accurate force control, nor are they soft and compliant and may thus cause damage to the cells or tissue. Other micromanipulators use conventional electric motors however the further miniaturization of electrical motors and their associated gear boxes and/or push/pull wires has reached its limits. Therefore there is an urgent need for new technologies for micromanipulation of soft biological matter. We are developing soft, flexible micromanipulators such as micro- tweezers for the handling and manipulation of biological species including cells and surgical tools for minimal invasive surgery. Our aim is to produce tools with minimal dimensions of 100 μm to 1 mm in size, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology. We present newly developed patterning and microfabrication methods for polymer microactuators as well as the latest results to integrate these microactuators into easy to use manipulation tools. The outcomes of this study contribute to the realisation of low-foot print devices articulated with electroactive polymer actuators for which the physical interface with the power source has been a significant challenge limiting their application. Here, we present a new bottom-up microfabrication process. We show for the first time that such a bottom-up fabricated actuator performs a movement in air. This is a significant step towards widening the application areas of the soft microactuators.

  • 36.
    Loo, Roger
    et al.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Witters, Liesbeth
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Hikavyy, Andriy
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Vincent, Benjamin
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Shimura, Yosuke
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium / Celestijnenlaan 200D, B - 3001, Belgium / FWO Pegasus Marie Curie Fellow.
    Favia, Paola
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richard, Olivier
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Bender, Hugo
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Vandervorst, Wilfried
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Collaert, Nadine
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Thean, Aaron
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Strained Ge FinFET structures fabricated by selective epitaxial growth2014In: Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM), 2014 7th International, 2014, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-growth step fabrication scheme for strained Ge FinFET structures has been successfully developed and implemented in a device fabrication scheme. From device point of view, the concept including two growth steps might be even more favorable. However, it requires an improvement of the pre-epi oxide removal from Si1-xGex surfaces.

  • 37.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Artificial muscles: Reducing the gap with natural muscles2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Hogskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ELECTROACTIVE TEXTILES FOR EXOSKELETON LIKE SUITS2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft assistive robotic devices such as prosthetics, exoskeletons and robot assistants. One particular area of interest is robotic exoskeletons to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assisting or enhancing walking and rehabilitation. Although technologically advanced, current exoskeletons are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators making them noisy, heavy, stiff and non-compliant. Ideally, assistive devices would be shaped as an exoskeleton suit worn under clothing and well-hidden. By merging one of humankind oldest technology with one of the latest, that is by combining knitting and weaving with novel electroactive polymers, we have developed soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles"). In this paper we will present the textile actuators in more detail as well as share the latest progress in the development of textile actuators for soft robotics.

  • 39.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Klaus
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles, Swedish School of Textiles (THS) , University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators2018In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 074004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

  • 40.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Textile actuators for wearable devices2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Martinez, Jose
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena.
    Otero, Toribio
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A metallic substrate may reduce artificial muscles lifetimes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Martinez, Jose
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena.
    Otero, Toribio
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of the electrolyte concentration on artificial muscles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    New textile-based electroactive polymer actuators2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft linear electroactive polymer actuators based on polypyrrole2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 943016-1-943016-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for human-friendly robots that can interact and work closely with humans. Such robots need to be compliant, lightweight and equipped with silent and soft actuators. Electroactive polymers such as conducting polymers (CPs) are “smart” materials that deform in response to electrical simulation and are often addressed as artificial muscles due to their functional similarity with natural muscles. They offer unique possibilities and are perfect candidates for such actuators since they are lightweight, silent, and driven at low voltages. Most CP actuators are fabricated using electrochemical oxidative synthesis. We have developed new CP based fibres employing both vapour phase and liquid phase electrochemical synthesis. We will present the fabrication and characterisation of these fibres as well as their performance as linear actuators.

  • 45.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Characterization Methods and Metrics2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 319-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the various methods that have been developed in the past three decades to characterize the electroactive performance of conducting polymers (CP) to provide fundamental metrics such as strain, strain rate, stress, force, modulus of elasticity, and work capacity. In addition to providing metrics, these characterization techniques have served as valuable tools for studying CPs, providing a greater understanding of the actuation process, optimizing synthesis conditions, and geometric parameters for optimal device performance. The issues associated with the determination of metrics and the need for standardization are discussed.

