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  • 1.
    Abbatelli, Daniele
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material flows in the waterjet industry: an environmental perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abrasive Waterjet cutting (AWJ) presents many advantages over competing machining techniques, but several issues are related to the high volume of materials (and in particular of abrasive) used in the process.

    In this study, the environmental impact of the material flows in the abrasive waterjet industry has been analyzed adopting a life cycle perspective in order to individuate which phases place the largest burden on the environment. Moreover, three alternative abrasives (crushed rock, recycled glass and synthetic abrasive) and three disposal practices (in-site recycling, off-site recycling and recycling as construction material) have been also evaluated to estimate the benefits that can be achieved if these could be used in place of garnet abrasives and landfilling.

    The transportation of the abrasive resulted to be the phase that has the largest influence in every case and thus should be reduced as much as possible. For what concerns the alternative options, the usage of recycled glass and the in-site recycling of the abrasive were the two alternatives with the best environmental performances. However, crushed rock could be the best option for what concerns the global warming potential if carbon sequestration due to carbonation of silicate rocks is taken into account. Off-site recycling and recycling as construction material are good options only if the transportation to the recycling site can be reduced. Synthetic abrasive are instead found to have a much larger impact compared to every other alternative examined.

  • 2.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

    List of papers
    1. Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

    Keywords
    Circular economy, Industrial symbiosis, Recycling, Business development, Green innovation
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137456 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.04.007 (DOI)000403860200009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-08-07
    2. Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    2016 (English)In: The Open Waste Management Journal, ISSN 1876-4002, E-ISSN 1876-4002, Vol. 9, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known that our common resources are limited and that recycling is key for a sustainable future; inreality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless numbers ofexamples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials.This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction to explore why it’s so difficult establishlarge scale secondary stock extraction although suitable technologies are available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways forreducing some of the main barriers presented.

    Keywords
    Circular economy, Economy, Recycling, Resources, Sustainability
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137459 (URN)10.2174/1876400201609010011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29
    3. Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    National Category
    Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137462 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.012 (DOI)000356194300033 ()2-s2.0-84929966422 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    QC 20150713

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    2017 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 2229-2246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can be used to produce energy carriers, chemicals, and materials of value. This article explores how automated data analysis approaches can help in analyzing large bodies of text to distill and present potential value pathways for secondary (waste) bio-based materials. The study employed multiple methods (literature collection, topic modelling, and co-occurrence analysis) on a collection of abstracts from 53,292 academic articles covering technologies, applications, and products (TAPs) for bio-based wastes. The results of both the topic modelling and co-occurrence analysis are presented as online interactive web pages. The topic modelling presented an overview of research clusters related to secondary organic resources, processes, and disciplines. The co-occurrence analysis helped to understand which TAPs are researched in relation to a broad spectrum of organic wastes. Co-occurrences were evaluated using the Normalized Pointwise Mutual Information measure to locate terms which co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Through the use of detailed lists of organic wastes and TAPs, the co-occurrence method mapped out 7118 unique intersections between 473 specific wastes and 228 TAPs. This technique enables us to find seemingly non-obvious valorization pathways such as the re-use of oyster shells as catalysts for bio-diesel production and bioplastic production from brewery waste. While a proof-of-concept, this work points the way for using Big Data to suggest novel pathways for implementing the Circular Economy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    By-product, Waste valorization, Circular economy, Recycling, Industrial symbiosis, Big Data
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138067 (URN)10.1007/s12649-017-9975-0 (DOI)000411975600001 ()2-s2.0-85020108904 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
    5. Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012 / [ed] M. Arm, C. Vandecasteele, J. Heynen, P. Suer and B. Lind, Swedish Geotechnical Institute , 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009 until 2011 project BRA (Bygg-och Rivningsavfall i Stockholms Län) “Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Stockholm County” was coordinated from the division of Industrial Ecology, KTH. This project was focused on actively improving (from plural perspectives) the cycles of C&D (specifically non-metallic inert) materials in the region. In response to the normative aim and inter-systems complexity, a highly participative action research procedure was adopted. Through processes of network communication, workshops, a course, and an international symposium - a number of issues (such as market development, recycled product quality, greenhouse gas impacts, collaborative planning, and statistics) were prioritized, researched, and acted upon. Indicators for measuring progress in selected areas were developed and preliminary action plans created. At a final co-organized symposium Swedish delegates laid the groundwork for the establishment of a Swedish C&D recycling b ranch organization. This initiative of continued collaboration between and within sectors is seen as a vehicle for the priorities and action requirements identified in BRA to be further enabled and held in focus. Furthermore, these actors taking ownership of the process is seen as a success in accordance to the original aims and the need for further cycles of evaluation, planning, and action.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 2012
    Keywords
    by-product, recycling, synergy, industrial ecology, facilitation
    National Category
    Construction Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137463 (URN)
    Conference
    WASCON 2012 – towards effective, durable and sustainable production and use of alternative materials in construction. 8th International conference on sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012
    Note

    QC 20130522

    Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 4.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 572-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 5.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental management systems and environmental performance2007In: Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems / [ed] Robert Sroufe and Joseph Sarkis, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2007, p. 242-257Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMSs) are tools that can be used to steer and controlan organisation’s environmental efforts. This chapter focuses on standardisedEMSs, those that deal with fulfilling the requirements of the international standard ISO14001 (ISO 1996) and/or the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) (EC 2001).These standardised EMSs have been applied for about a decade; the number of organisationsthat are certified in accordance with them worldwide is steadily rising and nowhas reached over 100,000 (ISO World 2007).Early EMS work focused on issues relating to implementation. Often, positive environmentaleffects were taken for granted. More recently, however, questions addressingthe effects of standardised EMSs have become more popular in the research literature.The extent and types of effects of a standardised system are critical issues from anenvironmental perspective. The information presented within this chapter will helpuncover and capture some of the nuances of the connection between EMSs and environmentalperformance. Important lessons learned as a result of this study include arelative lack of understanding of EMSs even after more than a decade of practical application.Additional insights include the extent to which EMSs are useful tools in achievingbetter organisational environmental conditions and identification of the importantfactors influencing the effectiveness and efficiency of such systems. While the focus ofthis chapter is on the use of standardised EMSs to reduce environmental impacts, themethods used in this study build on the author’s findings from several earlier studies—a meta-analytic perspective—and are summarised where appropriate. Some key strategicEMS issues addressed here include:

    ● Environmental aspects, their identification, formulation and assessment

    ● The scope of EMSs, including their relationship with product development

    ● Environmental policy, targets and objectives

    ● External environmental auditing

    ● Continual improvement in environmental performance

    ● EMSs and the supply chain

  • 6.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljömanagement: miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i företag och andra organisationer2012 (ed. 2 [rev.])Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger läsaren kunskap om viktiga förutsättningar när det gällerföretags, och andra typer av organisationers, arbete med miljö- och hållbar utveckling. Det gäller både förutsättningar utanför och inom organisationer. Boken behandlar även relevanta strategier, metoder och koncept inom området.

