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  • 1.
    Ackebjer Turesson, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Werneskog, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    The Challenge of Providing Sufficient Grid Capacity for Electrification to Be a Key Factor in Achieving Climate Neutrality Until 2045: A national and regional demand analysis investigating the future electricity demand and the grid operators' perspectives on large-scale electrification in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to contribute to grid planning and public debate about how the electric power system can cope with electrification and decarbonisation. The thesis is based on the assumption that Sweden, in accordance with the climate goals, will achieve climate neutrality by 2045.

    Based on a literature review, an analysis is made of how different scenarios predict the future national electricity demand up until 2045 and identifies the underlying drivers for changes in electricity demand. A more detailed analysis based on results from a literature review and interviews with industry representatives is made for four chosen regions, Norrbotten, Västra Götaland, Stockholm and Skåne. For each region, estimates are made of how high the electrification potential is in the industrial, transport, residential and service sectors.

    The prerequisites for the electricity grid to handle the identified electrification potential, in terms of grid capacity, have been analysed in order to highlight what challenges there are for large-scale electrification to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals.

    The general belief in the studied scenarios is that the national electricity demand will increase until 2045. The investigated scenarios predict increases resulting in an annual national electricity demand of up to 207 TWh in 2045, corresponding to an increase of almost 60 %. The most significant increases are due to decarbonisation in the industry and transport sector.

    The regional analysis shows significant electrification potentials in the investigated regions. A few industries stand out with dramatic increases, Borealis AB in Västra Götaland shows an electrification potential of 8 TWh and 1 000 MW and SSAB in Norrbotten shows an electrification potential of 9 TWh and 900 MW. Significant electrification potentials in the transport, residential and service sectors have been identified in metropolitan areas, i.e. in the region of Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Skåne.

    The grid analysis shows that it will be challenging to increase grid capacity at sufficient speed. It is concluded that there is currently insufficient grid capacity to meet large-scale electrification, and that the grids need to be reinforced. However, the concession process for grid reinforcements is considered too slow to meet the demands that arise, primarily in the industry sector. Three ways to address this challenge have been identified:

    -          If the permission process for electricity grid expansion does not change and the industry is to choose the electrification route, this needs to be decided before 2030 in order for reinforcements in the electricity grid to be ensured before 2045.

    -          Speed up the permit process to allow shorter lead times for power grid expansions.

    -          The industry choose another route for decarbonisation than electrification.

    The overall conclusion is that new approaches for expanding the electricity grid will be required if large-scale electrification is to be a key factor in achieving the climate goals in 2045.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Agyekum, Ephraim Bonah
    et al.
    Ural Fed Univ, Russia.
    Ampah, Jeffrey Dankwa
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Khan, Tahir
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Giri, Nimay Chandra
    Centurion Univ Technol & Management, India; Centur Univ Technol & Managemention, India.
    Hussien, Abdelazim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Fayoum Univ, Egypt; Appl Sci Private Univ, Jordan; Middle East Univ, Jordan.
    Velkin, Vladimir Ivanovich
    Ural Fed Univ, Russia.
    Mehmood, Usman
    Bahcesehir Cyprus Univ, Turkiye; Univ Punjab, Pakistan.
    Kamel, Salah
    Aswan Univ, Egypt.
    Towards a reduction of emissions and cost-savings in homes: Techno-economic and environmental impact of two different solar water heaters2024Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 11, s. 963-981Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa currently has the highest carbon emission intensity per kilowatt of electricity generation globally, and its government intends to reduce it. Some of the measures taken by the government include a reduction of emissions in the building sector using solar water heating (SWH) systems. However, there is currently no study in the country that comprehensively assesses the technical, economic, and environmental impact of SWH systems across the country. This study therefore used the System Advisor Model (SAM) to model two different technologies of SWH systems (i.e., flat plate (FPC) and evacuated tube (EPC) SWH) at five different locations (i.e., Pretoria, Upington, Kimberley, Durban, and Cape Town) strategically selected across the country. According to the study, the optimum azimuth for both the evacuated tube and flat plate SWH system in South Africa is 0 degrees. Installing FPC and EPC at the different locations would yield payback periods of 3.2 to 4.4 years and 3.5 to 4.3 years, respectively. Comparably, levelized cost of energy for the FPC and EPC will range from 7.47 to 9.62 cents/kWh and 7.66 to 9.24 cents/kWh, respectively, based on where the SWH system is located. Depending on where the facility is located, the annual cost savings for the FPC system would be between $486 and $625, while the EPC system would save between $529 and $638. Using SWHs can reduce CO2 emissions by 75-77% for the evacuated tube system and 69-76% for the flat plate system annually, depending on the location.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Arif, Muhammad Salman
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Pakistan.
    Cheema, Izzat Iqbal
    Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan; Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Masroor Ahmed
    United Nations Ind Dev Org, Pakistan.
    Drivers and Barriers for Efficient Energy Management Practices in Energy-Intensive Industries: A Case-Study of Iron and Steel Sector2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 18, artikkel-id 7703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major reasons behind the worlds energy crisis are losses in energy transmission and less efficient energy use at sinks. The former flaw can be catered by changing the entire energy transmission system which requires investment and planning on a large scale, whereas the later deficiency can be overcome through proper management of energy utilizing systems. Energy-intensive industries have a substantial share in energy consumption and equally high energy saving potentials if they adopt some integrated and improved energy efficiency. This study investigates the energy management systems in the iron and steel sector of Pakistan, and compare it with findings of similar work in Sweden, Bangladesh, and Ghana. A systematic questionnaire was circulated in the iron and steel sector across the country and afterward the collected data was analyzed to find major barriers and drivers for efficient energy management practices. In addition, questions on non-energy benefits and information sources relevant to the energy efficiency were also part of the questionnaire. Cost reduction resulting from lowered energy use was rated as the most important driver for applying energy-efficient operation. On the other hand, the cost of production disruption was considered among high-level barriers to the implementation of improved energy efficiency. An increase in the life-time of equipment was labeled as the top non-energy benefits. Company peers and seminars/conferences were referred as the best information sources related to energy efficiency. The outcome of the study will be helpful to the decision-maker in the industry, as well as the government levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Aiastui, Xabier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Towards more efficient industrial lighting: Literature review on energy efficiency improvement of industrial lighting2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis work is aimed to investigate the possibilities of achieving more efficient industrial lighting. The study is divided in four parts: 1) Industrial lighting energy efficiency measures, 2) Added value of lighting, 3) Drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures, and 4) Applications of AI in industrial lighting.The first part of the study explores various energy efficiency measures that could be applied in industrial lighting. The results show that using energy-efficient lighting fixtures, optimizing lighting controls, and adopting smart lighting solutions that integrate daylight in the illumination strategy and design are the most effective measures for reducing energy consumption and increasing efficiency.In the second part, the study examines the added values or non-energy benefitsof efficient industrial lighting. The findings indicate that apart from cost savings, efficient lighting leads to improvements on the quality of work environments, enhances workers health and safety conditions and improves environmental performance. Moreover, the study suggests that in many cases, the added values of lighting are not given the importance they should have and are not considered when an energy efficiency investment is planned to be done.The third part of the study identifies the drivers and barriers for adopting lighting efficiency measures in industrial settings. The study found that factors such as cost and energy savings, energy efficiency regulations are the main drivers for implementing efficient lighting solutions. However, barriers such as lack of awareness, perceived high initial costs, technology adoption and insufficient government incentives are the main obstacles to adoption.Finally, the study investigates the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in industrial lighting. The results show that AI-based solutions, such as predictive maintenance and intelligent lighting control could significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce maintenance costs. Moreover, AI can bring the work environment to another level by the application of human centred and personalized lighting.Overall, this master thesis work provides valuable insights into achieving more efficient industrial lighting by highlighting effective energy efficiency measures, identifying the added value of efficient lighting, and examining the drivers and barriers to adoption. Moreover, the study sheds light on the potential of AI in industrial lighting and its potential benefits and future challenges.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

