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  • 1.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia; Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013In: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 617-626Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 2.
    Almyras, Georgios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ruhr Univ Bochum, Germany.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semi-Empirical Force-Field Model for the Ti1-xAlxN (0 x 1) System2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a modified embedded atom method (MEAM) semi-empirical force-field model for the Ti1-xAlxN (0 x 1) alloy system. The MEAM parameters, determined via an adaptive simulated-annealing (ASA) minimization scheme, optimize the models predictions with respect to 0 K equilibrium volumes, elastic constants, cohesive energies, enthalpies of mixing, and point-defect formation energies, for a set of approximate to 40 elemental, binary, and ternary Ti-Al-N structures and configurations. Subsequently, the reliability of the model is thoroughly verified against known finite-temperature thermodynamic and kinetic properties of key binary Ti-N and Al-N phases, as well as properties of Ti1-xAlxN (0 amp;lt; x amp;lt; 1) alloys. The successful outcome of the validation underscores the transferability of our model, opening the way for large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of, e.g., phase evolution, interfacial processes, and mechanical response in Ti-Al-N-based alloys, superlattices, and nanostructures.

  • 3.
    Bi, Yanyan
    et al.
    Sandvik Int Trading, Peoples R China.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Darkey, Glenn
    Sandvik Int Trading, Peoples R China.
    Investigation of cold-forming properties of Sanicro 25-a potential candidate for superheater and reheaters in high efficiency A-USC fossil power plants2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME POWER CONFERENCE JOINT WITH ICOPE-17, 2017, VOL 1, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2017, article id UNSP V001T01A008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 material is approved for use in pressure vessels and boilers according AMSE code case 2752, 2753 and VdTuN blatt 555. It shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than any other austenitic stainless steels available today. It is a candidate material for superheater and reheaters, enabling higher steam parameters of up to about 650 degrees C steam (ie about max 700 degrees C metal) without the need for expensive nickel based alloys. The effect of cold-forming on time and temperature-dependent deformation and strength behavior has been examined in a comprehensive study. The objective was to determine the maximum allowable degree of cold-forming to be used without additional heat treatment. The findings of these investigations indicate that the maximum allowed cold deformation could be possible to increase from todays maximum 20 % (VdTuV 555), 15 % (540-675 degrees C) and 10 % (higher than 675 degrees C) respectively (ASME 2011a Sect I PG19). A solution annealing after the cold bending will recover creep ductility but will also at the same time increase manufacturing costs. Higher allowed degree of cold-forming without the need for post bend heat treatments, would allow for more narrow bending radii and thereby a more compact construction that would result in a significant decrease in production costs. This paper presents the findings in the mentioned study and is to be a background for possible coming discussions with involved entities on a revision of the max allowed deformation of this material without the need for solution annealing.

  • 4.
    Brandtberg, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Microstructural inhomogeneity and anisotropicproperties in IN-718 structures fabricated byElectron Beam Melting: Mikrostrukturell inhomogenitet och anisotropa egenskaper i strukturerav IN-718 tillverkade genom Electron Beam Melting2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing, or 3D printing, provides an opportunity to manufacture advanced 3D geometrieswith little material waste and reduced need for tooling compared to conventional methods. There are,however, challenges remaining regarding anisotropy in the mechanical properties of built components.

    The aim of this project is to investigate the anisotropy of additive manufactured material and the effect ofdifferent build directions. The material used is Inconel 718, which was manufactured by Electron BeamMelting as vertical and horizontal rods. The tests performed are microstructural investigations about thegrains, precipitates and porosities, but also include hardness testing and tensile testing. The material istested in its as-built state.

    The results show that the material consist of an anisotropic microstructure with elongated grains in thebuild direction. The build height has a bigger influence on the properties of the material than the builddirection for the specimens. The top pieces are consistently different from the others and are the leasthomogeneous. The microstructure consists of large quantities of delta-phase, and solidification pores arefound throughout the material. The hardness of the material differs from 324 HV to 408 HV depending onthe part of the build. The tensile testing shows that the vertically built specimens have a higher yieldstrength and ultimate tensile strength while the horizontally built specimens have a greater ductility.

  • 5.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On High-Temperature Behaviours of Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced heat resistant materials are important to achieve the transition to long term sustainable power generation. The global increase in energy consumption and the global warming from greenhouse gas emissions create the need for more sustainable power generation processes. Biomass-fired power plants with higher efficiency could generate more power but also reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2. Biomass offers no net contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere. To obtain greater efficiency of power plants, one option is to increase the temperature and the pressure in the boiler section of the power plant. This requires improved material properties, such as higher yield strength, creep strength and high-temperature corrosion resistance, as well as structural integrity and safety.

    Today, some austenitic stainless steels are design to withstand temperatures up to 650 °C in tough environments. Nickel-based alloys are designed to withstand even higher temperatures. Austenitic stainless steels are more cost effective than nickel-based alloys due to a lower amount of expensive alloying elements. However, the performance of austenitic stainless steels at the elevated temperatures of future operation conditions in biomass-red power plants is not yet fully understood.

    This thesis presents research on the influence of long term high-temperature ageing on mechanical properties, the influence of very slow deformation rates at high-temperature on deformation, damage and fracture, and the influence of high-temperature environment and cyclic operation conditions on the material behaviour. Mechanical and thermal testing have been performed followed by subsequent studies of the microstructure, using scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the material behaviours.

    Results shows that long term ageing at high temperatures leads to the precipitation of intermetallic phases. These intermetallic phases are brittle at room temperature and become detrimental for the impact toughness of some of the austenitic stainless steels. During slow strain rate tensile deformation at elevated temperature time dependent deformation and recovery mechanisms are pronounced. The creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of an austenitic stainless steel show that dwell time gives shorter life at a lower strain range, but has none or small effect on the life at a higher strain range.

    Finally, this research results in an increased knowledge of the structural, mechanical and chemical behaviour as well as a deeper understanding of the deformation, damage and fracture mechanisms that occur in heat resistant austenitic alloys at high-temperature environments. It is believed that in the long term, this can contribute to material development achieving the transition to more sustainable power generation in biomass-red power plants.

    List of papers
    1. Long Term High-Temperature Environmental Effect on Impact Toughness in Austenitic Alloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long Term High-Temperature Environmental Effect on Impact Toughness in Austenitic Alloys
    2015 (English)In: / [ed] Key Engineering Materials Vol 627 (2015),pp 205-208., 2015, p. 205-308Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Series
    KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN 1662-9795 ; 627
    Keywords
    high-temperature environment, precipitation, impact toughness, austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109512 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.627.205 (DOI)
    Conference
    13th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, Azorerna, 23-25 September 2014
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2018-03-09
    2. Damage and Fracture Behaviours in Aged Austentic Materials During High-Temperature Slow Strain Rate Testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage and Fracture Behaviours in Aged Austentic Materials During High-Temperature Slow Strain Rate Testing
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass power plants with high efficiency are desired as a renewable energy resource. High efficiency can be obtained by increasing temperature and pressure. An upgrade of the material performance to high temperature material is therefore required in order to meet the increased demands due to the higher temperature and the more corrosive environment. In this study, the material’s high-temperature behaviours of AISI 304 and Alloy617 under slow deformation rate are evaluated using high-temperature long-term aged specimens subjected to slow strain rate tensile testing (SSRT) with strain rates down to 10-6/s at 700°C. Both materials show decreasing stress levels and elongation to fracture when tensile deformed using low strain rate and elevated temperature. At high-temperature and low strain rates cracking in grain boundaries due to larger precipitates formed during deformation is the most common fracture mechanism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
    Series
    Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1662-9795
    Keywords
    High-temperature, ageing, slow strain rate, biomass power plant, austenitic stainless steel, nickel base alloy and dynamic strain ageing
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96028 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.592-593.590 (DOI)000336694400133 ()
    Conference
    MSMF7 Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture , July 13, Brno, Czech Republic
    Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Advanced Microstructure Studies of an Austenitic Material Using EBSD in Elevated Temperature In-Situ Tensile Testing in SEM
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced Microstructure Studies of an Austenitic Material Using EBSD in Elevated Temperature In-Situ Tensile Testing in SEM
    Show others...
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an advanced method for investigation of the microstructure such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) together with in-situ tensile test in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used at room temperature and 300°C. EBSD analyses provide information about crystallographic orientation in the microstructure and dislocation structures caused by deformation. The in-situ tensile tests enabled the same area to be investigated at different strain levels. For the same macroscopic strain values a lower average misorientation in individual grains at elevated temperature indicates that less residual strain at grain level are developed compared to room temperature. For both temperatures, while large scatters in grain average misorientation are observed for grains of similar size, there seems to be a tendency showing that larger grains may accumulate somewhat more strains.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
    Series
    Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1662-9795
    Keywords
    Austenitic stainless steel, electron backscatter diffraction, in-situ tensile test, Schmid factor, grain wsize and slip system
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97015 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.592-593.497 (DOI)000336694400111 ()
    Conference
    MSMF7 Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture, July 1-3, Brno, Czech Republic
    Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Mechanical Behaviours of Alloy 617 with Varied Strain Rate at High Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Behaviours of Alloy 617 with Varied Strain Rate at High Temperatures
    2014 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 783-786, p. 1182-1187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel-base alloys due to their high performances have been widely used in biomass and coal fired power plants. They can undertake plastic deformation with different strain rates such as those typically seen during creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures. In this study, the mechanical behaviours of Alloy 617 with strain rates from 10-2/s down to 10-6/s at temperatures of 650°C and 700°C have been studied using tensile tests. Furthermore, the microstructures have been investigated using electron backscatter detection and electron channeling contrast imaging. At relatively high strain rate, the alloy shows higher fracture strains at these temperatures. The microstructure investigation shows that it is caused by twinning induced plasticity due to DSA. The fracture strain reaches the highest value at a strain rate of 10-4/s and then it decreases  dramatically. At strain rate of 10-6/s, the fracture strain at high temperature is now smaller than that at room temperature, and the strength also decreases with further decreasing strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization can also be observed usually combined with crack initiation and propagation. This is a new type of observation and the mechanisms involved are discussed.

    Keywords
    Nickel-base superalloy, twinning, Dynamic strain ageing, elevated temperature
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98241 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.783-786.1182 (DOI)
    Conference
    THERMEC '2013, International Conference on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Materials. Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications. December 2-6, Las Vegas, USA
    Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature
    2014 (English)In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 4, no 041004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, slow strain rate tensile testing at elevated temperature is used to evaluate the influence of temperature and strain rate on deformation behaviour in two different austenitic alloys. One austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) and one nickel-base alloy (Alloy 617) have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy related techniques as electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattering diffraction have been used to study the damage and fracture micromechanisms. For both alloys the dominante damage micromechanisms are slip bands and planar slip interacting with grain bounderies or precipitates causing strain concentrations. The dominante fracture micromechanism when using a slow strain rate at elevated temperature, is microcracks at grain bounderies due to grain boundery embrittlement caused by precipitates. The decrease in strain rate seems to have a small influence on dynamic strain ageing at 650°C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
    Keywords
    dynamic strain ageing, slow strain rate tensile testing, fracture, damage
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109511 (URN)10.1063/2.1404104 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Characterization of austenitic stainless steels deformed at elevated temperature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of austenitic stainless steels deformed at elevated temperature
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48A, no 10, p. 4525-4538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are promising candidates to replace more expansive nickel-based alloys within the energy-producing industry. The present study investigates the deformation mechanisms by microstructural characterisation, mechanical properties and stress-strain response of three commercial austenitic stainless steels and two commercial nickel-based alloys using uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures from 400 C up to 700 C. The materials showed different influence of temperature on ductility, where the ductility at elevated temperatures increased with increasing nickel and solid solution hardening element content. The investigated materials showed planar dislocation driven deformation at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that deformation twins were an active deformation mechanism in austenitic stainless steels during tensile deformation at elevated temperatures up to 700 C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer-Verlag New York, 2017
    Keywords
    Austenitic stainless steel, Nickel-based alloy, Microstructural characterization, Deformation twinning, Stress-strain response
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122942 (URN)10.1007/s11661-017-4212-9 (DOI)000408884300012 ()
    Note

    Previous status of this publication was manuscript

    Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
    7. Characterisation of creep deformation during slow strain rate tensile testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of creep deformation during slow strain rate tensile testing
    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strain-rate dependent deformation of the superalloy Haynes 282 during slow strain-rate tensile testing (SSRT) at 700 C has been investigated. The stress-strain response is remarkably well described by a simple constitutive model over a wide range of different strain-rates. The microstructure development is characterised and related to the influence of both strainrate dependent and independent deformation. Damage and cracking similar to what has been observed previously during conventional creep testing of Haynes 282 was found and explained. The model and the microstructure investigations show that the deformation and damage mechanisms during SSRT are essentially the same as under creep.

