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  • 1.
    Abbatelli, Daniele
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Material flows in the waterjet industry: an environmental perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abrasive Waterjet cutting (AWJ) presents many advantages over competing machining techniques, but several issues are related to the high volume of materials (and in particular of abrasive) used in the process.

    In this study, the environmental impact of the material flows in the abrasive waterjet industry has been analyzed adopting a life cycle perspective in order to individuate which phases place the largest burden on the environment. Moreover, three alternative abrasives (crushed rock, recycled glass and synthetic abrasive) and three disposal practices (in-site recycling, off-site recycling and recycling as construction material) have been also evaluated to estimate the benefits that can be achieved if these could be used in place of garnet abrasives and landfilling.

    The transportation of the abrasive resulted to be the phase that has the largest influence in every case and thus should be reduced as much as possible. For what concerns the alternative options, the usage of recycled glass and the in-site recycling of the abrasive were the two alternatives with the best environmental performances. However, crushed rock could be the best option for what concerns the global warming potential if carbon sequestration due to carbonation of silicate rocks is taken into account. Off-site recycling and recycling as construction material are good options only if the transportation to the recycling site can be reduced. Synthetic abrasive are instead found to have a much larger impact compared to every other alternative examined.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhna, Iryna
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhnyi, Dmytrii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Geletukha, Georgiy
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Lutsenko, Serhii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Yanchenko, Ilona
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Technologies for Environmental Safety Application of Digestate as Biofertilizer2022Inngår i: Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, ISSN 2719-7050, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 106-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the environmentally safe and economically feasible technology of biofertilizer production from the digestate including dewatering process. Methodological basis is based on the systematic approach to the determination of factors effected on the distribution of nutrients and pollutants between liquidand solid fractions after digestate separation. We studied modern technologies aimed at dewatering the digestateand reduction of its volume, showed their effectiveness. These technologies allow expanding the opportunities forcommercialization of the digestate, increasing the cost of its transportation and application to the soil instead ofcomplex fertilizers, using some valuable products. The results of the study showed that the ecological quality ofthe digestate is the highest as well as co-digested thermally pre-treated feedstock is used for solid-liquid separationin centrifuge with polymer addition as post-treatment approach to the flocculation. In order to increase efficiencyof biofertilizer application the technological scheme of production process of granular fertilizers from digestatewas proposed. Special feature of this scheme is in the use of phosphogypsum binder for the production of organomineral fertilizer that contributes phosphogypsum recycling in the waste management system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Ackebjer Turesson, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Werneskog, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    The Challenge of Providing Sufficient Grid Capacity for Electrification to Be a Key Factor in Achieving Climate Neutrality Until 2045: A national and regional demand analysis investigating the future electricity demand and the grid operators' perspectives on large-scale electrification in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to contribute to grid planning and public debate about how the electric power system can cope with electrification and decarbonisation. The thesis is based on the assumption that Sweden, in accordance with the climate goals, will achieve climate neutrality by 2045.

    Based on a literature review, an analysis is made of how different scenarios predict the future national electricity demand up until 2045 and identifies the underlying drivers for changes in electricity demand. A more detailed analysis based on results from a literature review and interviews with industry representatives is made for four chosen regions, Norrbotten, Västra Götaland, Stockholm and Skåne. For each region, estimates are made of how high the electrification potential is in the industrial, transport, residential and service sectors.

    The prerequisites for the electricity grid to handle the identified electrification potential, in terms of grid capacity, have been analysed in order to highlight what challenges there are for large-scale electrification to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals.

    The general belief in the studied scenarios is that the national electricity demand will increase until 2045. The investigated scenarios predict increases resulting in an annual national electricity demand of up to 207 TWh in 2045, corresponding to an increase of almost 60 %. The most significant increases are due to decarbonisation in the industry and transport sector.

    The regional analysis shows significant electrification potentials in the investigated regions. A few industries stand out with dramatic increases, Borealis AB in Västra Götaland shows an electrification potential of 8 TWh and 1 000 MW and SSAB in Norrbotten shows an electrification potential of 9 TWh and 900 MW. Significant electrification potentials in the transport, residential and service sectors have been identified in metropolitan areas, i.e. in the region of Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Skåne.

    The grid analysis shows that it will be challenging to increase grid capacity at sufficient speed. It is concluded that there is currently insufficient grid capacity to meet large-scale electrification, and that the grids need to be reinforced. However, the concession process for grid reinforcements is considered too slow to meet the demands that arise, primarily in the industry sector. Three ways to address this challenge have been identified:

    -          If the permission process for electricity grid expansion does not change and the industry is to choose the electrification route, this needs to be decided before 2030 in order for reinforcements in the electricity grid to be ensured before 2045.

    -          Speed up the permit process to allow shorter lead times for power grid expansions.

    -          The industry choose another route for decarbonisation than electrification.

    The overall conclusion is that new approaches for expanding the electricity grid will be required if large-scale electrification is to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals in 2045.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage2016Inngår i: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 174-185Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Ortopedkliniken i Linköping. Örebro University, Sweden.
    What keeps a shoulder stable - Is there an ideal method for anterior stabilisation?2024Inngår i: SHOULDER & ELBOW, ISSN 1758-5732, Vol. 16, nr 1Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The gleno-humeral joint is by far the most mobile in the human body but also afflicted by dislocations, predominantly anterior. Surgical stabilisation is often successful but failures not uncommon. The following review describes potential causes of failure and highlights the need of adapting surgical methods to pathomorphology.

  • 6.
    Agyekum, Ephraim Bonah
    et al.
    Ural Fed Univ, Russia.
    Ampah, Jeffrey Dankwa
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Khan, Tahir
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Giri, Nimay Chandra
    Centurion Univ Technol & Management, India; Centur Univ Technol & Managemention, India.
    Hussien, Abdelazim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Fayoum Univ, Egypt; Appl Sci Private Univ, Jordan; Middle East Univ, Jordan.
    Velkin, Vladimir Ivanovich
    Ural Fed Univ, Russia.
    Mehmood, Usman
    Bahcesehir Cyprus Univ, Turkiye; Univ Punjab, Pakistan.
    Kamel, Salah
    Aswan Univ, Egypt.
    Towards a reduction of emissions and cost-savings in homes: Techno-economic and environmental impact of two different solar water heaters2024Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 11, s. 963-981Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa currently has the highest carbon emission intensity per kilowatt of electricity generation globally, and its government intends to reduce it. Some of the measures taken by the government include a reduction of emissions in the building sector using solar water heating (SWH) systems. However, there is currently no study in the country that comprehensively assesses the technical, economic, and environmental impact of SWH systems across the country. This study therefore used the System Advisor Model (SAM) to model two different technologies of SWH systems (i.e., flat plate (FPC) and evacuated tube (EPC) SWH) at five different locations (i.e., Pretoria, Upington, Kimberley, Durban, and Cape Town) strategically selected across the country. According to the study, the optimum azimuth for both the evacuated tube and flat plate SWH system in South Africa is 0 degrees. Installing FPC and EPC at the different locations would yield payback periods of 3.2 to 4.4 years and 3.5 to 4.3 years, respectively. Comparably, levelized cost of energy for the FPC and EPC will range from 7.47 to 9.62 cents/kWh and 7.66 to 9.24 cents/kWh, respectively, based on where the SWH system is located. Depending on where the facility is located, the annual cost savings for the FPC system would be between $486 and $625, while the EPC system would save between $529 and $638. Using SWHs can reduce CO2 emissions by 75-77% for the evacuated tube system and 69-76% for the flat plate system annually, depending on the location.

  • 7.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Estimating atmosphere parameters in hyperspectral data2010Inngår i: Proc. SPIE 7695, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XVI / [ed] Sylvia S. Shen, Paul E. Lewis, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, s. Art.nr. 7695-82-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating atmosphere parameters (temperature, water vapour content) from data captured by an airborne thermal hyperspectral imager, and propose a method based on direct optimization. The method also involves the estimation of object parameters (temperature and emissivity) under the restriction that the emissivity is constant for all wavelengths. Certain sensor parameters can be estimated as well in the same process. The method is analyzed with respect to sensitivity to noise and number of spectral bands. Simulations with synthetic signatures are performed to validate the analysis, showing that estimation can be performed with as few as 10-20 spectral bands at moderate noise levels. More than 20 bands does not improvethe estimates. The proposedmethod is alsoextended to incorporateadditionalknowledge,for examplemeasurements ofatmospheric parameters and sensor noise.