    Delarbeid
    1. Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 174-185Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128741 (URN)10.1039/c5mh00261c (DOI)000375296600002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-31 Laget: 2016-05-30 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30
    2. Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, nr 24, s. 12927-12937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120069 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00788g (DOI)000356022800044 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-06 Laget: 2015-07-06 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
    3. High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 1838-1847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable organic electrode materials for energy storage applications is an urgent task. We present a promising candidate based on the use of lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. This polymer is combined with a conducting polymer, where lignin as a polyanion can behave both as a dopant and surfactant. The synthesis of PEDOT/Lig biocomposites by both oxidative chemical and electrochemical polymerization of EDOT in the presence of lignin sulfonate is presented. The characterization of PEDOT/Lig was performed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. PEDOT doped with lignin doubles the specific capacitance (170.4 F g(-1)) compared to reference PEDOT electrodes (80.4 F g(-1)). The enhanced energy storage performance is a consequence of the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin, which give rise to faradaic reactions. Furthermore PEDOT/Lig is a highly stable biocomposite, retaining about 83% of its electroactivity after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. These results illustrate that the redox doping strategy is a facile and straightforward approach to improve the electroactive performance of PEDOT.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125323 (URN)10.1039/c5ta10096h (DOI)000368839200035 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Power Papers project from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance (NA); European Research Council by Starting Grant Innovative Polymers for Energy Storage (iPes) [306250]; Basque Government

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-02-23 Laget: 2016-02-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30
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  • 6.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger en kortfattad översikt och syntes av tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultat från verksamheten i konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem inom forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Tonvikten ligger på tiden från forskarskolans start 1997 till dess 15-årsjubileum 2012, men hänvisningar görs även till forskning publicerad därefter. Utgångspunkten har varit att lyfta fram det tvärvetenskapliga inom forskningen för att visa hur forskarskolan har bidragit till tvärvetenskaplig kunskaps- och metodutveckling.

    I rapporten ges en översikt över fallstudier och avhandlingar inom konsortiet och de tvärvetenskapliga forskningsresultaten sammanfattas inom tre huvudsakliga tematiska områden: (1) Passivhus: boende och energieffektiva byggnadstekniker,

    (2) Energieffektivisering: processer och aktörer, samt (3) Energianvändning, vardagsaktiviteter och småskalig solenergi i hushåll. Tvärvetenskapliga metoder och resultat sammanfattas och utvecklingen av samarbeten och angreppssätt beskrivs. Rapporten avslutas med några sammanfattande reflektioner kring hur framgångsrik tvärvetenskaplig forskning bör bedrivas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Byggnader i energisystem
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  • 7.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkan mellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en omfattande publicering från Program Energisystem. Förutom 78 doktorsavhandlingar och 16 licentiatavhandlingar så har forskarstuderande och seniorer publicerat ytterligare minst 500 publikationer inom ramen för Program Energisystem.

    I denna rapport förtecknas dessa publikationer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Publikationer från Program Energisystem
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  • 8.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem har med sina fem deltagande forskningsavdelningar från Chalmers tekniska högskola, Linköpings universitet, KTH och Uppsala universitet varit banbrytande inom tvärvetenskaplig energisystemforskning och dess tre konsortier har spelat en viktig roll för forskarskolans utveckling. Konsortierna är inriktade på byggnader i energisystem, industriella energisystem samt lokala och regionala energisystem. I varje konsortium har doktorander och seniorer från minst två av de deltagande avdelningarna bedrivit tvärvetenskaplig forskning.

    I det lokala och regionala konsortiet har forskningsfrågorna kretsat kring aktörer och processer av betydelse för energisystemen i svenska kommuner, län och regioner. Inom konsortiet har frågeställningar om miljömässigt, socialt och ekonomiskt hållbara lokala och regionala energisystem bland annat studerats genom att analysera aktörers agerande och politiska processer inom de tekniska, ekonomiska och institutionella villkor som utgör begränsningar och möjligheter för energisystemen. En tydlig trend inom konsortiets forskning under forskarskolans arton år är att inriktningen gått i riktning från lokal till regional och från stationära till mobila energisystem. Den förskjutningen följer också den ökande betydelse som regioner i form av länsstyrelser har fått för samordningen av energi- och klimatplaneringen i Sverige under det senaste decenniet. Kommunerna har fortfarande en dominerande position genom den energirelaterade infrastruktur som de förfogar över men en förskjutning mot ett mer regionalt inflytande är tydlig.

    Totalt har 26 doktors- och en licentiatexamen avlagts av konsortiets doktorander och dessa alumner är nu verksamma inom energirelaterade verksamheter Sverige. Den främsta representationen finns inom myndigheter och akademier.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Lokala och regionala energisystem
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  • 9.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap : slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idén att samhällsvetenskaplig och teknisk energisystemforskning måste vävas samman för att utveckla ny kunskap och få ökad samhällsnytta var utgångspunkt när Program Energisystem startade år 1997.

    Program Energisystem identifierade tidigt kärnvärden som visades vara viktiga framgångsfaktorer:

    • Energisystem med tyngdpunkt på användarsidan
    • Tvärvetenskaplig, universitets- och fakultetsöverskridande
    • forskning och forskarutbildning
    • Sammanhållen forskarskola
    • Finansiering av hela doktorandprojekt
    • Samarbeten i tematiska forskningsområden
    • Kontinuerlig tvärvetenskaplig utveckling
    • Långsiktig finansiering av samordningsstruktur

    Program Energisystems arbete har kännetecknats av:

    • Val av samhällsrelevanta projekt av hög vetenskaplig kvalitet
    • Gemensamma tvärvetenskapliga kurser och projektarbeten
    • Tvärvetenskaplig handledning
    • Kontinuerligt arbetande fora för diskussion
    • och kontakter över ämnesgränser
    • Forskningssamarbeten mellan seniorer i olika ämnen
    • Aktivt doktorand- och alumninätverk

    Forskarutbildningens målsättning har varit att utbilda bättre samhällsvetare

    och bättre ingenjörer, inte att göra samhällsvetare av ingenjörerna eller ingenjörer

    av samhällsvetarna.

    I den kontinuerliga utvecklingen av Program Energisystem har ett förtroendefullt samarbete utvecklats som möjliggjort kontinuerliga förbättringar av forskningen och forskarutbildningen.

    Arvet från Program Energisystem har förts vidare i den nya Forskarskola Energisystem. Forskarskola Energisystem har en delvis annan struktur men bygger innehållsmässigt vidare på centrala idéer från Program Energisystem. Det finns ett fortsatt stort behov av tvärvetenskaplig kunskapsutveckling på energiområdet som främst handlar om att förstå komplicerade samband och processer och hur dessa kan påverkas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Huvudrapport
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  • 10.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    Energiprocesser, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energiteknik/Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Widén, Joakim
    Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Byggteknik, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna syntesrapport är en sammanfattning och analys av den forskning som bedrivits inom ramen för det Industriella konsortiet från år 1997 (konsortiets verksamhet startade 1999) inom ramen för forskarskolan Program Energisystem. Under denna tid har 25 doktorsavhandlingar och en licentiatavhandling producerats inom det Industriella konsortiet. Avhandlingarna sammanfattas och analyseras i denna syntesrapport och arbetet avgränsas då till att studera avhandlingarnas Problemområde, Verktyg/Metod/Teori, Systemgräns, studerad Sektor och Övergripande resultat. Vidare ges, med utgångspunkt från dessa forskningsresultat, förslag på fortsatt forskning för hållbara och effektiva energisystem.

    Många viktiga problemområden har studerats inom ramen för forskarskolans Industrikonsortium. Ett flertal avhandlingar behandlar möjligheter att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser från industrin och här har flera sektorer studerats, bland annat massa- och pappersindustrin, järn- och stålindustrin, kemiindustrin och oljeraffinaderiindustrin. Ett centralt tema i avhandlingarna är potentialer för energieffektivisering i industrisektorn, inte minst vid införande av bioraffinaderikoncept i framtiden. Här analyseras t.ex. tekniska potentialer, kostnadseffektivitet för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder, samt betydelsen av energiledning och styrmedel.

    I avhandlingarna har en mängd olika metoder och verktyg använts. Den i särklass mest använda vetenskapliga metoden är intervjuer (15) följt av scenarioanalys (10), dokumentstudier (9), simuleringsberäkningar (9), pinchanalys (9) och optimering (8). Fallstudiemetodik där mer än en metod används för att studera ett specifikt fall, t.ex. ett företag, förekommer i flera avhandlingar. En grundtanke i forskarskolan Program Energisystem har varit att forskaren måste vara medveten om att resultat från energisystemanalyser kan påverkas av vilka systemgränser som valts. I flertalet av Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar har Europas elsystem utgjort systemgräns då effekter av förändrad elanvändning eller elproduktion analyserats.