    Keywords
    Slow strain-rate tensile testing, Creep, Norton equation, Constitutive modelling, Cavity
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122943 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
    8. Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel
    2016 (English)In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0972-2815, E-ISSN 0975-1645, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 337-342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 is a newly developed advanced high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel. The material shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than other austenitic stainless steels available today. It is thus an excellent candidate for superheaters and reheaters for advanced ultra-super critical power plants with efficiency higher than 50 %. This paper provides a study on the creep–fatigue interaction behavior of Sanicro 25 at 700 °C. Two strain ranges, 1 and 2 %, and two dwell times, 10 and 30 min, were used. The influences of dwell time on the cyclic deformation behavior and life has been evaluated. Due to stress relaxation the dwell time causes a larger plastic strain range compared to the tests without dwell time. The results also show that the dwell time leads to a shorter fatigue life for the lower strain range, but has no or small effect on the life for the higher strain range. Fracture investigations show that dwell times result in more intergranular cracking. With the use of the electron channeling contrast imaging technique, the influences of dwell time on the cyclic plastic deformation, precipitation behavior, recovery phenomena and local plasticity exhaustion have also been studied.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    Keywords
    Sanicro 25, advanced ultra-super critical power plant, creep, low cycle fatigue, cyclic plastic deformation
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123646 (URN)10.1007/s12666-015-0806-3 (DOI)000368032700027 ()
    Conference
    7th International Conference on Creep, 19-22 January 2016, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    9. Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 100, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of α’ martensite at the surface of an AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to cyclic heating in humidified air is reported. The α’ martensite formed during the cooling part of the cyclic tests due to local depletion of Cr and Mn and transformed back to austenite when the temperature again rose to 650 °C. The size of the α’ martensite region increased with increasing number of cycles. Thermodynamical simulations were used as basis for discussing the formation of α’ martensite. The effect of the α’ martensite on corrosion is also discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pergamon Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Stainless steel, thermal cycling, SEM, oxidation, high temperature corrosion
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122008 (URN)10.1016/j.corsci.2015.08.030 (DOI)000363070100049 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; Agora Materiae and AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping Unive

    Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01
  • 6.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel2016In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0972-2815, E-ISSN 0975-1645, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 337-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 is a newly developed advanced high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel. The material shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than other austenitic stainless steels available today. It is thus an excellent candidate for superheaters and reheaters for advanced ultra-super critical power plants with efficiency higher than 50 %. This paper provides a study on the creep–fatigue interaction behavior of Sanicro 25 at 700 °C. Two strain ranges, 1 and 2 %, and two dwell times, 10 and 30 min, were used. The influences of dwell time on the cyclic deformation behavior and life has been evaluated. Due to stress relaxation the dwell time causes a larger plastic strain range compared to the tests without dwell time. The results also show that the dwell time leads to a shorter fatigue life for the lower strain range, but has no or small effect on the life for the higher strain range. Fracture investigations show that dwell times result in more intergranular cracking. With the use of the electron channeling contrast imaging technique, the influences of dwell time on the cyclic plastic deformation, precipitation behavior, recovery phenomena and local plasticity exhaustion have also been studied.

  • 7.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Siemens AG, Huttenstr. 12, 10553 Berlin, Germany.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air2015In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 100, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of α’ martensite at the surface of an AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to cyclic heating in humidified air is reported. The α’ martensite formed during the cooling part of the cyclic tests due to local depletion of Cr and Mn and transformed back to austenite when the temperature again rose to 650 °C. The size of the α’ martensite region increased with increasing number of cycles. Thermodynamical simulations were used as basis for discussing the formation of α’ martensite. The effect of the α’ martensite on corrosion is also discussed.

  • 8.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Alessandro
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Andrea
    Industrial Research Centre for Advanced Mechanics and Materials, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Toschi, Stefania
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Dept of Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University.
    Effect of Microstructure and Overaging on the Tensile Behavior at Room and Elevated Temperature of C355-T6 Cast Aluminum Alloy2015In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 83, p. 626-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was focused on the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the Al–Si–Cu–Mg C355 alloy, at room and elevated temperature. In order to evaluate the influence of microstructural coarseness on mechanical behavior, samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) (20–25 μm for fine microstructure and 50–70 μm for coarse microstructure), were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated at T6 condition and at T6 with subsequent high temperature exposure (41 h at 210 °C, i.e. overaging), both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C). Microstructural investigations were performed through optical and electron microscopy.

    The results confirmed the important role of microstructure on the tensile behavior of C355 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Larger SDAS, related to lower solidification rates, modify microstructural features, such as eutectic Si morphology and size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn influence elongation to failure. Overaging before tensile testing induced coarsening of the strengthening precipitates, as observed by STEM analyses, with consequent reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. A more sensible decrease of tensile properties was registered at 200 °C testing temperature.

  • 9.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Alessandro
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Toschi, Stefania
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Dept of Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University.
    Microstructural and Mechanical Properties Characterization of Heat Treated and Overaged Cast A354 Alloy with Various SDAS at Room and Elevated Temperature2015In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 648, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a microstructural and mechanical characterization of the A354 (Al–Si–Cu–Mg) cast aluminum alloy. The effect of microstructure on the tensile behavior was evaluated by testing samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing, (SDAS) values (20–25 μm and 50–70 μm for fine and coarse microstructure, respectively), which were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C), in the heat treated and overaged (exposure at 210 °C for 41 h, after heat treatment) conditions. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used for microstructural investigations.

    Experimental data confirmed the significant role of microstructural coarseness on the tensile behavior of A354 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Moreover, solidification rate influenced other microstructural features, such as the eutectic silicon morphology as well as the size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn also influenced elongation to failure. Coarsening of the strengthening precipitates was induced by overaging, as observed by STEM analyses, thus leading to a strong reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. Tensile properties of the alloy sensibly decrease at elevated temperature (200 °C) in all the investigated heat treatment conditions.

  • 10.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Hernblom, Johan
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Peltola, Timo
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Urban
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Creep Behavior in A Newly Developed Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel2015In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 160, no 9, p. 400-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNS S31035 austenitic stainless steel grade is a newly developed advanced heat resistant material for use in coal fired boilers at metal temperatures up to 700 °C. This new grade that has recently got two AMSE code cases shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion and high creep rupture strength. This paper will mainly focus on the characterization of long term structure stability and performances such as the creep behaviors at different temperatures for up to 86,000 h at high temperatures. The creep damage mechanisms were studied using electron transmission microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and electron channeling contrast image analysis. The results show that the creep strength is related to the intragranular nano particles that act as obstacles for dislocation movements. Plastic deformation and transgranular fracture is the main creep fracture mechanism in the creep test samples of UNS S31035. The material has good creep ductility by formation of twins during the creep test. This material has been installed and tested in several European power plants, and has shown good performance. The material is an excellent alternative for superheaters and reheaters in future high-efficient coal fired boilers with design material temperatures up to 700 °C, instead of more costly nickel based alloy. 

  • 11.
    Chen, Yu-Hsiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rongström, L.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostach, D.
    HZG, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats P
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SECO Tools AB, Sweden.
    Schell, N.
    HZG, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of decomposition route and microstructure on h-AlN formation rate in TiCrAlN alloys2017In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 691, p. 1024-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase evolution of cubic (c), solid solution TixCr-0.37Al1-0.37-x N alloys with x = 0.03 and 0.16, and the kinetics of the hexagonal (h)-AlN formation are studied via in situ wide angle x-ray scattering experiments during high temperature (1000-1150 degrees C) annealing. Spinodal decomposition was observed in Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N while Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N decomposes through nucleation and growth of h-AlN, c-TiN and c-CrAlN. h-AlN is formed from c-CrAlN domains in both cases and the formation rate of h-AlN depends on the stability of the c-CrAlN domains. In Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N, the c-CrAlN domains are stabilized by crystallographic coherency with the surrounding c-TiCrN in a microstructure originating from spinodal decomposition. This results in lower formation rates of h-AlN for this composition. These differences are reflected in higher activation energy for h-AlN formation in Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N compared to Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N. It also points out different stabilities of the intermediate phase c-CrAlN during phase decomposition of TiCrAlN alloys. Additional contributions to the low activation energy for formation of h-AlN in Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N stems from precipitation at grain boundaries. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Chen, Zhe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Nickel-based Superalloys2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to global warming, the demand for more efficient gas turbines has increased. A way to achieve this, is by increasing the operating temperature of the gas turbine. Therefore, nickel-based superalloys have been developed to withstand these extreme temperatures and loads, especially in the hot sections. Today, the way of operating land-based gas turbines is changing. Instead of running for long periods of time, the operation is becoming more flexible, with ever-increasing cyclic loads and number of start and stop cycles. To handle the increased stress and cycles, component resistance to fatigue failures need to be improved.

    Surface integrity is critical to fatigue performance, since fatigue cracks normally initiate at a surface. Machining changes the surface integrity which can result in worse fatigue resistance. The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis was conducted in collaboration with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Finspång, Sweden. Surface integrity changes which are induced during machining and their effects on fatigue performance have been studied on the alloy Inconel 718. Inconel 718 is a widely-used nickel-based superalloy for high temperature applications in modern gas turbines.

    Broaching, milling, and wire electrical discharge machining, related to component manufacturing in turbo machinery industries, were included in this study. Machining induced surface defects provide preferential sites for fatigue crack initiation which influence the fatigue performance of the alloy. If compressive residual stresses are induced during machining, they benefit the fatigue life by retarding fatigue crack initiation away from surface regions. Shot peening was performed on machined Inconel 718, by which high compressive residual stresses are deliberately induced. It results in enhanced fatigue performance.

    The high temperatures in gas turbines generally deteriorate the surface integrity. Recrystallization often occurs in the highly deformed surface layer. Microstructural degradation, in the form of α-Cr precipitates, have also been frequently observed in the deformed surface and sub-surface microstructure. Oxidation at elevated temperatures degrades the surface integrity and thereby also the fatigue performance. Fatigue cracks are preferably initiated at oxidized surface carbides, if thermal exposure has been made prior to the test. It is even worse when high temperatures relax the beneficial surface compression induced by shot-peening and thereby lowering the fatigue resistance.

    Machinability of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy, AD 730TM, and the surface integrity induced during turning have also been studied in this thesis project. AD 730TM is a candidate for turbine disc applications with an operating temperature above 650 °C. At such high temperatures, Inconel 718 is no longer stable and its mechanical properties start to degrade.

    To summarize, the results from this thesis work show the importance of understanding surface integrity effects for fatigue applications, especially in harsh environments. Moreover, the knowledge gained through this work could be used for surface enhancement of turbine components which are subjected to a high risk of fatigue failure. These will contribute to more efficient and flexible power generation by gas turbines.

    List of papers
    1. Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
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    2016 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 47A, no 7, p. 3664-3676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 A degrees C, 550 A degrees C, and 650 A degrees C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and alpha-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    Keywords
    Structural integrity, Broaching, Inconel 718, Plastic deformation, Residual stresses, Thermal exposure, Superalloy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111056 (URN)10.1007/s11661-016-3515-6 (DOI)000377434700041 ()
    Funder
    Linköpings universitet, 2009-00971
    Note

    The original title of this article when published in manuscript form was Structural integrity of broached Inconel 718 subjected to thermal exposure.