    I den första delen – Omvärlden – behandlas områden som främst påverkar företag och andra typer av organisationer utifrån. Inledningsvis beskrivs exempelvis miljöproblematiken och ”hållbar utveckling”. Därefter behandlas miljöpolitik, miljölagstiftning, de ekonomiska systemen samt etiska frågor.

    I den andra delen – Hållbarhetsstrategiskt arbete med fokus på miljö – behandlas delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet som ofta berör hela organisationen. Först introduceras intressentperspektivet och därefter grunderna avseende strategiskt arbete. Vidare finns en kort introduktion till organisationsteori med en beskrivning av hur miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete kan organiseras och genomföras. Därefter följer två kapitel om ledningssystem, först ges en allmän introduktion för flera olika områden och sedan en mer ingående beskrivning. Den andra delen avslutas med ett kapitel om miljöarbete i olika typer av organisationer.

    I bokens tredje del – Viktiga delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet – berörs andra ”områden” i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet, som kan vara mycket viktiga men ofta inte är lika övergripande. Det innefattar miljörevision; miljöarbete med fokus på produkter; miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar; riskhantering; samt marknadsföring och extern kommunikation.

    Boken är i första hand skriven för kurser i miljömanagement eller miljöledning vid högskolor och universitet, men kan också användas för utbildningar på företag och inom andra typer av organisationer.

  • 7.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center (BRC).
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biogas in the transport sector: Actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This articlefocuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions.Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essentialrole, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning sociotechnicalsystems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation andsigns of stagnating development.Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procuresbiogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedaviasteers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”.There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due tosuggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comesabout. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-freevehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance,but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policylandscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behindthe decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union andSweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-20 10:58
  • 8.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 9.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 10.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Bohn, Irene
    Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole, Denmark.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Systematic assessment of feedstock for an expanded biogas production: A multi-criteria approach2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions can contribute to more renewable and local energy systems, and also involve other essential aspects such as nutrient recycling. From a theoretical feedstock perspective there is a great biogas potential in Sweden, but the development has been relatively slow as many biogas producers face challenges of different types. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) is of strategic importance. Within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), hosted by Linköping University in Sweden, a research project focused on feedstock has been ongoing for several years. It has involved researchers, biogas and biofertilizer producers, agricultural organizations and others. The main aim has been to develop a method to assess the suitability of feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production, and to apply this method on a few selected feedstocks. A multi-criteria method has been developed that covers potential, feasibility and resource efficiency, operationalized via 17 indicators directed towards cost efficiency, technological feasibility, energy and environmental performance, accessibility, competition, policy and other issues. Thus the method it is relatively comprehensive, yet hopefully simple enough to be used by practitioners.

    The main ambition, applying the method, has been to collect and structure relevant information to facilitate strategic overviews, communication and informed decision making. This is relevant for development within the biogas and biofertilizer industry, for policymakers, to define and prioritize among essential research projects, etc. This report presents some essential parts of this project, focusing on the multi-criteria method and results regarding ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels and food waste (and stickleback to some extent). It clarifies how the method can be applied and highlights barriers, drivers and opportunities for each feedstock. Comparisons are also made. The results indicate that biogas production from food waste and ley crops is the most straightforward, and for straw and farmed blue mussels there are more obstacles to overcome. For all of them, the dynamic and very uncertain policy landscape is a barrier. In the final chapter, some conclusions about the method and its application are drawn.

  • 11.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustainable waste management. This study aims to identify the major waste streams of recyclable waste and also the major stakeholders that are active in this area through an exploratory study involving interviews, a workshop and a survey. The result of this thesis can hopefully assist in the preparations for such a transfer station. The conclusions of this study are many and contains of both hard facts and also loose ends that can contribute to pursue further studies. The first important result is that all the waste collection companies transports everything they collects to a landfill and it is only recycling organizations that are working with collection and recycling in Gaborone. These recycling organizations are a few but smaller compared to the waste collection companies in collected amounts of material. Besides these collection organizations, Gaborone City Council, the local municipality works with collection of household waste and the collaboration between these three groups that operates in the same environment is very poor. All the interviewed stakeholders showed a positive interest in the transfer and recycling station but there is only a small part of the commercial business in Gaborone that believes in a more serious waste management than landfilling. Despite that one major shopping mall actually sort out recyclables and saves 30% in waste management costs thanks to that. Another issue is the prevailing cultural contradictions that is obvious among the organizations in Gaborone. The last two bigger issues is the tremendously dull political bureaucracy that is appearing in Botswana and also that voices are raised that corruption is great beneath the surface.

  • 13.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Social-ecological resilience thinking in Environmental Management Systems for municipal strategic planning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human actions are significantly affecting natural environments from local to global scales. At the same time, our current and future well-being is not decoupled from the continuous function of the natural ecosystems. An emerging issue, from an anthropocentric point of view, is then under what conditions the ecosystems will be able to continue delivering services that we as humans benefit from. A concept within the theory of social-ecological resilience that deals with this issue is thresholds.

    This thesis addresses how the concept of thresholds can be operationalized in a local authority and what gains and challenges that could entail for strategic planning in the municipality. The thesis also addresses how the operationalization of thresholds could benefit from a standardized Environmental Management System (EMS) in a local authority, and if there are any difficulties in doing so. My research questions are addressed by studying Eskilstuna municipality, a local authority in Sweden that uses both an EMS and is part of an on-going resilience assessment in collaboration with Stockholm Resilience Centre. The studied case and issues described above are approached interdisciplinary by using literature and document studies, participant observations, a survey, and semi-structured interviews with actors at the municipality.

    My research shows that thresholds potentially could be operationalized in a local authority either through strategic action plans, or as a way of constructing scenarios in comprehensive planning. Both ways of operationalizing thresholds need to occur in early stages of strategic planning. The thesis shows that thresholds could entail a potential comprehensive gain for strategic planning by providing an argument as to why it is important that certain development trajectories within the municipality are changed. The results also show synergistic effects between the EMS and thresholds in the sense that the EMS could systematize the implementation of overarching strategic plans, influenced by the concept of thresholds, in the municipality’s organization. Challenges in using thresholds in a local authority related mainly to the issues of quantifying thresholds, and to a tension between the different system boundaries suggested by resilience theory and continuous improvement in an EMS.