    Industrikonsortiets forskningsresultat visar på många intressanta slutsatser. Det påvisas att det finns energieffektiviseringspotentialer både i nya investeringar och i energiledningsåtgärder, som att justera driftsbetingelser för befintlig teknisk utrustning och ändra beteenden. Det konstateras också att energisamarbeten mellan industri och energibolag med syfte att öka användningen av industriell överskottsvärme i många fall är en hållbar lösning som minskar regioners behov av primärenergi och reducerar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Hinder mot sådana samarbeten kan vara att detta inte är en del av industrins kärnverksamhet. Det konstateras även att energisamarbeten mellan närliggande anläggningar i ett industrikluster kan leda till avsevärt större energieffektiviseringspotentialer än om var och en av de ingående industrierna arbetar enbart med interna åtgärder. Hinder mot denna typ av samarbete är brist på etablerade affärsmodeller. Forskningen visar på ett behov av fortsatta studier kring begreppet kärnverksamhet och dess påverkan på energifrågan i svensk industrin. Avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) från industrin har studerats och här konstateras att denna lösning inte är ekonomiskt lönsam med dagens förutsättningar. Det rekommenderas därför att framtida forskning bedrivs för att studera vilka styrmedel som skulle behövas för att CCS ska bli ekonomiskt intressant för industrin. En annan viktig fråga är hur energitjänsteföretag ska formulera affärsmodeller och strategier kring CCS, samt hur de kan samarbeta med industrin för att på affärsmässiga grunder få till stånd CO2– avskiljning, transport och lagring. Även framtida forskning kring styrmedel, t.ex. energitjänster, för ökad energieffektivitet i industrisektorn förordas. Resultat från Industrikonsortiets avhandlingar visar att processintegrationsverktyget pinchanalys kan kombineras med optimeringsverktyg (i detta fall MIND) vid analys av industriella energisystem. Denna metodkombination ger intressanta resultat varför fortsatt forskning förordas kring kombinationer av olika processintegrationsmetoder. I flertalet avhandlingar har företagsdata använts som indata vid exempelvis modellering och processintegrationsstudier. Detta har accentuerat behovet av ett standardiserat protokoll vid insamling av företagsdata. Ett sådant protokoll kan öka reliabiliteten på indata och förslagsvis användas vid fallstudier.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att trots närmare 20 års tvärvetenskaplig forskning mellan samhällsvetare och teknikvetenskaperna finns det fortfarande mycket mer att beforska och utveckla.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Forskarskolan Program Energisystem: Kunskapsutveckling genom samverkanmellan teknik- och samhällsvetenskap: Slutrapport 2016, Forskningssyntes för konsortiet Industriella energisystem
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  • 11.
    Alvi, Naveed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    ul Hassan, Waheed
    Bahauddin Zakariya Univ, Pakistan.
    Zhou, Guofu
    South China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Notzel, Richard
    South China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Unassisted water splitting with 9.3% efficiency by a single quantum nanostructure photoelectrode2019Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, nr 36, s. 19650-19657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To split water and produce hydrogen by white light is an excellent solution for the storage and supply of clean and sustainable energy. Efficiency and stability are the key challenges for a successful exploitation. InGaN, evaluated against other semiconductors, metal oxides, carbon based - and organic materials has most suited intrinsic materials properties. Based on this optimum materials choice we report photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation under white light illumination by an InGaN-based quantum nanostructure photoelectrode. No degradation occurs for operation over 10 h. Our novel concept, combining quantum nanostructure physics with electrochemistry and catalysis leads to almost 10% efficiency at zero external voltage. The efficiency rises above 25% at 0.2 V. This is unmatched for a single photoelectrode, representing the most advanced technology of low complexity. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Alvors, Per
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Arnell, Jenny
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Division,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelse, Kristian
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kemisk Teknologi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Skolan för kemivetenskap, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Energi och miljö/Energiteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, Krister
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Biokemi och Strukturbiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Öhrman, Olof
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use.

    Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology.

    In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study.

    We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose.

    From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

    Three important results from the lignocellulosic ethanol study are: (i) the production systems could be far more complex and intelligently designed than previous studies show, (ii) the potential improvements consist of a large number of combinations of process integration options wich partly depends on specific local conditions, (iii) the environmental performance of individual systems may vary significantly due to systems design and local conditons.

    From the case study on gasification of solid biomass for the production of biomethane we find that one of the main advantages of this technology is its high efficiency in respect to converting biomass into fuels for transport. For future research we see a need for improvements within the gas up-grading section, including gas cleaning and gas conditioning, to obtain a more efficient process. A major challenge is to remove the tar before the methanation reaction.

    Three important results from the biomethane study are: (i) it is important not to crack the methane already produced in the syngas, which indicates a need for improved catalysts for selective tar cracking, (ii) there is a need for new gas separation techniques to facilitate the use of air oxidation agent instead of oxygen in the gasifier, and (iii) there is a need for testing the integrated process under realistic conditions, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions.

    From the case study on black liquor gasification for the production of DME we find that the process has many advantages compared to other biofuel production options, such as the fact that black liquor is already partially processed and exists in a pumpable, liquid form, and that the process is pressurised and tightly integrated with the pulp mill, which enhances fuel production efficiency. However, to achieve commercial status, some challenges still remain, such as demonstrating that materials and plant equipment meet the high availability required when scaling up to industrial size in the pulp mill, and also proving that the plant can operate according to calculated heat and material balances. Three important results from the DME study are: (i) that modern chemical pulp mills, having a potential surplus of energy, could become important suppliers of renewable fuels for transport, (ii) there is a need to demonstrate that renewable DME/methanol will be proven to function in large scale, and (iii) there is still potential for technology improvements and enhanced energy integration.

    Although quantitative improvement potentials are given in the three biofuel production cases, it is not obvious how these potentials would affect WTT values, since the biofuel production processes are complex and changing one parameter impacts other parameters. The improvement potentials are therefore discussed qualitatively. From the entire study we have come to agree on the following common conclusions: (i) research and development in Sweden within the three studied 2G biofuel production technologies is extensive, (ii) in general, the processes, within the three cases, work well at pilot and demonstration scale and are now in a phase to be proven in large scale, (iii) there is still room for improvement although some processes have been known for decades, (iv) the biofuel production processes are complex and site specific and process improvements need to be seen and judged from a broad systems perspective (both within the production plant as well as in the entire well-to-tank perspective), and (v) the three studied biofuel production systems are complementary technologies. Futher, the process of conducting this study is worth mentioning as a result itself, i.e. that many different actors within the field have proven their ability and willingness to contribute to a common report, and that the cooperation climate was very positive and bodes well for possible future collaboration within the framework of the f3 center.

    Finally, judging from the political ambitions it is clear that the demand for renewable fuels will significantly increase during the coming decade. This will most likely result in opportunities for a range of biofuel options. The studied biofuel options all represent 2G biofuels and they can all be part of the solution to meet the increased renewable fuel demand.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses
  • 13.
    Amars, Latif
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Independent Climate Researcher, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Hagemann, Markus
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Röser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    The transformational potential of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Tanzania: assessing the concept’s cultural legitimacy among stakeholders in the solar energy sector2017Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 86-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While energy-sector emissions remain the biggest source of climate change, many least-developed countries still invest in fossil-fuel development paths. These countries generally have high levels of fossil fuel technology lock-in and low capacities to change, making the shift to sustainable energy difficult. Tanzania, a telling example, is projected to triple fossil-fuel power production in the next decade. This article assesses the potential to use internationally supported Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to develop solar energy in Tanzania and contribute to transformational change of the electricity supply system. By assessing the cultural legitimacy of NAMAs among key stakeholders in the solar energy sector, we analyse the conditions for successful uptake of the concept in (1) national political thought and institutional frameworks and (2) the solar energy niche. Interview data are analysed from a multi-level perspective on transition, focusing on its cultural dimension. Several framings undermining legitimacy are articulated, such as attaching low-actor credibility to responsible agencies and the concept’s poor fit with political priorities. Actors that discern opportunities for NAMAs could, however, draw on a framing of high commensurability between experienced social needs and opportunities to use NAMAs to address them through climate compatible development. This legitimises NAMAs and could challenge opposing framings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, s. 866-877Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWhia, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by -2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    O’Shea, Richard
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Gray, Nathan
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    NORSUS, Norwegian Research Institute for Sustainability Research.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Murphy, Jerry D.
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Perspectives on biomethane as a transport fuel within acircular economy, energy, and environmental system2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature indicates that the life cycle costs of biomethane fueled light vehicles may be 15 to 20% highe rthan for similar petrol and diesel fueled vehicles, while liquid biomethane fueled heavy duty trucks may have similar life cycle costs to diesel. However, such an analysis can be two dimensional and limited in the message it conveys. On one hand the acceptance of diesel fueled trucks and buses will be limited due to the climate emergency and air pollution and after 2030 diesel may not be the competition for biomethane anymore. On the otherhand, biomethane production is part of a larger circular economy, energy, and environmental system. It is verydifficult to divorce the energy vector, biomethane, from the system through which it is produced. In essence biomethane can be considered as one of the products or services of a broad biogas system.