    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
    2. On the Conjoint Influence of Broaching and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Conjoint Influence of Broaching and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 671, p. 158-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the conjoint effect of a broaching operation, similar to that used for machining fir-tree slots on turbine discs, and subsequent heat treatments at 550 °C and 650 °C on the fatigue performance and corresponding crack initiation behavior of forged Inconel 718 has been investigated. Four-point bending fatigue tests were conducted under load control on specimens of two groups, i.e. a polished group and a broached group, with totally six different surface conditions. Compared to the as-polished specimens, a beneficial effect of the broaching operation was found on the fatigue life due to the high compressive residual stresses on the broached surface which transfer the fatigue crack initiation from surface to sub-surface regions. Introducing a heat treatment generally deteriorated the fatigue performance of the alloy because of the oxidation assisted crack initiation, while the reduction in fatigue life was found to be more remarkable for the broached specimens, in particular when heat treated at 650 °C, as the thermal impact also led to a great relaxation of the compressive residual stresses; the combined effect, together with the substantial anomalies created by broaching on the surface, such as cracked carbides and machining grooves, caused an increased propensity to surface cracking in fatigue and consequently a loss of the lifetime. Furthermore, it was found that the occurrence of surface recrystallization at elevated temperatures in machined Inconel 718 could lead to intergranular oxidation, creating micro-notches as preferable sites for the fatigue crack initiation.

    Keywords
    Broaching, Inconel 718, Surface integrity, thermal impact, Fatigue, Crack initiation
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129843 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.06.030 (DOI)000381165400016 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Faculty grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-29 Last updated: 2017-11-28
    3. Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718
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    2017 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 684, p. 373-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    The formation mechanism of white layers during broaching and their mechanical properties are not well investigated and understood to date. In the present study, multiple advanced characterization techniques with nano-scale resolution, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) as well as nano-indentation, have been used to systematically examine the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of a surface white layer formed when broaching the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718.

    TEM observations showed that the broached white layer consists of nano-sized grains, mostly in the range of 20–50 nm. The crystallographic texture detected by TKD further revealed that the refined microstructure is primarily caused by strong shear deformation. Co-located Al-rich and Nb-rich fine clusters have been identified by APT, which are most likely to be γ′ and γ′′ clusters in a form of co-precipitates, where the clusters showed elongated and aligned appearance associated with the severe shearing history. The microstructural characteristics and crystallography of the broached white layer suggest that it was essentially formed by adiabatic shear localization in which the dominant metallurgical process is rotational dynamic recrystallization based on mechanically-driven subgrain rotations. The grain refinement within the white layer led to an increase of the surface nano-hardness by 14% and a reduction in elastic modulus by nearly 10% compared to that of the bulk material. This is primarily due to the greatly increased volume fraction of grain boundaries, when the grain size was reduced down to the nanoscale.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Surface integrity; White layer; Broaching; Inconel 718; Adiabatic shear band; Mechanically-based subgrain rotation
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Other Materials Engineering Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134123 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.12.045 (DOI)000393938300045 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: AForsk Foundation [15-334];  [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
    4. Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Inconel 718 in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Inconel 718 in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
    2016 (English)In: 3RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON SURFACE INTEGRITY, 2016, Vol. 45, p. 307-310Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study to characterize the surface integrity in wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 and investigate its effect on the fatigue performance of the alloy in a four-point bending fatigue mode at room temperature. The EDM process generates a rough recast surface with multi-types of defects. Surface craters, micro-cracks and micro-voids within the recast layer have been found to be most detrimental from the point of view of fatigue as they could provide many preferential initiation sites for fatigue cracks. As a consequence, the specimens with an EDM cut surface show an approximately 30% decrease in fatigue life compared to those with a polished surface, and multiple crack origins were observed on the fracture surface. The high tensile residual stresses generated on the EDM cut surface, on the other hand, are also believed to be partly responsible for the loss in fatigue life of the alloy machined by EDM.

    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Keywords
    wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM), surface integrity, fatigue, crack initiation, Inconel 718
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130582 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.053 (DOI)000417326500077 ()
    Conference
    3rd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity (CIRP CSI)8-10 June, 2016, Charlotte, USA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB; Strategic Faculty Grant AFM at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-28
    5. Effect of Cooling and Shot Peening on Residual Stresses and Fatigue Performance of Milled Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Cooling and Shot Peening on Residual Stresses and Fatigue Performance of Milled Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Residual Stresses 2016 ICRS 10 / [ed] T.M. Holden, O. Muránsky, and L. Edwards, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 13-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study highlights the effect of cooling and post-machining surface treatment of shot peening on the residual stresses and corresponding fatigue life of milled superalloy Inconel 718. It was found that tensile residual stresses were created on the milled surface, regardless of the use of coolant, however, the wet milling operation led to a lower surface tension and a reduced thickness of the tensile layer. The shot peening performed on the dry-milled specimens completely annihilated the surface tensile residual tresses and introduced a high level of surface compression. A comparable fatigue life for the wet-milled specimens was obtained as compared with the specimens prepared by dry milling. This is very likely attributed to that the milling-induced surface damage with respect to cracked non-metallic inclusions is the predominant cause of the fatigue failure. The presence of the compressive layer induced by shot peening resulted in a significant increase of the fatigue life and strength, while the extent to which the lifetime was prolonged was decreased as the applied load was increased.

    Series
    Materials Research Proceedings, ISSN 2474-395X
    Keywords
    Residual stresses, surface integrity, milling, shot peening, superalloys, fatigue
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132001 (URN)10.21741/9781945291173-3 (DOI)000401041500003 ()978-1-9452-9116-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS-10, Sydney, Australia, 3-8 July 2016
    Note

    Funding agencies: Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Ytstruktur Arboga AB; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Ganghoffer, J.F.
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Denis, S.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Gautier, E.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Simon, A.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mechanical and thermodynamical study of a macroscopically coherent phase transition.Case of the martensitic transformation1991In: Journal de Physique IV, ISSN 1155-4339, Vol. 1, p. C4-89-C4-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the general framework of a macroscopically coherent phase transition, the mechanical and thermodynamical behaviour of a two-phase volume element under structural evolution will be investigated and discussed. The identification of internal entropy production will then allow to formulate a general evolution condition for such a system and the internal stress state will appear to influence strongly the transformation behaviour, via the interface. The case of a martensitic transformation is considered. From that rigourous mechanical approach, we obtain the thermodynamical balance equation used for martensitic transformation.

  • 14.
    Ganghoffer, J.F.
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Denis, S.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Gautier, E.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Simon, A.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micromechanical simulation of a martensitic transformaation by Finite Elements1991In: Journal de Physique IV, ISSN 1155-4339, Vol. 1, p. C4-77-C4-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A micromechanical model describing the martensitic transformation on the grain scale has been developed, using Finite Elements. First results gained from the simulation illustrate how the morphological evolution within the grain is directly controlled by the internal stress state. The reversible and irreversible part of transformation "plasticity" strain and their evolution with the transformation can then be obtained from these calculations.

  • 15.
    Ganghoffer, J.F.
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, UA 159 du CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Denis, S.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, UA 159 du CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Gautier, E.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, UA 159 du CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Sjöström, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, A.
    Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux Métalliques, UA 159 du CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy cedex, France.
    Martensitic transformation plasticity simulations by Finite Elements1994In: Journal de Physique IV, ISSN 1155-4339, Vol. 4, p. C3-215-C3-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behaviour associated to the martensitic transformation has been modelled using a 2D FE description. The martensite variants are constituted of different elements of the mesh and four different variants are allowed to transform in the grain. The transformation progress is prescribed using a thermodynamical criterion based on the maximal work associated to the variant formation. Transformation plasticity deformation and plates orientation patterns are obtained for three stress levels. These results are discussed in regard to the model used and the physical parameters introduced in the model.

  • 16.
    Govik, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Assemblies: Prediction of Product Performance Considering the Manufacturing Process2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of methodologies to be used to simulate complete manufacturing chains of sheet components and the study of how different mechanical properties propagate and influence succeeding component performance.

    Since sheet metal assemblies are a major constituent of a wide range of products it is vital to develop methodologies that enable detailed evaluation of assembly designs and manufacturing processes. The manufacturing process influences several key aspects of a sheet metal assembly, aspects such as shape fulfilment, variation and risk of material failure.

    Developments in computer-aided engineering and computational resources have made simulation-based process and product development efficient and useful since it allows for detailed, rapid evaluation of the capabilities and qualities of both process and product. Simulations of individual manufacturing processes are useful, but greater benefits can be gained by studying the complete sequence of a product's manufacturing processes. This enables evaluation of the entire manufacturing process chain, as well as the final product. Moreover, the accuracy of each individual manufacturing process simulation is improved by establishing appropriate initial conditions, including inherited material properties.

    In this thesis, a methodology of sequentially simulating each step in the manufacturing process of a sheet metal assembly is presented. The methodology is thoroughly studied using different application examples with experimental validation. The importance of information transfer between all simulation steps is also studied. Furthermore, the methodology is used as the foundation of a new approach to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in a sheet metal assembly. The multi-stage manufacturing process of the assembly is segmented, and stochastic analyses of each stage is performed and coupled to the succeeding stage in order to predict the assembly's final variation in properties.

    Two additional studies are presented where the methodology of chaining manufacturing processes is utilised. The influence of the dual phase microstructure on non-linear strain recovery is investigated using a micromechanical approach that considers the annealing process chain. It is vital to understand the non-linear strain recovery in order to improve springback prediction. In addition, the prediction of fracture in a dual phase steel subjected to non-linear straining is studied by simulating the manufacturing chain and subsequent stretch test of a sheet metal component.

    List of papers
    1. Finite element simulation of the manufacturing process chain of a sheet metal assembly
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite element simulation of the manufacturing process chain of a sheet metal assembly
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 212, no 7, p. 1453-1462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of components in automotive structures are today made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS). Since AHSS demonstrates more severe springback behaviour than ordinary mild steels, it requires more efforts to meet the design specification of the stamped parts. Consequently, the physical fine tuning of the die design and the stamping process can be time consuming. The trial-and-error development process may be shortened by replacing most of the physical try-outs with finite element (FE) simulations of the forming process, including the springback behaviour. Still it can be hard to identify when a stamped part will lead to an acceptable assembly with respect to the geometry and the residual stress state. In part since the assembling process itself will distort the components. To resolve this matter it is here proposed to extend the FE-simulation of the stamping process, to also include the first level sub-assembly stage. In this study a methodology of sequentially simulating each step in the manufacturing process of an assembly is proposed. Each step of the proposed methodology is described, and a validation of the prediction capabilities is performed by comparing with a physically manufactured assembly. The assembly is composed of three sheet metal components made from DP600 steel which are joined by spot welding. The components are designed to exhibit severe springback behaviour in order to put both the forming and subsequent assembling simulations to the test. The work presented here demonstrates that by using virtual prototyping it is possible to predict the final shape of an assembled structure.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Finite element simulation, Assembly, Sheet metal, Forming, Springback
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77853 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.02.012 (DOI)000304020800001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish foundation for strategic research||ProViking programme||

    Available from: 2012-05-31 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. The effects of forming history on sheet metal assembly
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of forming history on sheet metal assembly
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Material Forming, ISSN 1960-6206, E-ISSN 1960-6214, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 305-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for faster product development increases, physical prototypes are replaced by virtual prototypes. By using finite element simulations to evaluate the functional behaviour of the product as well as its manufacturing process, more design alternatives can be evaluated while a considerably smaller number of physical prototypes are needed. As sheet metal assemblies are common in a wide range of products, reliable methods for predicting their properties are necessary. By sequentially simulating the complete manufacturing process chain of an assembly, early predictions concerning the geometry and material properties of the assembly can be made.