  • 14.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 15.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainability Profiled Incubators - Procceses For Recruiting And Supporting Tenants2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since start-ups enterprises often have more room and flexibility for sustainability ideas in the early stages of business development incubators could be particularly important for introducing and developing sustainability thinking. Previous studies on incubators and the incubation processes in general are rather extensive in the literature. However, there are few studies particularly focusing on sustainability dimensions of incubators. In particular how incubators recruit and support start-ups in incorporating sustainability thinking into their core business idea or making their sustainability-oriented idea even more successful has received few research attention. With this gap identified in research and societal need for sustainability, research on green incubators is of timely interest. The latest report from the IPCC on climate change problem warns about the demand of sustainable business creation, which is critical to promote sustainable development. Entrepreneurship is at the heart of sustainable growth (Carayannis and Von Zedtwitz, 2005) and in that sense it is in the heart of sustainability development. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to investigate empirically the recruiting criteria of start-ups by three sustainability oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany in order to understand how they support sustainable entrepreneurship and eco-innovation.

    Following a literature review on “conventional” incubators, a sample incubator that works with sustainable start-ups in each country was chosen and studied by help of interviews with managers, stakeholders, tenants and managers at incubators in order to investigate deficits and potentials of the existing incubator support systems for sustainable entrepreneurship and eco innovation. The data used in the study comes from Green Tech Park (Sweden), LADEC (Finland) and Green Garage (Germany).

    From this study, our major implications are that, the studied incubators on average have an ambition to recruit and develop sustainability oriented start-ups, but a critical mass of such tenants is vital if any such ambitions are to become a reality. This critical mass of start-ups is very much influenced by the local context of the incubator, which generates both potential tenants and resources to support such firms in sustainability entrepreneurship and eco innovation. For incubator management, this suggests an active search for tenants interested in sustainable entrepreneurship and providing support focused on such activities.

  • 16.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainability profiled incubators-process for recruiting and supporting tenants2015In: Proceedings of XXVI ISPIM Conference: Shaping the Frontiers of Innovation Management, ISPIM – the International Society for Professional Innovation Management , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the recruitment and support process of sustainability profiled incubators have received little research attention, the goal of this paper is to fill this knowledge gap by an empirically investigation of three sustainability oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data used in the study comes from interviews with managers, stakeholders, tenants in selected incubators, in Green Tech Park (Sweden), LADEC (Finland) and Green Garage (Germany). Our major implications are that, the studied incubators on average have an ambition to recruit and develop sustainability oriented start-ups, but a critical mass of such tenants is vital if any such ambitions are to become a reality. This critical mass of start-ups is influenced by the local context, which generates both potential tenants and resources to support such firms. For incubator management, this suggests an active search for tenants interested in sustainable entrepreneurship and providing support focused on such activities.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Department of Accounting and Logistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Persdotter Isaksson, Maria
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Exploring logistics-related environmental sustainability in large retailers2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and illustrate ways in which the world’s largest retailers describe their logistics-related environmental considerations, their environmental indicators applied to measure the effects of these considerations and their environmental consciousness in their CSR reports.

    Design/methodology/approach – Classification models are developed via a literature review on logistics-related environmental considerations, indicators and consciousness. A content analysis approach is then applied to examine CSR reports from 12 of the world’s largest retailers.

    Findings – Few retailers show environmental considerations in all logistics activities, but purchasing is especially well described. Even if many retailers claim to use the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, no one uses is completely. Judging consciousness from CSR reports raised a number of questions.

    Research limitations/implications – A contribution to theory is the development of two classification models. The first provides a description structure for environmental considerations related to logistics activities. The second expands the GRI indicator framework by incorporating a structure for logistics activities.

    Practical implications – The classification models developed can be an important mean for managers and also consumers to judge the environmental sustainability of retailers by their CSR reports.

    Social implications – The study makes a social contribution with its input on sustainability and especially environmental issues.

    Originality/value – Few studies have focused upon environmentally sustainable logistics in retail chains, and even fewer address how to measure environmental sustainability in this context.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, MariaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greening logistics2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging awareness of climate threats and other environmentally related problems creates challenges for logistics.Greening logistics introduces various avenues to understand and improve logistics systems from an environmental perspective.Freight transport is part of, as well as a consequence of, the logistics 
system, where the environmental challenges cannot, and should not, be met at the cost of efficiency and competitiveness.During the last decade, research into green logistics has expanded and matured dramatically. From being in the outskirts of the logistics field, environmental considerations have become a more natural part of logistics research. This book provides examples of research performed by Swedish PhD students, and illuminates parts of the multifaceted area of green logistics research. The PhD students have each contributed with one chapter, in which they present their research in their own words.Greening logistics is aimed at various audiences: for students and teachers in universities and professional programmes – to facilitate the understanding of a complex, important, and emerging area; for business – to demonstrate green logistics’ important role, and provide inspiration and guidance for further development; for funding bodies – to demonstrate the strength of a joint funding initiative: the development of research competence at various universities; and for researchers – as inspiration and introduction to the area of green logistics.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, MariaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greening Logistics2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging awareness of climate threats and other environmentally related problems creates challenges for logistics. Greening logistics introduces various avenues to understand and improve logistics systems from an environmental perspective. Freight transport is part of, as well as a consequence of, the logistics 
system, where the environmental challenges cannot, and should not, be met at the cost of efficiency and competitiveness. During the last decade, research into green logistics has expanded and matured dramatically. From being in the outskirts of the logistics field, environmental considerations have become a more natural part of logistics research. This book provides examples of research performed by Swedish PhD students, and illuminates parts of the multifaceted area of green logistics research. The PhD students have each contributed with one chapter, in which they present their research in their own words. Greening logistics is aimed at various audiences: for students and teachers in universities and professional programmes – to facilitate the understanding of a complex, important, and emerging area; for business – to demonstrate green logistics’ important role, and provide inspiration and guidance for further development; for funding bodies – to demonstrate the strength of a joint funding initiative: the development of research competence at various universities; and for researchers – as inspiration and introduction to the area of green logistics.

  • 20.
    Borghei, Behbood
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    UITP World Congress & Exhibition 2015: Compilation of field notes and empirical insights2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The UITP World Congress & Exhibition is the largest worldwide public transport event that is held every second year in different cities around the world. It involves wide range of participants from public transport authorities and politicians at the local, national and cross-national levels to the manufacturing companies, suppliers, operators, investors and solution providers to all segments of the public transport sector and its related mobility infrastructure. It includes rail, road, water-born and even alternative and new modes of public transport systems for short distance and urban mobility covering metropolitan areas and other specific territories.

    This report summarizes background information on the UITP organization, its impact and related public transport projects as well as field notes and empirical insights collected from the research visit to UITP world congress and exhibition in Milan between 8to 10th of June 2015. The focus of the research visit and the scope of this report mainly concern city-bus vehicles and related EU-funded projects or public-private partnerships for technological advancements of the alternative powertrain in this field i.e. hybridization and electrification of city buses.