    An advantage of biogas is that it can be produced from most wet organic wastes or by-products, includingfor food waste, animal by-products, (such as manure), agricultural residues, sewage sludge, industrial biowaste (such as from slaughterhouses and food and beverage processing industries). Biogas production is an element in the environmental management of such wastes; biogas plants can also deliver digestate, which contains most ofthe nutrients in the feedstock and can be an excellent biofertilizer. In addition, it is possible to utilize the carbon dioxide removed in upgrading biogas to biomethane as a product with added value. The resource of biomethane is very significant in considering the vast amounts of organic wastes landfilled around the world each year, that instead could be used to produce biogas, biofertilizers and food grade CO2 while improving the environment through reduced fugitive methane emissions and improved water quality. Furthermore, the application of biogas systems in bio-industrial contexts (such as paper mills, food production facilities, or other types of biorefineries) has huge potential to decarbonize industry while significantly increasing the resource of biomethane. Due to the multifunctionality of biomethane solutions, broad assessment methods are needed to grasp thewide spectrum of relevant factors when comparing different technologies:

    • Biomethane has a competitive performance compared with fossil fuels and other biofuels on a whole lifecycle analysis and is particularly suited to long distance heavy vehicles.

    • Biomethane from manure, residues, waste & catch crops is estimated to have low GHG emissions ascompared to other renewable fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to reduced air pollution in comparison with diesel, petrol, and other biofuels.• Biomethane can contribute to a substantial reduction in acidification compared with fossil fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to significantly reduced noise levels in comparison with diesel heavy goodsvehicles.

    • Well-designed and applied biogas systems may be essential to transform conventional farming to moresustainable farming and to organic farming.

    • Common types of biogas solutions provide essential sociotechnical systems services as components ofsystems for waste and (waste) water management.

    • Biogas solutions may importantly contribute to improved energy supply/security and flexibility.

    Natural gas systems should be a facilitator of the introduction of biomethane for transport, but the sustainability problems associated with natural gas negatively impact the view of biomethane. This is where arguments amongst the renewable sector actors can hinder progress. Biomethane and (power to methane) can utilize the existing gas grid and accelerate progress to decarbonization of the overall energy sector beyond just electricity and also to decarbonize chemical (such as ammonia and methanol) and steel production. This should be advantageous especially when realizing that more energy is procured from the natural gas grid than the electricity gridin the EU and the US; however, suggestions that biomethane is only greenwashing the natural gas industry, and in doing so extending the lifetime of natural gas, greatly impedes this progress.

    This report provides exemplars of very good biomethane based transport solutions, with a high technologicalreadiness level for all elements of the chain from production to vehicles. Transport biomethane sits well in the broad circular economy, energy, and environmental system providing services across a range of sectors including reduction in fugitive methane emissions from slurries, treatment of residues, environmental protection, provision of biofertiliser, provision of food grade CO2 and a fuel readily available for long distance heavy haulage. What we do not have is time to postpone the sustainable implementation of such circular economy biomethane systems as the climate emergency will not wait for absolutely perfect zero emission solutions; should they exist.

  • 16.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina
    Univ Fed Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Wilson, Alan E.
    Auburn Univ, AL 36849 USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Pathways to Increase Biogas Production in the Textile Industry2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 15, artikkel-id 5574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry is one of the largest environmental polluters in the world. Although waste management via anaerobic digestion (AD) is a sustainable strategy to transform waste into clean energy and water recovery, the efficiency of the AD process is reduced by the presence of recalcitrant materials, chemicals, and toxic contents. This study aims to investigate the performance of several chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments applied to improve the biodegradability of textile waste. We performed a meta-analysis with 117 data extracted from 13 published articles that evaluated the efficiency of pretreatments applied to textile waste prior to AD to increase biogas production measured as methane (CH4) yield. Even though the majority of the studies have focused on the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments, our results showed that the application of biological pretreatments are more efficient and eco-friendlier. Biological pretreatments can increase CH4 yield by up to 360% with lower environmental risk and lower operating costs, while producing clean energy and a cleaner waste stream. Biological pretreatments also avoid the addition of chemicals and favor the reuse of textile wastewater, decreasing the current demand for clean water and increasing resource circularity in the textile industry.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Helena Rodrigues
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Diniz, Vinicius Lacerda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Boosting manure biogas production with the application of pretreatments: A meta-analysis2022Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 362, artikkel-id 132292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a versatile manure management approach that can combine waste treatment, energy generation and nutrient recovery, thus playing a central role in circular economy. The AD process is highly influenced by manure composition which, depending on the source, may contain high loads recalcitrant materials (e.g., lignocellulosic and fibers) or lead to the formation of toxic compounds (e.g., NH3), decreasing the energetic potential of the waste and requiring specific pretreatments to increase its degradability and biogas production. Although there are distinctions in the chemical composition of manure according to animal diets, different manure sources are usually grouped together, leading to a suboptimal performance of both the pretreatment and the AD process. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 54 studies to evaluate the effects of different pretreatments on different manure types and their effect on methane (CH4) yield and we estimated the energy potential if the appropriate pretreatment is applied to largest manure producing countries. The results showed that chemical and/or biological pretreatments were more effective for omnivore manure (e.g., swine, chicken), while physical and a combination of chemical and physical pretreatments negatively affected CH4 production. Physical and/or chemical pretreatments had a positive effect on CH4 yield from herbivore manure (e. g., cattle, horses), while biological pretreatments had a negative effect. The application of the adequate pretreatment can more than double the energy recovered from manure, allowing for an important substitution of fossil fuels, while decreasing operational costs and environmental risks and ultimately improving profitability. The development of pretreatment technologies and their application are strongly related to public policies for sustainable manure management and biogas use and production.

  • 18. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enabling industrial energy benchmarking: Process-level energy end-use, key performance indicators, and efficiency potential2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest challenges of our time is global climate change. A key strategy for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is the improvement of energy efficiency. Manufacturing industry stands for a large share of global energy end-use but has yet to achieve its full energy efficiency potential. A barrier to untapping this potential is the lack of detailed data on industrial energy end-use at the process level, preventing the development of sound, bottom-up energy key performance indicators (KPIs). This hampers the ability to create a profound strategy for improving industrial energy efficiency because it is not known in which end-use processes the largest energy efficiency potential is to be found. Increasing knowledge about energy end-use at the process level also increases the possibility for energy comparisons, i.e. benchmarking, at the process level.

    This thesis aimed to investigate how to further enable industrial energy benchmarking at the process level, primarily for the pulp and paper and wood industries. Relevant benchmarking requires that data on energy end-use is collected using a common, harmonized categorization of processes and that joint energy KPIs are applied. Therefore, suggestions for standardized categorizations of end-use processes were investigated for the studied industries.

    Based on the calculations, and under the assumptions made in this thesis for estimating the energy efficiency potential of end-use processes, diversity was found between industries around which type of processes have the largest efficiency potential. It also emerged that, due to the lack of detailed data about energy end-use and lack of information about energy efficiency measures, processes accounting for a significant share of the energy efficiency potential in the wood industry risk being overlooked. It is not certain that current energy policies are sufficient to reach the full potential identified. The lack of information about energy end-use and energy efficiency measures implies that neither industrial actors nor policy-makers are able to develop thorough energy strategies or roadmaps for improved energy efficiency.