    In this study a simulation-based sensitivity study is performed in order to investigate the influence of the forming history on the predictions of assembly properties. In the study, several simulations of the assembly stage are performed in which different types of forming histories are retained from the forming stage. The simulations of the assembly stage will range from a case with linear elastic conditions without forming history, to a case with the full forming history state and consistent material modelling throughout all simulations. It is found that the residual stress state is the most influential history variable from the forming stage. Especially for more complex geometries in which large residual stresses can be retained.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2014
    Keywords
    Finite element simulation, Assembly, Sheet metal, Forming, History variables, Chaining of manufacturing processes
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78765 (URN)10.1007/s12289-013-1128-9 (DOI)000338323600004 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date of the Ph.D. thesis the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. A study of the unloading behaviour of dual phase steel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the unloading behaviour of dual phase steel
    2014 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 602, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to understand the strain recovery of a steel sheet in order to predict its springback behaviour. During strain recovery, the stress–strain relation is non-linear and the resulting unloading modulus is decreased. Moreover, the unloading modulus will degrade with increasing plastic pre-straining. This study aims at adding new knowledge on these phenomena and the mechanisms causing them. The unloading behaviour of the dual-phase steel DP600 is characterised experimentally and finite element (FE) simulations of a representative volume element (RVE) of the microstructure are performed. The initial stress and strain state of the micromechanical FE model is found by a simplified simulation of the annealing processes. It is observed from the experimental characterisation that the decrease of the initial stiffness of the unloading is the main reason for the degrading unloading modulus. Furthermore, the developed micromechanical FE model exhibits non-linear strain recovery due to local plasticity caused by interaction between the two phases.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Micromechanics; Representative volume element; Dual phase steel; Unloading modulus; Non-linear recovery
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106318 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2014.02.069 (DOI)000335098500015 ()
    Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Prediction of fracture in a dual-phase steel subjected to non-linear straining
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of fracture in a dual-phase steel subjected to non-linear straining
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 11, p. 2748-2758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, selected fracture criteria are applied to predict the fracture of dualphase steel subjected to non-linear strain paths. Furthermore, the effects of manufacturing history are studied. Four fracture criteria were calibrated in three tests using standard specimens. The fracture criteria were first validated in the circular Nakajima test. A second validation test case was included in order to validate fracture prediction for non-linear strain paths. In this test a sheet metal component was manufactured and subsequently stretched until it fractured. All fracture criteria included in this study predict fracture during the Nakajima test with reasonable accuracy. In the second validation test however, the different fracture criteria show considerable diversity in accumulated damage during manufacturing which caused substantial scatter of the fracture prediction in the subsequent stretching. This shows that manufacturing history influences the prediction of fracture.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Sheet metal failure, high strength steels, forming limits, non-linear strain paths, forming history
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105211 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.05.028 (DOI)000340300400059 ()
    Note

    Funders: SSF ProViking project entitled "SuperLight Steel Structures"

    Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    5. Stochastic analysis of a sheet metal assembly considering its manufacturing process
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic analysis of a sheet metal assembly considering its manufacturing process
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to accurately predict the mechanical properties of a sheet metal assembly it has been shown important to account for how the geometry and material properties are affected by the manufacturing process. It is also of a great interest to predict the variations of important responses, and how these variations depend on the manufacturing process.

    In this study, the variation of properties during the multi-stage manufacturing process of a sheet metal assembly is evaluated and the variability of a response due to loading is studied. A methodology to investigate how variations evolve during the assembling process is presented. The multi-stage assembling process is virtually segmented, such that stochastic analyses of each process stage are performed and coupled to succeeding stages in order to predict the variation in properties of the final assembly. The methodology is applied to an industrial assembly and experimental validations have been conducted. The prediction of the geometry of the final assembly is in good agreement with the experimental results, while the prediction of the variation of this geometry is in fair agreement.

    Keywords
    Finite element simulation, Assembly, Sheet metal, Forming, Monte Carlo analysis, Chaining of manufacturing processes
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106636 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2014-05-16 Last updated: 2014-05-16Bibliographically approved
  • 17.
    Govik, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Larsgunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Ramin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stochastic analysis of a sheet metal assembly considering its manufacturing process2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to accurately predict the mechanical properties of a sheet metal assembly it has been shown important to account for how the geometry and material properties are affected by the manufacturing process. It is also of a great interest to predict the variations of important responses, and how these variations depend on the manufacturing process.

    In this study, the variation of properties during the multi-stage manufacturing process of a sheet metal assembly is evaluated and the variability of a response due to loading is studied. A methodology to investigate how variations evolve during the assembling process is presented. The multi-stage assembling process is virtually segmented, such that stochastic analyses of each process stage are performed and coupled to succeeding stages in order to predict the variation in properties of the final assembly. The methodology is applied to an industrial assembly and experimental validations have been conducted. The prediction of the geometry of the final assembly is in good agreement with the experimental results, while the prediction of the variation of this geometry is in fair agreement.

  • 18.
    Govik, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rentmeester, Rikard
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Larsgunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study of the unloading behaviour of dual phase steel2014In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 602, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to understand the strain recovery of a steel sheet in order to predict its springback behaviour. During strain recovery, the stress–strain relation is non-linear and the resulting unloading modulus is decreased. Moreover, the unloading modulus will degrade with increasing plastic pre-straining. This study aims at adding new knowledge on these phenomena and the mechanisms causing them. The unloading behaviour of the dual-phase steel DP600 is characterised experimentally and finite element (FE) simulations of a representative volume element (RVE) of the microstructure are performed. The initial stress and strain state of the micromechanical FE model is found by a simplified simulation of the annealing processes. It is observed from the experimental characterisation that the decrease of the initial stiffness of the unloading is the main reason for the degrading unloading modulus. Furthermore, the developed micromechanical FE model exhibits non-linear strain recovery due to local plasticity caused by interaction between the two phases.

  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Controlling the growth of nanoparticles produced in a high power pulsed plasma2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanotechnology can profoundly benefit our health, environment and everyday life. In order to make this a reality, both technological and theoretical advancements of the nanomaterial synthesis methods are needed. A nanoparticle is one of the fundamental building blocks in nanotechnology and this thesis describes the control of the nucleation, growth and oxidation of titanium particles produced in a pulsed plasma. It will be shown that by controlling the process conditions both the composition (oxidationstate) and size of the particles can be varied. The experimental results are supported by theoretical modeling.

    If processing conditions are chosen which give a high temperature in the nanoparticle growth environment, oxygen was found to be necessary in order to nucleate the nanoparticles. The two reasons for this are 1: the lower vapor pressure of a titanium oxide cluster compared to a titanium cluster, meaning a lower probability of evaporation, and 2: the ability of a cluster to cool down by ejecting an oxygen atom when an oxygen molecule condenses on its surface. When the oxygen gas flow was slightly increased, the nanoparticle yield and oxidation state increased. A further increase caused a decrease in particle yield which is attributed to a slight oxidation ofthe cathode. By varying the oxygen flow, it was possible to control the oxidation state of the nanoparticles without fully oxidizing the cathode. Pure titanium nanoparticles could not be produced in a high vacuum system because oxygen containing gases such as residual water vapour have a profound influence on nanoparticle yield and composition. In an ultrahigh vacuum system titanium nanoparticles without significantoxygen contamination were produced by reducing the temperature of the growth environment and increasing the pressure of an argon-helium gas mixture within whichthe nanoparticles grew. The dimer formation rate necessary for this is only achievable at higher pressures. After a dimer has formed, it needs to grow by colliding with a titanium atom followed by cooling by collisions with multiple buffer gas atoms. The condensation event heats up the cluster to a temperature much higher than the gas temperature, where it is during a short time susceptible to evaporation. When the clusters’ internal energy has decreased by collisions with the gas to less than the energy required to evaporate a titanium atom, it is temporarily stable until the next condensation event occurs. The temperature difference by which the cluster has to cool down before it is temporarily stable is exactly as many kelvins as the gas temperature.The addition of helium was found to decrease the temperature of the gas, making it possible for nanoparticles of pure titanium to grow. The process window where this is possible was determined and the results presented opens up new possibilities to synthesize particles with a controlled contamination level and deposition rate.The size of the nanoparticles has been controlled by three means. The first is to change the electrical potential around the growth zone, which allows for size (diameter) control in the order of 25 to 75 nm without influencing the oxygen content of the particles. The second means is by increasing the pressure which decreases the ambipolar diffusion rate of the ions resulting in a higher growth material density. By doing this, the particle size can be increased from 50 to 250 nm, however the oxygen content also increases with increasing pressure when this is done in a high vacuum system. The last means of size control was by adding a helium flow to the process where higher flows resulted in smaller nanoparticle sizes.

    When changing the pressure in high vacuum, the morphology of the nanoparticles could be controlled. At low pressures, highly faceted near spherical particles were produced. Increasing the pressure caused the formation of cubic particles which appear to ‘fracture’ at higher pressures. At the highest pressure investigated, the particles became poly-crystalline with a cauliflower shape and this morphology was attributed to a lowad atom mobility.

    The ability to control the size, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles determines the success of applying the process to manufacture devices. In related work presented in this thesis it is shown that 150-200 nm molybdenum particles with cauliflower morphology were found to scatter light in which made them useful in photovoltaic applications, and the size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to influence the selectivity of graphene based gas sensors.

    List of papers
    1. Synthesis of titanium-oxide nanoparticles with size and stoichiometry control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of titanium-oxide nanoparticles with size and stoichiometry control
    2015 (English)In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 353-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-O nanoparticles have been synthesized via hollow cathode sputtering in an Ar-O-2 atmosphere using high power pulsing. It is shown that the stoichiometry and the size of the nanoparticles can be varied independently, the former through controlling the O-2 gas flow and the latter by the independent biasing of two separate anodes in the growth zone. Nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 25-75 nm, and with different Ti-O compositions and crystalline phases, have been synthesized.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
    Keywords
    Titanium dioxide; TiO2; Reactive sputtering; Size control; Composition control; Gas flow sputtering; Aerosols
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121300 (URN)10.1007/s11051-015-3158-3 (DOI)000360245300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2014.0276]; Swedish Research Council via the Linkoping Linneaus Environment LiLi-NFM [2008-6572]

    Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-21
    2. The influence of pressure and gas flow on size and morphology of titanium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by hollow cathode sputtering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of pressure and gas flow on size and morphology of titanium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by hollow cathode sputtering
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 044308-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized via sputtering of a hollow cathode in an argon atmosphere. The influence of pressure and gas flow has been studied. Changing the pressure affects the nanoparticle size, increasing approximately proportional to the pressure squared. The influence of gas flow is dependent on the pressure. In the low pressure regime (107 amp;lt;= p amp;lt;= 143 Pa), the nanoparticle size decreases with increasing gas flow; however, at high pressure (p = 215 Pa), the trend is reversed. For low pressures and high gas flows, it was necessary to add oxygen for the particles to nucleate. There is also a morphological transition of the nanoparticle shape that is dependent on the pressure. Shapes such as faceted, cubic, and cauliflower can be obtained. Published by AIP Publishing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
    National Category
    Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131710 (URN)10.1063/1.4959993 (DOI)000382405400029 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2014.0276]; Swedish Research Council via the Linkoping Linneaus Environment LiLi-NFM [2008-6572]

    Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-21
  • 20.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Titanium oxide nanoparticle production using high power pulsed plasmas2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers fundamental aspects of process control when growing titanium oxide nanoparticles in a reactive sputtering process. It covers the influence of oxygen containing gas on the oxidation state of the cathode from which the growth material is ejected, as well as its influence on the particles oxidation state and their nucleation. It was found that a low degree of reactive gases was necessary for nanoparticles of titanium to nucleate. When the oxygen gas was slightly increased, the nanoparticle yield and particle oxygen content increased. A further increase caused a decrease in particle yield which was attributed to a slight oxidation of the cathode. By varying the oxygen flow to the process, it was possible to control the oxygen content of the nanoparticles without fully oxidizing the cathode. Because oxygen containing gases such as residual water vapour has a profound influence on nanoparticle yield and composition, the deposition source was re-engineered to allow for cleaner and thus more stable synthesis conditions.

    The size of the nanoparticles has been controlled by two means. The first is to change electrical potentials around the growth zone, which allows for nanoparticle size control in the order of 25-75 nm. This size control does not influence the oxygen content of the nanoparticles. The second means of size control investigated was by increasing the pressure. By doing this, the particle size can be increased from 50 – 250 nm, however the oxygen content also increases with pressure. Different particle morphologies were found by changing the pressure. At low pressures, mostly spherical particles with weak facets were produced. As the pressure increased, the particles got a cubic shape. At higher pressures the cubic particles started to get a fractured surface. At the highest pressure investigated, the fractured surface became poly-crystalline, giving a cauliflower shaped morphology.

