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  • 1.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

    List of papers
    1. Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    2016 (English)In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 174-185Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128741 (URN)10.1039/c5mh00261c (DOI)000375296600002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30
    2. Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 24, p. 12927-12937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2015
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120069 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00788g (DOI)000356022800044 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1838-1847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable organic electrode materials for energy storage applications is an urgent task. We present a promising candidate based on the use of lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. This polymer is combined with a conducting polymer, where lignin as a polyanion can behave both as a dopant and surfactant. The synthesis of PEDOT/Lig biocomposites by both oxidative chemical and electrochemical polymerization of EDOT in the presence of lignin sulfonate is presented. The characterization of PEDOT/Lig was performed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. PEDOT doped with lignin doubles the specific capacitance (170.4 F g(-1)) compared to reference PEDOT electrodes (80.4 F g(-1)). The enhanced energy storage performance is a consequence of the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin, which give rise to faradaic reactions. Furthermore PEDOT/Lig is a highly stable biocomposite, retaining about 83% of its electroactivity after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. These results illustrate that the redox doping strategy is a facile and straightforward approach to improve the electroactive performance of PEDOT.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125323 (URN)10.1039/c5ta10096h (DOI)000368839200035 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Power Papers project from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance (NA); European Research Council by Starting Grant Innovative Polymers for Energy Storage (iPes) [306250]; Basque Government

    Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
  • 2.
    Alvors, Per
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Arnell, Jenny
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Division,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelse, Kristian
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kemisk Teknologi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Skolan för kemivetenskap, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Energi och miljö/Energiteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, Krister
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Biokemi och Strukturbiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Öhrman, Olof
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use.

    Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology.

    In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study.

    We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose.

    From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

    Three important results from the lignocellulosic ethanol study are: (i) the production systems could be far more complex and intelligently designed than previous studies show, (ii) the potential improvements consist of a large number of combinations of process integration options wich partly depends on specific local conditions, (iii) the environmental performance of individual systems may vary significantly due to systems design and local conditons.

    From the case study on gasification of solid biomass for the production of biomethane we find that one of the main advantages of this technology is its high efficiency in respect to converting biomass into fuels for transport. For future research we see a need for improvements within the gas up-grading section, including gas cleaning and gas conditioning, to obtain a more efficient process. A major challenge is to remove the tar before the methanation reaction.

    Three important results from the biomethane study are: (i) it is important not to crack the methane already produced in the syngas, which indicates a need for improved catalysts for selective tar cracking, (ii) there is a need for new gas separation techniques to facilitate the use of air oxidation agent instead of oxygen in the gasifier, and (iii) there is a need for testing the integrated process under realistic conditions, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions.

    From the case study on black liquor gasification for the production of DME we find that the process has many advantages compared to other biofuel production options, such as the fact that black liquor is already partially processed and exists in a pumpable, liquid form, and that the process is pressurised and tightly integrated with the pulp mill, which enhances fuel production efficiency. However, to achieve commercial status, some challenges still remain, such as demonstrating that materials and plant equipment meet the high availability required when scaling up to industrial size in the pulp mill, and also proving that the plant can operate according to calculated heat and material balances. Three important results from the DME study are: (i) that modern chemical pulp mills, having a potential surplus of energy, could become important suppliers of renewable fuels for transport, (ii) there is a need to demonstrate that renewable DME/methanol will be proven to function in large scale, and (iii) there is still potential for technology improvements and enhanced energy integration.

    Although quantitative improvement potentials are given in the three biofuel production cases, it is not obvious how these potentials would affect WTT values, since the biofuel production processes are complex and changing one parameter impacts other parameters. The improvement potentials are therefore discussed qualitatively. From the entire study we have come to agree on the following common conclusions: (i) research and development in Sweden within the three studied 2G biofuel production technologies is extensive, (ii) in general, the processes, within the three cases, work well at pilot and demonstration scale and are now in a phase to be proven in large scale, (iii) there is still room for improvement although some processes have been known for decades, (iv) the biofuel production processes are complex and site specific and process improvements need to be seen and judged from a broad systems perspective (both within the production plant as well as in the entire well-to-tank perspective), and (v) the three studied biofuel production systems are complementary technologies. Futher, the process of conducting this study is worth mentioning as a result itself, i.e. that many different actors within the field have proven their ability and willingness to contribute to a common report, and that the cooperation climate was very positive and bodes well for possible future collaboration within the framework of the f3 center.

    Finally, judging from the political ambitions it is clear that the demand for renewable fuels will significantly increase during the coming decade. This will most likely result in opportunities for a range of biofuel options. The studied biofuel options all represent 2G biofuels and they can all be part of the solution to meet the increased renewable fuel demand.

  • 3.
    Amars, Latif
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Independent Climate Researcher, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mathias, Fridahl
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Hagemann, Markus
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Röser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    The transformational potential of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Tanzania: assessing the concept’s cultural legitimacy among stakeholders in the solar energy sector2016In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 86-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While energy-sector emissions remain the biggest source of climate change, many least-developed countries still invest in fossil-fuel development paths. These countries generally have high levels of fossil fuel technology lock-in and low capacities to change, making the shift to sustainable energy difficult. Tanzania, a telling example, is projected to triple fossil-fuel power production in the next decade. This article assesses the potential to use internationally supported Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to develop solar energy in Tanzania and contribute to transformational change of the electricity supply system. By assessing the cultural legitimacy of NAMAs among key stakeholders in the solar energy sector, we analyse the conditions for successful uptake of the concept in (1) national political thought and institutional frameworks and (2) the solar energy niche. Interview data are analysed from a multi-level perspective on transition, focusing on its cultural dimension. Several framings undermining legitimacy are articulated, such as attaching low-actor credibility to responsible agencies and the concept’s poor fit with political priorities. Actors that discern opportunities for NAMAs could, however, draw on a framing of high commensurability between experienced social needs and opportunities to use NAMAs to address them through climate compatible development. This legitimises NAMAs and could challenge opposing framings.