    While the outcomes of this thesis show that a large share of Swedish pulp and paper mills carry out energy benchmarking to some degree, energy managers emphasized that benchmarking in this particular industry is difficult because it requires a deep understanding of the industry’s heterogenous and integrated processes. This thesis proposes a widened perspective on energy benchmarking and its role in industrial energy management; namely, also considering the process of how energy KPIs are implemented within in-house energy management. A process that enhances energy management includes the continuous monitoring, visualization, and revision of KPIs. In this thesis, a method is developed that encourages the bottom-up implementation of energy KPIs in the pulp and paper industry, which further enables industrial energy benchmarking.

    Delarbeid
    1. Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 883-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147376 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.027 (DOI)000428826300080 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-18 Laget: 2018-05-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-08-20
    2. Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, s. 165-177Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Emneord
    Energy end-use; Conservation supply curves; Energy efficiency; Industrial energy efficiency; Energy efficiency measures
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151181 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.037 (DOI)000440966900013 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]; Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-17 Laget: 2018-09-17 Sist oppdatert: 2020-10-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: eceee 2018 Industrial Summer Study proceedings: Industrial Efficiency 2018: Leading the low-carbon transition, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018, s. 313-322Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018
    Serie
    eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 20118
    Emneord
    energy management, non-energy benefits (NEBs), benchmarking, pulp and paper industry, energy performance benchmarking
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156296 (URN)978-91-983878-3-4 (ISBN)978-91-983878-2-7 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    ECEEE Industrial Summer Study – Leading the low-carbon transition, Berlin, June 11-13
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-11 Laget: 2019-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-12-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, s. 229-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
    Emneord
    Key performance indicators; Energy management; Energy efficiency; Pulp and paper; Pulp and paper industry
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157558 (URN)10.1016/j.esr.2019.03.004 (DOI)000466911300017 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-22 Laget: 2019-06-22 Sist oppdatert: 2020-08-20
    5. Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 187, artikkel-id 115919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most crucial actions for mitigating climate change. The lack of knowledge regarding energy end-use makes it difficult for companies to know in which processes the highest energy efficiency potential is located. Using a case study design, the paper provides a taxonomy for energy end-use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a process and energy carrier level. It can be seen that drying of wood is the largest energy using and GHG emitting process in the studied companies. The paper also investigates applied and potentially viable energy key performance indicators (KPIs). Suggestions for improving energy KPIs within the wood industry include separating figures for different wood varieties and different end-products and distinguishing between different drying kiln technologies. Finally, the paper presents the major energy saving and carbon mitigating measures by constructing conservation supply curves and marginal abatement cost curves. The energy saving potential found in the studied companies indicates that significant improvements might be achieved throughout the Swedish wood industry. Even though the scope of this paper is the Swedish wood industry, several of the findings are likely to be relevant in other countries with a prominent wood industry.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2019
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160259 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.115919 (DOI)000496334500068 ()2-s2.0-85071357226 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding agencies: Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management [802-0082-17]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-09-13 Laget: 2019-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2021-12-28bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 19.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, s. 2133-2139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 883-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dernegård, Henric
    HOLMEN Teknik, SE-114 84, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Decarbonization of industry: Implementation of energy performance indicators for successful energy management practices in kraft pulp mills2021Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, s. 1808-1817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management is the most prominent means of improving energy efficiency, and improved energy efficiency constitutes the cornerstone in decarbonization. For successful industrial energy management, defining accurate energy performance indicators (EnPIs) is essential. Energy-intensive industries have previously been found to have an improvement potential regarding the current monitoring of EnPIs, especially at process level. While general models for developing and implementing EnPIs exist, manufacturing industries are diverse in terms of their production processes, which is why industry-tailored models for EnPI development are needed. One major outcome of this paper is a unique model specifically tailored for kraft pulp mills. The model derives from a practice-based approach for EnPI development, building on real-life experiences from a Swedish group of companies. This paper’s developed model, and the validation of the EnPIs, further increase the understanding of the kraft pulp industry’s processes and how to apply descriptive and explanatory indicators. The developed model can potentially be generalized to other sectors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, s. 165-177Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019Inngår i: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, s. 229-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Abrahamsson Bolstad, Maja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity between Solar and Wind Power: A Case Study on a Swedish Regional Grid2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for electrical power is growing due to factors such as population growth, urbanisation, and the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. To be able to keep up with the changes in electricity demand, the Swedish power grid must connect more renewable power generation, but also  increase its transmission capacity. Traditionally, power grids are expanded to increase the transmission capacity which requires a lot of time and investments. In order not to hinder the electrification of society, it is important to adequately estimate the current transmission capacity and plan the expansions accordingly. In the past, the generation of electrical power was primarily based on dispatchable energy sources, and the planning of new connections to the grid was assessed according to the stable and controllable nature of the electricity supply. However, renewable sources like solar and wind power are affected by weather variations. Therefore, the traditional methods of planning the power grid are no longer sufficient. Instead, there is a need to develop and implement new methods that account for the variable nature of renewable energy sources, and also the possible complementarity between different renewable power sources. This can possibly allow more connection of renewable power generation to the grid, without the need of expanding it.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate two different methods for analysing how much renewable power generation that can be connected to the power grid, so-called hosting capacity methods. The first method is a deterministic method which is traditionally used in power system analyses since it is a fast, simple and conservative method. This method does neither consider the intermittent nature of solar and wind power, nor any complementarity. The second method is a time series method which considers the complementarity and intermittency of solar and wind power but requires much data. The methods are compared in regards to assessed hosting capacities, risks and reliability of results.

    The study is performed on a regional grid case in the middle of Sweden. Solar and wind power plants with different capacities are modeled at ten buses in the power grid. The power grid is analysed in PSS/E with loading of lines and voltage levels determining the assessed hosting capacities. A correlation map presenting the temporal correlations of solar and wind power over the grid case area is also created in order to evaluate the complementarity in the area and its possible effects on the assessed hosting capacities. 

    The results show that the time series method is more reliable than the deterministic method. This is due to the difficulties in identifying accurate worst case hours that are used for the deterministic method. The time series method is also preferred as it considers complementarity between solar and wind power. However, the correlation map argues that the grid case area has weakly positive correlations, meaning low complementarity between solar and wind power. This suggests that the differences in hosting capacity between the two methods are more likely dependent on the temporal variations in existing load and power generation. The differences in assessed hosting capacity between the ten buses in the power grid are probably not due to the local complementarity either, but rather the structural differences of the grid in terms of components, local loads and existing power generation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hosting Capacity Methods Considering Complementarity
  • 25.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cooperation in local electricity markets: modelling of technical measures1997Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a system analysis for co-operation in local electricity markets including distributors and customers. The purpose of co-operation is to minimise the system cost of local markets by introducing system measures, such as end-use measures and municipal co-generation plants. Co-operation will strengthen the position of local markets in the national as well as future international electricity markets. With end-use measures local markets will achieve flexibility, additional reserve capacity and ability to avoid sudden large costs for peak loads. Biomass-fired cogeneration plants can become of great importance in an international market. In Sweden there is a simultaneous demand for electricity and district heating, many local markets already include district heating systems and there are major forest areas which can contribute with renewable fuel. The system analysis is partly based on the simulation model (INDSIM) and the linear programming model (MODEST). The simulation model has been further developed (STRATO) to include calculation of system costs. Shadow price analysis has been developed in order to study incentives for system measures. Calculation procedures have been developed that describe cooperation between distributor and customer. Six case studies of a selection of real, existing local markets in Sweden are presented. The studies show the potential economical effects of co-operation measured by system costs and shadow prices. Co-operation has been considered between demand- and supply-side, electricity- and district heating systems and also between different time periods. In a typical local market with 90 000 inhabitants, if end use measures are introduced without cooperation the system cost of the distributor will increase by 14 million SEK for a time period of 25 years. If instead end-use measures are introduced in co-operation, together with a biomass-fired cogeneration plant, the system cost of the local market will be reduced by 444 million SEK. Furthermore, the use of biomass in the local market is increased from 36 to 72 % while the use of oil is decreased from 34 to 1%. Another case study of another local market (50 000 inhabitants) shows that end-use measures will reduce the system cost (excluding investment costs) of an industry by 50 % corresponding to 1.3 million SEK for one year. The end-use measures imply reduced power demand during peak load periods in the local market and increased power demand during non- peak load periods.

