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  • 1.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage2016In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 174-185Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

  • 2.
    Almoosawi, Somar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University.
    Product Related Research Regarding Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, in Hong Kong and South China, Environmental Management Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research was set out to understand the underlying causes for the lack of knowledgeregarding the environmental field in Hong Kong and South China and get a basic view of thedifficulties Environmental Management Systems (EMS) encounter when being put intopractice. Interviews and factory visits were used to collect data needed to build this report.The interviews had the aim to understand how companies in Hong Kong and China managetheir environmental related work. An EMS is a set of processes and practices that enable anorganization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency, buthow was the use of such systems affecting the environmental work in reality.A total of eight persons from six different companies were interviewed. With the aim tounderstand how EMS were implemented and used from their point of view. The maindifficulty for the companies asked was the task of understanding and documenting theprocesses of ones own company. With differences such as language, culture, etc present thereis a need for a mutual ground. In the environmental field EMS are used as the commonground. Western companies are, because of the use of EMS, able to attain a picture of theenvironmental work and processes of their industrial partners in the China and Hong Kong.The result of this research shows that there still are many obstacles, for environmentalmanagement systems used by SME, left to address. There are cultural as well asinfrastructural problems that need to be addressed. It is therefore important to alter EMS inco ordinance with the Chinese social environment that it will be used in.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Petersson, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Potential for Urban Mining in Norrköping: a Static Quantification of Metal in Subterranean Infrasystems2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the society’s demand for metal increases, the rate of mineral extraction will do the same. This contributes to environmental implications in the form of emissions and depletion of finite natural resources. Conventional recycling is a common practice used to reduce the need for extraction of metal ore and in turn reduce the environmental impact. Recycling is an important source to satisfy the metal demand; as much of 30 % of the metal demand is covered by recycling in some markets. Another form of recycling is the practice of urban mining. A practice which includes recycling of society’s stocks of unused but not discarded metal, these unused amounts metal is part of a so called hibernating stock. An example of a very large stock is the infrasystems in the shape of power cables and pipes. The objective of this thesis is to quantify the metal stocks of copper, aluminium and iron in subterranean infrasystems in the city district of Södra Butängen in Norrköping. Also, a quantification for Norrköping as a whole is performed but on slightly different infrasystems. An economical valuation of these stocks is also performed. The Municipality of Norrköping has the ambition to transform this small industrial area, that Södra Butängen is today, into to a sustainability profiled residential and commercial area which opens up an opportunity to recycle the infrasystems when all buildings are removed and the ground is dug up. To fulfil the objective of the thesis, and quantify the metal stocks, so called static quantification was used. The infrasystems to be included in this study were chosen and the data describing these systems was collected from the respective owner of the systems. The gathered data consists of maps which were digitalized with GIS-software using ArcMap 10 where the stocks then were quantified. The results show that the infrasystems in Södra Butängen holds almost 600 tons of metal with an economical value of 4.67 million SEK. For the Norrköping quantification the results shows that the stock contains about 30,000 tons of metal. The economical value is a little over 70 million SEK. The hibernating stocks in Norrköping equals to 5,100 tons of metal and a value of 9.5 million SEK. There is a potential for urban mining in Södra Butängen that should be considered. However, there are some issues that also must be considered, like cost of extraction. There are large stocks of metal that not have been possible to identify in this thesis. This includes the power grid for Norrköping; a valuable stock due to its large copper content.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Resurseffektivare energi- och växthusföretag genom industriell symbios2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to assess the potential from a joint venture between Tekniska Verken and greenhouses. The goal is to, through industrial symbiosis, create a resource-efficient solution in which Tekniska Verken’s facilities can improve their environmental performance while the greenhouse’s climate impact is reduced.

    Tekniska Verken has excess heat in their facilities. In 2007 Gärstad- and Kraftvärmeverket had 54 GWh excess heat. The largest quantity of excess heat occur during the summer when the demand for heat in the district heating system is the lowest. The excess heat during the summer reached a high level as 25MW.

    In a few years, Swedish Biogas’s plant in Linköping will have an excess heat of about 26 GWh per year. The effect will then be 4 MW during the winter and 2 MW during the summer. The amount of carbon dioxide released from the biogas plant is 16 000 tons a year resulting in a flow of 1.8 tons per hour. The biogas plant in Linköping produces 45 000 tons of bio-fertilizer a year.

    Vegetables like tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs and lettuces are grown in greenhouses thrives best at temperatures of 15-26 ˚ C. During the day, the temperature should be slightly higher than during the night. In order to enhance growth of the plants, carbon dioxide can be added. In strong light and warm climates, carbon dioxide concentration can be increased from 375 ppm to 1200 ppm. The energy demand for tomato cultivation is somewhere between 350-550 kWh per square meter and year. The power requirement varies between 200 and 300 W per square meter depending on plant location and the house insulation. The carbon dioxide supply is 7-20 grams per square meter greenhouse.

    The excess heat from Tekniska Verken’s facilities is enough to support a traditional greenhouse with the size of two hectares. The greenhouse has its lowest heat demand in the summer, which has the effect that only a small portion of excess heat from Gärstad- and Kraftvärmeverket can be used. The amount of excess heat from the biogas plant is highest in the winter and slightly lower in the summer, making it well suited for a match with the greenhouse. The amount of carbon dioxide is enough to meet the demand of a greenhouse with an area of 9 hectares. It could potentially be possible to use bio-manure as fertilizer in the greenhouse. However, further studies should be conducted before this can be assured.

    Tekniska Verken is investigating how a joint venture with the company Plantagon could be set up. Plantagon together with Sweco has developed an innovative cultivation concept in which plants are grown in levels in a sphere-shaped greenhouse. To verify the data on energy and power needs given by Sweco, and to get an idea of the parameters that affect greenhouse climate, calculations have been performed. The factors taken into account in the calculations are the heat conduction, convection, solar radiation, ventilation, dehumidification and the use of water. To see how the power requirements vary throughout the year, the calculations have been repeated for every month. The excess heat from Tekniska Verken is more than enough to cover the greenhouse’s heat demand.