  • 4.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, p. 866-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWhia, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by -2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2133-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-12 17:53
  • 6.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems2015Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Galis, Vasilis
    IT University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (Re-)constructing nuclear waste management in Sweden: the involvement of concerned groups2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 241-283Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate change and the convergence between ENGOs and business2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping Unversity , 2015, p. 285-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 11.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

    List of papers
    1. Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86546 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.042 (DOI)000312620000042 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    2011 (English)In: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, p. 649-656Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011
    Keyword
    Energy efficiency, Energy Service, ESCO, Energy Efficiency Gap
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71759 (URN)978-91-633-4455-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2011 Summer Study Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, Belambra Presqu’île de Giens, France, 6–11 June 2011
    Available from: 2011-11-10 Created: 2011-11-03 Last updated: 2014-11-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    2015 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112267 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.068 (DOI)000351788700005 ()
    Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112268 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-20 Created: 2014-11-20 Last updated: 2015-01-30Bibliographically approved
    5. Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    2013 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2013
    Keyword
    ESCO, Energy services, Barriers to energy efficiency, Energy efficiency, Trust
    National Category
    Economics Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87148 (URN)10.1007/s12053-012-9189-z (DOI)000321437000006 ()
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11
  • 12.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Swedish environmental protection agency.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Energy service collaborations: it is a question of trust2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 149-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy services in Swedish industrial firms: A multidisciplinary analysis of an emerging market2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European commission highlight the energy service market as an important means to improve energy efficiency. Both the Energy service directive and the new suggested Energy Efficiency Directive urge member states to facilitate market development for energy services. The industrial sector is estimated to have large energy efficiency potential. The aim of this multidisciplinary report is to investigate the state of the Swedish energy service market 2011, both from the supply side and from the industrial demand side in order to contribute with knowledge to the discussion of energy services as a way to improve industrial energy efficiency. Economic market theory and Socio-technical theory (the theory of economization presented by Caliskan and Callon) is used to analyse different aspects of the emerging market. The results show that the market for industrial energy services in Sweden is more extensive than previous reports have assessed. Our study describes how energy service collaborations can be complex and how calculations and measurements of expected energy savings lead to controversies and power imbalances.

  • 14.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

  • 15.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

  • 16.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 17.
    Backman, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises-A Case Study of a Local Energy Program2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro-and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro-and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities), split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments), and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill). This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project "Energy-Driven Business". Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

  • 18.
    Balke, Nina
    et al.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Bonnell, Dawn
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Ginger, David S.
    University of Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Scanning probes for new energy materials: Probing local structure and function2012In: MRS bulletin, ISSN 0883-7694, E-ISSN 1938-1425, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 633-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and control of materials properties, often at the nanoscale, are the foundation of many new strategies for energy generation, storage, and efficiency. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has evolved into a very large toolbox for the characterization of properties spanning size scales from hundreds of microns to nanometers. Recent advances in SPM involve properties and size scales of precise relevance to energy-related materials, as presented in this issue. These advances are put into the general context of energy research, and the general principles are summarized.

  • 19.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 106, p. 547-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 non-traditional RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that although environmental concerns, technology interest, access to a base resource and prospects to make money are important motives in general, RET adopters is a heterogeneous group with regard to motives: there are many different motives to adopt RETs, adopters differ in how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power) and between adopter categories (especially IPPs vs. individuals and diversified companies). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-15 12:11
  • 20.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of optical constants and phase transition temperatures in polymer fullerene thin films for polymer solar cells2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic photovoltaics combining semiconducting polymers with fullerene derivatives have the potentialto become the first cost efficient solar cells able to compete with fossil fuels. The maximum powerconversion efficiency is already 8.3%[1] , and new polymers arrive frequently in the search for efficienciesof 10%. As a first step in the screening of candidate materials, the optical constants of the purepolymer as well as the polymer blend with fullerenes are determined from Variable Angle SpectroscopicEllipsometry (VASE), using Tauc-Lorentz oscillator models, throughout the solar spectrum. Thesemodels are then used to predict the upper limits to photocurrent generation in devices, in transfermatrix simulations of the multilayer thin film photovoltaic devices. This forms an essential step in thechoice of materials for optimization in devices.Materials optics measurements are also used to deduce the phase diagram of polymer and polymerblend films. The glass transition temperature is very important for plastic solar cells and mustbe higher than the 80C a device can reach to avoid degradation during operation. Temperaturedependent ellipsometric measurements has proven to be a feasible way to determine phase transitionsin polymer thin films[2] . These transitions are displayed as a sudden change of the volumetricexpansion coefficient, and are manifested by an abrupt increase of thickness at the phase transitiontemperature. For thickness determination a Cauchy model is applied to the transparent infrared partof the spectra.References1. Z. He, C. Zhong, X. Huang, W-Y. Wong, H. Wu, L. Chen, S. Su, Y Cao, Advanced Materials 23, 4636(2011)2. M. Campoy-Quiles, P.G. Etchegoin, D.D.C. Bradley, Synthetic Metals 155, 279(2005)

  • 21.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid progress of organic photovoltaic devices during the last decade, with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 8%, has brought the technology close to an industrial breakthrough. For polymer solar cells, roll to roll printing is desired to gain the production advantage. The formation of the photoactive material from solutions needs to be controlled and optimized. Therefore a suitable method to monitor the deposition process is needed as deviations of drying times1 and drying rates2 during the coating process have proven to generate morphology variations causing variations in photocurrent generation.

    Here we demonstrate how reflectance imaging can be used to monitor the drying process, both for spin coating and blade coating deposition. A blue LED is used as light source to generate specular reflections imaged by a CMOS camera. The thinning of the wet film can then be observed by thin film interference, and can be recorded for each pixel. This enables an estimation of the evaporation rate for each pixel mapped over the substrate. For spin coating the evaporation rate is shown to increase with the distance from the rotation center, whereas the air flow is the determining parameter during blade coating. By mapping the times when interference ceases, lateral variations in drying time are visualized. Furthermore the quenching of polymer photoluminescence during the drying process can be visualized, thus creating a possibility to estimate morphological variations. Moreover lateral thickness variations of the dry film can be visualized by scanning ellipsometry. After depositing a top electrode photocurrent images can be generated by a laser scanning method. This allows for a direct comparison of drying conditions and photocurrent generation.  The possibility to monitor the thin film formation as well as lateral variations in thickness in-situ by a non-invasive method, is an important step for future large scale applications where stable high performing generating morphologies have to be formed over large areas.