  • 21.
    Borghei, Behbood
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Institutionalisation of environmental innovation: joint development of standards, technologies and actor networks in the European heavy duty vehicles sector2016In: International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, ISSN 1470-9511, E-ISSN 1741-5012, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 341-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission standard requirements for toxic air pollution (NOx/PMs) from heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) have been sharply reduced over the past few decades. This paper seeks to explain how such significant reduction has taken place in the European HDV sector. Based on the sectoral systems of innovation framework, this paper sheds light on the commercial vehicles sector, one that is often overlooked in existing literature. The analysis suggests that extensive periods of network formation, coordination and negotiation in the early stages of regulatory process enabled consensus, which in turn made it possible to obtain acceptance for technology-forcing requirements at the industry level. This facilitated enactment and implementation of further stringent emissions standards in later phases. It also explains why OEMs did not resist stringent environmental measures in this sector.

  • 22.
    Borghei, Benny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Niche experiments with alternative powertrain technologies:: The case of electric city-buses in Europe2016In: International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, ISSN 1470-9511, E-ISSN 1741-5012, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 274-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using sociotechnical transitions literature, this paper analyses the early market introduction of electric city-buses in Europe. It identifies the role of bus manufacturers and their corresponding choices of alternative powertrain and charging technologies. Study results contrast the traditional dichotomy of incumbents versus niche actors and questions perceived role of incumbents as a homogenous group of actors. The paper proposes an alternative to the typical perception of industry incumbents as the guardians of the current sociotechnical regime, suggesting that a strong position in the established regime may actually facilitate introduction of radical technological solutions. The paper invites transition scholars to make more detailed analyses of actors’ constellations and it further suggests that policy makers need to pay attention to the diversity of individual actors’ strategies.

  • 23.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio Andres
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

  • 24.
    Bäcklund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danesten, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östersjölaxen, ett förslag och enrad aktörer - vad kan gå fel?: En innehållsanalytis k studie kring olikaaktörers ståndpunkt gällande Europarlamentens och Europarådets förslag till en långsiktig förvaltningsplan förlaxbestånden i Östersjön och dess älvar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea is threatened by substantial anthropogenic activities, and in practice, an action plan hasbeen missing for almost a decade. A proposal for a multi annual action for the Baltic salmon stock was presented by the EU-commission 2011,this plan aimed to aid attempts of reaching a sustainable exploitation of the salmon stock, and to sustain the genetic integrity and diversity of thespecies. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine selected statements of opinion in regards of mentioned proposal, these statements areofficial recommendations carried out by concerned authorities and NGO’s, and have been delivered to the Swedish government. Content analysiswill be used on the statements of opinion and the two interviews. The analysis shows that various actors are generally positive towards theproposal of a multiannual action plan, but disagreements and critique of proposed approaches tend to be dominant in several statements. This isvery clear in terms of the phasing out of the salmon releases and the smolt production goals, which the proposal deals with. A large number ofproposed measures and associated processes are very time consuming, and thus, changes in matters like these happen over extended periods oftime. It is therefore of great importance that actions are put in motion long before the risks of reaching irreversible damages becomes evident.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 26.
    Chen, Lujie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applying GRI reports for the investigation of environmental management practices and company performance in Sweden, China and India2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between environmental management practices (EMPs) and company performance hasrecently been debated in literature and is of interest for both industrial managers and political decisionmakers.This paper investigates the relationship between EMPs and firm performance in manufacturingcompanies in Sweden, China and India. With the content analysis of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)reports and financial reports of sample companies, the levels of EMPs and the companies’ financialperformances were coded. Further statistical assessment was conducted in order to identify patterns andcorrelations. The results indicate that only selected EMPs have been employed differently in threedifferent countries. Most EMPs clearly do not have a positive correlation with the financial performance;i.e. employing EMPs does not necessarily improve the economic consequence of companies. Nevertheless,a number of EMPs do have a strong correlation with improving innovation performance in variouscompanies. It is also interesting to note that a negative correlation exists between the Environmentalstandard for suppliers and Sales growth. This is possibly due to increasing operational costs and a delay inmarket acceptance. This research illustrates the possibility of using standard environmental data fromGRI reports as a resource for future studies of EMPs. In order to improve long-term financial performance,this study also suggests that innovation should gain a substantial amount of attention when EMPsare employed.

  • 27.
    Dannert, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Norström, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Metod för bedömning och jämförelse av insamlings- och sorteringssystem för hushållsavfall: Utveckling av ett verktyg för multikriterieanalys med en- och fåfamiljshus i Linköpings kommun som fall2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest challenges the world is facing today is the negative environmental effects as a result from the linear economy used in societies, where products are constantly being produced from raw materials and end up as waste after the period of usage. Initiatives on many levels; local, regional, national and global are needed to create a circular economy which minimizes both the generation of waste and the extraction of raw materials. The European Union’s action plan for circular economy expresses that 75 % of all packaging waste should be recycled by 2030. In Sweden packaging waste is being recycled between 42,2 % (plastic waste) to 95 % (glass waste) and the curbside collection systems for packaging waste are quite well-developed, especially regarding waste systems for multi-family houses. For single-family houses the development has been slower, although several municipalities have introduced curbside collection systems for household waste including packaging and newspaper waste during the last years. It is a comprehensive and complex decision to invest in a new extended curbside collection and sorting system in a municipality and there are many aspects to consider. Since several previous inquiries regarding this type of decision lacks a systematic approach and clear objectives, the purpose of this study is to develop a method for conducting a systematic multi-criteria analysis of collection and sorting systems for single-family household waste in a municipality. 

    Prior to the multi-criteria analysis a substantial evaluation of aspects related to the decision of a new waste system was made. The mapping and selection of aspects that were made provide great knowledge for municipalities facing this kind of decision. The developed multi-criteria analysis is based on the generic form of a multi-criteria analysis, using the municipality of Linköping and Tekniska verken as case. As a result, the range of waste systems evaluated have been selected according to the preferences of Linköping municipality. The developed multi-criteria analysis has been transferred to a user-friendly tool for decision makers at municipalities who wish to assess and compare extended collection and sorting systems for single-family household waste. 

    The study has resulted in the following criteria which should be considered in an inquiry of waste systems for single-family houses in a municipality, where resource efficiency is highly prioritized: 

    • Establishment & flexibility 

    • Environmental impact from usage of materiel 

    • Customer perspective 

    • Working standards 

    • Environmental impact from energy usage during operation 

    • Collection results 

    • Economy 

    These criteria have been divided into smaller components, called indicators. When assessing and comparing waste systems, it is essential to evaluate systems within these criteria and indicators to ensure a thorough basis for this type of decision. 

    The study has been able to highlight some lack of knowledge within the criteria Establishment & flexibility and Environmental impact from energy usage during operation, which complicates the assessment of waste systems within these areas. Sufficient knowledge regarding some waste systems are also missing, most likely due to the systems not being used in Sweden.