    In order to estimate how much Tekniska Verken could reduce a greenhouse cultivation’s climate impact, six different scenarios is set. Using an existing life cycle analysis of Swedish tomato cultivation the carbon dioxide emission per kilogram of tomatoes for the different scenarios were calculated and compared. Two of the scenarios are linked to Tekniska Verken. One scenario is traditional greenhouse cultivation and the other is Plantagon greenhouse. A traditional greenhouse cultivation which is provided with resources from Tekniska Verken and is locally producing vegetables has a smaller carbon footprint than average greenhouse cultivation. The production of 78 kg of tomatoes in that greenhouse corresponds to the same carbon footprint as 1 kilogram tomatoes from average greenhouse cultivation. Plantagon greenhouse can similarly produce 7 kilograms of tomatoes in the same climate impact as 1 kilogram of tomatoes from average greenhouse cultivation.

    By using excess heat, carbon dioxide and bio-manure from Tekniska Verken to power the greenhouse, a system solution with low environmental impact is created. Previously not used resources will have a sector of application, which increases the environmental performance of the production facilities. The produced vegetables will get a lower environmental impact and could, for example be climate certified and sold as locally produced in the Linköping area. By avoiding long and expensive transports and to be able to sell vegetables at a higher price increases the profits for cultivation company.

  • 5.
    Asplund, Stina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The Biogas Production Plant at Umeå Dairy — Evaluation of Design and Start-up2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of a large project at Norrmejerier, a biogas production plant has been constructed at Umeå Dairy. In this plant wastewater, residual milk and whey are decomposed and biogas is produced. The biogas is burned in a steam boiler. The biogas plant is designed as an anaerobic contact process, with sludge separation and recirculation by a clarifier. The fat in the substrate is treated in a separate reactor.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the design and start-up of this biogas production plant. Further, the interaction with the contractor responsible for construction and start-up is evaluated.

    The plant is generally well designed, the process conditions are suitable and the objectives are realistic. However, the seed sludge is unsuitable and the time plan is too optimistic.

    At the end of the period of this study, the plant was running and all central components are performing as intended. Still, the objectives have not been reached. This is mainly attributed to the poor quality of the seed sludge.

    The management of the plant and the interaction with the contractor has generally been good. Most problems that arose were of typical start-up nature. Others were due to insufficient planning or lack of communication. Further, several design flaws were identified during start-up.

    Washout of sludge has been one of the most significant drawbacks during start-up. This inconvenience seems to be the result of improper seed sludge and a too hasty increase of the organic loading rate.

  • 6.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Implementation of Lead-Free Soldering in Highly Reliable Applications2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The directive of the European parliament and of the council on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) took effect in the European Union on July 1, 2006. Japan, California, China and Korea are all closed markets for exporters of components containing lead from July 1, 2007. Taiwan and Australia are working with similar directives. The RoHS directive is the reason why this thesis about the implementation of lead-free soldering in highly reliable applications is necessary.

    The European Lead Free soldering NETwork (ELFNET) status survey from 2005 shows that the majority of the companies are well informed, but 20% are still not active in lead-free soldering. The Swedish industry is for the most part prepared and 95% of the components are lead-free. The transition to lead-free soldering will have a major affect on logistics and administration, because the RoHS directive is 90% about administration and logistics problems. Only 10% is technical problems.

    The higher melting point in lead-free soldering affects every stage of the lead-free manufacturing, from assembly to testing and repair.

    The major concern for highly reliable applications are that there are not enough data to understand to what grade lead-free solders will perform differently from lead based solders. Five different types of reliability testing were studied in this thesis; vibration, mechanical shock, thermal shock, thermal cycling and combined environments. Whiskers, voids, brittle fractures and mixed assembly problems were also studied. Individual tests alone should not be used to make definite decisions on lead-free soldering reliability. The lower reliability for lead-free solders in some tests does not necessarily mean that lead-free solders not can be used in highly reliable applications like defence electronics.

    The most important conclusions from this thesis are:

    • Update or change the logistic system and mark/label according to available standards.

    • Secure a good board layout.

    • Secure a good process control.

    • Alternative surface board should be used. Tin-silver-copper (SAC) is the most reliable solder and Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) is the most reliable surface finish.

    • Remember that the higher temperature affects every stage of the manufacturing.

    • No increased problems with whiskers or risk of high voiding levels.

    • Mixed assembly is a risk. Compatibility and contamination risks must be taken seriously.

    • Which environment will the applications be in? If it is not a highly vibrating and thermal cycling environment, lead-free soldering should be safe to use.

  • 8.
    Bertling, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Röstberg, Sebastian
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hur uppfattas biogas och el?: En diskursanalys av debatten kring två alternativa bränslen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har sedan bilens uppkomst funnits samhällsdebatter kring vilket bränsle som är mest passande. Trots att fossila bränslen dominerar som fordonsbränsle, har debatten om alternativa bränslen pågått under en längre tid. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka en del av denna debatt. Inriktningen är fokuserad på el och biogas som alternativa bränslen i Sverige. Ett antal debattartiklar ur tidsskrifter har valts ut och analyserats med en diskursanalytisk metod. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna härstammar ifrån N. Fairclough, M. A. Hajer samt U. Beck. I debatten har ett antal problem kring respektive bränsle framträtt. Det handlar bland annat om infrastruktur, teknisk utveckling och privata sektorns ansvar. Alternativa bränslen uppfattas som attraktiva lösningar på transportsektorns miljöproblem. Staten har en roll i utvecklingen av dessa bränslen då ekonomiska bidrag är högt värderade och anses nödvändiga. Det framgår tydligt i debatten att miljöproblemen som härstammar ifrån transportsektorn ska lösas med teknisk utveckling. Det återstår att se vilket bränsle som kommer att gynnas mest av staten och därmed hur transportsektorns problem kommer att lösas.