    1Schmidt-Hansberg, B.; Sanyal, M.; Klein, M.F.G.; Pfaff, M.; Schnabel, N.; Jaiser, S.; Vorobiev, A.; Müller, E.; Colsmann, A.; Scharfer, P.; Gerthsen, D.; Lemmer, U.; Barrena, E.; and Schabel, W., ACS Nano 5 , 2011, 8579-8590

    2 Hou, L.; Wang, E.; Bergqvist, J.; Andersson, V.B.; Wang, Z.; Müller, C.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Andersson, M.R.; Zhang, F.; Inganäs, O.,Adv. Func. Mat. 21 , 2011, 3169–3175

  • 23.
    Björkman, Thomas
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Cooremans, Catherine
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Management: a driver to sustainable behavioural change in companies2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in mitigating climate change. One of the foremost means to improve energy efficiency in industry is energy management. A pioneer European policy program including energy management system components was the Swedish PFE, a voluntary long-term agreement programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industries, which was under operation from 2004 to 2014.The aim of this paper is to analyse the results of the 2004-2014 PFE using an interdisciplinary approach combining experience from this program with academic concepts in the field of change management and investment decision-making. Results show how academic conceptual frameworks in the field of change management and investment behaviour in industry can explain PFE results and, more generally, support improved policy evaluation further explaining voluntary agreement programs such as the PFE. Finally, we formulate future research suggestions to improve industrial energy policy conception and evaluation.

  • 24.
    Broberg, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kartläggning och utvärdering av svenska energinätverk: Företagsnätverk och samarbeten inriktade på energi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial energy use causes carbon emissions that contribute to climate change. Simultaneously within EU and Sweden a competitive industry is pursued. In the aim to achieve both aspects energy efficiency and a reduced energy use is advocated for companies. Although energy efficiency often is cost-effective there exists an energy efficiency gap where cost-effective measures remain unimplemented for different reasons. Energy efficiency networks can in this case be a potential approach for increasing the degree of implementation, resulting in energy efficiency and company development. Financial support is already given from EU and Sweden that could lead to energy efficiency networks, for both small and medium-sized enterprises as well as for large enterprises.

    There exist numerous projects variations in energy efficiency networks with different structures and designs. The knowledge of these networks aimed towards energy efficiency and energy use is very limited. The aim of this work is therefore to identify Swedish energy efficiency networks in order to determine whether they work well by evaluating them from a public perspective.

    To identify energy efficiency networks documents where collected and interviews were held in which random selection was allowed in the form of snowball method. An underlying study has previously been carried out in which a number of networks was identified, which are integrated as a part of the work identification. Overall, this resulted in the identification of 35 different networks projects, which may consist of a single network, multiple networks or stages of a single network. The identified energy networks are divided by larger networks and other networks that have been split into four general networks forms cluster, industrial districts, regional strategic networks and strategic networks as well as alternative network forms for the networks that could not be associated.

    An evaluation has been performed on the underlying policy instrument “Application for financial support to information, education and collaborative projects 2013-2014” which stated that the support allows a wide range of energy efficiency networks and cannot be seen as a particular ruling in the design and implementation of an energy efficiency network. Furthermore it is recommended that a separation is made for collaborative projects in the form of energy efficiency networks in the support system since it would likely lead to more target and specific energy efficiency networks with clearer objectives and follow up. This would still allow a very large variety of network constructions.

    Energy efficiency networks with an efficient information and knowledge sharing has the potential to make enterprises more innovative. However, energy efficiency networks without an initial public financing does not seem to be initialized spontaneously in Sweden. Letters of intent or agreements in the strategic networks are believed to lead into reports with concrete results unlike for the regional strategic networks with no agreements.

    For the larger energy efficiency networks there is a point with being branch-specific because their energy use is more complex to audit. The other energy efficiency networks should instead find interested participants primarily. In combination with this, the participants should have the opportunity to meet and later on branch adapt if possible. This is because several network projects have stated problems with network formation that affects the projects. Furthermore, it appears that the creation of an efficient energy efficiency network sometimes is a maturation process in which several underlying projects can be a reason for an identified network project.

    Finally, we need further research on how the participating enterprises see energy efficiency networks as a supporting and developmental instrument.

  • 25.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    System studies of the use of industrial excess heat2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy, materials, and by-products, can be exchanged between companies, having positive effects in the form of improved resource efficiency, environmental benefits, and economic gains. One such energy stream that can be exchanged is excess heat, that is, heat generated as a by-product during, for example, industrial production. Excess heat will continue to play an important role in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve energy efficiency. Using excess heat is therefore currently emphasized in EU policy as a way to reach EU climate targets.

    This thesis examines the opportunities of manufacturing industries to use industrial excess heat, and how doing so can positively affect industry, society, and the climate. Since different parts of the energy system are entangled, there is an inherent complexity in studying these systems and introducing excess heat in one part of the energy system may influence other parts of the system. This analysis has accordingly been conducted by combining studies from various perspectives, by applying both quantitative and qualitative methods and covering a broad range of aspects, such as technical possibilities as well as climate, policy, economics, and resource aspects.

    The results identify several opportunities and benefits accruing from excess heat use. Although excess heat is currently partly used as a thermal resource in district heating in Sweden, this thesis demonstrates that significant untapped excess heat is still available. The mapping conducted in the appended studies identifies excess heat in different energy carriers, mainly low-temperature water. Analysis of excess heat use in different recovery options demonstrated greater output when using excess heat in district heating than electricity production. Optimizing the trade-offs in excess heat used in a district heating network, heat-driven cooling, and electricity production under different energy market conditions while minimizing the system cost, however, indicated that the attractiveness of excess heat in district heating depends on the type of heat production in the system. Viewing excess heat as a low-cost energy source also makes it economically interesting, and creates opportunities to invest in excess heat-recovery solutions. Excess heat is often viewed as CO2 neutral since unused excess heat may be regarded as wasted energy. The GHG mitigation potential of using excess heat, however, was found to be ambiguous. The appended studies demonstrate that using excess heat for electricity production or for applications that reduce the use of electricity reduces GHG emissions. The effects of using excess heat in district heating, on the other hand, depend on the energy market development, for example, the marginal electricity production and marginal use of biomass, and on the type of district heating system replaced. The interviews performed reveal that energy policy does influence excess heat use, being demonstrated both to promote and discourage excess heat use. Beyond national energy policies, internal goals and core values were identified as important for improved energy efficiency and increased excess heat use.