  • 8.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    et al.
    Department of IR Systems, Division of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Renhorn, Ingmar
    Department of IR Systems, Division of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping, Sweden.
    An information-theoretic approach to band selection2005Inngår i: Proc. SPIE 5811, Targets and Backgrounds XI: Characterization and Representation / [ed] Wendell R. Watkins; Dieter Clement; William R. Reynolds, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2005, s. 15-23Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When we digitize data from a hyperspectral imager, we do so in three dimensions; the radiometric dimension, the spectral dimension, and the spatial dimension(s). The output can be regarded as a random variable taking values from a discrete alphabet, thus allowing simple estimation of the variable’s entropy, i.e., its information content. By modeling the target/background state as a binary random variable and the corresponding measured spectra as a function thereof, wecan compute theinformation capacity ofa certainsensoror sensor configuration. This can be used as a measure of the separability of the two classes, and also gives a bound on the sensor’s performance. Changing the parameters of the digitizing process, bascially how many bits and bands to spend, will affect the information capacity, and we can thus try to find parameters where as few bits/bands as possible gives us as good class separability as possible. The parameters to be optimized in this way (and with respect to the chosen target and background) are spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution, i.e., which spectral bands to use and how to quantize them. In this paper, we focus on the band selection problem, describe an initial approach, and show early results of target/background separation.

  • 9.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Arif, Muhammad Salman
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Cheema, Izzat Iqbal
    Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan; Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Masroor Ahmed
    United Nations Ind Dev Org, Pakistan.
    Drivers and Barriers for Efficient Energy Management Practices in Energy-Intensive Industries: A Case-Study of Iron and Steel Sector2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 18, artikkel-id 7703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major reasons behind the worlds energy crisis are losses in energy transmission and less efficient energy use at sinks. The former flaw can be catered by changing the entire energy transmission system which requires investment and planning on a large scale, whereas the later deficiency can be overcome through proper management of energy utilizing systems. Energy-intensive industries have a substantial share in energy consumption and equally high energy saving potentials if they adopt some integrated and improved energy efficiency. This study investigates the energy management systems in the iron and steel sector of Pakistan, and compare it with findings of similar work in Sweden, Bangladesh, and Ghana. A systematic questionnaire was circulated in the iron and steel sector across the country and afterward the collected data was analyzed to find major barriers and drivers for efficient energy management practices. In addition, questions on non-energy benefits and information sources relevant to the energy efficiency were also part of the questionnaire. Cost reduction resulting from lowered energy use was rated as the most important driver for applying energy-efficient operation. On the other hand, the cost of production disruption was considered among high-level barriers to the implementation of improved energy efficiency. An increase in the life-time of equipment was labeled as the top non-energy benefits. Company peers and seminars/conferences were referred as the best information sources related to energy efficiency. The outcome of the study will be helpful to the decision-maker in the industry, as well as the government levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Aiastui, Xabier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Towards more efficient industrial lighting: Literature review on energy efficiency improvement of industrial lighting2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis work is aimed to investigate the possibilities of achieving more efficient industrial lighting. The study is divided in four parts: 1) Industrial lighting energy efficiency measures, 2) Added value of lighting, 3) Drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures, and 4) Applications of AI in industrial lighting.The first part of the study explores various energy efficiency measures that could be applied in industrial lighting. The results show that using energy-efficient lighting fixtures, optimizing lighting controls, and adopting smart lighting solutions that integrate daylight in the illumination strategy and design are the most effective measures for reducing energy consumption and increasing efficiency.In the second part, the study examines the added values or non-energy benefitsof efficient industrial lighting. The findings indicate that apart from cost savings, efficient lighting leads to improvements on the quality of work environments, enhances workers health and safety conditions and improves environmental performance. Moreover, the study suggests that in many cases, the added values of lighting are not given the importance they should have and are not considered when an energy efficiency investment is planned to be done.The third part of the study identifies the drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures in industrial settings. The study found that factors such as cost and energy savings, energy efficiency regulations are the main drivers for implementing efficient lighting solutions. However, barriers such as lack of awareness, perceived high initial costs, technology adoption and insufficient government incentives are the main obstacles to adoption.Finally, the study investigates the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in industrial lighting. The results show that AI-based solutions, such as predictive maintenance and intelligent lighting control could significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce maintenance costs. Moreover, AI can bring the work environment to another level by the application of human centred and personalized lighting.Overall, this master thesis work provides valuable insights into achieving more efficient industrial lighting by highlighting effective energy efficiency measures, identifying the added value of efficient lighting, and examining the drivers and barriers to adoption. Moreover, the study sheds light on the potential of AI in industrial lighting and its potential benefits and future challenges.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Aid, Graham
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

    Delarbeid
    1. Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, s. 85-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

    Emneord
    Circular economy, Industrial symbiosis, Recycling, Business development, Green innovation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137456 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.04.007 (DOI)000403860200009 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-16 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-08-07
    2. Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Open Waste Management Journal, E-ISSN 1876-4002, Vol. 9, s. 11-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known that our common resources are limited and that recycling is key for a sustainable future; inreality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless numbers ofexamples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials.This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction to explore why it’s so difficult establishlarge scale secondary stock extraction although suitable technologies are available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways forreducing some of the main barriers presented.

    Emneord
    Circular economy, Economy, Recycling, Resources, Sustainability
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137459 (URN)10.2174/1876400201609010011 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-16 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2023-11-01
    3. Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 328-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137462 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.012 (DOI)000356194300033 ()2-s2.0-84929966422 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    QC 20150713

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-13 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-16bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 2229-2246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can be used to produce energy carriers, chemicals, and materials of value. This article explores how automated data analysis approaches can help in analyzing large bodies of text to distill and present potential value pathways for secondary (waste) bio-based materials. The study employed multiple methods (literature collection, topic modelling, and co-occurrence analysis) on a collection of abstracts from 53,292 academic articles covering technologies, applications, and products (TAPs) for bio-based wastes. The results of both the topic modelling and co-occurrence analysis are presented as online interactive web pages. The topic modelling presented an overview of research clusters related to secondary organic resources, processes, and disciplines. The co-occurrence analysis helped to understand which TAPs are researched in relation to a broad spectrum of organic wastes. Co-occurrences were evaluated using the Normalized Pointwise Mutual Information measure to locate terms which co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Through the use of detailed lists of organic wastes and TAPs, the co-occurrence method mapped out 7118 unique intersections between 473 specific wastes and 228 TAPs. This technique enables us to find seemingly non-obvious valorization pathways such as the re-use of oyster shells as catalysts for bio-diesel production and bioplastic production from brewery waste. While a proof-of-concept, this work points the way for using Big Data to suggest novel pathways for implementing the Circular Economy.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2017
    Emneord
    By-product, Waste valorization, Circular economy, Recycling, Industrial symbiosis, Big Data
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138067 (URN)10.1007/s12649-017-9975-0 (DOI)000411975600001 ()2-s2.0-85020108904 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-06-08 Laget: 2017-06-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012 / [ed] M. Arm, C. Vandecasteele, J. Heynen, P. Suer and B. Lind, Swedish Geotechnical Institute , 2012, s. 1-9Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009 until 2011 project BRA (Bygg-och Rivningsavfall i Stockholms Län) “Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Stockholm County” was coordinated from the division of Industrial Ecology, KTH. This project was focused on actively improving (from plural perspectives) the cycles of C&D (specifically non-metallic inert) materials in the region. In response to the normative aim and inter-systems complexity, a highly participative action research procedure was adopted. Through processes of network communication, workshops, a course, and an international symposium - a number of issues (such as market development, recycled product quality, greenhouse gas impacts, collaborative planning, and statistics) were prioritized, researched, and acted upon. Indicators for measuring progress in selected areas were developed and preliminary action plans created. At a final co-organized symposium Swedish delegates laid the groundwork for the establishment of a Swedish C&D recycling b ranch organization. This initiative of continued collaboration between and within sectors is seen as a vehicle for the priorities and action requirements identified in BRA to be further enabled and held in focus. Furthermore, these actors taking ownership of the process is seen as a success in accordance to the original aims and the need for further cycles of evaluation, planning, and action.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 2012
    Emneord
    by-product, recycling, synergy, industrial ecology, facilitation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137463 (URN)
    Konferanse
    WASCON 2012 – towards effective, durable and sustainable production and use of alternative materials in construction. 8th International conference on sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012
    Merknad