    List of papers
    1. Synthesis of titanium-oxide nanoparticles with size and stoichiometry control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of titanium-oxide nanoparticles with size and stoichiometry control
    2015 (English)In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 353-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-O nanoparticles have been synthesized via hollow cathode sputtering in an Ar-O-2 atmosphere using high power pulsing. It is shown that the stoichiometry and the size of the nanoparticles can be varied independently, the former through controlling the O-2 gas flow and the latter by the independent biasing of two separate anodes in the growth zone. Nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 25-75 nm, and with different Ti-O compositions and crystalline phases, have been synthesized.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
    Keywords
    Titanium dioxide; TiO2; Reactive sputtering; Size control; Composition control; Gas flow sputtering; Aerosols
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121300 (URN)10.1007/s11051-015-3158-3 (DOI)000360245300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2014.0276]; Swedish Research Council via the Linkoping Linneaus Environment LiLi-NFM [2008-6572]

    Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-21
  • 21.
    Gunnarsson Sarius, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, 501 15 Borås, Sweden/School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hald, J.
    ENKOTEC A/S, Denmark.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroplating of nickel in grooves under the influence of low and medium frequency ultrasound2011In: Journal for Electrochemistry and Plating Technology, ISSN 1866-7406, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ultrasonics on filling properties has been studied by Ni electroplating from a sulphamate electrolyte in high aspect ratio grooves. The experiments have been performed with two different modes of ultrasound: a) 25 kHz ultrasound with an effect of 225 W directed perpendicular to the substrate surface; b) ultrasonic standing waves of 100 kHz and 400 kHz parallel to the substrate surface. It was found that both methods improve the filling in grooves that are between 0.35 and 1 mm wide with aspect ratios between 0.6 and 3, compared to electroplating with conventional agitation. Under the investigated conditions the 400 kHz standing wave parallel to the surface was most efficient to improve filling of grooves.

  • 22.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chains of the Aluminium Industry: The Cases of Five Products Made in Sweden2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 245-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in supply chains can reduce both environmental impact and lifecycle costs, and thus becomes a competitive advantage in the work towards a sustainable global economy. Viewing the supply chain as a system provides the holistic perspective needed to avoid sub-optimal energy use. This article studies measures relating to technology and management that can increase energy efficiency in the supply chains of five aluminium products made in Sweden. Additionally, energy efficiency potentials related to the flows of material, energy, and knowledge between the actors in the supply chains are studied. Empirical data was collected using focus group interviews and one focus group per product was completed. The results show that there are several areas for potential energy efficiency improvement; for example, product design, communication and collaboration, transportation, and reduced material waste. Demands from other actors that can have direct or indirect effects on energy use in the supply chains were identified. Despite the fact that companies can save money through improved energy efficiency, demands from customers and the authorities would provide the additional incentives needed for companies to work harder to improve energy efficiency.

  • 23.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impact analysis of energy efficiency measures in the electrolysis process in primary aluminium production2019In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, 2019, Vol. 4(2), p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement includes the goals of ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels’ and ‘making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions’. Industrial energy efficiency will play an important role in meeting those goals as well as becoming a competitive advantage due to reduced costs for companies. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and uses fossil fuels both for energy purposes and as reaction material. Additionally, the aluminium industry uses significant amounts of electricity. The electrolysis process in the primary production of aluminium is the most energy- and carbon-intensive process within the aluminium industry. The aim of this paper is to study the effects on primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs when three energy efficiency measures are implemented in the electrolysis process. The effects on the primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs are calculated by multiplying the savings in final energy use by a primary energy factor, emissions factor and price of electricity, respectively. The results showed significant savings in primary energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and cost from the implementation of the three measures. These results only indicate the size of the potential savings and a site-specific investigation needs to be conducted for each plant. This paper is a part of a research project conducted in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

  • 24.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to and Drivers for Improved Energy Efficiency in the Swedish Aluminium Industry and Aluminium Casting Foundries2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 2043-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is important for reducing CO2 emissions and could be a competitive advantage for companies because it can reduce costs. However, cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented because there are barriers inhibiting their implementation. Drivers for energy efficiency could provide means for overcoming these barriers. The aim of this article was to study the importance of different barriers to and drivers for improved energy efficiency in the Swedish aluminium industry and foundries that cast aluminium. Additionally, the perceived usefulness of different information sources on energy efficiency measures was studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering 39 barriers and 48 drivers, divided into different categories. Both the aluminium and foundry industries considered technological and economic barriers as the most important categories. The most important category of drivers for the aluminium industry was organisational drivers, while the foundries rated economic drivers as the most important. Colleagues within the company, the company group and sector, and the trade organisation were considered the most useful information sources. Important factors for driving work with improved energy efficiency included access to knowledge within the company, having a culture within the company promoting energy efficiency, and networking within the sector. The policy implications identified included energy labelling of production equipment, the law on energy audit in large companies and subsidy for energy audits in small- and medium-sized companies, voluntary agreements that included long-term energy strategies, increased taxes to improve the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures, and EUs Emission Trading System.

  • 25.
    Hasselqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspong, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspong, Sweden.
    Constitutive Behaviour of IN738LC Under TMF Cycling With and Without Intermediate Ageing2007In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo [Volume 5: Turbo Expo 2007], New York: ASME Press, 2007, p. 131-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Out of Phase Thermo Mechanical Fatigue (OP TMF) 100–950°C tests with 5 min hold time, some including intermediate ageing for 4000h at 950°C after 25 cycles, have been performed on IN738LC at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery (SIT) AB. In the standard tests, the variation in stress range during the tests was neutral. When tests with intermediate ageing were added to the analysis, the combination of test data strongly suggest that the neutral response above was because of a fairly even competition between softening due to degradation (particle coarsening etc.) and work hardening. We have concluded that the work hardening occuring for a lab hold time of 5 min. will be insignificant under more realistic, i.e. component-near, hold times. Based on this, we have devised a method for reduction of lab TMF test results, with their too short hold times, to handle actual, i.e. significantly longer, component hold times.

  • 26.
    Hatami, Sepehr
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Dahl-Jendelin, Anton
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Termisk Systemteknik AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nelsson, Claes
    Termisk Systemteknik AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Selective Laser Melting Process Monitoring by Means of Thermography2018In: Proceedings of Euro Powder Metallurgy Congress (Euro PM), European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2018, article id 3957771Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) enables production of highly intricate components. From this point of view, the capabilities of this technology are known to the industry and have been demonstrated in numerous applications. Nonetheless, for serial production purposes the manufacturing industry has so far been reluctant in substituting its conventional methods with SLM. One underlying reason is the lack of simple and reliable process monitoring methods. This study examines the feasibility of using thermography for process monitoring. To this end, an infra-red (IR) camera was mounted off-axis to monitor and record the temperature of every layer. The recorded temperature curves are analysed and interpreted with respect to different stages of the process. Furthermore, the possibility of detecting variations in laser settings by means of thermography is demonstrated. The results show that once thermal patterns are identified, this data can be utilized for in-process and post-process monitoring of SLM production.

  • 27.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Han, Tong-Seok
    Yonsei University.
    Almer, Jonathan
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Lienert, Ulrich
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Odén, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Load partitioning between single bulk grains in a two-phase duplex stainless steel during tensile loading2010In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 58, p. 734-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice strain tensor evolution for single bulk grains of austenite and ferrite in a duplex stainless steel during tensile loading to 0.02 applied strain has been investigated using in situ high-energy X-ray measurements and finite-element modeling. Single-grain X-ray diffraction lattice strain data for the eight austenite and seven ferrite grains measured show a large variation of residual lattice strains, which evolves upon deformation to the point where some grains with comparable crystallographic orientations have lattice strains different by 1.5 × 10−3, corresponding to a stress of 300 MPa. The finite-element simulations of the 15 measured grains in three different spatial arrangements confirmed the complex deformation constraint and importance of local grain environment.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy efficient supply chain of an aluminium product in Sweden – What can be done in-house and between the companies?2018In: eceee 2018 Industrial Summer Study proceedings / [ed] Therese Laitinen Lindström, Ylva Blume & Nina Hampus, Stockholm, Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018, p. 369-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Energy Efficiency Directive executed by the European Union, each member state is obliged to set a national target on energy efficiency. This requirement constitutes the basis for governments to formulate policy measures directed towards industrial companies. Such policy measures, along with the demand for cost-effective production to remain competitive on the market, motivates industrial companies to improve their energy efficiency. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and consumes substantial amounts of electricity and fossil fuels, resulting in both direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a study of the production of an aluminium product in Sweden in terms of implemented energy efficiency measures in the supply chain and potential areas for further improvement. Most previous studies have focused on energy efficiency measures in individual companies (value chains). However, this paper presents and analyses energy efficiency measures not only in each individual company but also in the entire supply chain of the product. The supply chain studied starts with secondary aluminium production followed by the production of a part of an automobile motor and ends with installing the motor detail in a car. Empirical data were gathered through a questionnaire and a focus group. The study shows the great potential for further energy efficiency improvements in the value chains of each individual company and in the whole supply chain. The work shown here is a part of a larger research project performed in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

  • 29.
    Jonnalagadda, Krisha Praveen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Failure mechanisms in APS and SPS thermal barrier coatings during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are advanced material systems that are being used in the hot sections of gas turbines such as combustor, turbine blades, and vanes. The top ceramic coating in TBCs provides insulation against the hot gases and the intermediate metallic bond coat provides oxidation and corrosion resistance to the underlying turbine components.

    Durability of thermal barrier coatings is very important for the overall performance of the gas turbine. TBCs can fail in several different ways and there is a combination of more than one failure mechanism in most situations. One of the most widely used TBC is atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Both the deposition technique and the TBC material have certain limitations. The main aim of this research is to study new TBC materials and/or new deposition techniques and compare with the conventional YSZ and understand their failure mechanisms during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion.

    Thermal cyclic oxidation of a newly developed high purity nano YSZ thermal barrier coating has been studied. Cross sectional analysis of exposed as well as completely failed samples showed a mixed-type failure caused by crack propagation parallel to the bond coat/top coat interface. The majority of the damage occurred towards the end of the coating life. A finite element model has been developed to study the probability of crack growth along different paths that leads to the final failure.

    Hot corrosion mechanism in suspension plasma sprayed two-layer gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, three-layer dense gadolinium zirconate/gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, and a single-layer YSZ has been studied in the presence of sodium sulfate and vanadium pentoxide. The test results showed that gadolinium zirconate coatings were more susceptible to corrosion compared to YSZ coatings despite gadolinium zirconate coatings having lower reactivity with the corrosive salts.

    Thermal cycling behavior of a high chromium bond coat has been studied. Cross-sectional analysis showed formation of sandwich type microstructure with chromium rich oxide and alumina as the top and the bottom layers.

    Inter-diffusion of minor elements between different MCrAlY coatings – substrate systems has been studied using, diffusion simulation software, DICTRA. The simulation results showed that the diffusion of minor elements in the coatings is dependent on the rate of β phase depletion in the beginning. After the depletion of β phase there was no clear dependence of the coating composition on the diffusion of minor elements.

    List of papers
    1. Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    gadolinium zirconatehot corrosionmulti-layer thermal barrier coatingssuspension plasma sprayingvanadium pentoxide + sodium sulfate
    National Category
    Corrosion Engineering Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134375 (URN)10.1007/s11666-016-0486-5 (DOI)000392060300014 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden

    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Thermal fatigue failure of thermal barrier coatings with a high-Cr MCrAIY bond coat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal fatigue failure of thermal barrier coatings with a high-Cr MCrAIY bond coat
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC), 2016, Vol. 324, p. 273-278Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were air-plasma sprayed onto Hastelloy X substrates. The TBCs consisted of a high-Cr MCrAlY (M for Ni and Co) bond coat and a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat. The TBC samples were thermally cycled between 100 ºC and 1100 ºC with 1 hour dwell time at 1100 ºC. The thermal fatigue failure of the TBCs was investigated via microstructure analyses. The final fatigue failure of the TBCs was caused by the formation of interface-parallel cracks in the YSZ top coat. The formation of the cracks was found to be strongly related to the oxidation behaviour of the MCrAlY bond coat. The development of the oxide layers was therefore studied in detail. A thermokinetic model was also used to deepen the understanding on the elemental diffusion behavior in the materials.

    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Chemistry Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134377 (URN)
    Conference
    International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC), May 10-12, 2016, China
    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2017-02-16Bibliographically approved
  • 30.
    Jonnalagadda, Krishna Praveen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermal Barrier Coatings: Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) use in the hot sections of gas turbine engine enables them to run at higher temperatures, and as a consequence, achieve higher thermal efficiency. For full operational exploitation of TBCs, understanding their failure and knowing the service life is essential. The broad objective of the current research is to study the failure mechanisms of new TBC materials and deposition techniques during corrosion and thermal cycling and to develop life models capable of predicting the final failure during thermal cycling.