  • 28.
    De Koeijer, Bjorn
    et al.
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    De Lange, Jos
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Desired, Perceived, and Achieved Sustainability: Trade-Offs in Strategic and Operational Packaging Development2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The alignment of the strategic and the operational level of packaging development

    in relation to the integration of sustainability is not addressed extensively in current research.

    This paper aims to address this, by focusing on the decision-making interrelations of key actors

    (marketing and packaging development) within multidisciplinary product-packaging development

    teams. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured

    interviews with individual packaging development team members, complemented with a newly

    developed visualization tool. The research builds upon eight cases within brand owners, packaging

    material suppliers and packaging development consultants. The main findings of the study

    include the decision-making trade-offs between sustainability considerations and other project

    indicators, such as costs, time-to-market and technical challenges. These trade-offs are linked to

    the strategic and operational roles of key actors, and to internal and external factors influencing

    sustainable development processes. This research’s contribution is to address the alignment of the

    strategic and the operational levels of sustainable packaging development, in relation to (1) decision

    making and interrelations within multidisciplinary development teams; and (2) the relevance of

    development-influencing factors. This provides opportunities for further development of sustainable

    packaging models and tools, in order to align the strategic and operational level of development.

  • 29.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the products life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with "zero burden", by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-08 11:32
  • 30.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Innovatum Technology Park.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Market barriers for environmental innovations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes market barriers experienced by Swedish innovators in start-up companies early in the process of bringing environmental innovations to the market. The studied innovators are mainly active in a business-to-business market that often involves capital-intensive industry sectors and large companies are seen as important customers. Most of the market barriers identified can be related to customer relations. The innovators experience their customers’ negative attitudes and unwillingness to try new technologies as major barriers. Furthermore, they perceived their customers to be conservative and reluctant to take risks. These barriers may be relevant in most innovation developments although they may be more articulated for environmental innovations since such innovations mostly evolve in emerging industries and since capital-intensive industry sectors dominate the area. Measures to stimulate diffusion of environmental innovation are discussed, including ways to encourage customers to test new technologies and to see the adoption of the innovation as worth the perceived risks.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy Integration for Sustainable Transport Development: Case Studies of Two Swedish Regions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that for the management of complex issues such as sustainability, which transcend traditional policy sectors and require coordination between several different interests and actors, policymaking depends upon collaboration and integration processes between different sectors and tiers of government. The overall aim of this thesis is therefore to study how and why (or why not) policy integration processes are being developed in regional policymaking and what this means for the achievement of sustainable transport. The thesis consists of two separate qualitative case studies of policymaking in two Swedish regions, one representing a least likely case and the other a most likely case of policy integration. The focus has been on the organizational actors involved in policymaking processes for the regional transport system. For the general discussion the theoretical framework of policy integration, complemented by the analytical concepts of policy logics, organizational identities and boundary object are used. The findings are presented in four articles. An overall conclusion is that policy integration processes do not necessarily result in policy for sustainable transport. If policy integration becomes a goal in itself and the same as joint policy, it risks neglecting sustainable values and becoming the smallest common denominator that a number of actors can agree on. For developing sustainable transport solutions, collaboration for the coordination of policy may be beneficial, but the aim of such processes should not be joint policy.

    List of papers
    1. Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport
    2015 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines backcasting and policy analysis to identify the opportunities for and barriers to the increased use of renewable energy and energy-efficient vehicles in an urban road transport system, namely, that of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2030. The combination of methods could bridge the implementation gap between scenario-based research and actual policy implementation and thus increase the chances of research being implemented in practice. In the case study, backcasting identifies a need for diverse fuels and vehicles and for immediate policy action. However, analysis of policy integration demonstrates that such action is unlikely given current policy structures. The fundamental lack of integration between energy and transport policy obstructs measures to increase the use of renewable fuels and more energy-efficient vehicles, which in turn obstructs the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport. The combination of backcasting and policy analysis is demonstrated to improve our understanding of the prerequisites for transitioning to a system based on renewable energy, and could thus be useful in further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Urban road transport, Renewable fuels, Energy efficiency, Transport policy, Energy policy, Scenario studies
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112506 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.10.014 (DOI)000347594100008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Policy integration between autonomous policy sectors is a tool for managing interdependent technical systems to avoid suboptimization. Biogas, regarded as a renewable energy carrier usable in the energy and transport systems, is produced from organic material such as municipal organic waste (MOW). It is connected to a number of systems and policy sectors, making biogas management an instructive case for studying policy integration processes. Swedish biogas production has increased in recent years, and in the Stockholm region there has been enormous interest in biogas production for vehicle use since the early 2000s. In this paper biogas will be discussed in the perspective that it is or has potential to be a vital part of three systems: waste, energy, and transportation. The aim is to analyse whether policy integration occurs between the systems and to explore if boundary objects can play a role when understanding policy integration processes. In examining the biogas development process, regional policy documents and interviews with stakeholders in the biogas process are used. The results indicate consensus among regional actors that biogas should be used in vehicles and that MOW should be collected for this purpose, indicating congruence of understanding of biogas. Biogas functions as a boundary object in these cases and contributes to high policy integration between the energy and waste systems. Despite consensus that biogas should be used in the transport system, there is little policy integration between the energy and transport sectors. The policy sectors of transport infrastructure and spatial planning are not concerned with fuel or biogas issues. Public transport policy focuses on the use of biogas for their vehicles, but even if biogas serves as a boundary object it is not developing into policy integration processes. The conclusion is that biogas development has resulted in integrated policymaking between the energy and waste sectors and biogas has served as a strong boundary object which has spurred that development. Between the energy and transport sectors there is little policy integration, and biogas is not a boundary object in the cases of transport infrastructure and spatial planning policy sectors. What this case shows is that if there is a lack of presence of a boundary object it suggests no preconditions for policy integration processes to start.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2015
    Keywords
    Transport system; Energy system; Policy integration; Boundary object; Regional policy
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120150 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.042 (DOI)000356194300019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. The Role of Organizational Identities for Policy Integration Processes: Managing Sustainable Transport Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Organizational Identities for Policy Integration Processes: Managing Sustainable Transport Development
    2017 (English)In: Public Organization Review, ISSN 1566-7170, E-ISSN 1573-7098, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 525-544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transport development is a complex, but necessary issue to manage if the use of fossil energy will decrease and transportation become more energy-efficient and environmental friendly. The contemporary public organization is organized into policy sectors and tiers of government, but the issue of sustainability is not confined to one single sector or level, it transcends all these traditional boundaries. To address this complexity policy integration has been suggested as a way for public organizations to open up the sectoral and vertical boundaries in policymaking. This paper discusses a case study of a political committee on the regional level in Sweden, which has been formed for integrated policymaking between sectors and local and regional authorities to manage sustainable transport development. The analysis of the case shows that vertical and sectoral integration are dependent processes and that the relation between different organizational identities either strengthens or undermine them. Vertical integration is not resulting in sectoral integration, rather it works prohibiting against sectoral integration