    QC 20130522

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-20 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-16bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation
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  • 12.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, s. 85-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 13.
    Aidantausta, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Asman, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Land Use/Land Cover Classification From Satellite Remote Sensing Images Over Urban Areas in Sweden: An Investigative Multiclass, Multimodal and Spectral Transformation, Deep Learning Semantic Image Segmentation Study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Remote Sensing (RS) technology provides valuable information about Earth by enabling an overview of the planet from above, making it a much-needed resource for many applications. Given the abundance of RS data and continued urbanisation, there is a need for efficient approaches to leverage RS data and its unique characteristics for the assessment and management of urban areas. Consequently, employing Deep Learning (DL) for RS applications has attracted much attention over the past few years. In this thesis, novel datasets consisting of satellite RS images over urban areas in Sweden were compiled from Sentinel-2 multispectral, Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Urban Atlas 2018 Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) data. Then, DL was applied for multiband and multiclass semantic image segmentation of LULC. The contributions of complementary spectral, temporal and SAR data and spectral indices to LULC classification performance compared to using only Sentinel-2 data with red, green and blue spectral bands were investigated by implementing DL models based on the fully convolutional network-based architecture, U-Net, and performing data fusion. Promising results were achieved with 25 possible LULC classes. Furthermore, almost all DL models at an overall model level and all DL models at an individual class level for most LULC classes benefited from complementary satellite RS data with varying degrees of classification improvement. Additionally, practical knowledge and insights were gained from evaluating the results and are presented regarding satellite RS data characteristics and semantic segmentation of LULC in urban areas. The obtained results are helpful for practitioners and researchers applying or intending to apply DL for semantic segmentation of LULC in general and specifically in Swedish urban environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    LULC_classification_satellite_remote_sensing
  • 14.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

    Delarbeid
    1. Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 174-185Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128741 (URN)10.1039/c5mh00261c (DOI)000375296600002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-31 Laget: 2016-05-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30
    2. Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, nr 24, s. 12927-12937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120069 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00788g (DOI)000356022800044 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-06 Laget: 2015-07-06 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
    3. High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 1838-1847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable organic electrode materials for energy storage applications is an urgent task. We present a promising candidate based on the use of lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. This polymer is combined with a conducting polymer, where lignin as a polyanion can behave both as a dopant and surfactant. The synthesis of PEDOT/Lig biocomposites by both oxidative chemical and electrochemical polymerization of EDOT in the presence of lignin sulfonate is presented. The characterization of PEDOT/Lig was performed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. PEDOT doped with lignin doubles the specific capacitance (170.4 F g(-1)) compared to reference PEDOT electrodes (80.4 F g(-1)). The enhanced energy storage performance is a consequence of the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin, which give rise to faradaic reactions. Furthermore PEDOT/Lig is a highly stable biocomposite, retaining about 83% of its electroactivity after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. These results illustrate that the redox doping strategy is a facile and straightforward approach to improve the electroactive performance of PEDOT.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125323 (URN)10.1039/c5ta10096h (DOI)000368839200035 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Power Papers project from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance (NA); European Research Council by Starting Grant Innovative Polymers for Energy Storage (iPes) [306250]; Basque Government

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-02-23 Laget: 2016-02-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30
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  • 15.
    Alamerew, Yohannes A.
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brissaud, Daniel
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    A Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Product-Level Circularity Strategies2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, SUSTAINABILITY, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id 5129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy (CE) can drive sustainability. For companies to select and implement circularity strategies, they need to evaluate and compare the performance of these strategies both in terms of progress towards CE but also based on their feasibility and business outcomes. However, evaluation methods for circularity strategies at the product level are lacking. Therefore, this research proposes a multi-criteria evaluation method of circularity strategies at the product level which can be used by business decision-makers to evaluate and compare the initial business of the company, transformative and future circularity strategies. This multi-criteria evaluation method aims to assist business decision-makers to identify a preferred strategy by linking together a wide variety of criteria, i.e., environmental, economic, social, legislative, technical, and business, as well as by proposing relevant indicators that take into consideration, where possible, the life cycle perspective. It also allows for flexibility so that criteria, sub-criteria, and weighing factors can be altered by the business decision-makers to fit the needs of their specific case or product. Two illustrative examples based on case companies are presented to verify and illustrate the proposed method.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Almgren, Richard
    et al.
    Green Business AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Skobelev, Dmitry
    Research Institute “Environmental Industrial Policy Centre”, Moscow, Russia.
    Evolution of Technology and Technology Governance2020Inngår i: Journal of Open Innovation, ISSN 2199-8531, Vol. 6, nr 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the concept of Kondratiev’s technological waves as an analytical instrument for examining the processes of technological evolution. It aims at setting feasible indicators for this evolutionary development in order to provide a regulatory instrument for policy makers. In order to do so, the authors analyze approaches used for resource efficiency improvement in several European countries (i.e., implementation of Best Available Techniques, BAT). They emphasize that in Russia, the BAT concept is seen primarily as an industrial policy instrument. While BAT-based legislation is enforced by the environmental authorities, technological innovations making it possible to achieve performance better than that required by BAT are supported by the industrial development authorities. In the conclusions, the authors state that BAT-based solutions could be used as drivers for developing and implementing new technological solutions (innovations) and should become the basis for working out state industrial and environmental policies. The results of policies currently being developed will be assessed by the end of 2024.

  • 17.
    Almoosawi, Somar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet.
    Product Related Research Regarding Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, in Hong Kong and South China, Environmental Management Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research was set out to understand the underlying causes for the lack of knowledgeregarding the environmental field in Hong Kong and South China and get a basic view of thedifficulties Environmental Management Systems (EMS) encounter when being put intopractice. Interviews and factory visits were used to collect data needed to build this report.The interviews had the aim to understand how companies in Hong Kong and China managetheir environmental related work. An EMS is a set of processes and practices that enable anorganization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency, buthow was the use of such systems affecting the environmental work in reality.A total of eight persons from six different companies were interviewed. With the aim tounderstand how EMS were implemented and used from their point of view. The maindifficulty for the companies asked was the task of understanding and documenting theprocesses of ones own company. With differences such as language, culture, etc present thereis a need for a mutual ground. In the environmental field EMS are used as the commonground. Western companies are, because of the use of EMS, able to attain a picture of theenvironmental work and processes of their industrial partners in the China and Hong Kong.The result of this research shows that there still are many obstacles, for environmentalmanagement systems used by SME, left to address. There are cultural as well asinfrastructural problems that need to be addressed. It is therefore important to alter EMS inco ordinance with the Chinese social environment that it will be used in.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger en kortfattad översikt och syntes av tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultat från verksamheten i konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem inom forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Tonvikten ligger på tiden från forskarskolans start 1997 till dess 15-årsjubileum 2012, men hänvisningar görs även till forskning publicerad därefter. Utgångspunkten har varit att lyfta fram det tvärvetenskapliga inom forskningen för att visa hur forskarskolan har bidragit till tvärvetenskaplig kunskaps- och metodutveckling.