  • 9.
    Biswas, Rajib
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibility of anaerobic conversion of red algae Polysiphonia, rich in nitrogen and phosphorous, was investigated. Biogas and methane potential of Polysiphonia, harvested in two different seasons [October and March], was investigated through three different batch digestion experiments and laboratory scale CSTR [continuous stirred tank reactor] at mesophilic (37oC) condition. Autoclavation [steam and heat] and ultrasound pretreatments were applied in order to enhance the biodegradation. In STR, anaerobic codigestion of algal biomass with SS [sewage sludge] was applied with a gradual increase in organic loading rate [1.5-4.0 g VS/L/day] and operated for 117 days at 20days HRT [hydraulic retention time]. Reactor digestate was analyzed four times over the period to determine the nutrients and heavy metals content. It is concluded that the methane potential of algae harvested in October is almost two-fold than that of algae harvested in March, probably due to it’s higher [more than double] nitrogen richness. An increase in biogas yield was observed upto 28% and VS reduction was increased from 37% to 45% due to autoclave pretreatment. Ultrasound pretreatment had no effect on digestion. In batch digestion, maximum methane yield 0.25 m3/kg VS added at 273oK, was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated in autoclave. Codigestion of algae with SS worked well in STR with a comparatively lower OLR. At a higher OLR, methanogens were inhibited due to increased VFAs accumulation and decreased pH. A maximum biogas yield 0.49 m3/kg VS added at 310oK , was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated with autoclave. The methane content of the produced biogas was 54%. Average [over a short period, day 99-107, reactor showed steady performance] maximum biogas yields from untreated algae obtained 0.44 m3/kg VSadded at 310oK and the VS reduction was calculated 32%. Digestate, to be used as a fertilizer, was found NH4-N, N, P, K, S and Na rich and only Cadmium level was above the maximal limit among the heavy metals. The sand content in algae during harvesting was considered as a factor to disrupt the operation. Codigestion of Polysiphonia algal biomass with substrate with higher C:N ratio like paper mill waste should be more appropriate to increase the methane and biogas yield. It is inconclusive whether AD process is a good method to dewater redalgae or not but large scale harvesting of algae will definitely contribute to curb eutrophication of the Baltic Sea through decreasing N and P level.

  • 10.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-FETs Using Multivariate Statistics2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 214, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive field effect transistors based on silicon carbide, SiC-FETs, have been studied for indoor air quality applications. The selectivity of the sensors was increased by temperature cycled operation, TCO, and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of benzene, naphthalene, and formaldehyde independent of the level of background humidity is possible by using shape describing features as input for Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA, or Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA. Leave-one-out cross-validation leads to a correct classification rate of 90 % for LDA, and for PLS-DA a classification rate of 83 % is achieved. Quantification of naphthalene in the relevant concentration range, i.e. 0 ppb to 40 ppb, was performed by Partial Least Squares Regression and a combination of LDA with a second order polynomial fit function. The resolution of the model based on a calibration with three concentrations was approximately 8 ppb at 40 ppb naphthalene for both algorithms.

    Hence, the suggested strategy is suitable for on demand ventilation control in indoor air quality application systems.

  • 11.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-Field Effect Transistors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive FETs based on SiC have been studied for the discrimination and quantification of hazardous volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in the low ppb range. The sensor performance was increased by temperature cycled operation (TCO) anddata evaluation based on multivariate statistics, here Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Discrimination of formaldehyde,naphthalene and benzene with varying concentrations in the ppb range is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that naphthalenecan be quantified in the relevant concentration range independent of the relative humidity and against a high ethanol background.Hence, gas sensitive SiC-FETs are suitable sensors for determining indoor air quality.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Theres
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Vem ska få chansen att använda biogasen?: En studie utifrån en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie om bland annat behandlar vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå för biogasägare och användare av biogas om efterfrågan på biogas överstiger tillgången. Studien bygger på intervjuer som gjorts med tolv utvalda kommuner vilka alla har en biogasanläggning som tar emot avfall utifrån och dessutom levererar biogas till fordon. Studie består av två typer av frågeområden. Det första som undersökts är varför de svenska biogasanläggningarna byggt där de har och av vilken anledning det inte finns fler anläggningar. Syftet med studien är att uppmärksamma ett troligt framtida problem vilket grundar sig på ett tänkbart scenario om att oljan antigen stiger i pris eller sinar. Den problematik som uppmärksammats är om efterfrågan på biogas, på grund utav scenariot med oljan, överstiger tillgången och hur kommunerna skulle förhålla sig till en sådan situation. Frågeställningarna har analyserats utifrån ekonomisk teori med inriktning på begreppen utbud, efterfrågan, äganderätter och styrmedel. Dessutom har en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell använts för lättare se sambanden mellan de olika ingående delar i studien. Orsaken till att kommunerna har en biogasanläggning skiljer sig relativt mycket åt. De orsaker som nämndes var att vissa hade ett avfall att ta hade om medan en annan kommun hade en efterfrågan på biogasen. Vidare kunde biogastillverkningen motverka dels övergödning och dels föroreningsproblem orsakade av trafiken i innerstaden. Att inte fler kommuner har biogastillverkning tros enligt de undersökta kommunerna bland annat bero på att det dels kan vara svårt att räkna hem en anläggning idag och dels rädsla för luktproblem. Vidare anses det vara en otrygg marknad på grund utav oklara spelregler och dessutom krävs mycket i form av kunskap med mera av de kommuner som vill uppföra en anläggning. Troliga lösningar på det framtida scenariot som uppges av kommunerna är att komplettera med naturgas eller utvidga produktionen av biogasen. Det var endast en kommun som haft någon fundering på scenariot tidigare. Ett par kommuner ansåg dock att det var en viktig fråga att fundera vidare på. Flertalet av kommunerna är emellertid inte oroade över det givna scenariot. Andra tänkbara lösningar på problemet är att antingen privatisera biogasen eller att upprätta avtal mellan biogasanvändare och biogasägare.