    Delarbeid
    1. Cost-effective energy system measures studied by dynamic modelling
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cost-effective energy system measures studied by dynamic modelling
    1993 (engelsk)Inngår i: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, APSCOM-93., London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993, Vol. 1, s. 448-455Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a national electricity system there often exists a great potential for increasing the cost-efficiency of the electricity use. However, if the economic incentives for improving the use of the system are too weak, it is most likely that this potential will not be utilised. If electricity tariffs reflect real electricity costs, over the year and the day, cost-effective incentives will arise for introducing energy system measures that will reduce the energy system cost considerably. This paper presents two energy system analyses of an existing Swedish municipal energy system. The analyses are carried out with a simulation model for electricity use in industrial energy systems, and an optimisation model that is based on linear programming.<>

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993
    Serie
    IEE conference publication, ISSN 0537-9989 ; 388
    Emneord
    digital simulation, economics, electricity supply industry, industries, linear programming, power consumption, power system analysis computing, tariffs, dynamic modelling, cost-efficiency, economic incentives, costs, municipal energy system, industry, optimisation, digital simulation model, Sweden, power systems, Simulation, Power industry, Power demand
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165082 (URN)0852965699 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    2nd International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, APSCOM-93, Hong Kong, December 7-10 1993
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-14 Laget: 2020-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Energy system cost reduction as a result of end-use measures and the introduction of a biomass-fired co-generation plant
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy system cost reduction as a result of end-use measures and the introduction of a biomass-fired co-generation plant
    1993 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Conference on Renewable Energy - Clean Power 2001: 17-19 November 1993, London, London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993, nr 385, s. 37-42Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe an energy system analysis of an existing Swedish municipality of 90 000 inhabitants. The analysis, which is performed by using an optimization model will show what energy system measures that should be introduced to minimize the total energy system cost. In the existing municipality a local utility distributes heat, for the district heating system, and electricity. The heat is generated by the utility and the electricity is purchased from a large power producer.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993
    Serie
    IEE conference publication, ISSN 0537-9989 ; 385
    Emneord
    Cogeneration plants, District heating, Electric utilities, Mathematical models, Optimization, Biomass, End use measure, Renewable fuel, Systems analysis
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165081 (URN)2-s2.0-0027718829 (Scopus ID)0852966059 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    International Conference on Renewable Energy - Clean Power 2001, London, 17-19 November 1993
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-14 Laget: 2020-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-23bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Shadow prices for heat generation in time-dependent and dynamic energy systems
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Shadow prices for heat generation in time-dependent and dynamic energy systems
    1994 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, nr 12, s. 1205-1211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Shadow prices for heat generation are used to study the impact of changes in heat demand on the total system cost of an existing district-heating system in Sweden. The energy system may be considered to be both dynamic, because there is energy storage, and time-dependent since the electricity tariff is time-differentiated and the heat demand varies over the year and day. The energy system has been analysed with and without energy storage. The analysis shows that despite a reduction in system cost, the use of energy storage can result in higher shadow prices for heat generation in some time periods.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165079 (URN)10.1016/0360-5442(94)90022-1 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-14 Laget: 2020-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-14
    4. Cost-effective incentives for cooperation between participants in the electricity market
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cost-effective incentives for cooperation between participants in the electricity market
    1996 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 301-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish electricity system there is a great potential for increasing the cost efficiency of electricity use. Today economic incentives, offered for instance by existing electricity tariffs, are too weak to improve the use of the system. On the Swedish electricity market, there are at least three different participants, the power producer, the distributor and the customer. Today these participants act separately owing to low awareness of the costs for electricity over the year and the day. If the participants are aware of the real electricity costs, cost-effective incentives for cooperation will arise. When participants cooperate, the introduction of end-use measures will reduce system costs for those participants that are involved in cooperation. We present a system analysis for cooperation between distributor and customers. We also present results from a project, where behaviours of an existing distributor and existing customers have been analysed. The results show that there exist cost-effective incentives for cooperation when end-use measures are introduced.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165077 (URN)10.1016/0306-2619(95)00076-3 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-14 Laget: 2020-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-14
    5. Cost-effective incentives for end-use measures in a Swedish municipality
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cost-effective incentives for end-use measures in a Swedish municipality
    1996 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Symposium [on] Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Aspects of Energy Systems: ECOS'96, Stockholm, Sweden, June 25-27, 1996 / [ed] Per Alvfors, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1996, s. 557-564Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    If actors on the electricity market cooperate when end-use measures are introduced the energy-system, cost will be reduced considerably. The marginal cost for electricity for the energy system of the actors will show cost effective incentives for introducing end-use measures. We present a system analysis for cooperation between distributors and customers. We also present results from a project where an existing distributor and eleven existing customers within a municipal energy system have been analysed. The customers are various industries, a hospital, an ice hockey arena, a harbour, a water-works, a warehouse, and a radio tower. The results show that the customers have in different end-use measures a power reduction capacity of maximum 8642 kW. With electricity costs of 1994 this corresponds to a reduction in the energy system cost of 2,852,000 SEK for one year. The results also show that for the distributor`s load curve of 1994, the full power reduction capacity can not be used since the peak loads of the five winter months are not so large and distinct. In that case the energy system cost can be reduced by 1,909,000 SEK, which is 67% of the maximum cost reduction. The end-use measures that are cost effective in this municipal energy system are load management and electricity generation in reserve power plants. We have also studied the profitability for introducing bivalent heating systems based on oil and electricity for heat loads that originally are based on oil. However, with existing electricity and oil costs there are no incentives for increasing the electricity use during non-peak load periods with bivalent heating systems.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1996
    Serie
    Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 52
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165080 (URN)917170664X (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    International Symposium on Efficiency, Costs, Optimizations, Simulation and Environmental Aspects of Energy Systems, Stockholm, June 25-27, 1996
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-14 Laget: 2020-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 26.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cost-effective incentives for local electric utilities and industries in co-operation: modelling of technical measures1993Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish electricity system there is a great potential for increasing the cost efficiency of the electricity use. However, today the economic incentives, offered for instance by existing electricity rates, are too weak to improve the use of the system. On the Swedish electricity market there are, at least, three different actors, the power producer, the distributor and the customer. Today these actors act separately due to low awareness of the costs for electricity generation, over the year and the day. If the actors are aware of the real electricity costs, cost-effective incentives will arise to introduce energy system measures that will reduce the energy system cost considerably. The thesis presents two energy system analyses of an existing Swedish municipality. The first analysis deals with the introduction of industrial end-use measures, with the local utility’s existing electricity rates as boundary conditions. The analysis is carried out with a simulation model for electricity use in industries. The second analysis deals with the introduction of energy system measures, on the municipal supply-side and demand-side, when the local electric utility and the customers are regarded as one system. The analysis is carried out with an optimization model, that is based on linear programming. The results show that if 17 industries introduce end-use measures, with the existing electricity rates as boundary conditions, their energy system costs will be reduced by 12 MSEK for a time period of 10 years, whereas the local utility will increase its energy system cost by 6 MSEK. However, if there is a co-operation between the local electric utility and the customers, their joint energy system cost will be reduced by 330 MSEK for a time period of 10 years.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shadow prices for heat generation in time-dependent and dynamic energy systems1994Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, nr 12, s. 1205-1211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shadow prices for heat generation are used to study the impact of changes in heat demand on the total system cost of an existing district-heating system in Sweden. The energy system may be considered to be both dynamic, because there is energy storage, and time-dependent since the electricity tariff is time-differentiated and the heat demand varies over the year and day. The energy system has been analysed with and without energy storage. The analysis shows that despite a reduction in system cost, the use of energy storage can result in higher shadow prices for heat generation in some time periods.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Björk, C.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet.
    Energy system cost reduction as a result of end-use measures and the introduction of a biomass-fired co-generation plant1993Inngår i: International Conference on Renewable Energy - Clean Power 2001: 17-19 November 1993, London, London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993, nr 385, s. 37-42Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe an energy system analysis of an existing Swedish municipality of 90 000 inhabitants. The analysis, which is performed by using an optimization model will show what energy system measures that should be introduced to minimize the total energy system cost. In the existing municipality a local utility distributes heat, for the district heating system, and electricity. The heat is generated by the utility and the electricity is purchased from a large power producer.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björk, Curt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cost-effective energy system measures studied by dynamic modelling1993Inngår i: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, APSCOM-93., London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 1993, Vol. 1, s. 448-455Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a national electricity system there often exists a great potential for increasing the cost-efficiency of the electricity use. However, if the economic incentives for improving the use of the system are too weak, it is most likely that this potential will not be utilised. If electricity tariffs reflect real electricity costs, over the year and the day, cost-effective incentives will arise for introducing energy system measures that will reduce the energy system cost considerably. This paper presents two energy system analyses of an existing Swedish municipal energy system. The analyses are carried out with a simulation model for electricity use in industrial energy systems, and an optimisation model that is based on linear programming.<>