    I rapporten ges en översikt över fallstudier och avhandlingar inom konsortiet och de tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultaten sammanfattas inom tre huvudsakliga tematiska områden: (1) Passivhus: boende och energieffektiva byggnadstekniker,

    (2) Energieffektivisering: processer och aktörer, samt (3) Energianvändning, vardagsaktiviteter och småskalig solenergi i hushåll. Tvärvetenskapliga metoder och resultat sammanfattas och utvecklingen av samarbeten och angreppssätt beskrivs. Rapporten avslutas med några sammanfattande reflektioner kring hur framgångsrik tvärvetenskaplig forskning bör bedrivas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem
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  • 19.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en omfattande publicering från Program Energisystem. Förutom 78 doktorsavhandlingar och 16 licentiatavhandlingar så har forskarstuderande och seniorer publicerat ytterligare minst 500 publikationer inom ramen för Program Energisystem.

    I denna rapport förtecknas dessa publikationer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem
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  • 20.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem har med sina fem deltagande forskningsavdelningar från Chalmers tekniska högskola, Linköpings universitet, KTH och Uppsala universitet varit banbrytande inom tvärvetenskaplig energisystemforskning och dess tre konsortier har spelat en viktig roll för forskarskolans utveckling. Konsortierna är inriktade på byggnader i energisystem, industriella energisystem samt lokala och regionala energisystem. I varje konsortium har doktorander och seniorer från minst två av de deltagande avdelningarna bedrivit tvärvetenskaplig forskning.

    I det lokala och regionala konsortiet har forskningsfrågorna kretsat kring aktörer och processer av betydelse för energisystemen i svenska kommuner, län och regioner. Inom konsortiet har frågeställningar om miljömässigt, socialt och ekonomiskt hållbara lokala och regionala energisystem bland annat studerats genom att analysera aktörers agerande och politiska processer inom de tekniska, ekonomiska och institutionella villkor som utgör begränsningar och möjligheter för energisystemen. En tydlig trend inom konsortiets forskning under forskarskolans arton år är att inriktningen gått i riktning från lokal till regional och från stationära till mobila energisystem. Den förskjutningen följer också den ökande betydelse som regioner i form av länsstyrelser har fått för samordningen av energi- och klimatplaneringen i Sverige under det senaste decenniet. Kommunerna har fortfarande en dominerande position genom den energirelaterade infrastruktur som de förfogar över men en förskjutning mot ett mer regionalt inflytande är tydlig.

    Totalt har 26 doktors- och en licentiatexamen avlagts av konsortiets doktorander och dessa alumner är nu verksamma inom energirelaterade verksamheter Sverige. Den främsta representationen finns inom myndigheter och akademier.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem
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  • 21.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idén att samhällsvetenskaplig och teknisk energisystemforskning måste vävas samman för att utveckla ny kunskap och få ökad samhällsnytta var utgångspunkt när Program Energisystem startade år 1997.

    Program Energisystem identifierade tidigt kärnvärden som visades vara viktiga framgångsfaktorer:

    • Energisystem med tyngdpunkt på användarsidan
    • Tvärvetenskaplig, universitets- och fakultetsöverskridande
    • forskning och forskarutbildning
    • Sammanhållen forskarskola
    • Finansiering av hela doktorandprojekt
    • Samarbeten i tematiska forskningsområden
    • Kontinuerlig tvärvetenskaplig utveckling
    • Långsiktig finansiering av samordningsstruktur

    Program Energisystems arbete har kännetecknats av:

    • Val av samhällsrelevanta projekt av hög vetenskaplig kvalitet
    • Gemensamma tvärvetenskapliga kurser och projektarbeten
    • Tvärvetenskaplig handledning
    • Kontinuerligt arbetande fora för diskussion
    • och kontakter över ämnesgränser
    • Forskningssamarbeten mellan seniorer i olika ämnen
    • Aktivt doktorand- och alumninätverk

    Forskarutbildningens målsättning har varit att utbilda bättre samhällsvetare

    och bättre ingenjörer, inte att göra samhällsvetare av ingenjörerna eller ingenjörer

    av samhällsvetarna.

    I den kontinuerliga utvecklingen av Program Energisystem har ett förtroendefullt samarbete utvecklats som möjliggjort kontinuerliga förbättringar av forskningen och forskarutbildningen.

    Arvet från Program Energisystem har förts vidare i den nya Forskarskola Energisystem. Forskarskola Energisystem har en delvis annan struktur men bygger innehållsmässigt vidare på centrala idéer från Program Energisystem. Det finns ett fortsatt stort behov av tvärvetenskaplig kunskapsutveckling på energiområdet som främst handlar om att förstå komplicerade samband och processer och hur dessa kan påverkas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport
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  • 22.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna syntesrapport är en sammanfattning och analys av den forskning som bedrivits inom ramen för det Industriella konsortiet från år 1997 (konsortiets verksamhet startade 1999) inom ramen för forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Under denna tid har 25 doktorsavhandlingar och en licentiatavhandling producerats inom det Industriella konsortiet. Avhandlingarna sammanfattas och analyseras i denna syntesrapport och arbetet avgränsas då till att studera avhandlingarnas Problemområde, Verktyg/Metod/Teori, Systemgräns, studerad Sektor och Övergripande resultat. Vidare ges, med utgångspunkt från dessa forskningsresultat, förslag på fortsatt forskning för hållbara och effektiva energisystem.

    Många viktiga problemområden har studerats inom ramen för forskarskolans Industrikonsortium. Ett flertal avhandlingar behandlar möjligheter att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser från industrin och här har flera sektorer studerats, bland annat massa- och pappersindustrin, järn- och stålindustrin, kemiindustrin och oljeraffinaderiindustrin. Ett centralt tema i avhandlingarna är potentialer för energieffektivisering i industrisektorn, inte minst vid införande av bioraffinaderikoncept i framtiden. Här analyseras t.ex. tekniska potentialer, kostnadseffektivitet för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder, samt betydelsen av energiledning och styrmedel.

    I avhandlingarna har en mängd olika metoder och verktyg använts. Den i särklass mest använda vetenskapliga metoden är intervjuer (15) följt av scenarioanalys (10), dokumentstudier (9), simuleringsberäkningar (9), pinchanalys (9) och optimering (8). Fallstudiemetodik där mer än en metod används för att studera ett specifikt fall, t.ex. ett företag, förekommer i flera avhandlingar. En grundtanke i forskarskolan Program Energisystem har varit att forskaren måste vara medveten om att resultat från energisystemanalyser kan påverkas av vilka systemgränser som valts. I flertalet av Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar har Europas elsystem utgjort systemgräns då effekter av förändrad elanvändning eller elproduktion analyserats.