  • 13.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

  • 14.
    Cliffoord, John
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Use of future oriented studies in corporate environmental management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the future methods are used in areas like economical studies, predicting future markets or legislations that might have an effect on a company or an organization. There is a necessity for knowing what the future holds. Following sustainable development companies has begun to adopt standardized environmental management systems like EMAS and ISO 14001. The companies that use scenario methods are often companies that also use environmental management and standardized management systems, which also is the case in this study. The aim of the study is to examine how future oriented studies can be used to develop the environmental strategic arena, by suggesting possible work procedures. The aim is also to describe how different future studies and techniques theoretically can be used within the strategic environmental area and to examine the use of future studies within different companies. Four Semi-structured interviews were made with companies that both use EMS and future studies. The interviews and the theoretical framework in study were used to answer the aim.

    The results indicate that company future studies only have an effect on the market area and not the company EMS, the influence at the best is only indirect. The companies are more focused on factors that can change the market and economical aspects surrounding their products and services, than on factors that can be of important in making strategic important decisions about the appearance of the future environmental arena. Future oriented studies can be of use in EMS, the forecasting used in company A or the external method used in the three other companies. The methods each have qualities that are of use in different areas of the standardized EMS. Forecasting can help the user in the beginning of the planning process of EMS, with its short term visions the user can create an understanding about which way to go and this can then be complemented with backcasting. External scenarios used in the other three companies should be able to be integrated with the environmental area of the companies. These companies have god conditions to integrate their scenario work with the EMS because of the knowledge and use of future studies today.

  • 15.
    Ek, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Ultrasonic treatment of sewage sludge in order to increase biogas yields2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. After anaerobic digestion, the digested sludge is often allowed to degas for one or two days. This gas is seldom utilised, but if the degassing could be accelerated, utilisation would be easier. Ultrasound can be used as a pretreatment method for waste activated sludge. It has a disintegrating effect on the sludge and causes lysis of bacteria in the sludge. It also speeds up the hydrolysis; the limiting step of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Ultrasound can be used to degas waterbased liquids. Ultrasonic degassing of sewage sludge has not been examined previously. The present study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound on waste activated sludge as well as the potential of ultrasound to speed up the degassing of digested sludge. A semi-continuous, lab-scale digestion experiment was performed with four reactors: two receiving untreated sludge and two receiving treated sludge. The effect of the sonicator was 420 W and the treatment time was 6 min, which corresponds to an energy input of 8.4 kWh/m3. Total solids (TS) of the waste activated sludge was ~3.5 %. The ultrasonic treatment caused an increase in gas production of 13 %. There was no difference in methane content. The concentration of filterable chemical oxygen demand (fCOD) increased 375 %, or from 2.8 % to 11 % of total COD. In terms of energy loss/gain the increase in gas production resulted in a loss of 2.7 kWh/m3, i.e. more energy is needed to treat the sludge than the potential energy of the increased gas production. However, if the sludge is thickened to a TS >5 %, a net energy gain should be reached. The effect of ultrasound on the degassing of digested sludge was examined in three barrels. The degassing was measured with and without circulation as well as with ultrasonic treatment. The digested sludge had a gas emission rate of 115 L/(m3 day). No direct burst of gas occurred due to ultrasonic treatment. Over two days more gas was emitted from the barrel equipped with ultrasound, probably due to an induced post-digestion. Thus, ultrasonic pretreatment of waste activated sludge increases the biogas yield. It is inconclusive, whether ultrasonic treatment of digested sludge effects the degassing or not.

  • 16.
    Elfving, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hydrolys av primärslam för förbättrande av biologisk fosforreduktion vid behandling av hushållsavloppsvatten [Hydrolysis of primary sludge for enhancement of biological phosphorus removal in household wastewater]2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarby Sjöstad is a new district of southern Stockholm built with focus on reduced environmental impact by recirculation of materials and sustainability. The environmental goals aim to cut the water consumption by half and a separate storm water treatment. Thus, the wastewater will be more concentrated and will originate from the households only. The Sjöstad project includes the idea of a local treatment plant for the household wastewater. To evaluate this possibility, Sjöstadsverket, an experimental treatment plant was constructed. New wastewater treatment processes are tested and evaluated and compared to conventional methods including both aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes.

    One of the aerobic treatment processes includes enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR or Bio-P) as the method for the removal of phosphorus. In biological phosphorus removal the wastewater is alternately being exposed to anaerobic and aerobic conditions, which favours a certain bacteria, which can accumulate more phosphorus than is required for their growth. For this phosphorus accumulation the bacteria need volatile fatty acids (VFA) to cover their energy demand, but normally there is a shortage in VFA in the incoming wastewater.

    The main purpose of this master thesis work has been to create the best possible conditions in order to produce VFA by hydrolysis and fermentation of primary sludge. In this way the organic material in the incoming wastewater can be used in biological phosphorus removal.

    The sludge temperature, total solids (TS) and retention time are regarded as important parameters for a successful biological phosphorus removal and a laboratory study was set up to investigate these conditions for the wastewater at the Hammarby Sjöstad experimental plant. These laboratory-scale hydrolysis experiments showed that high temperature and high TS favours VFA-production. The results have also shown that four to five days retention time is suitable at a process temperature higher than 23°C, but also that the retention time likely should be extended at lower temperatures.