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has constraints such as limited operation temperature, despite being the current industry standard. Pyrochlores of A2B2O7 type have been suggested as a potential replacement for YSZ and were studied in this work. Additionally, improvements to the conventional YSZ in the form of nanostructured YSZ were also explored. The requirement for the new deposition process comes from the fact that the existing low-cost deposition processes, like atmospheric plasma spray (APS), generally exhibit lower strain tolerance. A relatively new technique, suspension plasma spray (SPS), known to be promising with better strain tolerance, has been studied in this work.

    At the gas turbine operating conditions, TBCs degrade and eventually fail. Common failure observed in gas turbines can be due to corrosion, thermal mismatch between the ceramic and the metallic layers, and bond coat oxidation during thermal cycling. SPS and APS TBCs were subjected to different test conditions to understand their corrosion behavior. A study on the multi-layered SPS TBCs in the presence of V2O5+Na2SO4 showed that YSZ based SPS coatings were less susceptible to corrosion damage compared to Gd2Zr2O7 SPS TBCs. A study on the influence of a sealing layer in multi-layered SPS TBCs in the presence of Na2SO4+NaCl showed that the sealing layer is ineffective if the material used for sealing is inert to the molten salts. A new study on the influence of corrosion, caused by a mixed-gas atmosphere, on the thermal cycling fatigue life of SPS TBCs was conducted. Results showed that corrosive products grew inside the top coat close to the bond coat/top coat interface along with accelerated growth of alumina. These, together, reduced the TCF life of corrosion exposed samples significantly. Finally, a study on the influence of salt concentration and temperature on a thin (dense) and a thick (porous) coating showed that thick and porous coatings have lower corrosion resistance than the thin and dense coatings. Additionally, a combination of low temperature and high salt concentration was observed to cause more damage.

    Thermal cycling studies were done with the objective of understanding the failure mechanisms and developing a life model. A life model based on fracture mechanics approach has been developed by taking into account different crack growth paths during thermal cycling, sintering of the top coat, oxidation of the bond coat and the thermal mismatch stresses. Validation of such a life model by comparing to the experimental results showed that the model could predict the TCF life reasonably well at temperatures of 1100 °C or below. At higher temperatures, the accuracy of the model became worse. As a further development, a simplified crack growth model was established. This simplified model was shown to be capable of predicting the TCF life as well as the effect of hold times with good accuracy.

    List of papers
    1. Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    gadolinium zirconatehot corrosionmulti-layer thermal barrier coatingssuspension plasma sprayingvanadium pentoxide + sodium sulfate
    National Category
    Corrosion Engineering Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134375 (URN)10.1007/s11666-016-0486-5 (DOI)000392060300014 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden

    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Failure of Multilayer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of Na2SO4 and NaCl at 900 °C
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure of Multilayer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of Na2SO4 and NaCl at 900 °C
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current investigation focuses on understanding the influence of a columnar microstructure and a sealing layer on the corrosion behavior of suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Two different TBC systems were studied in this work. First is a double layer made of a composite of gadolinium zirconate + yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) deposited on top of YSZ. Second is a triple layer made of dense gadolinium zirconate deposited on top of gadolinium zirconate + YSZ over YSZ. Cyclic corrosion tests were conducted between 25 and 900 °C with an exposure time of 8 h at 900 °C. 75 wt.% Na2SO4 + 25 wt.% NaCl were used as the corrosive salts at a concentration of 6 mg/cm2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the samples’ cross sections showed that severe bond coat degradation had taken place for both the TBC systems, and the extent of bond coat degradation was relatively higher in the triple-layer system. It is believed that the sealing layer in the triple-layer system reduced the number of infiltration channels for the molten salts which resulted in overflowing of the salts to the sample edges and caused damage to develop relatively more from the edge.

    Keywords
    columnar microstructure, composite of gadolinium zirconate and YSZ, hot corrosion, suspension plasma spray
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Research subject
    ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154778 (URN)10.1007/s11666-018-0780-5 (DOI)000456599500019 ()2-s2.0-85055998259 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2018 International Thermal Spray Conference, held May 7-10, 2018, in Orlando, Florida, USA, and has been expanded from the original presentation.

    Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-26
    3. Factors Affecting the Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 and Na2SO4
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors Affecting the Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 and Na2SO4
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: JOURNAL OF CERAMIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2190-9385, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 409-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of temperature, salt concentration and thickness on the corrosion resistance of seven YSZ thermal barrier coatings in the presence of V2O5 and Na2SO4. For this study, a thick, high-porosity APS coating (670 gm) using hollow spherical powder (HOSP) and a thin, low-porosity APS coating (300 pm) using agglomerated and sintered (Aamp;S) powder were fabricated. Corrosion tests were conducted at 750 degrees C and 900 degrees C with a mixture of Na2SO4 and V2O5 for four hours. At each temperature, salt concentrations of 4,10 and 20 mg/cm(2) were used. SEM and XRD investigations after the corrosion tests revealed that a combination of low temperature and high salt concentration resulted in higher corrosion-induced damage to the thin TBC coatings. With regard to the thick TBC coatings, all except one sample failed during the corrosion test. This suggests that thick TBC coatings with higher porosity may not be suitable in corrosive environments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    GOLLER VERLAG GMBH, 2016
    Keywords
    HOSP; agglomerated and sintered YSZ; hot corrosion; TBC
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134310 (URN)10.4416/JCST2016-00058 (DOI)000391246300013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Vinnova, Sweden

    Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-03 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
    4. A study of damage evolution in high purity nano TBCs during thermal cycling: A fracture mechanics based modelling approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of damage evolution in high purity nano TBCs during thermal cycling: A fracture mechanics based modelling approach
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 2889-2899Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the study of damage evolution in a newly developed high purity nano 8YSZ thermal barrier coating during thermal cyclic fatigue tests (TCF). TCF tests were conducted between 100 degrees C-1100 degrees C with a hold time of 1 hat 1100 degrees C, first till failure and later for interrupted tests. Cross section analysis along the diameter of the interrupted test samples revealed a mixed-type failure and that the most of the damage occurred towards the end of the coatings life. To understand the most likely crack growth mechanism leading to failure, different crack growth paths have been modelled using finite element analysis. Crack growing from an existing defect in the top coat towards the top coat/TGO interface has been identified as the most likely mechanism. Estimated damage by the model could predict the rapid increase in the damage towards the end of the coatings life. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017
    Keywords
    Thermal cyclic fatigue; High purity nano YSZ; Crack growth modelling; Damage evolution
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137827 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.02.054 (DOI)000400531500015 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Vinnova in Sweden

    Available from: 2017-06-02 Created: 2017-06-02 Last updated: 2019-02-26
    5. Comparison of Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in a High Purity Nano and Conventional Thermal Barrier Coating
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in a High Purity Nano and Conventional Thermal Barrier Coating
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 332, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), consisting of a ceramic top coat and a metallic bond coat, offer resistance against high temperature degradation of turbine components. Cyclic oxidation of the bond coat, thermal stresses due to their thermal mismatches during cyclic operations, and sintering of the top coat are considered to be the common ways by which thermal barrier coatings fail. To reduce sintering, a nano structured high purity yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was developed. The focus of this work is to compare the damage development of such high purity nano YSZ TBC during thermal cycling with a conventional YSZ TBC. Thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) tests were conducted on both the TBC systems between 100 °C and 1100 °C with a 1 h hold time at 1100 °C. TCF test results showed that conventional YSZ TBC exhibited much higher life compared to the high purity nano YSZ TBC. The difference in the lifetime is explained by the use of microstructural investigations, crack length measurements along the cross-section and the difference in the elastic modulus. Furthermore, stress intensity factors were calculated in order to understand the difference(s) in the damage development between the two TBC systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    High purity nano, damage evolution, thermal cycling fatigue, crack length measurement, conventional TBC
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142311 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.09.069 (DOI)000418968100007 ()2-s2.0-85030751243 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden [2015-06870]

    Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
    6. Thermal barrier coatings: Life model development and validation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal barrier coatings: Life model development and validation
    2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 362, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) tests depends mainly on the thermal mismatch between the coating and the substrate, the thermally grown oxides (TGO) at the top coat-bond coat interface, and the sintering of the top coat. Understanding the interplay between these factors is essential for developing a life model. The present work focuses on further development of a previously established fracture mechanics based life model and its validation by comparing with the experimental results. The life model makes use of a Paris' law type equation to estimate the cycles to failure based on micro-crack growth. The fitting parameters for the Paris' law were obtained from the experimentally measured crack lengths after the interruption of TCF tests at different cycles. An alternative approach to obtain the fitting parameters through video monitoring was also discussed. It is shown that regardless of the approach to obtain the fitting parameters, the life model in its current form is able to predict the TCF life at different temperatures with reasonable accuracy. However, at very high temperatures (1150 °C) the predictive capabilities of the model appeared to be poor.

    Keywords
    Thermal barrier coatings, Thermal cyclic fatigue, Life modeling, Life prediction
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154779 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.01.117 (DOI)000461526400035 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: VINNOVA in Sweden

    Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-04-03
    7. Fatigue life prediction of thermal barrier coatings using a simplified crack growth model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue life prediction of thermal barrier coatings using a simplified crack growth model
    2019 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 1869-1876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Models that can predict the life of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during thermal cycling fatigue (TCF) tests are highly desirable. The present work focuses on developing and validating a simplified model based on the relation between the energy release rate and the TCF cycles to failure. The model accounts for stresses due to thermal mismatch, influence of sintering, and the growth of TGO (alumina and other non-protective oxides). The experimental investigation of TBCs included; 1) TCF tests at maximum temperatures of 1050 °C, 1100 °C, 1150 °C and a minimum temperature of 100 °C with 1 h and 5 h (1100 °C) hold times. 2) Isothermal oxidation tests at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C for times up to 8000 h. The model was calibrated and validated with the experimental results. It has been shown that the model is able to predict the TCF life and effect of hold time with good accuracy.

    Keywords
    Thermal barrier coatings, Thermal cycling fatigue, Life prediction model, Energy release rate
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154780 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.12.046 (DOI)000459950700016 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden

    Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-03-20
  • 31.
    Kanesund, Jan-erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of deformation and environmental degradation of Inconel 7922017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial gas turbines are often used as a mechanical drive for pumps and compressors or in power generation as an electric power supply. The gas turbine has for many years been a popular engine due to its flexibility with respect to different types of fuel and due to a design, that enables a high power-to-weight ratio. A simplified description of a gas turbine is that the engine consists of a cold and hot section. The turbo compressor section belongs to cold section and the combustion chamber together with the turbine section belongs to the hot section. In the hot section of a gas turbine, the condition is extremely severe because of an aggressive environment characterized by high temperatures, increased temperature gradients, high pressure and centrifugal forces resulting in large stresses on individual components together with an oxidizing and corroding atmosphere. Materials used in the high temperature section (hot gas path) of a modern gas turbine are different types of superalloys, as single crystal, directionally solidified or polycrystalline alloys, depending on temperature and load conditions. In the first turbine stage, temperature is very high due to exposure to the combustion gas. To handle the problem with creep, single crystal superalloys are often used in this section. In the second row of turbine blades, the temperature of the gas is lower and polycrystalline superalloys are typically used. IN-792 is a cast polycrystalline superalloy with high strength, good resistance to hot corrosion and a cheaper option than single crystals. In the hot section of gas turbine, IN-792 is a suitable material for components such as turbine blades and vans where a complex load condition, high temperature and severe environment prevails. Due to startup and shutdown of the gas turbine engine during service, the components in the hot section are exposed to cyclic load and temperature. This will generate mechanical and thermal fatigue damage in gas turbine components. Steady state temperature gradient arises by the cooling system acting at cold spots during service to introduce tensile stress, which indirectly gives rise to creep damage in the component. This work includes tree studies of deformation and damage mechanisms of superalloy IN-792. The first study is made on test bars exposed to thermomechanical fatigue in laboratory environment, the second and the third study is made on turbine blades used during service. In the second study, the machines are placed off-shore and exposed to marine environment. In the third study the machine is landbased and exposed to an industrial environment. In the second study, the deformation and damage mechanisms are compared between the turbine blades used during service and the test bars exposed to thermomechanical fatigue testing in the first study.