    Industrikonsortiets forskningsresultat visar på många intressanta slutsatser. Det påvisas att det finns energieffektiviseringspotentialer både i nya investeringar och i energiledningsåtgärder, som att justera driftsbetingelser för befintlig teknisk utrustning och ändra beteenden. Det konstateras också att energisamarbeten mellan industri och energibolag med syfte att öka användningen av industriell överskottsvärme i många fall är en hållbar lösning som minskar regioners behov av primärenergi och reducerar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Hinder mot sådana samarbeten kan vara att detta inte är en del av industrins kärnverksamhet. Det konstateras även att energisamarbeten mellan närliggande anläggningar i ett industrikluster kan leda till avsevärt större energieffektiviseringspotentialer än om var och en av de ingående industrierna arbetar enbart med interna åtgärder. Hinder mot denna typ av samarbete är brist på etablerade affärsmodeller. Forskningen visar på ett behov av fortsatta studier kring begreppet kärnverksamhet och dess påverkan på energifrågan i svensk industrin. Avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) från industrin har studerats och här konstateras att denna lösning inte är ekonomiskt lönsam med dagens förutsättningar. Det rekommenderas därför att framtida forskning bedrivs för att studera vilka styrmedel som skulle behövas för att CCS ska bli ekonomiskt intressant för industrin. En annan viktig fråga är hur energitjänsteföretag ska formulera affärsmodeller och strategier kring CCS, samt hur de kan samarbeta med industrin för att på affärsmässiga grunder få till stånd CO2– avskiljning, transport och lagring. Även framtida forskning kring styrmedel, t.ex. energitjänster, för ökad energieffektivitet i industrisektorn förordas. Resultat från Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar visar att processintegrationsverktyget pinchanalys kan kombineras med optimeringsverktyg (i detta fall MIND) vid analys av industriella energisystem. Denna metodkombination ger intressanta resultat varför fortsatt forskning förordas kring kombinationer av olika processintegrationsmetoder. I flertalet avhandlingar har företagsdata använts som indata vid exempelvis modellering och processintegrationsstudier. Detta har accentuerat behovet av ett standardiserat protokoll vid insamling av företagsdata. Ett sådant protokoll kan öka reliabiliteten på indata och förslagsvis användas vid fallstudier.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att trots närmare 20 års tvärvetenskaplig forskning mellan samhällsvetare och teknikvetenskaperna finns det fortfarande mycket mer att beforska och utveckla.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem
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  • 23.
    Alvi, Naveed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    ul Hassan, Waheed
    Bahauddin Zakariya Univ, Pakistan.
    Zhou, Guofu
    South China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Notzel, Richard
    South China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Unassisted water splitting with 9.3% efficiency by a single quantum nanostructure photoelectrode2019Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, nr 36, s. 19650-19657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To split water and produce hydrogen by white light is an excellent solution for the storage and supply of clean and sustainable energy. Efficiency and stability are the key challenges for a successful exploitation. InGaN, evaluated against other semiconductors, metal oxides, carbon based - and organic materials has most suited intrinsic materials properties. Based on this optimum materials choice we report photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation under white light illumination by an InGaN-based quantum nanostructure photoelectrode. No degradation occurs for operation over 10 h. Our novel concept, combining quantum nanostructure physics with electrochemistry and catalysis leads to almost 10% efficiency at zero external voltage. The efficiency rises above 25% at 0.2 V. This is unmatched for a single photoelectrode, representing the most advanced technology of low complexity. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Alvors, Per
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Arnell, Jenny
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Division,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelse, Kristian
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kemisk Teknologi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Skolan för kemivetenskap, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Energi och miljö/Energiteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, Krister
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Biokemi och Strukturbiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Öhrman, Olof
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use.

    Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology.

    In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study.

    We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose.

    From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

    Three important results from the lignocellulosic ethanol study are: (i) the production systems could be far more complex and intelligently designed than previous studies show, (ii) the potential improvements consist of a large number of combinations of process integration options wich partly depends on specific local conditions, (iii) the environmental performance of individual systems may vary significantly due to systems design and local conditons.

    From the case study on gasification of solid biomass for the production of biomethane we find that one of the main advantages of this technology is its high efficiency in respect to converting biomass into fuels for transport. For future research we see a need for improvements within the gas up-grading section, including gas cleaning and gas conditioning, to obtain a more efficient process. A major challenge is to remove the tar before the methanation reaction.

    Three important results from the biomethane study are: (i) it is important not to crack the methane already produced in the syngas, which indicates a need for improved catalysts for selective tar cracking, (ii) there is a need for new gas separation techniques to facilitate the use of air oxidation agent instead of oxygen in the gasifier, and (iii) there is a need for testing the integrated process under realistic conditions, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions.

    From the case study on black liquor gasification for the production of DME we find that the process has many advantages compared to other biofuel production options, such as the fact that black liquor is already partially processed and exists in a pumpable, liquid form, and that the process is pressurised and tightly integrated with the pulp mill, which enhances fuel production efficiency. However, to achieve commercial status, some challenges still remain, such as demonstrating that materials and plant equipment meet the high availability required when scaling up to industrial size in the pulp mill, and also proving that the plant can operate according to calculated heat and material balances. Three important results from the DME study are: (i) that modern chemical pulp mills, having a potential surplus of energy, could become important suppliers of renewable fuels for transport, (ii) there is a need to demonstrate that renewable DME/methanol will be proven to function in large scale, and (iii) there is still potential for technology improvements and enhanced energy integration.

    Although quantitative improvement potentials are given in the three biofuel production cases, it is not obvious how these potentials would affect WTT values, since the biofuel production processes are complex and changing one parameter impacts other parameters. The improvement potentials are therefore discussed qualitatively. From the entire study we have come to agree on the following common conclusions: (i) research and development in Sweden within the three studied 2G biofuel production technologies is extensive, (ii) in general, the processes, within the three cases, work well at pilot and demonstration scale and are now in a phase to be proven in large scale, (iii) there is still room for improvement although some processes have been known for decades, (iv) the biofuel production processes are complex and site specific and process improvements need to be seen and judged from a broad systems perspective (both within the production plant as well as in the entire well-to-tank perspective), and (v) the three studied biofuel production systems are complementary technologies. Futher, the process of conducting this study is worth mentioning as a result itself, i.e. that many different actors within the field have proven their ability and willingness to contribute to a common report, and that the cooperation climate was very positive and bodes well for possible future collaboration within the framework of the f3 center.

    Finally, judging from the political ambitions it is clear that the demand for renewable fuels will significantly increase during the coming decade. This will most likely result in opportunities for a range of biofuel options. The studied biofuel options all represent 2G biofuels and they can all be part of the solution to meet the increased renewable fuel demand.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses
  • 25.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 572-606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 26.
    Amars, Latif
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Independent Climate Researcher, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Hagemann, Markus
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Röser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    The transformational potential of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Tanzania: assessing the concept’s cultural legitimacy among stakeholders in the solar energy sector2017Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 86-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While energy-sector emissions remain the biggest source of climate change, many least-developed countries still invest in fossil-fuel development paths. These countries generally have high levels of fossil fuel technology lock-in and low capacities to change, making the shift to sustainable energy difficult. Tanzania, a telling example, is projected to triple fossil-fuel power production in the next decade. This article assesses the potential to use internationally supported Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to develop solar energy in Tanzania and contribute to transformational change of the electricity supply system. By assessing the cultural legitimacy of NAMAs among key stakeholders in the solar energy sector, we analyse the conditions for successful uptake of the concept in (1) national political thought and institutional frameworks and (2) the solar energy niche. Interview data are analysed from a multi-level perspective on transition, focusing on its cultural dimension. Several framings undermining legitimacy are articulated, such as attaching low-actor credibility to responsible agencies and the concept’s poor fit with political priorities. Actors that discern opportunities for NAMAs could, however, draw on a framing of high commensurability between experienced social needs and opportunities to use NAMAs to address them through climate compatible development. This legitimises NAMAs and could challenge opposing framings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, s. 866-877Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWhia, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by -2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental management systems and environmental performance2007Inngår i: Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems / [ed] Robert Sroufe and Joseph Sarkis, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2007, s. 242-257Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMSs) are tools that can be used to steer and controlan organisation’s environmental efforts. This chapter focuses on standardisedEMSs, those that deal with fulfilling the requirements of the international standard ISO14001 (ISO 1996) and/or the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) (EC 2001).These standardised EMSs have been applied for about a decade; the number of organisationsthat are certified in accordance with them worldwide is steadily rising and nowhas reached over 100,000 (ISO World 2007).Early EMS work focused on issues relating to implementation. Often, positive environmentaleffects were taken for granted. More recently, however, questions addressingthe effects of standardised EMSs have become more popular in the research literature.The extent and types of effects of a standardised system are critical issues from anenvironmental perspective. The information presented within this chapter will helpuncover and capture some of the nuances of the connection between EMSs and environmentalperformance. Important lessons learned as a result of this study include arelative lack of understanding of EMSs even after more than a decade of practical application.Additional insights include the extent to which EMSs are useful tools in achievingbetter organisational environmental conditions and identification of the importantfactors influencing the effectiveness and efficiency of such systems. While the focus ofthis chapter is on the use of standardised EMSs to reduce environmental impacts, themethods used in this study build on the author’s findings from several earlier studies—a meta-analytic perspective—and are summarised where appropriate. Some key strategicEMS issues addressed here include:

    ● Environmental aspects, their identification, formulation and assessment

    ● The scope of EMSs, including their relationship with product development

    ● Environmental policy, targets and objectives

    ● External environmental auditing

    ● Continual improvement in environmental performance

    ● EMSs and the supply chain

  • 29.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljömanagement: miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i företag och andra organisationer2012 (oppl. 2 [rev.])Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger läsaren kunskap om viktiga förutsättningar när det gällerföretags, och andra typer av organisationers, arbete med miljö- och hållbar utveckling. Det gäller både förutsättningar utanför och inom organisationer. Boken behandlar även relevanta strategier, metoder och koncept inom området.