    List of papers
    1. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Industrial excess heat; Heat recovery; Electricity generation; District heating; CO2 emission; Energy market scenario
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102611 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.052 (DOI)000330494600041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
    2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The adopted energy efficiency directive stresses the use of excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy use. Use of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact on CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized by minimizing the system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that heat driven electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between use of recovered excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Excess heat; Waste heat; Energy systems modeling; CO2 emission reduction; Heat recovery
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120206 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.023 (DOI)000356745200019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-07-21 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
    2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 91, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Systems analysis; Biogas production; Industrial excess heat; Climate impact; Investment opportunity; Synergies
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114983 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.017 (DOI)000348887000025 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2015-03-10 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Algae; Biofuel; Biogas; Biodiesel; Biorefinery; Industrial excess heat
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113047 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.10.019 (DOI)000345349500011 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    5. Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
    2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

    Keyword
    Excess heat; District heating; Third party access (TPA)
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86547 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.031 (DOI)000312620000035 ()
    Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    6. Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
    2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

    Keyword
    Industrial excess heat, industrial waste heat, district heating, ENPAC, LCA, emission mitigation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118080 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.04.010 (DOI)000356750300009 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-05-21 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    7. Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
    2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The EU target on energy efficiency implies a 20 % reduction in the use of primary energy by implementation of energy efficiency measures. Not all potential cost-effective measures for improved energy efficiency are implemented. This energy efficiency gap is explained by market barriers. Policy instruments can be used to overcome these barriers. The target could, for example, be obtained through industrial excess heat recovery; but there is a knowledge gap on factors affecting excess heat utilization. In this study, interviews were carried out with energy managers in order to study excess heat utilization from industrys perspective. The study seeks to present how excess heat recovery can be promoted or discouraged through policy instruments, and several factors are raised in the paper. The interviews revealed that excess heat recovery is generally referred to in terms of heat deliveries to the district heating network. One may need to look for innovative recovery solutions, and policies are needed to bring these solutions into action. Due to inefficient conversion for heat-driven electricity generation, a system favoring this implementation could favor an inefficient system. Beyond external instruments, internal goals, visions, and the importance of energy as a priority were shown to be important in the work with improved energy management.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
    Keyword
    Industrial excess heat; Industrial waste heat; Energy efficiency; Energy policy; Heat recovery; Interviews
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114229 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9277-3 (DOI)000347554100002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • 26.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

  • 27.
    Carlén, Albin
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten.
    Rosenqvist, Marie
    Energimyndigheten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Municion, Susana
    CIT Industriell Energi AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy effiency networks for small and medium sized enterprises: bosting the energy efficiency potential by joining forces2016In: ECEEE Industry Summer Study 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small –and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) remain a cornerstone in individual economies. In terms of improved energy efficiency potentials, the relative potential for SMEs is larger than for energy-intensive companies. However, the level of deployment, due to various barriers such as lack of information and high transaction costs in general remains low among industrial SMEs. The most common policy activity towards industrial SMEs are energy audit policy programs. Deployment levels from the Swedish energy audit program is roughly 50 percent of the detected cost-effective energy efficiency measures, which goes in line with results from the world’s largest program, the American IAC (Industrial Assessment Center). In order to enhance deployment levels, the Swedish Energy Agency has recently started up a national energy efficiency network program for SMEs, funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The aim of this paper is to present an ex-ante evaluation of the Swedish energy efficiency networks (EENet). The paper adds value to the growing scientific literature on energy efficiency network policy evaluation in order to further enhance scientific knowledge on energy efficiency network operationalization and evaluation. Including costs for the program administration, the subsidy effectiveness varied between 1.75 and 2.03 kWh/SEK for the different analyzed scenarios. The outcome of the paper results was that the Swedish Energy Agency reduced threshold for participation in the EENet from 2 GWh/year to 1 GWh/year in annual energy use.

  • 28.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

  • 29.
    Ding, Huiping
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Hua
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable supply chain collaboration with outsourcing pollutant-reduction service in power industry2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries, coal power plants still play a major role in the power sector and they are considered as a major emission source of air pollution. Strict regulations have compelled the coal power plants to improve environmental performance by reducing carbon emissions and the emission of pollutants. However, due to cost disadvantages, the coal power plants often lack motivation to internalize environmental externalities through investing in green technology. This situation raises a question: is there any alternative to reduce pollutants in operations economically? With a focus on service supply as well as a consideration of government policies, this paper develops a model to investigate the opportunity of outsourcing a pollutant-reduction service to meet the environmental constraint. The service supply chain consists of a coal power plant (end user) and a pollutant-reduction service provider, with the former outsourcing the service to the latter. We study the policy for improving the profit of this service supply chain whereas the benefit allotment is adjusted through outsourcing price negotiation between the two partners. The results show that the green service outsourcing price is interrelated with the government incentive policy which defines the shares of the two partners. Our key contribution lies in integrating the complex factors affecting the supply chain collaboration such as green service, financial feasibility, environmental constraint, government policies, outsourcing price negotiation, and profit sharing. Our research findings have the following implications; considering environmental externalities, the government should motivate the collaboration between supply chain partners; the economic scale of output and sales price subsidy of electricity generation are the primary factors affecting the price of outsourcing green service and, consequently, the allotment of supply chain profits. The study results indicate the collaboration is potentially effective in improving environmental performance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Med gemensam kraft : för ett bekvämt vardagsliv med elsnåla och eleffektiva hushållsapparater: Slutrapport från projektet Elanvändning i hushåll – hinder och incitament att spara el2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har användningen av hushållsel i Sverige ökat kraftigt. Samtidigt tas larmen om energianvändningens negativa verkningar på jordens klimat på allt större allvar av politiker och andra beslutsfattare. Medlemmarna i FN, EU och andra internationella samarbetsorganisationer är överens om att användningen av energi i det globala samhället måste minska och bli effektivare för att klimatmålen ska nås. Därför står energieffektivisering och energisparande högt på den globala politiska agendan och stater förhandlar om vem som ska göra vad och hur mycket var och en ska betala. Oavsett hur dessa globala förhandlingar utfaller ska besluten omsättas till lagar och andra styrmedel i de enskilda länderna. Sedan vidtar det stora arbetet med att implementera styrmedlen så att medborgarnas handlingar och val i vardagslivet främjar energisparande och energieffektivitet. Stora satsningar har redan gjorts för att göra vitvaror, som tidigt identifierades som stora ”energitjuvar” i hushållen, mer energieffektiva, och hushållen har också visat sig vara energimedvetna och använder såväl tvätt- som diskmaskiner på ett energisnålt sätt.