    In a full-scale process experiment, primary sludge was pumped from a primary clarifier to a hydrolysis tank and then back to the primary clarifier. The hydrolysis gave rise to increased VFA-production when TS was increased. A temperature difference between the primary sludge and the hydrolysis sludge of 3°C was observed. The reason behind the difference has not been determined, but is considered important, since the temperature affects the VFA-production. Further on, analyses with gas chromatograph (GC) have shown that acetate has been the most frequently occurring VFA, although significant levels of other VFA, such as propionate, has also been detected.

    Phosphorus release tests in laboratory-scale, where phosphorus was released during an anaerobic phase and taken up during an aerobic phase, proved that biological phosphorus removal occurred at the full-scale experimental train.

    The full-scale hydrolysis experiment has shown that the VFA contribution by the hydrolysis tank to the biological phosphorus removal was low. The main reason is that the sludge-flow through the hydrolysis tank has been insignificant compared to the incoming wastewater flow. The problem is most likely connected to the incoming wastewater characteristics, since the low share of suspended solids (SS) entailed that not enough organic material in the primary clarifier settled.

  • 17.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable mobility in the low carbon city: digging up the highway in Odense, Denmark2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 29, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world are facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting urban sustainability. If comprehensive low-carbon development of cities is to be possible, transportation, as a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, is a particularly important sector to address. Major changes to transport behaviour and systems will be required in order to secure a shift to sustainable modes of transport and removal of infrastructure that reinforces unsustainable patterns of transportation. This paper examines the links between low-carbon urban development and sustainable mobility, with reference to the case of Odense, Denmark. With a reputation as a city of cyclists, Odense has recently closed a highway that divided central districts of the city, and is constructing a new tramway in its place. Results from a qualitative study, including interviews with individuals active in local policy processes, provide insights into Odense’s experiences and inform analysis of the influences on municipal strategies and plans for sustainable mobility, questioning if climate change need be the primary focus when designing policies to enable low-carbon urban development.

  • 18.
    Fredriksson (numera: Björn), Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nestor, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of an organotin PVC stabiliser on anoxic degradation of organic matter2003In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organotin compounds are toxic, thus their occurrence in the environment is of considerable concern, and several of these substances are regarded as priority pollutants that require further investigation. Organotins are used primarily as heat stabilisers in PVC plastic, and they are therefore found in landfills in which discarded PVC products have been deposited. In an earlier study, it was found that a widely used methyl tin PVC stabiliser inhibited microbial generation of CH4during anoxic degradation, and the objective of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of such inhibition. CH4 and fermentation products were measured continuously for a period of 219 days in waste material amended with a methyl tin stabiliser. The results show that CH4 formation was retarded for 84-198 days during fermentation of the waste material. Furthermore, it seemed that not only the methyl tins, but also their sulphur organic ligands, play an important role in retarding the formation of CH4. The methyl tin stabiliser apparently affected both the fermentative organisms that provided the substrate for the methanogens, as well as the methanogens.

  • 19.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

  • 20.
    Funkquist, John
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Att hitta och släppa kontroll: Hantverk i teori och praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how theoretical studies on handicrafts may be rewarding and usefull for a craftsman. The aim is also to explore how quality is defined within crafts and to explore different aesthetic qualities that can be achieved within the craft of cabinetmaking. In addition, the aim is also to broaden the view on how skillfullnes may be expressed within the craft of cabinetmaking. The work begins with theoretical studies of two craft philosophers - David Pye and Soetsu Yanagi. Then, their ideas are applied practically through the making of two pieces of furniture. Aesthetic expressions characterized by randomness, imperfection and irregularity is specially sought after. The conclusions of the thesis shows that theoretical studies may be benefiting and rewarding for a craftsman.

  • 21.
    González Ocón, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Evaluation of Potentially Eco-Efficient Solutions: Functional Sales and Industrial Ecology2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Design of products permits to yield goods and services to produce satisfaction on customers, which is measured as value. However, it is at this stage in which most of the environmental impact, from a lifecycle perspective, is added to the product. Eco-design aims at increasing value of products while reducing the burdens on the environment by means conscious design towards efficient use of resources. That efficiency, referred to as eco-efficiency, can be increased in a number of manners within environmental engineering. Traditionally, different fields have tackled materials, energy flows and products from different angles or approaches. In this thesis we describe Functional Sales (FS) and Industrial Ecology (IE) as examples of these. Within this latter, we put emphasis on Industrial Symbiosis (IS) and Eco-effectiveness. We consider these approaches are suitable to work in the framework of eco-design to increase ecoefficiency. By adding services to material products, and managing material and energy flows with a more ecological consciousness, we expect to increase value of products while reducing the impact on the environment.

    To analyse this potential improvement, we developed a method involving a new eco-efficiency index (VERI), that recursively intends to ease decisions on possible eco-efficient alternatives. This index and its method are applied to a case study on management of olive oil supply in region of Murcia, Spain. Here, we propose three scenarios that will involve the implementation of FS and IE to compare the outcomes in value and environmental performance against an idealised current supply chain. The results obtained, although not accurate, suggest that FS and EI should be more taken into account in eco-design and, this latter, to also consider holistic viewpoints to find more eco-efficient alternatives for a product development.

  • 22.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Div. of Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raburu, Phillip O
    Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin2017In: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Att ständigt bli bättre i sitt miljöarbete: En intervjustudie kring hur företag med certifierade miljöledningssystem arbetar med ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöledningssystem används av företag och organisationer världen över. Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur företag som är certifierade enligt ISO 14001 arbetar att uppfylla standardens krav på ständig förbättring. De övergripande frågeställningarna handlar bland annat om hur företagen arbetar med och mäter ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda. Hur företagen ser på utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Samt vad det blev för skillnader för dem att vara certifierade enligt den nya ISO-standarden (ISO 14001:2004) jämfört med den gamla (ISO 14001:1996). För att få svar på dessa frågor har intervjuer genomförts på 10 företag.