  • 30.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cost-effective incentives for cooperation between participants in the electricity market1996Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 301-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish electricity system there is a great potential for increasing the cost efficiency of electricity use. Today economic incentives, offered for instance by existing electricity tariffs, are too weak to improve the use of the system. On the Swedish electricity market, there are at least three different participants, the power producer, the distributor and the customer. Today these participants act separately owing to low awareness of the costs for electricity over the year and the day. If the participants are aware of the real electricity costs, cost-effective incentives for cooperation will arise. When participants cooperate, the introduction of end-use measures will reduce system costs for those participants that are involved in cooperation. We present a system analysis for cooperation between distributor and customers. We also present results from a project, where behaviours of an existing distributor and existing customers have been analysed. The results show that there exist cost-effective incentives for cooperation when end-use measures are introduced.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cost-effective incentives for end-use measures in a Swedish municipality1996Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Symposium [on] Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Aspects of Energy Systems: ECOS'96, Stockholm, Sweden, June 25-27, 1996 / [ed] Per Alvfors, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1996, s. 557-564Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    If actors on the electricity market cooperate when end-use measures are introduced the energy-system, cost will be reduced considerably. The marginal cost for electricity for the energy system of the actors will show cost effective incentives for introducing end-use measures. We present a system analysis for cooperation between distributors and customers. We also present results from a project where an existing distributor and eleven existing customers within a municipal energy system have been analysed. The customers are various industries, a hospital, an ice hockey arena, a harbour, a water-works, a warehouse, and a radio tower. The results show that the customers have in different end-use measures a power reduction capacity of maximum 8642 kW. With electricity costs of 1994 this corresponds to a reduction in the energy system cost of 2,852,000 SEK for one year. The results also show that for the distributor`s load curve of 1994, the full power reduction capacity can not be used since the peak loads of the five winter months are not so large and distinct. In that case the energy system cost can be reduced by 1,909,000 SEK, which is 67% of the maximum cost reduction. The end-use measures that are cost effective in this municipal energy system are load management and electricity generation in reserve power plants. We have also studied the profitability for introducing bivalent heating systems based on oil and electricity for heat loads that originally are based on oil. However, with existing electricity and oil costs there are no incentives for increasing the electricity use during non-peak load periods with bivalent heating systems.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westling, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of the Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems2019Inngår i: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, ISSN 2059-2353, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 124-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting the planet on a global level and it is of vital importance that actors in the energy system work together to achieve political goals, such as the United Nations' goal which states that the global temperature increase should be kept far below 2 °C. There is a need of actions and collaboration throughout the society. The aim of this paper is to make visible the role of Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems. The paper presents a study of some ongoing activities and collaborations for increased sustainability where municipalities play a clear role. The study focuses on three areas; (1) municipalities´ activities towards citizens and business community, (2) municipalities’ activities linked to collaboration with other actors, and (3) challenges related to these activities. The study is based on information from a literature search and interviews. Representatives from eight Swedish municipalities have been interviewed. The result shows that the municipalities are involved in various activities and collaborations. This is done via networks, projects, consulting, information dissemination, showing good examples, tryout activities and nudging. Some important challenges have been found. One of them is the transport sector and how to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Another is to consider that the Swedish energy system is spread over a large geographical area with different opportunities and limitations concerning electricity production and the sizes of the municipalities. Energy system measures and policy programs need to consider these differences to minimize the risk for sub-optimal energy-system measures. A third challenge is the lack of time and resources within the municipalities to engage enough in energy and climate issues.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The role of the Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems
  • 33. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems: Exploring practices, knowledge dynamics and policy evaluation2023Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating climate change represents one of the most pressing challenges of our time. The EU has set the goal of reaching climate neutrality by 2050. The transition of manufacturing organizations is essential in reaching the EU’s goal, since industry accounts for circa 25% of the total final energy use and about one-fifth of EU’s GHG emissions. Energy efficiency stands as one of the essential pillars of industrial decarbonization, with energy management playing a pivotal role in reaching its full potential. To remain competitive in the long term and align with the EU’s carbon neutrality goal for 2050, the manufacturing industry must enhance energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. Manufacturing companies are exploring new ways of working with energy management in order to meet the requirements for both radical and incremental innovations needed to achieve the climate neutrality goal. However, due to the high complexity of industrial energy systems and its high diversity among sectors, improving energy efficiency is a difficult task. Knowledge, especially extensive knowledge, is a key factor for adopting innovations in energy efficiency and industrial processes. 

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems using an extended system approach. Employing top-down and bottom-up approaches, this thesis specifically focuses on three key aspects: industrial energy management practices, knowledge dynamics in industrial energy management, and policy evaluation. Key aspects of this thesis have been studied by means of mixed methods, such as literature reviews, interviews, case study with action research approach, survey, and evaluations. This thesis advocates that energy management practices (EnMPs) include activities beyond energy efficiency improvements. Specifically, they incorporate activities related to the decarbonization of industrial processes, including energy supply (own and purchased) and fuel conversion, at the very least. 

    The results show that internal EnMPs revolve around a focus on technologies, processes, and leadership, for which knowledge creation is an ongoing and evolving process. EnMPs encompass a comprehensive set of strategies and actions undertaken by manufacturing organizations to enhance energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and navigate the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Such practices consist of the following components: energy conservation, energy efficiency, process innovation, energy supply and compensation measures. Furthermore, this thesis has shown that external EnMPs are connected to the participation in energy policy programs and voluntary initiatives and is a common practice in energy management work.

    Organizations often employ a combination of these strategies to achieve climate neutrality and align with environmental sustainability goals. Successful implementation of EnMPs is contingent upon deep process knowledge, especially in the case of radical process innovations, which necessitate a thorough understanding of interdependencies and interconnected processes. Collaboration with external sources of knowledge, including universities and stakeholders, is essential to drive innovation and adapt to evolving energy systems. Leadership plays a vital role in navigating these complexities and ensuring a strategic approach to EnMPs implementation. 

    This thesis contributes to the field of research on energy management in different ways: i. re-viewing the role of energy management in the current context of transition toward sustainable energy systems, ii. advancing theoretical and practical understanding of energy management in manufacturing organizations, iii. enhancing the knowledge-creation perspective within energy management practices for enhancing the adoption of both energy efficiency and process innovation, and iv. advancing theoretical understanding of the knowledge-creation process for energy management through the development of a knowledge-based framework. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, artikkel-id 112168Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2022
    Emneord
    Energy management, Manufacturing industry, Energy efficiency, Decarbonization, Analytical framework, Knowledge based framework, Industry 4.0, Process knowledge, Technical knowledge, Leadership knowledge, Model for energy management
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183200 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2022.112168 (DOI)000786655600003 ()
    Prosjekter
    Towards a theory of energy management through contrasting case studies from the shipping and the manufacturing sectors
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Energy Agency, 460581-1, Dnr 2018-001887
    Merknad

    Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46058-1, 2018-001887]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Link oping University