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2017
    Keywords
    Organizational identity; Policy integration; Regional governance; Sustainable transport policy; Sweden
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134659 (URN)10.1007/s11115-016-0348-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84973657481 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
  • 32.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University.
    Is enhanced landfill mining profitable?2018In: ISWA 2018 Book of Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2018, p. 240-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from linear to circular economy has steered the change in perception about landfills. From final to temporary waste storage, landfills are considered as technospheric stocks of resources that can be recovered through innovative technologies in the concept of enhanced landfill mining (ELFM). At present, most ELFM projects are in pilot-scale and it remains as a proof of concept. Economic feasibility is one of the primary considerations that must be satisfied prior to its full-scale realization. Several economic assessments were conducted in recent years but there is no systematic synthesis of these studies to date. The aim of this review is to compile various empirical insights of previous economic assessments of ELFM in relation to the employed methodological choices. With pre-defined exclusion criteria, 15 studies were selected in this review. For the empirical part, the identified main economic drivers for costs are separation and sorting, thermal treatment and transportation, while for benefits are material sales, recovered land and energy sales. In more than half of the studies, the costs exceeded the benefits concluding that ELFM is not profitable.  The few potentially profitable cases mainly depend on varying the system conditions defined by market prices and regulations. These require changes that are more radical, if not impossible. For the method part, costs and benefits are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale—that is from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot scale, respectively. As most studies are based on pilot scale, if not purely conceptual, data estimation mainly depends on extrapolation from these pilot projects or on direct adoption of secondary data. In spite of the expected uncertainties in model, scenario and parameter, less than half of the studies employed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. With it being neglected, their results can be considered to have a weak reliability for practical use in a full-scale ELFM project implementation. A need for systematic framework for early-stage assessment is highlighted to capture both stochastic and epistemic uncertainties. Process and system upscaling with exploratory scenario development, and participatory data collection in ranges rather than in absolute terms are some of the suggested approaches to generate results with a certain level of confidence. In this way, the future economic assessments of ELFM can veer away from simple profitability assessments. Instead, it focuses on knowledge development despite the limited information that is inherent to emerging concepts. Most importantly, it provides reliable information that can be used as a decision-support for various stakeholders such as project managers, technology developers, and policy makers towards the advancement of ELFM.

  • 33.
    Evangelista, Pietro
    et al.
    CNR - IRISS, Naples, Italy.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sweeney, Edward
    ESM Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, the UK.
    Morvillo, Alfonso
    CNR - IRISS, Naples, Italy.
    Putting together environmental sustainability and profitability in logistics and supply chains2017In: International Journal of Business and Systems Research, ISSN 1751-200X, E-ISSN 1751-2018, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 345-348Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Ecology and Development of Production Systems: Analysis of the CO2  Footprint of Cement2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is an attempt to create a comprehensive assessment framework for identifying and assessing potential improvement options of cement production systems.

    From an environmental systems analysis perspective, this study provides both an empirical account and a methodological approach for quantifying the CO2 footprint of a cement production system. An attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed to analyze the CO2 footprint of several products of a cement production system in Germany which consists of three dierent plants. Based on the results of the LCA study, six key performance indicators are dened as the basis for a simplied LCA model. This model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of dierent versions of the cement production system.

    In order to identify potential improvement options, a framework for Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) is developed. The search and classication guideline of this framework is based on the concepts of Cleaner Production, Industrial Ecology, and Industrial Symbiosis. It allows systematic identication and classication of potential improvement options. In addition, it can be used for feasibility and applicability evaluation of dierent options. This MCA is applied both on a generic level, reecting the future landscape of the industry, and on a production organization level re ecting the most applicable possibilities for change. Based on this assessment a few appropriate futureoriented scenarios for the studied cement production system are constructed. The simplied LCA model is used to quantify the CO2 footprint of the production system for each scenario.

    By integrating Life Cycle Assessment and Multi-Criteria Assessment approaches, this study provides a comprehensive assessment method for identifying suitable industrial developments and quantifying the CO2 footprint improvements that might be achieved by their implementation.

    The results of this study emphasis, although by utilizing alternative fuels and more ecient production facility, it is possible to improve the CO2 footprint of clinker, radical improvements can be achieved on the portfolio level. Compared to Portland cement, very high reduction of CO2 footprint can be achieved if clinker is replaced with low carbon alternatives, such as Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) which are the by-products of other  industrial production. Benchmarking a cement production system by its portfolio product is therefore a more reasonable approach, compared to focusing on the performance of its clinker production.

    This study showed that Industrial Symbiosis, that is, over the fence initiatives for material and energy exchanges and collaboration with nontraditional partners, are relevant to cement industry. However, the contingent nature of these strategies should always be noted, because the mere exercise of such activities may not lead to a more resource ecient production system. Therefore, in search for potential improvements, it is important to keep the search horizon as wide as possible, however, assess the potential improvements in each particular case. The comprehensive framework developed and applied in this research is an attempt in this direction.

    List of papers
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 35.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systems Analysis for Eco-Industrial Development: Applied on Cement and Biogas Production Systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our industrial systems are not sustainable—a major challenge which demands several types of responses. Eco-industrial development can be seen as such a response, with the goal to establish industrial systems that are both ecological and economical. Industrial Ecology is another closely related response. It is based on the idea that natural systems can be used to understand how to design sustainable industrial systems, for example, by shifting from linear industrial processes to cyclic systems, where waste streams can be avoided or minimized through utilization as raw materials for other processes. In this thesis, the possible contributions of industrial ecology/symbiosis to eco-industrial development are investigated through the use of systems analysis approaches. Two systems analysis methods are used: life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria analysis. These methods are applied on two types of industrial systems: cement and biogas.

    Cement is among the most used materials in the world with extensive resource consumption and environmental impact, manifested for example by the high levels of CO2 emissions. Multi-criteria analysis was used to identify, classify, and assess different measures to improve the climate performance of cement production, while life-cycle assessment was employed to quantify the CO2 emissions. Combined, multi-criteria analysis and life-cycle assessment were used for an integrated assessment of different eco-industrial development paths. Most of the feasible and resource-efficient improvement measures were related to utilization of secondary resources, for example minimizing the clinker content of the cement by replacing it with by-products from steel and iron manufacturing, or using refuse-derived fuels. Effective utilization of these secondary raw materials and fuels can be achieved through industrial symbiosis.

    Biogas is viewed as part of a larger transition towards a bio-based economy where resources—bio-materials and bio-energy—are used in a cascading, circular, and renewable manner. Multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the feasibility and resource efficiency of using different types of biomass as feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production. In addition to aspects such as renewable energy and nutrient recycling, cost efficiency, institutional conditions, environmental performance, the potential per unit, and the overall potential were considered. In another study, life-cycle assessment was used to analyze the environmental performance of biogas production from source-sorted food waste using a dry digestion process. The study showed that the performance of this dry process is superior to most of the existing wet biogas processes in Sweden. The critical sources of uncertainty and their impact on the overall performance of the system were analyzed. Factors influencing methane production, as well as processes related to soil after the digestate is applied as biofertilizer on land, have the greatest influence on the performance of these systems.