    Företagen arbetar med att säkerställa att det blir en ständig förbättring genom att arbeta med miljömål och avvikelsehanteringen. Några av respondenterna påpekar att det kan vara svårt att mäta ständiga förbättringar. Företagen upplevde inte att det hade blivit någon större skillnad för dem att certifieras enligt den uppdaterade ISO 14001 standarden. Det råder delade meningar om utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Respondenterna är överlag nöjda med företagens arbete med ständig förbättring.

  • 24.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

  • 25.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

  • 26.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2019In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

  • 27.
    Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Power production and environmental opinions: Environmentally motivated resistance to wind power in Sweden2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, p. 1545-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, every form of large scale power production in Sweden has given rise to organised, sustained and partly successful resistance motivated by environmental arguments. Since wind power is identified by the Swedish Parliament as an important energy source for the future and the wind power industry is expected to expand on a large scale, there is reason to believe that the already existing environmental opposition to wind power will continue to grow and will attempt to limit or at least partly obstruct the wind power expansion. In order to facilitate an understanding of this opposition and its possibility to significantly influence future wind power expansion in Sweden, this paper draws upon previous research on the opposition towards hydropower, nuclear power and biomass in Sweden, and discusses these findings in relation to previous research on wind power opposition.

  • 28.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impact analysis of energy efficiency measures in the electrolysis process in primary aluminium production2019In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, 2019, Vol. 4(2), p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement includes the goals of ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels’ and ‘making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions’. Industrial energy efficiency will play an important role in meeting those goals as well as becoming a competitive advantage due to reduced costs for companies. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and uses fossil fuels both for energy purposes and as reaction material. Additionally, the aluminium industry uses significant amounts of electricity. The electrolysis process in the primary production of aluminium is the most energy- and carbon-intensive process within the aluminium industry. The aim of this paper is to study the effects on primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs when three energy efficiency measures are implemented in the electrolysis process. The effects on the primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs are calculated by multiplying the savings in final energy use by a primary energy factor, emissions factor and price of electricity, respectively. The results showed significant savings in primary energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and cost from the implementation of the three measures. These results only indicate the size of the potential savings and a site-specific investigation needs to be conducted for each plant. This paper is a part of a research project conducted in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

  • 29.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

  • 30.
    Hedberg, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Danielsson, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Potential for Absorption Cooling Generated from Municipal Solid Waste in Bangkok: A Comparison between Waste Incineration & Biogas Production with Combustion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis has been performed in Bangkok, Thailand at the company Eco Design Consultant Co., Ltd. The aim is to investigate the possibilities to generate absorption cooling from municipal solid waste in the Bangkok area. The investigation includes a comparison between waste incineration and biogas production with combustion to see which alternative is preferable. During the investigation, a Swedish perspective has been used.

    The research for the report mainly consisted of published scientific articles from acknowledged sources as well as information from different Thai authorities. Also, experts within different areas were contacted and interviewed. In order to determine which of the two techniques (waste incineration or biogas production with combustion) that is best suited to generate absorption cooling, a model was designed. This model involved several parameters regarding e.g. plant efficiency, amount of treated waste and internal heat usage. As for the results of the model, three parameters were calculated: the generated cooling, the net electricity generation and the reduced greenhouse emissions.

    The overall Thai municipal solid waste generation in Thailand is estimated to approximately 15 million tons per year and the majority of the waste ends up at open dumps or landfills. There are only two to three waste incinerators in the country and a few projects with biogas generation from municipal solid waste. The main electricity is today generated from natural gas which makes the majority of the Thai electricity production fossil fuel based. As for absorption cooling, two applications of this technique has been found in Thailand during the research; one at the Naresuan University and one at the Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok.

    The model resulted in that the best alternative to power absorption cooling technique is waste incineration. This alternative has potential to generate 3200 GWh cooling per year and 1100 GWh electricity per year. Also, this alternative resulted in the largest decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, ‐500 000 tons per year. The model also showed that the same amounts of generated cooling and electricity can never be achieved from biogas production with combustion compared to waste incineration. Regardless, waste incineration has an important drawback: the citizens of Thailand seem to oppose further development of waste incineration in the country. The biogas technique seems more approved in Thailand, which benefits this alternative. Due to the high moisture and organic content in the municipal solid waste, a combination between the two waste handling alternatives is suggested. This way, the most energy can be withdrawn from the waste and the volume of disposed waste is minimized.

    Our overall conclusion is that the absorption cooling technique has great potential in Thailand. There is an increasing power‐ and cooling demand, absorption cooling generated from either or both of the alternatives can satisfy these demands while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We also believes that the cost for using absorption cooling has to be lower than for the current compression cooling if the new technique is to be implemented further.

  • 31.
    Hedin, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Konceptuell arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling inom trämanufaktur2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av en ökad miljömedvetenhet i samhället och ett initiativ för att utveckla miljövänligare möbler, så syftar det här examensarbetet till att ta fram en arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling för möbelindustriföretaget EFG. För det resultat som presenteras i och med denna rapport, så har arbetet bedrivits i ett nära samarbete mellan EFG och Linköpings tekniska högskola, liksom att utvecklingsarbetet har utförts vid EFG:s huvudkontor och produktionsenhet i Tranås.

    Den arbetsmodell som har utvecklats för att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling utgår utifrån två etablerade arbetsmodeller men har genom en utvecklingsprocess anpassats för att tillgodose företagets behov och rutiner för produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen beskrivs till sitt utförande av ett steg-försteg- verktyg som kompletteras med verktyg enligt:

    • Checklistor

    • Ekostrategihjulet

    • Materialmatris

    • Processträd

    Arbetsmodellen som kompletterats av verktygen ovan, förväntas tillsammans med steg-för-stegverktyget att utgöra det underlag som syftar till att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling vid EFG. Den har således anpassats för att tillgodose företagets förväntningar och som genom hela utvecklingsperioden främst har utgått från tre kriterier. Kriterierna för arbetsmodellen råder:

    • Tidseffektiv

    • Högt resursutnyttjande

    • God miljöanpassning

    Arbetet förväntas således att bedrivas enligt integrerad produktutveckling och sker parallellt med de aktiviteter som bedrivs enligt företagets nuvarande rutiner för produktutveckling. Genomloppstiden för projektet förväntas vara relativt kort, liksom utnyttjandegraden av företagets resurser för kompetens och produktionsteknik. I relation till det beslut och de resurser som avsatts för att ligga till grund för en miljöanpassning, så skall resultatet slutligen generera en god miljöanpassning av produkten.