    I den första delen – Omvärlden – behandlas områden som främst påverkar företag och andra typer av organisationer utifrån. Inledningsvis beskrivs exempelvis miljöproblematiken och ”hållbar utveckling”. Därefter behandlas miljöpolitik, miljölagstiftning, de ekonomiska systemen samt etiska frågor.

    I den andra delen – Hållbarhetsstrategiskt arbete med fokus på miljö – behandlas delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet som ofta berör hela organisationen. Först introduceras intressentperspektivet och därefter grunderna avseende strategiskt arbete. Vidare finns en kort introduktion till organisationsteori med en beskrivning av hur miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete kan organiseras och genomföras. Därefter följer två kapitel om ledningssystem, först ges en allmän introduktion för flera olika områden och sedan en mer ingående beskrivning. Den andra delen avslutas med ett kapitel om miljöarbete i olika typer av organisationer.

    I bokens tredje del – Viktiga delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet – berörs andra ”områden” i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet, som kan vara mycket viktiga men ofta inte är lika övergripande. Det innefattar miljörevision; miljöarbete med fokus på produkter; miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar; riskhantering; samt marknadsföring och extern kommunikation.

    Boken är i första hand skriven för kurser i miljömanagement eller miljöledning vid högskolor och universitet, men kan också användas för utbildningar på företag och inom andra typer av organisationer.

  • 30.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biogas in the transport sector: Actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, s. 70-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This articlefocuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions.Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essentialrole, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning sociotechnicalsystems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation andsigns of stagnating development.Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procuresbiogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedaviasteers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”.There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due tosuggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comesabout. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-freevehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance,but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policylandscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behindthe decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union andSweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 33.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Bohn, Irene
    Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole, Denmark.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Systematic assessment of feedstock for an expanded biogas production: A multi-criteria approach2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions can contribute to more renewable and local energy systems, and also involve other essential aspects such as nutrient recycling. From a theoretical feedstock perspective there is a great biogas potential in Sweden, but the development has been relatively slow as many biogas producers face challenges of different types. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) is of strategic importance. Within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), hosted by Linköping University in Sweden, a research project focused on feedstock has been ongoing for several years. It has involved researchers, biogas and biofertilizer producers, agricultural organizations and others. The main aim has been to develop a method to assess the suitability of feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production, and to apply this method on a few selected feedstocks. A multi-criteria method has been developed that covers potential, feasibility and resource efficiency, operationalized via 17 indicators directed towards cost efficiency, technological feasibility, energy and environmental performance, accessibility, competition, policy and other issues. Thus the method it is relatively comprehensive, yet hopefully simple enough to be used by practitioners.

    The main ambition, applying the method, has been to collect and structure relevant information to facilitate strategic overviews, communication and informed decision making. This is relevant for development within the biogas and biofertilizer industry, for policymakers, to define and prioritize among essential research projects, etc. This report presents some essential parts of this project, focusing on the multi-criteria method and results regarding ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels and food waste (and stickleback to some extent). It clarifies how the method can be applied and highlights barriers, drivers and opportunities for each feedstock. Comparisons are also made. The results indicate that biogas production from food waste and ley crops is the most straightforward, and for straw and farmed blue mussels there are more obstacles to overcome. For all of them, the dynamic and very uncertain policy landscape is a barrier. In the final chapter, some conclusions about the method and its application are drawn.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgren, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainability Assessment of Public Transport, Part I-A Multi-Criteria Assessment Method to Compare Different Bus Technologies2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikkel-id 825Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article departs from the perspective of Swedish regional transport authorities and focuses on the public procurement of bus transports. Many of these public organizations on the county level have the ambition to contribute to a transition involving the continued marginalization of fossil fuels and improved sustainability performance. However, there are several renewable bus technologies to choose between and it can be difficult to know what alternative (or combination) is preferable. Prior research and the authors experiences indicate a need for improved knowledge and supportive methods on how sustainability assessments can support public procurement processes. The purpose of this article is to develop a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method to support assessments of public bus technologies sustainability. The method, which was established in an iterative and participatory process, consists of four key areas and 12 indicators. The article introduces the problem context and reviews selected prior research of relevance dealing with green or sustainable public procurement and sustainability assessments. Further on, the process and MCA method are presented and discussed based on advice for effective and efficient sustainability assessments. In the companion article (Part II), the MCA method is applied to assess several bus technologies involving biodiesel, biomethane, diesel, electricity, ethanol and natural gas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, s. 388-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 36.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    O’Shea, Richard
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Gray, Nathan
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    NORSUS, Norwegian Research Institute for Sustainability Research.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Murphy, Jerry D.
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Perspectives on biomethane as a transport fuel within acircular economy, energy, and environmental system2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature indicates that the life cycle costs of biomethane fueled light vehicles may be 15 to 20% highe rthan for similar petrol and diesel fueled vehicles, while liquid biomethane fueled heavy duty trucks may have similar life cycle costs to diesel. However, such an analysis can be two dimensional and limited in the message it conveys. On one hand the acceptance of diesel fueled trucks and buses will be limited due to the climate emergency and air pollution and after 2030 diesel may not be the competition for biomethane anymore. On the otherhand, biomethane production is part of a larger circular economy, energy, and environmental system. It is verydifficult to divorce the energy vector, biomethane, from the system through which it is produced. In essence biomethane can be considered as one of the products or services of a broad biogas system.

    An advantage of biogas is that it can be produced from most wet organic wastes or by-products, includingfor food waste, animal by-products, (such as manure), agricultural residues, sewage sludge, industrial biowaste (such as from slaughterhouses and food and beverage processing industries). Biogas production is an element in the environmental management of such wastes; biogas plants can also deliver digestate, which contains most ofthe nutrients in the feedstock and can be an excellent biofertilizer. In addition, it is possible to utilize the carbon dioxide removed in upgrading biogas to biomethane as a product with added value. The resource of biomethane is very significant in considering the vast amounts of organic wastes landfilled around the world each year, that instead could be used to produce biogas, biofertilizers and food grade CO2 while improving the environment through reduced fugitive methane emissions and improved water quality. Furthermore, the application of biogas systems in bio-industrial contexts (such as paper mills, food production facilities, or other types of biorefineries) has huge potential to decarbonize industry while significantly increasing the resource of biomethane. Due to the multifunctionality of biomethane solutions, broad assessment methods are needed to grasp thewide spectrum of relevant factors when comparing different technologies:

    • Biomethane has a competitive performance compared with fossil fuels and other biofuels on a whole lifecycle analysis and is particularly suited to long distance heavy vehicles.

    • Biomethane from manure, residues, waste & catch crops is estimated to have low GHG emissions ascompared to other renewable fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to reduced air pollution in comparison with diesel, petrol, and other biofuels.• Biomethane can contribute to a substantial reduction in acidification compared with fossil fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to significantly reduced noise levels in comparison with diesel heavy goodsvehicles.

    • Well-designed and applied biogas systems may be essential to transform conventional farming to moresustainable farming and to organic farming.

    • Common types of biogas solutions provide essential sociotechnical systems services as components ofsystems for waste and (waste) water management.

    • Biogas solutions may importantly contribute to improved energy supply/security and flexibility.