    For both cement and biogas systems industrial symbiosis involving collaboration and better utilization of local/regional secondary resources, can result in resource-efficient eco-industrial development. Life-cycle assessment and multi-criteria approaches can serve as two complementary methods for investigating the feasibility, potential, and resource efficiency of different development paths. These approaches can provide input into decision-making processes and lead to more informed decisions.

    List of papers
    1. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
    2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
    Projects
    BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Note

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
    2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    multi-criteria analysis, biogas, ley crops, straw, blue mussel, food waste
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130776 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.020 (DOI)000401881300037 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Note

    At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

    Keywords
    life-cycle assessment, key performance indicators, uncertainty analysis, food waste, biogas, dry process
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130774 (URN)
    Projects
    BRC-RP3 (system quantification projects)-Biogas from Food waste
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-08-23Bibliographically approved
  • 36.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 37.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 38.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 39.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

  • 40.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 41.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

  • 42.
    Feizaghaei, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving climate performance of cement production: Developing an assessment framework and applying it to a CEMEX cement production cluster in Germany2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is very likely that human being is contributing to the process of global warming. Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to the cement production. In order to be able to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate the most effective, applicable, and feasible CO2 improvement measures, it is essential to have an assessment framework, which has an environmental management perspective. Such a framework should be able to cover the widest range of potential CO2 improvement measures, therefore it has to have a wide system perspective and consider all material, and energy flows within the industry as useful resources.

    The first part of this thesis uses the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis as the supporting theoretical concepts for developing such assessment framework. The framework has semi-qualitative approach for assessing different measures and is developed in two parts: (1) generic and (2) site-specific assessment. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. complexity of business approach), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    In the second part of this thesis, the developed framework is applied on a selected cement production system which is a cluster composed of three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West. The result of the assessment provides insights about the state-of-the-art of CO2 improvement measures in cement industry in general and also demonstrates which of these measures are most (or least) suited for development in the Cluster West. The production system of the Cluster West has effectively applied CO2 improvement measures in areas such as producing blended cement products, using alternative fuels (and renewable fuels) for clinker production. In addition, its clinker production (the Kollenbach plant that is part of the Cluster West) has relatively good energy efficiency. According to the results of the assessment, CO2 improvement measures such as co-generation (producing electricity from excess heat of the plant), using renewable fuels, using alternative materials for clinker production, and increasing the usage of alternative fuels are among the most applicable choices for further implementation.

  • 43.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    National infrastructure, small towns and sustainable mobility – experiences from policy and strategy in two Swedish municipalities2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 1660-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the implications of improved access to national rail and roadinfrastructure for urban planning and land use in two small Swedish towns. The promotion of sustainable mobility is considered a strategic objective at the municipal level, yet the study questions the extent to which national investments, and increased access to regional labour markets, support local efforts to increase sustainable mobility. The results indicate that municipalities struggle to adopt coherent approaches to increasing sustainable mobility and continue to develop physical plans that induce use of motor vehicles, a trend reinforced by national investments in road infrastructure in peri-urban areas.

  • 44.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable energy and sustainable transport: what can Swedish towns learn from municipalities in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the varying ways in which three European cities attempt to increase levels of sustainable mobility, and the extent to which renewable fuels or alternative forms of propulsion are integrated within the cities’ strategic work for sustainable transportation. The report presents findings from document and interview studies in the three cities – Basel, Switzerland; Göttingen, Germany; and Odense, Denmark – in order to highlight approaches, experiences or lessons that may be of value to Swedish municipalities addressing these topics.

    The report indicates that there is a demonstrable need for municipalities across Europe to more explicitly and deliberately integrate strategies aiming for sustainable mobility with the use of renewable fuels and alternative forms of propulsion. Such integration will enable municipalities to increase levels of walking, cycling and public transport whilst reducing use of vehicles operating on fossil fuels. Where and when journeys by motor vehicles are unavoidable, municipalities should strive to ensure that such vehicles are electric or using high blends of renewable fuels. From a Swedish perspective, there is a need to recognize the important role of sustainable mobility in urban sustainable development and develop bolder and more coherent strategies and policies to reduce levels of vehicle use.

  • 45.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable mobility in the sustainable city – what can Swedish towns learn from municipalities in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland?: (Hållbar mobilitet i den hållbara staden - vad kan svenska städer lära från kommuner i Danmark, Schweiz och Tyskland?)2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The project addresses the challenge of developing policies and incentives to achieve sustainable mobility in urban areas. 

  • 46.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Jonsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conditions Influencing Municipal Strategy-Making for Sustainable Urban Water Management: Assessment of Three Swedish Municipalities2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-22, article id 1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategy-making is key for realizing sustainable urban water management. Though general barriers and factors for change have been identified, fewer studies have assessed how different conditions influence municipalities’ strategy-making ability and, thus, how to plan strategically given these conditions. Healey’s strategy-making notion was applied to delimit a study of how size, finances, development path, and water organization influence Swedish municipalities’ strategy-making ability for urban water. Three municipalities, Laxå, Norrköping, and Skellefteå, with different, yet overlapping, institutional and socio-economic conditions were analyzed using semi-structured interviews, a stakeholder workshop, and document analyses. The study finds that even though key events have filtered urban water issues into the political agenda, this has not induced systemic change, except where the role of water management in urban development has been specified, i.e., has aligned dispersed planning processes. Organizational setup influences the strategy-making ability by prescribing not only when water issues are raised, but also what system perspective should be applied and what actors that should be enrolled. Judging from the three cases, size, finances, and development path do matter for strategy-making ability, but they appear to be less important than the organizational setup. Departures for improving strategy-making under different conditions are discussed.