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-02-28 Laget: 2022-02-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Vise andre…
    2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, s. 1385-1395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2021
    Emneord
    Decarbonization of industry; Energy efficiency policy programs; Ex-ante policy evaluation; Energy audits; Policy process; Guidelines; Methodology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180263 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2021.02.067 (DOI)000701614200009 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [302881]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-10-14 Laget: 2021-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-31
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  • 34.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reducing the Energy Efficiency Gap by Means of Energy Management Practices2019Inngår i: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019: Inspiring Action for a Sustainable Future. Panel 2: People, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency remains a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research onimproved energy efficiency has shown the existence of a gap between the optimal and currentimplementation of energy efficient technologies, which is referred to as the energy efficiencygap. Studies have identified that energy efficiency could be further improved by includingenergy management practices alongside energy-efficient technologies. The inefficiencies ofenergy efficiency are commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energyefficiency. Energy management is stated to be one of the foremost means of overcoming thesebarriers, and two important factors that can help are energy services and energy data monitoring.The aim of this paper is to address how energy services and energy data monitoring can helpeliminate the energy efficiency gap. The study has been carried out as a multiple case studyusing semi-structured interviews.Two aspects of energy management are included: Energy Performance Contract (EPC)and the concept of “Smart” processes and subprocesses. EPC is a commercial model that ispreferably to be designed in a way that it can remove barriers and allow driving forces to beeffective within the contract, and the concept of smart processes and subprocesses, that implies abetter use of big data from measurements and intra-machine connectivity by using the Internet ofThings. Major barriers to energy efficiency are high transaction costs, problems with financingand competition with in-house expertise. Thus, by introducing the EPC and “Smart” concept, areduction of the energy efficiency gap could be achieved.

  • 35.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pierre, Inge
    Energiforetagen Sverige, Sweden.
    Gindroz, Bernard
    CEN CENELEC Sect Forum Energy Management SFEM, Belgium.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology2021Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, s. 1385-1395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Galis, Vasilis
    IT University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (Re-)constructing nuclear waste management in Sweden: the involvement of concerned groups2015Inngår i: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, s. 241-283Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Climate change and the convergence between ENGOs and business2015Inngår i: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping Unversity , 2015, s. 285-306Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Arbman Hansing, Anton
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    European and Swedish point sources of biogenic carbon dioxide2018Inngår i: Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage: from global potentials to domestic realities / [ed] Mathias Friman, Bryssel: European Liberal Forum , 2018, Vol. Sidorna 31-43, s. 31-43Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Acknowledging the climate scenarios’ future deployment of BECCS in Europe and modelers’ questions as to the feasibility of implementing the level of BECCS proposed in the scenarios, this chapter provides a crude estimate of?the existing European potential for BECCS.?This potential is estimated through mapping point sources of biogenic CO2 from three types of processes with particularly promising prospects for BECCS: production of paper and pulp, combined heat and power (CHP), and bioethanol. The production of pulp, paper, and paperboard (“pulp and paper” for short)?is very energy intensive and generates considerable CO2 emissions. Due to?improved energy efficiency and a switch from fossil fuels to in-house biomass-based fuels, a large proportion of these CO2 emissions are biogenic (Sun et al., 2018). This, in combination with the fact that the emissions are often concentrated in just a few large production plants, makes these industries promising for BECCS deployment.

  • 40.
    A.S.M. Monjurul, Hasan
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biogas potential from municipal and agricultural residual biomass for power generation in Hazaribagh, Bangladesh: A strategy to improve the energy system2019Inngår i: Renewable Energy Focus, ISSN 1755-0084, Vol. 29, nr June 2019, s. 14-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is considered as one of the significant benchmarks towards sustainable growth. Due to the recenteconomic growth, energy demand is increasing day by day in Bangladesh. The power generation mainlyrelies on fossil fuels though there are plans to increase the renewable energy share by the concernstakeholders. Considering the global warming, energy generation from renewable sources is consideredas a sustainable way to mitigate the anthropogenic emission. This study, therefore, addresses thepotentiality of biogas production from municipal waste and agricultural residues in a city territory ofDhaka namely Hazaribagh. The potential sources include wastes from two markets, six slaughterhouses,domestic wastes, one poultry farm and three croplands. The calculations made in this study to estimatethe amount of biogas and electricity from the described sources are done in a simple way, just to illustratethe potential. This study suggests that there is a good potentiality of biogas production and electricitygeneration from municipal wastes and agricultural residues of Hazaribagh. Moreover, this study alsomentions the significant actors like government, future owners, people and so on that are needed to beincorporated to implement biogas solution in a city territory.

  • 41.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015Inngår i: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, s. 223-242Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 42.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium- sized Swedish firms2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

    Delarbeid
    1. Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Extending the Energy efficiency gap
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, s. 392-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86546 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.042 (DOI)000312620000042 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-12-18 Laget: 2012-12-18 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The energy service gap: What does it mean?
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, s. 649-656Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011
    Emneord
    Energy efficiency, Energy Service, ESCO, Energy Efficiency Gap
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71759 (URN)978-91-633-4455-8 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    ECEEE 2011 Summer Study Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, Belambra Presqu’île de Giens, France, 6–11 June 2011
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-11-10 Laget: 2011-11-03 Sist oppdatert: 2014-11-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, s. 54-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112267 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.068 (DOI)000351788700005 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-20 Laget: 2014-11-20 Sist oppdatert: 2015-05-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms
    2014 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112268 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-20 Laget: 2014-11-20 Sist oppdatert: 2015-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 511-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer Netherlands, 2013
    Emneord
    ESCO, Energy services, Barriers to energy efficiency, Energy efficiency, Trust
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87148 (URN)10.1007/s12053-012-9189-z (DOI)000321437000006 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-01-10 Laget: 2013-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-11
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  • 43.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Swedish environmental protection agency.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Energy service collaborations: it is a question of trust2015Inngår i: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, s. 149-167Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy services in Swedish industrial firms: A multidisciplinary analysis of an emerging market2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European commission highlight the energy service market as an important means to improve energy efficiency. Both the Energy service directive and the new suggested Energy Efficiency Directive urge member states to facilitate market development for energy services. The industrial sector is estimated to have large energy efficiency potential. The aim of this multidisciplinary report is to investigate the state of the Swedish energy service market 2011, both from the supply side and from the industrial demand side in order to contribute with knowledge to the discussion of energy services as a way to improve industrial energy efficiency. Economic market theory and Socio-technical theory (the theory of economization presented by Caliskan and Callon) is used to analyse different aspects of the emerging market. The results show that the market for industrial energy services in Sweden is more extensive than previous reports have assessed. Our study describes how energy service collaborations can be complex and how calculations and measurements of expected energy savings lead to controversies and power imbalances.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms2014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program2015Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, s. 54-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014Inngår i: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 48.
    Backman, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises-A Case Study of a Local Energy Program2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro-and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro-and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities), split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments), and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill). This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project "Energy-Driven Business". Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Balachandran, Arvind
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Tomas Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Scania AB, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    DC Charging Capabilities of Battery-Integrated Modular Multilevel Converters Based on Maximum Tractive Power2023Inngår i: Electricity, E-ISSN 2673-4826, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 62-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the average global temperature is a consequence of high greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, using alternative energy carriers that can replace fossil fuels, especially for automotive applications, is of high importance. Introducing more electronics into an automotive battery pack provides more precise control and increases the available energy from the pack. Battery-integrated modular multilevel converters (BI-MMCs) have high efficiency, improved controllability, and better fault isolation capability. However, integrating the battery and inverter influences the maximum DC charging power. Therefore, the DC charging capabilities of 5 3-phase BI-MMCs for a 40-ton commercial vehicle designed for a maximum tractive power of 400 kW was investigated. Two continuous DC charging scenarios are considered for two cases: the first considers the total number of submodules during traction, and the second increases the total number of submodules to ensure a maximum DC charging voltage of 1250 V. The investigation shows that both DC charging scenarios have similar maximum power between 1 and 3 MW. Altering the number of submodules increases the maximum DC charging power at the cost of increased losses.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Balke, Nina
    et al.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Bonnell, Dawn
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Ginger, David S.
    University of Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Scanning probes for new energy materials: Probing local structure and function2012Inngår i: MRS bulletin, ISSN 0883-7694, E-ISSN 1938-1425, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 633-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and control of materials properties, often at the nanoscale, are the foundation of many new strategies for energy generation, storage, and efficiency. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has evolved into a very large toolbox for the characterization of properties spanning size scales from hundreds of microns to nanometers. Recent advances in SPM involve properties and size scales of precise relevance to energy-related materials, as presented in this issue. These advances are put into the general context of energy research, and the general principles are summarized.

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