    Natural gas systems should be a facilitator of the introduction of biomethane for transport, but the sustainability problems associated with natural gas negatively impact the view of biomethane. This is where arguments amongst the renewable sector actors can hinder progress. Biomethane and (power to methane) can utilize the existing gas grid and accelerate progress to decarbonization of the overall energy sector beyond just electricity and also to decarbonize chemical (such as ammonia and methanol) and steel production. This should be advantageous especially when realizing that more energy is procured from the natural gas grid than the electricity gridin the EU and the US; however, suggestions that biomethane is only greenwashing the natural gas industry, and in doing so extending the lifetime of natural gas, greatly impedes this progress.

    This report provides exemplars of very good biomethane based transport solutions, with a high technologicalreadiness level for all elements of the chain from production to vehicles. Transport biomethane sits well in the broad circular economy, energy, and environmental system providing services across a range of sectors including reduction in fugitive methane emissions from slurries, treatment of residues, environmental protection, provision of biofertiliser, provision of food grade CO2 and a fuel readily available for long distance heavy haulage. What we do not have is time to postpone the sustainable implementation of such circular economy biomethane systems as the climate emergency will not wait for absolutely perfect zero emission solutions; should they exist.

  • 37.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöteknik: För en hållbar utveckling2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, OlofLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2023Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utmaningarna inom miljöområdet är stora och inte minst industrin arbetar intensivt med sin omställning för att både minska sin negativa miljöpåverkan och ta fram lösningar som bidrar till ett gott liv för alla. Boken behandlar möjligheterna att vända miljöproblem till möjligheter genom miljöteknik...[Bokinfo]

  • 39.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina
    Univ Fed Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Wilson, Alan E.
    Auburn Univ, AL 36849 USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Pathways to Increase Biogas Production in the Textile Industry2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 15, artikkel-id 5574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry is one of the largest environmental polluters in the world. Although waste management via anaerobic digestion (AD) is a sustainable strategy to transform waste into clean energy and water recovery, the efficiency of the AD process is reduced by the presence of recalcitrant materials, chemicals, and toxic contents. This study aims to investigate the performance of several chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments applied to improve the biodegradability of textile waste. We performed a meta-analysis with 117 data extracted from 13 published articles that evaluated the efficiency of pretreatments applied to textile waste prior to AD to increase biogas production measured as methane (CH4) yield. Even though the majority of the studies have focused on the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments, our results showed that the application of biological pretreatments are more efficient and eco-friendlier. Biological pretreatments can increase CH4 yield by up to 360% with lower environmental risk and lower operating costs, while producing clean energy and a cleaner waste stream. Biological pretreatments also avoid the addition of chemicals and favor the reuse of textile wastewater, decreasing the current demand for clean water and increasing resource circularity in the textile industry.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Helena Rodrigues
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Diniz, Vinicius Lacerda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Boosting manure biogas production with the application of pretreatments: A meta-analysis2022Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 362, artikkel-id 132292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a versatile manure management approach that can combine waste treatment, energy generation and nutrient recovery, thus playing a central role in circular economy. The AD process is highly influenced by manure composition which, depending on the source, may contain high loads recalcitrant materials (e.g., lignocellulosic and fibers) or lead to the formation of toxic compounds (e.g., NH3), decreasing the energetic potential of the waste and requiring specific pretreatments to increase its degradability and biogas production. Although there are distinctions in the chemical composition of manure according to animal diets, different manure sources are usually grouped together, leading to a suboptimal performance of both the pretreatment and the AD process. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 54 studies to evaluate the effects of different pretreatments on different manure types and their effect on methane (CH4) yield and we estimated the energy potential if the appropriate pretreatment is applied to largest manure producing countries. The results showed that chemical and/or biological pretreatments were more effective for omnivore manure (e.g., swine, chicken), while physical and a combination of chemical and physical pretreatments negatively affected CH4 production. Physical and/or chemical pretreatments had a positive effect on CH4 yield from herbivore manure (e. g., cattle, horses), while biological pretreatments had a negative effect. The application of the adequate pretreatment can more than double the energy recovered from manure, allowing for an important substitution of fossil fuels, while decreasing operational costs and environmental risks and ultimately improving profitability. The development of pretreatment technologies and their application are strongly related to public policies for sustainable manure management and biogas use and production.

  • 41.
    Ananno, Anan Ashrabi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Masud, Mahadi Hasan
    RMIT Univ, Australia; Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Sami Ahbab
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Dabnichki, Peter
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Ahmed, Nufile
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Arefin, Amit Md. Estiaque
    Texas Tech Univ, TX 79409 USA.
    Sustainable food waste management model for Bangladesh2021Inngår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 27, s. 35-51Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive food waste (nearly 1.3 billion tons per annum) has exacerbated the world hunger crisis. This comprehensive review focuses on the food waste scenario, adverse effects, food waste management, existing waste management policies, and regulations in Bangladesh. Municipalities and urban centers generate 3.78 million tons of waste each year (15.96% of total food waste). This study utilized the national database to analyze food waste generation and projected growth by the year 2050. Yearly an estimated 17215.2 thousand acres of land and a significant amount of natural resources (water, energy) are being used to produce 23691.15 thousand tons of wasted food (45% of total food production). This study critically analyzed the waste management policy gap of Bangladesh and clearly identified each stage of the food loss production supply chain. The study assessed that yearly 481.6 MW energy could be generated from food waste. Focusing on effective policy and sustainability, a national food waste management model has been proposed for Bangladesh in compliance with sustainable development goals 12.3.1 global food loss. Food accumulates 16.7% to 20% of the world economy; therefore, any measures taken to reduce the food waste will be economically beneficial and environmentally sustainable. (C) 2020 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Ananno, Anan Ashrabi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktrealisering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Masud, Mahadi Hasan
    RMIT Univ, Australia; Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Dabnichki, Peter
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Mahjabeen, Mosarrat
    Shaheed Suhrawardy Med Coll, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Sami Ahbab
    Rajshahi Univ Engn & Technol, Bangladesh.
    Survey and analysis of consumers behaviour for electronic waste management in Bangladesh2021Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 282, artikkel-id 111943Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to establish consumers perception of electric waste recycling and management on a national scale in Bangladesh. The attitude, willingness to pay (WTP) and consumers behaviour were explored by conducting a questionnaire-based survey. The conclusions are based on 915 valid responses out of 2000 online survey invitations. Interestingly, 37.9% of the respondents indicated that they would accept to pay for electronic waste recycling. Analysis also shows that the preferred WTP would cover 5-10% of the recycling cost. Factors like environmental awareness, monthly income, and education level affect the consumers WTP. Nevertheless, most of the participants believe that the Government should share the recycling cost. The study suggests that e-waste recycling can be stimulated by promoting environmental awareness, educating the public about the benefits of recycling e-waste, and making e-waste recycling more convenient. However, additional measures will likely be needed to tackle the e-waste problem. Thus, support for environmental education is imperative in order to promote environmental awareness and increase the WTP of consumers. The study outlines key characteristics of consumer-focused e-waste management archetypes and proposes an effective road map for Bangladesh.

  • 43. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enabling industrial energy benchmarking: Process-level energy end-use, key performance indicators, and efficiency potential2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest challenges of our time is global climate change. A key strategy for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is the improvement of energy efficiency. Manufacturing industry stands for a large share of global energy end-use but has yet to achieve its full energy efficiency potential. A barrier to untapping this potential is the lack of detailed data on industrial energy end-use at the process level, preventing the development of sound, bottom-up energy key performance indicators (KPIs). This hampers the ability to create a profound strategy for improving industrial energy efficiency because it is not known in which end-use processes the largest energy efficiency potential is to be found. Increasing knowledge about energy end-use at the process level also increases the possibility for energy comparisons, i.e. benchmarking, at the process level.

    This thesis aimed to investigate how to further enable industrial energy benchmarking at the process level, primarily for the pulp and paper and wood industries. Relevant benchmarking requires that data on energy end-use is collected using a common, harmonized categorization of processes and that joint energy KPIs are applied. Therefore, suggestions for standardized categorizations of end-use processes were investigated for the studied industries.