    Mot den bakgrunden blir viktiga frågan: Hur kan den ökade elanvändningen i hushållssektorn förklaras? Det är också motivet till forskningsprojektet ”Elanvändning i hushåll – hinder och incitament att spara el”. När Energimyndigheten beslutade att genomföra en omfattande mätning av elanvändningen i 400 hushåll bestämdes också att ett par forskningsprojekt skulle genomföras för att komplettera elmätningarna och betrakta elförbrukningen utifrån användningen av elapparater i hushållens vardagsliv, så kallade ”beteendestudier”.1 Resultaten från elmätningarna visar hur mycket el som de mätta hushållsapparaterna använt under mätperioden, men de säger inget om varför de används. ”Beteendestudier” sätter sökljuset just på varför apparaterna används. Svaren bidrar till att förklara varför användningen av hushållsel ökar och hinder och incitament att spara el kan identifieras.

  • 31.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Widén, Joakim
    Department of engineering science, Uppsala University.
    VISUAL-TimePAcTS / energy use: a software application for visualizing energy use from activities performed2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 127-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy Integration for Sustainable Transport Development: Case Studies of Two Swedish Regions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that for the management of complex issues such as sustainability, which transcend traditional policy sectors and require coordination between several different interests and actors, policymaking depends upon collaboration and integration processes between different sectors and tiers of government. The overall aim of this thesis is therefore to study how and why (or why not) policy integration processes are being developed in regional policymaking and what this means for the achievement of sustainable transport. The thesis consists of two separate qualitative case studies of policymaking in two Swedish regions, one representing a least likely case and the other a most likely case of policy integration. The focus has been on the organizational actors involved in policymaking processes for the regional transport system. For the general discussion the theoretical framework of policy integration, complemented by the analytical concepts of policy logics, organizational identities and boundary object are used. The findings are presented in four articles. An overall conclusion is that policy integration processes do not necessarily result in policy for sustainable transport. If policy integration becomes a goal in itself and the same as joint policy, it risks neglecting sustainable values and becoming the smallest common denominator that a number of actors can agree on. For developing sustainable transport solutions, collaboration for the coordination of policy may be beneficial, but the aim of such processes should not be joint policy.

    List of papers
    1. Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    2015 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines backcasting and policy analysis to identify the opportunities for and barriers to the increased use of renewable energy and energy-efficient vehicles in an urban road transport system, namely, that of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2030. The combination of methods could bridge the implementation gap between scenario-based research and actual policy implementation and thus increase the chances of research being implemented in practice. In the case study, backcasting identifies a need for diverse fuels and vehicles and for immediate policy action. However, analysis of policy integration demonstrates that such action is unlikely given current policy structures. The fundamental lack of integration between energy and transport policy obstructs measures to increase the use of renewable fuels and more energy-efficient vehicles, which in turn obstructs the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport. The combination of backcasting and policy analysis is demonstrated to improve our understanding of the prerequisites for transitioning to a system based on renewable energy, and could thus be useful in further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Urban road transport, Renewable fuels, Energy efficiency, Transport policy, Energy policy, Scenario studies
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112506 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.10.014 (DOI)000347594100008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Policy integration between autonomous policy sectors is a tool for managing interdependent technical systems to avoid suboptimization. Biogas, regarded as a renewable energy carrier usable in the energy and transport systems, is produced from organic material such as municipal organic waste (MOW). It is connected to a number of systems and policy sectors, making biogas management an instructive case for studying policy integration processes. Swedish biogas production has increased in recent years, and in the Stockholm region there has been enormous interest in biogas production for vehicle use since the early 2000s. In this paper biogas will be discussed in the perspective that it is or has potential to be a vital part of three systems: waste, energy, and transportation. The aim is to analyse whether policy integration occurs between the systems and to explore if boundary objects can play a role when understanding policy integration processes. In examining the biogas development process, regional policy documents and interviews with stakeholders in the biogas process are used. The results indicate consensus among regional actors that biogas should be used in vehicles and that MOW should be collected for this purpose, indicating congruence of understanding of biogas. Biogas functions as a boundary object in these cases and contributes to high policy integration between the energy and waste systems. Despite consensus that biogas should be used in the transport system, there is little policy integration between the energy and transport sectors. The policy sectors of transport infrastructure and spatial planning are not concerned with fuel or biogas issues. Public transport policy focuses on the use of biogas for their vehicles, but even if biogas serves as a boundary object it is not developing into policy integration processes. The conclusion is that biogas development has resulted in integrated policymaking between the energy and waste sectors and biogas has served as a strong boundary object which has spurred that development. Between the energy and transport sectors there is little policy integration, and biogas is not a boundary object in the cases of transport infrastructure and spatial planning policy sectors. What this case shows is that if there is a lack of presence of a boundary object it suggests no preconditions for policy integration processes to start.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2015
    Keyword
    Transport system; Energy system; Policy integration; Boundary object; Regional policy
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120150 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.042 (DOI)000356194300019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. The Role of Organizational Identities for Policy Integration Processes: Managing Sustainable Transport Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Organizational Identities for Policy Integration Processes: Managing Sustainable Transport Development
    2017 (English)In: Public Organization Review, ISSN 1566-7170, E-ISSN 1573-7098, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 525-544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transport development is a complex, but necessary issue to manage if the use of fossil energy will decrease and transportation become more energy-efficient and environmental friendly. The contemporary public organization is organized into policy sectors and tiers of government, but the issue of sustainability is not confined to one single sector or level, it transcends all these traditional boundaries. To address this complexity policy integration has been suggested as a way for public organizations to open up the sectoral and vertical boundaries in policymaking. This paper discusses a case study of a political committee on the regional level in Sweden, which has been formed for integrated policymaking between sectors and local and regional authorities to manage sustainable transport development. The analysis of the case shows that vertical and sectoral integration are dependent processes and that the relation between different organizational identities either strengthens or undermine them. Vertical integration is not resulting in sectoral integration, rather it works prohibiting against sectoral integration