    Målgruppen för rapporten är främst de personer som koordinerar i miljö- och produktutvecklingsarbete, men för utvalda delar liksom de verktyg som presenteras, så avser dessa att användas för personer som är involverade i miljöanpassad produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen presenteras slutligen i rapporten i form av en plansch där arbetet illustreras för en överskådlig förståelse till arbetsmetodiken och tillämpningen av verktygen. Planschen kan således vara lämplig att tillhandahållas för samtliga personer som involveras i arbetet.

  • 32.
    Hu, Yuetong
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Development Trends of World Energy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century whichhas a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes andenvironment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses thecurrent world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, thebalance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the globalenvironmental and economic and social development by using a series of indicators such as total primaryenergy, total final energy, energy consumption and CO2 emission intensity per capita and per GDP tocompare and study. The main development trends contains depletion of fossil fuels, rapid developmentof renewable energy, aggravated environmental problems by energy-related GHG emissions, moreunbalanced and interdependent regional energy production and consumption, more efficient energyindustry; globalization and so on. This article expounds humans’ efforts to make progress in developingrenewable energy and reducing energy-related environmental impacts. In the end of the paper, worldenergy structure development and middle-term energy consumption are projected, and the generalorientations of world energy development trends in future are presented.

  • 33.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Preventing Microbial Growth on pall-rings when upgrading biogas using absorption with water wash2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For produced biogas to be usable as vehicle fuel it has to be upgraded to a higher energy content. This is accomplished by elevation of the methane concentration through removal of carbon dioxide. Absorption with water wash is the most common upgrading method used in Sweden today. The upgrading technique is based on the fact that carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than methane. Upgrading plants that utilises this method have problems with microbial growth in the system. This growth eventually leads to a stop in operation due to the gradually drop in upgrading capacity.

    The aim of this thesis were to evaluate the possibility to through some kind of water treatment maintain an acceptable level of growth or altogether prevent it in order to maintain an acceptable process capacity and thereby avoid the need to clean. Through collection of literature the implementation possibilities were evaluated with regard to efficiency, economic sustainability and if there would be a release of any harmful substances.

    In order to prevent the microbial growth in the columns the treatment should either focus on removing microorganisms or limit the accessible nutrients. For the single pass system it is concluded that the treatment should reduce the biofilm formation and be employed in an intermittent way. Among the evaluated treatments focusing on the reduction of microorganisms the addition of peracetic acid seems to be the most promising one. For the regenerating system the treatment method could focus on either one. As for the single pass system peracetic acid could be added to reduce the amount of microorganism. To reduce the amount of organic matter an advanced oxidation process could be deployed with the advantage that it also could remove the microorganisms.

  • 34.
    Ibem-Ezera, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Environmental Control in Oil & Gas Exploration & Production: A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P), the roles of legislation, and the environmental management strategies in the petroleum industry with respect to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study seeks to suggest sustainable solutions to the endemic economic, social, and environmental problems associated with oil and gas E&P in the region. The focus is on the environmental control in the upstream (E&P) operations of the oil and gas industry as it affects the Niger Delta region of Nigeria with a view to proffering sustainable solutions.

    The heavily polluting activities and environmental impacts of the upstream oil and gas operations in the Niger Delta have over the years taken a routine dimension and are endemic as a result of inadequate environmental legislations and ineffective enforcements. Sequel to these environmental impacts is militancy, adoption of expatriates, communal conflicts, inter-ethnic conflicts, human right abuses, restiveness and other social vices as the study reveals. These social and environmental impacts of oil and gas activities in this region bring impoverishment, abject poverty, hunger, squalor, birth disease, gene mutation, and death while exposing inhabitants of the region to afflictions and diseases as the study explicitly documents.

    The study also reveals that the persistence rate of unrest, restiveness, militancy and other social vices is as a result of non-dialogue status between the different stakeholders, lack of infrastructural development, lack of basic amenities, high rate of unemployment, poor policy construct, federalized mineral right / resource ownership structure, and the monopolistic nature of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earning in petroleum resources.

    In this dissertation, both proactive and corrective measures to curb the menace of the social, economic and environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration & production operations in Nigeria are presented and discussed with suggestions to sustainable solution and development, better environmental legislation, and better resource policy construct while advocating for good industrial practices in the petroleum industry with emphasis on the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  • 35.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  • 36.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Användarhandledning2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna handledning är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 37.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Exempelsamling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna exempelsamling är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 38.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Metodrapport2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 39.
    Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Amalgam and Mercury in the Dental Setting and the Efficiency of Amalgam Separators2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury is the only metal that is in liquid form at room temperature and it has over the years been used in various combinations to extract gold, in measuring devices, medicaments, paper industry, batteries and fluorescent lights as well as in dentistry as dental amalgam. Dental amalgam is a mixture of 50 % mercury and 50% of an alloy consisting of silver, tin, copper and zink particles and has been used in dentistry for many years. The environmental effect of mercury release into the sewer from dental practices and clinics, and the inability of the wastewater treatment plants to remove it from the sludge lead to the introduction of amalgam separators in Sweden in 1980. The ISO standard 11143 regulates the efficacy of the amalgam separators, which should be at a 95% level, but is based on a laboratory test rather than a clinical evaluation.