    List of papers
    1. Deformation and damage mechanisms in IN792 during thermomechanical fatigue
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deformation and damage mechanisms in IN792 during thermomechanical fatigue
    2011 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 528, no 13-14, p. 4658-4668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation and damage mechanisms arising during thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the polycrystallinesuperalloy IN792 have been investigated. The TMF cycles used in this study are in-phase(IP) and out-of-phase (OP). The minimum temperature used in all TMF-tests is 100 ◦C while the maximumtemperature is 500 or 750 ◦C in the IP TMF-tests and 750, 850 or 950 ◦C in the OP TMF-tests. Themajority of the cracks are transcrystalline, except for the IP TMF-test at 750 ◦C, where some tendencyto intercrystalline crack growth can be seen. In all tests, the cracks were initiated and propagated inlocations where deformation structures such as deformation bands have formed in the material. In thetemperature interval 750–850 ◦C, twins were formed in both IP and OP TMF-tests and this behaviouris observed to be further enhanced close to a crack. Twins are to a significantly lesser extent observedfor tests with a lower (500 ◦C) and a higher (950 ◦C) maximum temperature. Recrystallization at grainboundaries, around particles and within the deformation structures have occurred in the OP TMF-testswith a maximum temperature of 850 and 950 ◦C and this is more apparent for the higher temperature.Void formation is frequently observed in the recrystallized areas even for the case of compressive stressesat high temperature.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Nickel based superalloys, Fatigue, Shear bands, Recrystallization, Twinning
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67259 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2011.02.063 (DOI)000290004200051 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Jan Kanesund, Johan Moverare and Sten Johansson, Deformation and damage mechanisms in IN792 during thermomechanical fatigue, 2011, Materials Science & Engineering: A, (528), 13-14, 4658-4668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.02.063 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-11
  • 32.
    Karjalainen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Klarholm, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Termomekanisk utmattning av Sanicro 25: Materialmodellering med finita elementmetoden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to describe the austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 from a thermomechanical point of view. The thermal and mechanical properties of the material make it suitable for use in coal – and thermal power plants. By the use of Sanicro 25 it would be possible to bring the efficiency of these plants up while bringing the carbon emissions down.A material model is created from material testing and validated through simulation in the finite element software Abaqus. The model that has been derived describes the material behavior during loading and stress relaxation for the first cycle in a thermomechanical fatigue test well. The unloading part of the cycle however cannot be described correctly by the use of this model.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ta, Huy Q.
    Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea; Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Rummeli, Mark H.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Soochow University, Peoples R China; IFW Dresden, Germany; Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Graphene on graphene formation from PMMA residues during annealing2017In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 137, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PMMA is a common support material for transferring graphene between substrates. However, PMMA residues typically remain on the graphene sheet after the transfer process. A high temperature annealing process is commonly applied to reduce the amount of PMMA residues. It is also known that high temperature annealing of PMMA causes the PMMA to graphitize, which has been used as a method to synthesize graphene on metal substrates. In this letter we show the development of additional graphene layers during high temperature annealing, which occurs on a single, clean, graphene sheet. The additional graphene is nucleated from the decomposition products of PMMA residues. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Forsgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Dahlström, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Leinhard Dahlqvist, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Norén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Diffuse Liver Disease: Measurements of Liver Trace Metal Concentrations and R2* Relaxation Rates2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Over the past decade, several methods for measuring of liver iron content (LIC) non-invasively with MRI have been developed and verified. The most promising methods uses relaxometry, measuring either R2- or R2* relaxation rate in the liver1,2. For instance, several studies have shown that there seems to be a linear relationship between R2* and LIC1. However, few of these studies have measured the liver content of other metals, which could also affect the relaxation rates. The goal of this study was to investigate if any trace metals, other than iron could affect the R2* relaxation rate in liver tissue in a patients with diffuse liver disease.

    Subjects and methods

    75 patients with suspected diffuse liver disease underwent an MRI examination followed by a liver biopsy the same day. The R2* relaxation rate of the water protons in the liver was measured using an axial 3D multi-slice fat-saturated multi-echo turbo field echo sequence (TE=4.60/9.20/13.80/18.40/23.00ms). Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and R2* was estimated by fitting the mean signal intensity from the ROIs to a mono-exponential decay model. The biopsies were freeze dried and the concentrations of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt and gadolinium were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine which of the measured metals significantly affected the relaxation rate.

    Results

    A linear regression with the LIC and R2* showed a reasonable fit (Figure 1). The multiple linear regression analysis (Table 1) showed that iron as well as manganese had a significant affect on R2*. Unlike iron however, the regression coefficient of manganese was negative, meaning that an increasing manganese concentration gave a shorter R2* relaxation rate. The same trend can be seen when plotting the manganese concentration against R2* (Figure 2).

  • 35.
    Kontis, Paraskevas
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Li, Zhuangming
    Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Segersäll, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reed, Roger C.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Raabe, Dierk
    Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Gault, Baptiste
    Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    The Role of Oxidized Carbides on Thermal-Mechanical Performance of Polycrystalline Superalloys2018In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 49A, no 9, p. 4236-4245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidized MC carbides which act as main crack initiation sites in a polycrystalline superalloy under thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions at 850 degrees C were studied. Microstructural observations in the TMF tested specimens were compared to findings from bulk samples exposed isothermally in air at 850 degrees C for 30 hours in the absence of any external applied load. Carbides were found to oxidize rapidly after exposure at 850 degrees C for 30 hours resulting in surface eruptions corresponding to oxidation products, from where micro-cracks initiated. Plastic deformation due to volume expansion of the often porous oxidized carbides led to high dislocation densities in the adjacent matrix as revealed by controlled electron channeling contrast imaging. The high dislocation density facilitated the dissolution kinetics of gamma precipitates by segregation and diffusion of chromium and cobalt along the dislocations via pipe diffusion, resulting in the formation of soft recrystallized grains. Atom probe tomography revealed substantial compositional differences between the recrystallized grains and the adjacent undeformed gamma matrix. Similar observations were made for the TMF tested alloy. Our observations provide new insights into the true detrimental role of oxidized MC carbides on the crack initiation performance of polycrystalline superalloys under TMF.

  • 36.
    Kumara, Chamara
    et al.
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    GKN Aerosp Engine Syst AB, Sweden.
    Hanning, Fabian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Dixit, Nikhil
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ West, Sweden.
    Nylen, Per
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Microstructure modelling of laser metal powder directed energy deposition of alloy 7182019In: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 25, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-component and multi-phase-field modelling approach, combined with transformation kinetics modelling, was used to model microstructure evolution during laser metal powder directed energy deposition of Alloy 718 and subsequent heat treatments. Experimental temperature measurements were utilised to predict microstructural evolution during successive addition of layers. Segregation of alloying elements as well as formation of Laves and delta phase was specifically modelled. The predicted elemental concentrations were then used in transformation kinetics to estimate changes in Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) and Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagrams for Alloy 718. Modelling results showed good agreement with experimentally observed phase evolution within the microstructure. The results indicate that the approach can be a valuable tool, both for improving process understanding and for process development including subsequent heat treatment.

  • 37.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    et al.
    Dept. of Material Technology, Demag Delaval Indust. T. AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Dept. of Material Technology, Demag Delaval Indust. T. AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    The use of acoustic emission technology in coating ductility testing at various temperatures2004In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004 [Volume 4: Turbo Expo 2004], ASME , 2004, p. 753-761Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, tests of ductility and ductile to brittle transition temperature DBTT of both PtAl RT22 and MCrAlY Amdry 997 coatings on both single crystal and polycrystalline substrates (CMSX-4, SCB, and In792) have been carried out. An acoustic emission detection technique that makes the detection of coating failures (micro cracking and delamination) possible has been employed during the tensile tests. The acoustic emission AE detection has been calibrated on the uncoated substrates and on some coated specimens at various testing temperatures and at different strain rate, together with metallurgical examination. A correlation between AE signals and failure types is established. It has been found that the substrate materials generate also some AE signals during plastic deformation. The amplitude of the AE signals depends strongly on the type of substrate material and the testing temperature but slightly on the strain rate. The substrate emissions may disturb the detection of coating failure. However, except for the disturbance from the substrate materials, the AE is still a sensitive, reliable, and useful technique to detect coating failures at various temperatures. The ductility results determined in this study have shown that the overlay coating Amdry 997 has a lower DBTT ∼550°C and higher ductilities than the diffusion coating RT22. Both of these differences indicate that Amdry 997 is much more ductile than RT22.

  • 38.
    Magnuson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    An Electron Beam Heated Evaporation Source1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An electron beam evaporator has been assembled, tested and used for deposition of thin nickel films. Flux and deposition rates has been measured with an oscillating quartz crystal monitor (QCM), an ion sensor wire, and visible deposition on a mirror on front of the evaporator. A thin nickel rod of 2 mm diameter was found to improve the pressure in comparison to a 6-mm nickel rod. The flux was typically 3-4 Angstroms per minute during the test, but other flux rates can easily be achieved by changing the filament current and the acceleration voltage.

  • 39.
    Malin, Leijon Lind
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An investigation of metallic glass as binder phase in hard metal2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the possibilities to produce metallic glass as binder phase in hard metal by means of powder metallurgical methods have been investigated. The aim of the study was to do an initial investigation about metallic glass as alternative binder phase to cobalt in hard metal. Production of samples with metallic glass forming alloys and an amorphous powder as binder phase in hard metal by means of quenching and hot pressing have been performed. Moreover, mechanical alloying of metallic glass forming powder to achieve amorphicity has been performed. The samples and powders were analyzed by means of XRD, LOM, STA, SEM and EDS. The results showed that no glass formation of the binder phase was achieved by quenching, hot pressing or mechanical alloying. However, interesting information about glass formation by means of metallurgical methods was obtained. The main conclusion was that production of metallic glass by means of metallurgical methods is complicated due to changes in the binder phase composition throughout the production process as well as requirements of high cooling rates when quenching and high pressures when hot pressing.

  • 40.
    Moshfegh, Ramin
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aspects on finite element simulation of sheet metal forming processes2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has focused on four different aspects of finite element simulation of sheet metal forming processes. Four substantial research areas are the development of a methodology for predicting the limiting strains in connection with the Forming Limit Diagram, the applicable mode of procedure for finite element simulation of the hydromechanical deep drawing process, the adaptive mesh refinement strategy based on gradients of the effective plastic stresses and strains; and the reliability and sensitivity assessments within sheet metal forming processes. The fundamental understanding of the mechanics of failure during the sheet metal forming process and the development of a method to predict the critical strains are within the scope of the first part of this study. This work contributes to the fact that a first-principle analysis, using an appropriate constitutive law, accurately predicts potential necking. Thus, the forming limit diagram is a redundant information, i.e., it is not needed to predict necking in the simulation of sheet metal forming. The second aim of this work is to enhance the accuracy of the numerical simulation of hydroforming processes in order to achieve improved results. For this purpose different strategies in process modelling are investigated and developed. Two mesh refinement indicators based on gradients of the effective plastic stresses and strains, respectively, are proposed for adaptive finite element analysis using shell elements. It has been shown that the implemented refinement indicators effectively can identify those finite elements, which have high gradients of the effective plastic stresses and strains such that the mesh can be refined in regions undergoing the most severe deformations. Finally, a methodology has been developed to provide an analytical tool for estimation of robustness and response variation within a pre-defined process window. In order to exemplify the developed methodology, the stochastic simulation technique is used for a sheet metal forming application. The conclusions of this study are that the applied method gives a possibility to illustrate and interpret the variation of the response versus a design parameter variation. Consequently, it gives significant insights into the usefulness of individual design parameters. It has been shown that the method enables us to estimate the admissible design parameter variations and to predict the actual safe margin for given process parameters. Furthermore, the dominating design parameters can be predicated using sensitivity analysis and this in turn clarifies how the reliability criteria are met.

  • 41.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Long Term Ageing on the Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) Behaviour of Hastelloy X2007In: International Charles Parsons Turbine Conference / [ed] G. McColvin et. al., London: IOM , 2007, p. 181-189Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hold-time effect on the thermo-mechanical fatigue crack growth behaviour of Inconel 7182011In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 528, no 29-30, p. 8660-8670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-phase TMF crack growth testing with different lengths of the hold time at the maximum temperature of 550 °C has been conducted on Inconel 718 specimens. Focus has been on establishing a method for TMF crack growth testing and investigating the effect of high temperature hold times on the TMF crack growth of the material. The tests are compared to isothermal crack propagation tests and show good correlation. It is concluded that the controlling effect of the crack growth is an embrittlement of the material. This embrittlement is related to the concept of a damaged zone active in front of the crack tip. The size of this damaged zone will control the crack propagation rate and therefore it does not matter if the load is cycled under isothermal or TMF conditions.