    Based on the calculations, and under the assumptions made in this thesis for estimating the energy efficiency potential of end-use processes, diversity was found between industries around which type of processes have the largest efficiency potential. It also emerged that, due to the lack of detailed data about energy end-use and lack of information about energy efficiency measures, processes accounting for a significant share of the energy efficiency potential in the wood industry risk being overlooked. It is not certain that current energy policies are sufficient to reach the full potential identified. The lack of information about energy end-use and energy efficiency measures implies that neither industrial actors nor policy-makers are able to develop thorough energy strategies or roadmaps for improved energy efficiency.

    While the outcomes of this thesis show that a large share of Swedish pulp and paper mills carry out energy benchmarking to some degree, energy managers emphasized that benchmarking in this particular industry is difficult because it requires a deep understanding of the industry’s heterogenous and integrated processes. This thesis proposes a widened perspective on energy benchmarking and its role in industrial energy management; namely, also considering the process of how energy KPIs are implemented within in-house energy management. A process that enhances energy management includes the continuous monitoring, visualization, and revision of KPIs. In this thesis, a method is developed that encourages the bottom-up implementation of energy KPIs in the pulp and paper industry, which further enables industrial energy benchmarking.

    Delarbeid
    1. Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 883-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147376 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.027 (DOI)000428826300080 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-18 Laget: 2018-05-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-08-20
    2. Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, s. 165-177Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Emneord
    Energy end-use; Conservation supply curves; Energy efficiency; Industrial energy efficiency; Energy efficiency measures
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151181 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.037 (DOI)000440966900013 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]; Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-17 Laget: 2018-09-17 Sist oppdatert: 2020-10-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: eceee 2018 Industrial Summer Study proceedings: Industrial Efficiency 2018: Leading the low-carbon transition, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018, s. 313-322Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018
    Serie
    eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 20118
    Emneord
    energy management, non-energy benefits (NEBs), benchmarking, pulp and paper industry, energy performance benchmarking
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156296 (URN)978-91-983878-3-4 (ISBN)978-91-983878-2-7 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    ECEEE Industrial Summer Study – Leading the low-carbon transition, Berlin, June 11-13
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-11 Laget: 2019-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-12-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, s. 229-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
    Emneord
    Key performance indicators; Energy management; Energy efficiency; Pulp and paper; Pulp and paper industry
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157558 (URN)10.1016/j.esr.2019.03.004 (DOI)000466911300017 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-22 Laget: 2019-06-22 Sist oppdatert: 2020-08-20
    5. Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 187, artikkel-id 115919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most crucial actions for mitigating climate change. The lack of knowledge regarding energy end-use makes it difficult for companies to know in which processes the highest energy efficiency potential is located. Using a case study design, the paper provides a taxonomy for energy end-use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a process and energy carrier level. It can be seen that drying of wood is the largest energy using and GHG emitting process in the studied companies. The paper also investigates applied and potentially viable energy key performance indicators (KPIs). Suggestions for improving energy KPIs within the wood industry include separating figures for different wood varieties and different end-products and distinguishing between different drying kiln technologies. Finally, the paper presents the major energy saving and carbon mitigating measures by constructing conservation supply curves and marginal abatement cost curves. The energy saving potential found in the studied companies indicates that significant improvements might be achieved throughout the Swedish wood industry. Even though the scope of this paper is the Swedish wood industry, several of the findings are likely to be relevant in other countries with a prominent wood industry.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2019
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160259 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.115919 (DOI)000496334500068 ()2-s2.0-85071357226 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management [802-0082-17]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-09-13 Laget: 2019-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2021-12-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 44.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, s. 2133-2139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 883-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dernegård, Henric
    HOLMEN Teknik, SE-114 84, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Decarbonization of industry: Implementation of energy performance indicators for successful energy management practices in kraft pulp mills2021Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, s. 1808-1817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management is the most prominent means of improving energy efficiency, and improved energy efficiency constitutes the cornerstone in decarbonization. For successful industrial energy management, defining accurate energy performance indicators (EnPIs) is essential. Energy-intensive industries have previously been found to have an improvement potential regarding the current monitoring of EnPIs, especially at process level. While general models for developing and implementing EnPIs exist, manufacturing industries are diverse in terms of their production processes, which is why industry-tailored models for EnPI development are needed. One major outcome of this paper is a unique model specifically tailored for kraft pulp mills. The model derives from a practice-based approach for EnPI development, building on real-life experiences from a Swedish group of companies. This paper’s developed model, and the validation of the EnPIs, further increase the understanding of the kraft pulp industry’s processes and how to apply descriptive and explanatory indicators. The developed model can potentially be generalized to other sectors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, s. 165-177Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019Inngår i: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, s. 229-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Andersson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustainable waste management. This study aims to identify the major waste streams of recyclable waste and also the major stakeholders that are active in this area through an exploratory study involving interviews, a workshop and a survey. The result of this thesis can hopefully assist in the preparations for such a transfer station. The conclusions of this study are many and contains of both hard facts and also loose ends that can contribute to pursue further studies. The first important result is that all the waste collection companies transports everything they collects to a landfill and it is only recycling organizations that are working with collection and recycling in Gaborone. These recycling organizations are a few but smaller compared to the waste collection companies in collected amounts of material. Besides these collection organizations, Gaborone City Council, the local municipality works with collection of household waste and the collaboration between these three groups that operates in the same environment is very poor. All the interviewed stakeholders showed a positive interest in the transfer and recycling station but there is only a small part of the commercial business in Gaborone that believes in a more serious waste management than landfilling. Despite that one major shopping mall actually sort out recyclables and saves 30% in waste management costs thanks to that. Another issue is the prevailing cultural contradictions that is obvious among the organizations in Gaborone. The last two bigger issues is the tremendously dull political bureaucracy that is appearing in Botswana and also that voices are raised that corruption is great beneath the surface.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana
  • 50.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Abrahamsson Bolstad, Maja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity between Solar and Wind Power: A Case Study on a Swedish Regional Grid2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for electrical power is growing due to factors such as population growth, urbanisation, and the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. To be able to keep up with the changes in electricity demand, the Swedish power grid must connect more renewable power generation, but also  increase its transmission capacity. Traditionally, power grids are expanded to increase the transmission capacity which requires a lot of time and investments. In order not to hinder the electrification of society, it is important to adequately estimate the current transmission capacity and plan the expansions accordingly. In the past, the generation of electrical power was primarily based on dispatchable energy sources, and the planning of new connections to the grid was assessed according to the stable and controllable nature of the electricity supply. However, renewable sources like solar and wind power are affected by weather variations. Therefore, the traditional methods of planning the power grid are no longer sufficient. Instead, there is a need to develop and implement new methods that account for the variable nature of renewable energy sources, and also the possible complementarity between different renewable power sources. This can possibly allow more connection of renewable power generation to the grid, without the need of expanding it.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate two different methods for analysing how much renewable power generation that can be connected to the power grid, so-called hosting capacity methods. The first method is a deterministic method which is traditionally used in power system analyses since it is a fast, simple and conservative method. This method does neither consider the intermittent nature of solar and wind power, nor any complementarity. The second method is a time series method which considers the complementarity and intermittency of solar and wind power but requires much data. The methods are compared in regards to assessed hosting capacities, risks and reliability of results.

    The study is performed on a regional grid case in the middle of Sweden. Solar and wind power plants with different capacities are modeled at ten buses in the power grid. The power grid is analysed in PSS/E with loading of lines and voltage levels determining the assessed hosting capacities. A correlation map presenting the temporal correlations of solar and wind power over the grid case area is also created in order to evaluate the complementarity in the area and its possible effects on the assessed hosting capacities. 

    The results show that the time series method is more reliable than the deterministic method. This is due to the difficulties in identifying accurate worst case hours that are used for the deterministic method. The time series method is also preferred as it considers complementarity between solar and wind power. However, the correlation map argues that the grid case area has weakly positive correlations, meaning low complementarity between solar and wind power. This suggests that the differences in hosting capacity between the two methods are more likely dependent on the temporal variations in existing load and power generation. The differences in assessed hosting capacity between the ten buses in the power grid are probably not due to the local complementarity either, but rather the structural differences of the grid in terms of components, local loads and existing power generation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity
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