  • 46.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Wei, B.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Kuo, C.-C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Pathak, S.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA, United States.
    Farrell, B.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Martin, D.C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Enhanced PEDOT adhesion on solid substrates with electrografted P(EDOT-NH2)2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e1600448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), have emerged as promising materials for interfacing biomedical devices with tissue because of their relatively soft mechanical properties, versatile organic chemistry, and inherent ability to conduct both ions and electrons. However, their limited adhesion to substrates is a concern for in vivo applications. We report an electrografting method to create covalently bonded PEDOT on solid substrates. An amine-functionalized EDOT derivative (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methanamine (EDOT-NH2), was synthesized and then electrografted onto conducting substrates including platinum, iridium, and indium tin oxide. The electrografting process was performed under slightly basic conditions with an overpotential of ~2 to 3 V. A nonconjugated, cross-linked, and well-adherent P(EDOT-NH2)–based polymer coating was obtained. We found that the P(EDOT-NH2) polymer coating did not block the charge transport through the interface. Subsequent PEDOT electrochemical deposition onto P(EDOT-NH2)–modified electrodes showed comparable electroactivity to pristine PEDOT coating. With P(EDOT-NH2) as an anchoring layer, PEDOT coating showed greatly enhanced adhesion. The modified coating could withstand extensive ultrasonication (1 hour) without significant cracking or delamination, whereas PEDOT typically delaminated after seconds of sonication. Therefore, this is an effective means to selectively modify microelectrodes with highly adherent and highly conductive polymer coatings as direct neural interfaces. © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öberg, Ingrid
    University of Borås.
    Christiansson, Isabella
    University of Borås.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Next generation Smart Textiles - morphing and actuating devices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ravichandran, Ranjithkumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Type I Collagen-Derived Injectable Conductive Hydrogel Scaffolds as Glucose Sensors2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16244-16249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of home blood glucose monitoring revolutionized diabetes management, and the recent introduction of both wearable devices and closed-loop continuous systems has enormously impacted the lives of people with diabetes. We describe the first fully injectable soft electrochemical glucose sensor for in situ monitoring. Collagen, the main component of a native extracellular matrix in humans and animals, was used to fabricate an in situ gellable self-supporting electroconductive hydrogel that can be injected onto an electrode surface or into porcine meat to detect glucose amperometrically. The study provides a proof-of-principle of an injectable electrochemical sensor suitable for monitoring tissue glucose levels that may, with further development, prove clinically useful in the future.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-27 15:11
  • 49.
    Rivnay, Jonathan
    et al.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Inal, Sahika
    King Abdullah Univ Sci and Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Owens, Roisin M.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Malliaras, George G.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Organic electrochemical transistors2018In: NATURE REVIEWS MATERIALS, ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 17086Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.

  • 50.
    Ryan, Jason D.
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Alemu Mengistie, Desalegn
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lund, Anja
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Mueller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Machine-Washable PEDOT:PSS Dyed Silk Yarns for Electronic Textiles2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 9045-9050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Durable, electrically conducting yarns are a critical component of electronic textiles (e-textiles). Here, such yarns with exceptional wear and wash resistance are realized through dyeing silk from the silkworm Bombyx mori with the conjugated polymer:polyelectrolyte complex PEDOT:PSS. A high Youngs modulus of approximately 2 GPa combined with a robust and scalable dyeing process results in up to 40 m long yarns that maintain their bulk electrical conductivity of approximately 14 S cm(-1) when experiencing repeated bending stress as well as mechanical wear during sewing. Moreover, a high degree of ambient stability is paired with the ability to withstand both machine washing and dry cleaning. For the potential use for e-textile applications to be illustrated, an in-plane thermoelectric module that comprises 26 p-type legs is demonstrated by embroidery of dyed silk yarns onto a piece of felted wool fabric.

12 1 - 50 of 71
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