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2017
    Keyword
    Organizational identity; Policy integration; Regional governance; Sustainable transport policy; Sweden
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134659 (URN)10.1007/s11115-016-0348-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84973657481 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Toren, Johan
    RISE Research Institute Sweden, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy System Models as a Means of Visualising Barriers and Drivers of Forest-Based Biofuels: An Interview Study of Developers and Potential Users2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, what if...? questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

  • 34.
    Galis, Vasilis
    et al.
    IT University, Copenhagen.
    Gyberg, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Energy behaviour as a collectif: the case of Colonia: student dormitories at a swedish university2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 97-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division Heat and Power Technology, Gothenburg.
    Åsblad, Anders
    CIT Industriell Energi, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Luleå .
    Possibilities and problems in using exergy expressions in process integration2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1605-1612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy systems are complicated networks, where changes in one process influence its neighboring processes. Saving energy in one unit does not necessarily lead to energy savings for the total system. A study has been carried out on the possibility to use the exergy concept in the analysis of industrial energy systems. The exergy concept defines the quality of an amount of energy in relation to its surrounding, expressing the part that could be converted into work. The study consists of literature studies and general evaluations, an extensive case study and an interview study. In the latter it was found that non technical factors are major obstacles to the introduction of exergy.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Gavle Energi AB, Sweden; University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ronnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system - Case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants. This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gavle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump. The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production. The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gavle. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thygesen, Richard
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions-An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Unions Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  • 38.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Colonising the future: the case of carbon capture and storage2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 217-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Chakraborty, Sanjib
    Go For Green, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Muhaiminul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Ashraf Niloy, Tousif
    Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Prospect analysis of biofuel production and usage for transportation in Dhaka city, Bangladesh2015In: 2015 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GREEN ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY (ICGET), IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World is heading towards the crisis of fossil fuel. Energy crisis is more acute in Bangladesh, as there is no petro-fuel source but only natural gas. It has among the lowest per capita energy (240 kg oil equivalents) consumption in the world and is severely dependent on additional environmentally friendly renewable energy resources in the future. To cope up with present situation and to reduce dependency on imported fuel, Bangladesh government is encouraging the use of renewable energy sources. In this circumstances, biofuel can be a very good alternative fuel for transportation. This paper gives insight into biofuel production feasibility and its usage for road transport can play an important role in the biggest metropolitan city of Bangladesh and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies. Resource-focused assessment including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments partially considering technological and economic constraints. Sufficient evidence have been found for biofuel production and can met at-least 10% of energy demand for road transport of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Without compromising with food security the study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase the biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of the existing society also contributing with positive societal synergies.

  • 40.
    Hultgren, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Sustainability in the UK domestic sector: A review and analysis of the sustainable energy innovations available to homeowners2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UK Government has set an ambitious legislative goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. Of the total energy used in the UK, 31 % is used in the domestic sector. In the domestic sector energy is used for space and hot water heating, lighting, appliances and cooking. Space and hot water heating make up 82 % of the total energy used in the UK domestic sector. Almost all of the energy used in the UK domestic sector originates from depletable resources. In order for the UK to reach its goal of decreasing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050, the way energy is used in the UK domestic sector needs to change dramatically. The aim of this study is to identify opportunities for homeowners to be more sustainable without compromising their standard of living, by changing the way they use and supply energy. Homeowners’ ways of using and supplying energy today will be reviewed followed by an identification of measures that can be taken to create a more sustainable home from an energy perspective. Identified measures not only include usage of small-scale energy technologies but also application of energy efficiency measures and changes in behaviour that result in homeowners using energy in a more efficient way.

     

    The aim has been achieved by conducting a literature review, collecting statistical data regarding energy use from the Department of Energy and Climate Change and the undertaking of a case study. The literature review revealed that air source and solar assisted heat pumps, solar photovoltaic (solar PV) and fuel cell micro combined heat and power (fuel cell mCHP) are the most promising and widely available microgeneration technologies on the market today. LED light bulbs, wall and loft insulation and energy efficient appliances are the energy efficiency measures identified as having the highest potential to decrease the amount of energy used. The literature review also proved that behaviour in relation to energy use is a key area to address in order to make homeowners use energy in a more efficient way.

     

    The case study consisted of six case houses, based on the most common house types in the UK. The reference heating system used in the case study was a gas boiler connected to a central heating system of the house. 80 % of the homes in the UK are heated with a gas boiler and that is why it was chosen as a reference scenario. The case study showed that all of the microgeneration technologies use resources and energy in a more efficient way than the reference scenario. But despite the financial support of governmental subsidies none of the microgeneration technologies were financially viable options compared to a gas boiler. Energy efficiency measures, especially LED lighting, wall and loft insulation, significantly lowered the amount of energy used, they lowered the influence on greenhouse gas emissions and were financially viable options without the support of governmental subsidies.

     

    It was identified that microgeneration technologies are impacted by behaviour and that they can enable demand-side management, especially as the number of supply-driven sources such as wind and solar PV increases.

     

    In summation microgeneration technologies and energy efficiency measures have a large potential to help make homeowners become more sustainable from an energy perspective. Governmental support has a determining role in making them financially viable and therefore accessible to the public. 

  • 41.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundström, V
    Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Solar energy for electricity and fuels.2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45 (Suppl 1), p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  • 42.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

  • 43.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Anders
    Tuenter, Gerard
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Björkman, Thomas
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Moberg, Johanna
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Swedish energy manager networks for energy-intensive industry as a driver for improved energy efficiency2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential for improved energy efficiency in industryis large, deployment of measures is often inhibited by a numberof barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, a number ofenergy end-use policies is functioning in Sweden, the two largestbeing a Voluntary Agreements (VA) for energy-intensiveindustry, an energy audit program, and in addition, various energymanager networks for improved energy efficiency. Whilethe two former have been evaluated and are well-known, theSwedish energy efficiency networks have so far neither beenpresented nor evaluated previously. The aim of this paper is topresent the current Swedish energy efficient network, and theirrole in the energy policy mix from a theoretical viewpoint. TheSwedish energy network, Energiintensiven consisting of about100 companies from the major electricity-intensive sectors isadministrated by the Swedish Energy Agency. Participatingcompanies are all part of the Swedish VA, the PFE. In additionthe aluminum companies have an energy network (GeniAl),one network is functioning among Swedish saw mills (EESI), aswell as there is a network in the iron- and steel industry ENETSteel.Results of the paper show that despite the low emphasison networks as a part of the policy mix, the networks havean important role in overcoming barriers to energy efficiencyamong the participating companies.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions2013In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions

  • 45.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved Energy Efficiency and Fuel Substitution in the Iron and Steel Industry2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IPCC reported in its climate change report 2013 that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and nitrous oxide now have reached the highest levels in the past 800,000 years. CO2 concentration has increased by 40% since pre-industrial times and the primary source is fossil fuel combustion. It is vital to reduce anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in order to combat climate change. Industry accounts for 20% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the iron and steel industry accounts for 30% of industrial emissions. The iron and steel industry is at date highly dependent on fossil fuels and electricity. Energy efficiency measures and substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy would make an important contribution to the efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs.

    This thesis studies energy efficiency measures and fuel substitution in the iron and steel industry and focuses on recovery and utilisation of excess energy and substitution of fossil fuels with biomass. Energy systems analysis has been used to investigate how changes in the iron and steel industry’s energy system would affect the steel plant’s economy and global CO2 emissions. The thesis also studies energy management practices in the Swedish iron and steel industry with the focus on how energy managers think about why energy efficiency measures are implemented or why they are not implemented. In-depth interviews with energy managers at eleven Swedish steel plants were conducted to analyse energy management practices.

    In order to show some of the large untapped heat flows in industry, excess heat recovery potential in the industrial sector in Gävleborg County in Sweden was analysed. Under the assumptions made in this thesis, the recovery output would be more than three times higher if the excess heat is used in a district heating system than if electricity is generated. An economic evaluation was performed for three electricity generation technologies for the conversion of low-temperature industrial excess heat. The results show that electricity generation with organic Rankine cycles and phase change material engines could be profitable, but that thermoelectric generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat would not be profitable at the present stage of technology development. With regard to fossil fuels substituted with biomass, there are opportunities to substitute fossil coal with charcoal in the blast furnace and to substitute liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with bio-syngas or bio synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) as fuel in the steel industry’s reheating furnaces. However, in the energy market scenarios studied, substituting LPG with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces at the studied scrap-based steel plant would not be profitable without economic policy support. The development of the energy market is shown to play a vital role for the outcome of how different measures would affect global CO2 emissions.

    Results from the interviews show that Swedish steel companies regard improved energy efficiency as important. However, the majority of the interviewed energy managers only worked part-time with energy issues and they experienced that lack of time often was a barrier for successful energy management. More efforts could also be put into engaging and educating employees in order to introduce a common practice of improving energy efficiency at the company.

    List of papers
    1. Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion
    2011 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keyword
    Iron and steel industry, Energy efficiency, Fuel conversion, Industrial symbiosis, Excess energy, CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66142 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.053 (DOI)000286781800021 ()
    Note

    Original Publication: Maria Johansson and Mats Söderström, Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion, 2011, ENERGY, (36), 1, 191-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.053 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Industrial excess heat; Heat recovery; Electricity generation; District heating; CO2 emission; Energy market scenario
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102611 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.052 (DOI)000330494600041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry
    2014 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of climate change and the threat of rising energy prices have resulted in increased attention being paid to energy issues and industry seeing a cost benefit in using more energy-efficient production processes. One energy-efficient measure is the recovery of industrial excess heat. However, this option has not been fully investigated and some of the technologies for recovery of excess heat are not yet commercially available. This paper proposes three technologies for the generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat. The technologies are thermoelectric generation, organic Rankine cycle and phase change material engine system. The technologies are evaluated in relation to each other, with regard to temperature range of the heat source, conversion efficiency, capacity and economy. Because the technologies use heat of different temperature ranges, there is potential for concurrent implementation of two or more of these technologies. Even if the conversion efficiency of a technology is low, it could be worthwhile to utilise if there is no other use for the excess heat. The iron and steel industry is energy intensive and its production processes are often conducted at high temperatures. As a consequence, large amounts of excess heat are generated. The potential electricity production from low-temperature excess heat at a steel plant was calculated together with the corresponding reduction in global CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2014
    Keyword
    Low-temperature excess heat, Heat recovery, Electricity generation, Thermoelectric generator (TEG), Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), Phase change material (PCM) engine
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94561 (URN)10.1007/s12053-013-9218-6 (DOI)000332789200003 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-06-26 Created: 2013-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    4. Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, climate change is at the top of the political agenda. The European Commission has set atarget to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020, compared to 1990 levels. The steelindustry contributes significantly to industrial CO2 emissions, and thus it is important for thissector to find options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One alternative is to substitute fossil fuelswith biomass derived fuels; a promising option is to replace LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) used asfuel in heating furnaces with bio-syngas produced through the gasification of biomass. This paperis a feasibility study of the implementation of this concept at a Swedish scrap-based steel plant.The results have been obtained through a case study approach with interviews and literaturesurveys. The study shows that if a fuel gas mixture of 50 vol% bio-syngas and 50 vol% LPG would beused, the global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5,400 tonnes/year. Moreover, a full-scale fuelsubstitution would result in reduced emissions by 68,600 tonnes/year. In the case of a partial fuelsubstitution, a 4 MWth High Temperature Agent Gasifier (HTAG) is a suitable choice while a 45 MWthindirectly heated Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier (CFBG) would be suitable for a full-scale fuelsubstitution. In the case of a fuel switch, the lower heating value of syngas, compared to LPG, notonly implies that a different combustion technology must be used, but also that the exhaust gasflows will be substantially larger, and consequently the exhaust gas cleaning system must bedesigned with dimensions suitable for larger flows. Excess heat from the gasifier can be used forspace heating, but if the excess heat replaces district heating from a Combined Heat and Power(CHP) plant, the global CO2 emissionsreductions would be less than if the excess heat is not recovered.