  • 43.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leijon, Gunnar
    SWEREA Kimab AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmert, Frans
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Effect of SO2 and water vapour on the low-cycle fatigue properties of nickel-base superalloys at elevated temperature2013In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 564, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the effect of SO2+water vapour on strain controlled low cycle fatigue resistance of three different nickel based superalloys has been studied at 450 °C and 550 °C. A negative effect was found on both the crack initiation and crack propagation process. The effect increases with increasing temperature and is likely to be influenced by both the chemical composition and the grain size of the material. In general the negative effect decreases with decreasing strain range even if this means that the total exposure time increases. This is explained by the importance of the protective oxide scale on the specimen surface, which is more likely to crack when the strain range increases. When the oxide scale cracks, preferably at the grain boundaries, oxidation can proceed into the material, causing preferable crack initiation sites and reduced fatigue resistance.

  • 44.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leijon, Gunnar
    Swerea Kimab.
    Palmert, Frans
    Siemens Turbomachinery AB.
    Environmental aspects on LCF-life of Ni-base superalloys during long term operation2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of fine grain polycrystalline nickel base superalloys in gas or steam

    turbine applications is often limited by their susceptibility to fast intergranular cracking

    during fatigue in combination with extended hold times at high temperatures and high

    tensile stresses. This effect is further enhanced in corrosive environments even at

    moderate temperatures such as 400-600°C.

    In this study the negative effect of SO2 + water vapour on the low cycle fatigue

    resistance of three different nickel based superalloys (Nimonic 901, Inconel 718 and

    718plus) has been studied at 450°C and 550°C. A negative effect was found on both the

    crack initiation and crack propagation process. The effect increases with increasing

    temperature and is likely to be influenced by both the chemical composition and the

    grain size of the material.

    The negative effect of water vapour + SO2 is manifested by a decreased resistance to

    cyclic plastic deformation and a transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline

    fracture behaviour. In Nimonic 901 this negative effect increases with the degree of

    plastic deformation. For lower mechanical strain amplitudes where the number of cycles

    and the total exposure time is increased the environmental impact is reduced. Similar

    trends can also be noticed for the other alloys. The surface corrosion in air and in SO2 +

    water vapour are found to be rather similar in this study and it is therefore concluded

    that the surface scale can remain adherent and protective if the strains on the oxide scale

    are low. However, for LCF tests with higher strain ranges, the oxide scale will rupture

    preferably at the grain boundaries and intergranular microcracks will initiate which

    promotes inward diffusion of embritteling elements such as oxygen and sulphur.

    Inconel 718 seems to be more sensitive to SO2 + water vapour than Nimonic 901 when

    tested at 450°C. The overall resistance to LCF is however still higher in Inconel 718 for

    the test conditions investigated in this study, this is due to the exceptionally good

    resistance to low cycle fatigue that this alloy has from the start (as seen for the tests in

    air).

  • 45.
    Moverare, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sato, Atsushi
    University of Birmingham.
    Hasselqvist, Magnus
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Reed, R.C.
    University of Birmingham.
    A New Single Crystal Superalloy for Power Generation Applications:  2011In: Proceeding of the 8th International Charles Parsons TurbineConference 2011, 2011, p. G2-2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly developed single crystal superalloy (known as STAL15) is described which is suitable for use in first stage blades of highly efficient industrial gas turbines (IGTs). With 15 wt% Cr and 4.55 wt% Al, the alloy combines good corrosion and oxidation resistance with sufficient creep and fatigue performance. Thus a novel and useful balance of environmental and mechanical properties is displayed. In this paper, the details of the development project are described. The new alloy is shown to be an alumina (Al2O3) former; the mechanisms behind the Al2O3-formation process are studied and the effects arising from changes in the chemical composition have been modelled. In addition, the mechanical properties in terms of creep and fatigue resistance are evaluated together with the alloy stability during long term (up to 10,000 hours) exposure. For such applications, the new alloy is superior to existing nickel-based single crystal superalloys designed for aero engine applications and which are optimized for very high creep resistance; experience has shown that they are not ideal for use in IGTs of the type used for power generation or mechanical drive, due to their low corrosion resistance. The main reason for this is that IGTs are exposed to more harsh conditions in terms of air quality through the turbine and significantly longer time between overhaul/inspection. Traditionally this has been handled by use of polycrystalline alloys such as IN792 and IN738LC or the single crystal alloy PWA1484; unfortunately these do not form a protective Al2O3 layer and hence display limited resistance to environmental degradation. The new alloy does not display this weakness and is therefore highly optimised for IGT applications.

  • 46.
    Mukhamedov, B. O.
    et al.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spinodal decomposition in ternary Fe-Cr-Co system2017In: JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, ISSN 0925-8388, Vol. 695, p. 250-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the exact muffin-tin orbitals method in conjunction with the coherent potential approximation we have studied the tendency towards spinodal decomposition of solid solution in ternary Fe-Cr-Co system. In addition, we have estimated the Curie temperature of the alloys, and considered the influence of the magnetic state on the decomposition thermodynamics of the ternary alloys. Using the mean field approximation, we have estimated the finite temperature effects on the alloys free energy. We predict that an increase Co and Cr content in the ternary Fe-Cr-Co system increases the tendency of the bcc (alpha)-FexCryCoz alloys towards the spinodal decomposition. Because of this, high magnetic properties and high thermal stability of these properties can be expected in the Fe-Cr-Co alloys with high Co content. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Palmert, Frans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy2019In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 122, p. 184-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied. Tests were performed on single edge notched specimens, using in phase and out of phase thermomechanical fatigue cycling with temperature ranges of 100-750°C and 100-850°C and hold times at maximum temperature ranging from 10s to 6h. Isothermal testing at 100°C, 750°C and 850°C was also performed using the same test setup. A compliance-based method is proposed to experimentally evaluate the crack opening stress and thereby estimate the effective stress intensity factor range ΔKeff for both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. For in phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate is increased if a hold time is applied at the maximum temperature. By using the compliance-based crack opening evaluation, this increase in crack growth rate was explained by an increase in the effective stress intensity factor range which accelerated the cycle dependent crack growth. No significant difference in crack growth rate vs ΔKeff was observed between in phase thermomechanical fatigue tests and isothermal tests at the maximum temperature. For out of phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate was insensitive to the maximum temperature and also to the length of hold time at maximum temperature. The crack growth rate vs ΔKeff during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue was significantly higher than during isothermal fatigue at the minimum temperature, even though the advancement of the crack presumably occurs at the same temperature. Dissolution of γ′ precipitates and recrystallization at the crack tip during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue is suggested as a likely explanation for this difference in crack growth rate.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-25 17:11
  • 48.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Mats P.
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Pilemalm, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnson, L. J. S.
    Sandvik Coromant, Sweden.
    Schell, N.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Decomposition routes and strain evolution in arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings2019In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 779, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase, microstructure, and strain evolution during annealing of arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings are studied using in situ x-ray scattering and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. We find that the decomposition route changes from nucleation and growth of wurtzite AlN to spinodal decomposition when the Zr-content is decreased and the Al-content increases. Decomposition of Ti0.31Zr0.24Al0.45N results in homogeneously distributed wurtzite AlN grains in a cubic, dislocation-dense matrix of TiZrN consisting of domains of different chemical composition. The combination of high dislocation density, variation of chemical composition within the cubic grains, and evenly distributed wurtzite AlN grains results in high compressive strains, -1.1%, which are retained after 3 h at 1100 degrees C. In coatings with higher Zr-content, the strains relax during annealing above 900 degrees C due to grain growth and defect annihilation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-14 12:11
  • 49.
    Saarimäki, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Dwell-times on Crack Propagation in Superalloys2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at "hard to reach" locations where other possibilities for electrical supply are insufficient. There is a strong need for greener energy, considering the effect that pollution has had on global warming, and we need to come up with ways of producing cleaner electricity. A way to achieve this is by increasing the combustion temperature in gas turbines. This increases the demand on the high temperature performance of the materials used e.g. superalloys in the turbine. These high combustion temperatures can lead to detrimental degradation of critical components. These components are commonly subjected to cyclic loading of different types e.g. combined with dwell-times and overloads at elevated temperatures, which influence the crack growth. Dwell-times have shown to accelerate crack growth and change the cracking behaviour in both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. Overloads at the beginning of the dwell-time cycle have shown to retard the dwell time effect on crack growth in Inconel 718. To understand these effects more microstructural investigations are needed.

    The work presented in this licentiate thesis was conducted under the umbrella of the research program Turbo Power; "High temperature fatigue crack propagation in nickel-based superalloys", concentrating on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in superalloys during dwell-times, which have shown to have a devastating effect on the crack propagation behaviour. Mechanical testing was performed under operation-like conditions in order to achieve representative microstructures and material data for the subsequent microstructural work. The microstructures were microscopically investigated in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) as well as using light optical microscopy.

    The outcome of this work has shown that there is a significant increase in crack growth rate when dwell-times are introduced at the maximum load (0% overload) in the fatigue cycle. With the introduction of a dwell-time there is also a shift from transgranular to intergranular crack growth for both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. When an overload is applied prior to the dwell-time, the crack growth rate decreases with increasing overload levels in Inconel 718. At high temperature crack growth in Inconel 718 took place as intergranular crack growth along grain boundaries due to oxidation and the creation of nanometric voids. Another observed growth mechanism was crack advance along phase boundaries with subsequent severe oxidation of the phase.

    This thesis comprises two parts. The first giving an introduction to the field of superalloys and the acting microstructural mechanisms that influence fatigue during dwell times. The second part consists of two appended papers, which report the work completed so far in the project.

    List of papers
    1. Influence of Overloads on Dwell Time Fatigue Crack Growth in Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Overloads on Dwell Time Fatigue Crack Growth in Inconel 718
    2014 (English)In: Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 612, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ~700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    nickel based superalloys, fatigue, fracture, mechanical charcterization, electron microscopy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109348 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2014.06.068 (DOI)000340331300049 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Time- and Cycle-Dependent Crack Propagation in Haynes 282
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time- and Cycle-Dependent Crack Propagation in Haynes 282
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science and Engineering: A, ISSN 2161-6213, Vol. 658, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Haynes 282 is a promising superalloy candidate for several high-temperature applications in both aero and land-based gas turbine engines. To study the crack growth behaviour under time-dependent conditions relevant to such applications, a test program was carried out at room temperature up to 700 °C with conditions ranging from pure cyclic to sustained tensile loading. At 650 °C and high stress intensity factors the crack growth was fully time-dependent for dwell-times of 90 s and longer. At lower stress intensities, the behaviour was mainly controlled by the cyclic loading, even under dwell conditions. The behaviour under dwell-fatigue conditions was well described by a liner superposition model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Nickel based superalloys, fatigue, fracture, mechanical characterisation, electron microscopy
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126922 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.111 (DOI)000372560800054 ()
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Name of manuscript was: Time-dependent crack propagation in Haynes 282

    Funding agencies: Agora Materiae, graduate school, Faculty grant SFO-MAT-LiU [2009-00971]; Swedish Energy Agency; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB; GKN Aerospace Engine Systems; Royal Institute of Technology through the Swedish research program TURBO POWER

    Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
  • 50.
    Saarimäki, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång.
    3D Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Melted Hastelloy X2017In: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, Materials Research Proceedings 2 (2016), 2017, Vol. 2, p. 73-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D residual stresses in as manufactured EOS NickelAlloy HX, produced by laser powder bed additive manufacturing, are analysed on the surface closest to the build-plate. Due to the severe thermal gradient produced during the melting and solidification process, profound amounts of thermal strains are generated. Which can result in unwanted geometrical distortion and effect the mechanical properties of the manufactured component. Measurements were performed using a four-circle goniometer Seifert X-ray machine, equipped with a linear sensitive detector and a Cr-tube. Evaluation of the residual stresses was conducted using sin2ψ method of the Ni {220} diffraction peak, together with material removal technique to obtain in-depth profiles. An analysis of the material is reported. The analysis reveals unwanted residual stresses, and a complicated non-uniform grain structure containing large grains with multiple low angle grain boundaries together with nano-sized grains. Grains are to a large extent, not equiaxed, but rather elongated.

12 1 - 50 of 62
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