  • 47.
    Granberg Lomyr, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Urban mining i praktiken: Hur kan återvinning av markförlagda kablar integreras i infrastrukturs-planeringen och vilka kostnadsposter kan användas vid projektbererdning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att hantera den ökande befolkningen i världen behöver jordens resurser användas mer effekt vilket till exempel kan göras genom att återvinna material som inte längre fyller någon funktion. Området Urban mining handlar om att frigöra material som inte längre används i den urbana miljön och göra dem tillgängliga för nya produkter. I Sverige förläggs olika typer av infrastruktursystem i marken och när de inte längre används får de vanligtvis ligga kvar. Resursbasen som bland annat urkopplade elkablar utgör har identifierats i tidigare studier som intressant att ta upp i samband med markingrepp, då de innehåller värdefulla metaller. Att förädla malm till ren metall är dessutom mer kostsamt, ur både ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv, än att återvinna produkter som inte längre används.Studien har omfattat intervjuer med elnätsägaren i Linköping om hur beslut fattas kring elnätets förvaltning samt en praktisk pilotstudie i utvecklingsorten Vikingstad. Personer på olika strategisk nivå intervjuades och styrande dokument som ägardirektiv för verksamheten granskades. Därefter identifierades möjligheter och hinder för att kabelupptagning ska ske i större utsträckning än idag samt vart i den strategiska processen frågan behöver integreras. I Vikingstad var planen att både förnya och förstärka elnätet på sträckor där kablar som skulle kopplas ur låg. Under pilotstudien undersöktes vilka extra moment som upptagningen krävde, vad momenten innebar för kostnader, vilken tid de tog samt vilka intäkter som kabelskrotet genererade.Elnätsägarna regleras av energimarknasinspektionens intäktsram och branchorganisationen Svensk energi har en central roll för ökad och spridd kunskap hos Sveriges elnätsägare. Dessa två intressenter har därför viktiga roller i ställningstagandet om huruvida urkopplade elnätskablar ska tas upp eller ej. Hos elnätsägaren i Linköping är det när beslut tas om vilka förstärknings- eller förnyelseprojekt som ska genomföras som möjligheten till integrering av upptagning av urkopplade kablar bör undersökas. Detta då fallspecifika parametrar som fördelaktig ny sträckning och omkopplingsmöjligheter är avgörande för genomförbarheten. Resultatet från pilotstudien visar att fyra typer av moment är nödvändiga för att ta upp urkopplade kablar: ”schaktning och friläggning”, ”lyfta upp kabel ur schakt”, ”samla ihop kabel och kabelband” samt ”återställning”. Av dessa moment påverkar ”schaktning och friläggning” kostnaderna mest om extra djup krävs och ”lyfta upp kabel ur schakt” är mest kostsamt om det finns många andra system kring kabeln som ska tas upp. Det ekonomiska resultatet visar att tre procent av kostnaderna på sträckorna där kablar togs upp kan allokeras till upptagningen.Slutligen konstateras att fördelar som ökad miljöprestanda och frigjord plats för nya system i marken bör beaktas i större utsträckning hos elnätsägaren. Kostnader och intäkter kan också styras om för att motivera elnätsägarna mer, då upptagningen i dagsläget medför ökade kostnader för dem. För att underlätta budgetering av förstärknings- eller förnyelseprojekt med integrerad kabelupptagning presenteras kostnadsposter för de sammanslagna momenten upptagningen innebär, baserade på olika grundförutsättningar. Exempel på framtida studier för att öka kunskapen om och möjligheterna att ta upp urkopplade kablar är fler pilotstudier för att erhålla ett mer generaliserbart dataunderlag samt att undersöka hur ekonomiska värden av kabelupptagning kan fördelas mer fördelaktigt för elnätsägarna.

  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The use of standardised environmental management systems in Swedish local authorities2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on one of many tools that can be used for enhancing  environmental management in local authorities; standardised environmental management systems (EMSs). EMS is a strategic environmental management tool that originally was designed for and mainly used by industrial organisations. The tool provides the basis for designing an environmentally focused management system that is compatible with and possible to integrate into the general management procedures in an organisation, and it helps an organisation achieve its environmental and economic goals (ISO, 1996). Several studies examine how well standardized EMSs serve their purposes (e.g., Strachan, 1999; Steger, 2000; Ammenberg, 2001; Berkhout et al., 2001). Although several results have been reported, it has proven difficult to evaluate the efficiency of EMSs in organisations. Despite the fact that EMSs have been extensively used by industrial organisations since the tool was introduced on the market, this ground breaking process has been a little slower for local authorities and it has taken some time for EMSs to become common among these kinds of organisations. Studies from different countries report some outcomes from EMS implementation in local authorities (e.g., Aall, 1999; Bekkering and McCullum, 1999; Honkasalo, 1999; Darnall et al., 2000; Burstrom, 2000a; Cockrean, 2001). So far, however, the studies about EMSs mainly describe and comment on the implementation process and it is little questioned whether or not the tool is appropriate for the organisations of local authorities or what it does to improve the environmental state. This could be because EMS is a recent phenomenon and it requires some time to settle before the experiences can be gathered and outcomes studied. Hence, it becomes more and more interesting to study whether EMS implementation in local authorities really leads to environmental improvements and if standardised EMSs are appropriate for their organisations. This thesis concentrates on Swedish local authorities and conditions. To this date, there is little academic experience concerning how common EMS implementation is in Swedish local authorities and no studies that generally describe the Swedish local authorities' use of EMSs. Therefore, this thesis builds a general knowledge baseline by mapping ongoing EMS activities in Swedish local authorities. This map becomes a point of departure for forthcoming and more in depth studies regarding the appropriateness of EMSs and the environmental effects of EMS implementation.

  • 49.
    Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportinstitut (VTI), Sweden.
    Kaijser, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att ställa andra frågor: intersektionalitet och feministisk politisk ekologi2017In: Politisk ekologi: om makt och miljöer / [ed] Erik Jönsson, Elina Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 205-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Hjalmarsson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas as a boundary object for policy integration - the case of Stockholm2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy integration between autonomous policy sectors is a tool for managing interdependent technical systems to avoid suboptimization. Biogas, regarded as a renewable energy carrier usable in the energy and transport systems, is produced from organic material such as municipal organic waste (MOW). It is connected to a number of systems and policy sectors, making biogas management an instructive case for studying policy integration processes. Swedish biogas production has increased in recent years, and in the Stockholm region there has been enormous interest in biogas production for vehicle use since the early 2000s. In this paper biogas will be discussed in the perspective that it is or has potential to be a vital part of three systems: waste, energy, and transportation. The aim is to analyse whether policy integration occurs between the systems and to explore if boundary objects can play a role when understanding policy integration processes. In examining the biogas development process, regional policy documents and interviews with stakeholders in the biogas process are used. The results indicate consensus among regional actors that biogas should be used in vehicles and that MOW should be collected for this purpose, indicating congruence of understanding of biogas. Biogas functions as a boundary object in these cases and contributes to high policy integration between the energy and waste systems. Despite consensus that biogas should be used in the transport system, there is little policy integration between the energy and transport sectors. The policy sectors of transport infrastructure and spatial planning are not concerned with fuel or biogas issues. Public transport policy focuses on the use of biogas for their vehicles, but even if biogas serves as a boundary object it is not developing into policy integration processes. The conclusion is that biogas development has resulted in integrated policymaking between the energy and waste sectors and biogas has served as a strong boundary object which has spurred that development. Between the energy and transport sectors there is little policy integration, and biogas is not a boundary object in the cases of transport infrastructure and spatial planning policy sectors. What this case shows is that if there is a lack of presence of a boundary object it suggests no preconditions for policy integration processes to start.

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