    Keyword
    Fuel conversion, steel industry, biomass, case study, gasification
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71824 (URN)
    Conference
    ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, July 4-7, Novi Sad, Serbia
    Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-11-07 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions
    2013 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keyword
    Biomass gasification, Steel industry, Case study, Fuel substitution, Bio-synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG), CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96677 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2013.06.010 (DOI)000323355600073 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Improved energy efficiency within the Swedish steel industry: the importance of energy management and networking
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved energy efficiency within the Swedish steel industry: the importance of energy management and networking
    2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 713-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is an energy-intensive industry that consumes a significant portion of fossil fuel and electricity production. Climate change, the threat of an unsecure energy supply, and rising energy prices have emphasized the issue of improved energy efficiency in the iron and steel industry. However, an energy efficiency gap is well recognised, i.e. cost efficient measures are not implemented in practice. This study will go deeper into why this gap occurs by investigating energy management practices at 11 iron and steel companies in Sweden. Energy managers at the steel plants were interviewed about how they perceived their own and their companies’ efforts to improve energy efficiency and how networking among energy managers influenced the efforts to improve energy efficiency. Reported barriers to improved energy efficiency were, for example, too long of a payback period, lack of profitability, lack of personnel, risk of production disruption, lack of time, and lack of commitment. Only three out of the eleven companies had assigned a person to work full time with energy management, and some of the energy managers were frustrated with not having enough time to work with energy issues. Generally, the respondents felt that they had support from senior management and that energy issues were prioritised, but only a few of the companies had made great efforts to involve employees in improving energy efficiency. Networking among Swedish steel companies was administered by the Swedish Steel Producers’ Association, and their networking meetings contributed to the exchange of knowledge and ideas. In conclusion, Swedish steel companies regard improved energy efficiency as important but have much work left to do in this area. For example, vast amounts of excess heat are not being recovered and more efforts could be put into engaging employees and introducing a culture of energy  efficiency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2015
    Keyword
    Energy efficiency, Energy management, Networking, Iron and steel industry, Interviews
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105873 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9317-z (DOI)000358046700006 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 46.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bio-SNG as fuel in steel industry heating furnaces: integration of a biomass gasifier with a steel plant2012In: Asia Steel International Conference 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is of great concern for society today. Industry accounts for almost 40% of global CO2 emissions and consequently it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. In this paper, an economic evaluation of integration of a biomass gasifier with a steel plant is performed. Synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from the gasifier substitutes liquefied petroleum gas as fuel in the steel plant’s heating furnaces. Eight future market scenarios are used to analyse investment opportunities to integrate production of bio-SNG with a case study steel plant. Results from the analysis show that high fossil fuel prices could make integration of a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion profitable. Moreover, profitability is highly dependent on biomass price. At current price levels, production cost for bio-SNG is 82 EUR/MWh.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Tranås Energi, Sweden.
    Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants: A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1) sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning), (2) unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting) and (3) a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, climate change is at the top of the political agenda. The European Commission has set atarget to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020, compared to 1990 levels. The steelindustry contributes significantly to industrial CO2 emissions, and thus it is important for thissector to find options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One alternative is to substitute fossil fuelswith biomass derived fuels; a promising option is to replace LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) used asfuel in heating furnaces with bio-syngas produced through the gasification of biomass. This paperis a feasibility study of the implementation of this concept at a Swedish scrap-based steel plant.The results have been obtained through a case study approach with interviews and literaturesurveys. The study shows that if a fuel gas mixture of 50 vol% bio-syngas and 50 vol% LPG would beused, the global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5,400 tonnes/year. Moreover, a full-scale fuelsubstitution would result in reduced emissions by 68,600 tonnes/year. In the case of a partial fuelsubstitution, a 4 MWth High Temperature Agent Gasifier (HTAG) is a suitable choice while a 45 MWthindirectly heated Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier (CFBG) would be suitable for a full-scale fuelsubstitution. In the case of a fuel switch, the lower heating value of syngas, compared to LPG, notonly implies that a different combustion technology must be used, but also that the exhaust gasflows will be substantially larger, and consequently the exhaust gas cleaning system must bedesigned with dimensions suitable for larger flows. Excess heat from the gasifier can be used forspace heating, but if the excess heat replaces district heating from a Combined Heat and Power(CHP) plant, the global CO2 emissionsreductions would be less than if the excess heat is not recovered.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry2014In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of climate change and the threat of rising energy prices have resulted in increased attention being paid to energy issues and industry seeing a cost benefit in using more energy-efficient production processes. One energy-efficient measure is the recovery of industrial excess heat. However, this option has not been fully investigated and some of the technologies for recovery of excess heat are not yet commercially available. This paper proposes three technologies for the generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat. The technologies are thermoelectric generation, organic Rankine cycle and phase change material engine system. The technologies are evaluated in relation to each other, with regard to temperature range of the heat source, conversion efficiency, capacity and economy. Because the technologies use heat of different temperature ranges, there is potential for concurrent implementation of two or more of these technologies. Even if the conversion efficiency of a technology is low, it could be worthwhile to utilise if there is no other use for the excess heat. The iron and steel industry is energy intensive and its production processes are often conducted at high temperatures. As a consequence, large amounts of excess heat are generated. The potential electricity production from low-temperature excess heat at a steel plant was calculated together with the corresponding reduction in global CO2 emissions.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting LPG with bio-SNG as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: The impact of different perspectives on CO2 assessment2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1437-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is the second largest user of energy in the world industrial sector and is currently highly dependent on fossil fuels and electricity. Substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy in the iron and steel industry would make an important contribution to the efforts to reduce emissions of CO2. However, different approaches to assessing CO2 emissions from biomass and electricity use generate different results when evaluating how fuel substitution would affect global CO2 emissions. This study analyses the effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting liquefied petroleum gas with synthetic natural gas, produced through gasification of wood fuel, as a fuel in reheating furnaces at a scrap-based steel plant. The study shows that the choice of system perspective has a large impact on the results. When wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, a fuel switch would result in reduced global CO2 emissions. However, applying a perspective where wood fuel is seen as a limited resource and alternative use of wood fuel is considered, a fuel switch could in some cases result in increased global CO2 emissions. As an example, in one of the scenarios studied, a fuel switch would reduce global CO2 emissions by 52 ktonnes/year if wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, while seeing wood fuel as a limited resource implies, in the same scenario, increased CO2 emissions by 70 ktonnes/year. The choice of method for assessing electricity use also affects the results.

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