    This study looks at the available amalgam separators in use in four areas of Sweden, Uppsala, Stockholm, Östergötland and Skåne and compares their clinical efficiency. The clinical efficiency ranged between 75 to 95%, with most units below the 90% mark. In Östergötland a new improved separator is being tried, the Capere unit, which is based on finely ground pine bark treated with a chelator sensitive to all metals and used in conjunction with a cotton filter and a regular amalgam separator. This was shown to be superior to the other separators, with a 99, 9% removal of even the smallest amalgam particles and ionic mercury from the wastewater before leaving the clinic. Otherwise, combining more than one amalgam separator of the brands available on the Swedish market did not improve the efficiency of them.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Förnybara drivmedel inom den tunga godstransportsektorn på väg: En genomgång av aktörers syn på förutsättningar för en övergång2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att uppnå ett hållbart transportsystem på väg krävs åtgärder att bryta dagens beroende av fossila, ändliga bränslen. En övergång till alternativa, förnybara drivmedel är angeläget och en uppgift som involverar hela samhället, tar mycket lång tid och kräver hårt arbete.

    Denna studie har som målsättning att med hjälp av befintliga strategidokument samt sju intervjuer av aktörer, innefattande spektret från bränsleframställning till politisk utformning, undersöka och analysera betydande aktörers syn på möjligheterna till och strategier för en övergång till förnybara drivmedel inom den tunga godstransportsektorn på väg.

    Markant i politiska dokument och strategier är att de ansatser som gjorts främst behandlat personbilssidan snarare än vägtransportsektorn som helhet. Oroande är också avsaknaden av strategier för en övergång till förnybara drivmedel inom de tunga vägtransporterna.

    En tydlig politik med klar uttalad målsättning för förnybara drivmedel inom transportsektorn efterfrågas av samtliga intervjuade aktörer. Denna bör följas av en samlad paketlösning inbegripande skatter, lagstiftning och investeringsstöd för att undvika osäkerhet och ogynnsamma konkurrensförhållanden på marknaden samt gynna investeringar.

    Dagens system med dispenser upplevs som otillfredsställande av flera aktörer som istället vill se miljöklassning av drivmedel med specifika drivmedelscertifikat. Viktigt är att ett livscykelperspektiv tillämpas vid denna utformning och en harmonisering av regler gällande drivmedel inom Europa. Samtidigt bör en politik föras inriktad mot direkta investeringar som främjar teknikutveckling och privata investeringar på området.

    Ett problem för utformning av politiken inom drivmedelsområdet rör distinktionen mellan försörjningstrygghet och klimatproblematik, där klimatproblematiken riskerar att hamna i skymundan.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Landfill Mining: Institutional challenges for the implementation of resource extraction from waste deposits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to examine the institutional conditions for the implementation and emergence of landfill mining. The result shows that  current policy makes it difficult for landfill mining operators to find a market outlet for the exhumed material, which means that landfill mining may result in a waste disposal problem. Regulations also restrict accessibility to the material in landfills. Therefore, it has generally been municipal landfill owners that perform landfill mining operations, which directs learning processes towards solving landfill problems rather than resource recovery. Landfill mining is not, however, necessarily to be perceived as a recycling activity. It could also be understood as a remediation or mining activity. This would result in more favorable institutional conditions for landfill mining in terms of better access to the market and the material in the landfill.

    The regulatory framework surrounding landfills is based on a perception of landfills as a source of pollution, a problem that should be avoided, capped and closed. Extracting resources from landfills, challenges this perception and therefore results in a mismatch with the regulatory framework. On the other hand, the material in mines is typically regarded in the formal institutions as a positive occurrence. Mining activities are regarded as the backbone of the Swedish economy and therefore receive various forms of political support. This favorable regulatory framework is not available for secondary resource production. Based on the identified institutional conditions, institutional challenges are identified. The core of these challenges is a conflict between the policy goal of increased recycling and a non-toxic environment. Secondary resources are typically punished through strict requirements for marketability, while primary resources are supported through subsidies such as tax exemptions. The authorities lack capacity to manage the emergence of unconventional and complex activities such as landfill mining. The institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock.

    The major contribution of the thesis is to go beyond the potential-oriented studies of landfill mining to instead focus on how institutions relate to landfill mining. In order to move towards a resource transition with dominant use of secondary resources a new institutional order is proposed.

    List of papers
    1. An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Resource management, Metal stocks, Secondary resources, Recycling, Urban mining.
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77301 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.007 (DOI)000322802300004 ()
    Projects
    Urban mining: laying the foundation for a new line of business
    Funder
    FormasVinnova
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    2012 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, p. 33-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Alchemy, Escaping lock-in, Landfill mining, Resource policy, Waste regimes.
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85347 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2012.10.004 (DOI)
    Projects
    Landfill mining for integrated remediation and resource recovery: economic and environmental potentials in Sweden
    Funder
    Formas
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    2014 (English)In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Subsidy, Recycling, Mining, Metal, Policy
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97469 (URN)10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.04.001 (DOI)000341338400009 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    JEL Classification: H23; L72; Q38; Q53

    Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    4. A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    2017 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 60, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

    Keywords
    Landfill mining; Disposed waste; Marketability; Policy; Technology
    National Category
    Mineral and Mine Engineering Public Administration Studies Environmental Sciences Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129541 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.05.015 (DOI)000397357100043 ()27216727 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
    5. The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, p. 46-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Landfill mining, resource policy, frame analysis, Institutional capacity, transition
    National Category
    Public Administration Studies Environmental Sciences Mineral and Mine Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134563 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2017.01.005 (DOI)000396957400006 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency; VINNOVA

    Available from: 2017-02-16 Created: 2017-02-16 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 42.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

  • 43.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have been developed the eco-design concept and SMEs have been involved in eco-design activities for many years. This process and activities are new both for the SMEs and for the supporting institutes and organisations in Thailand. Thailand has just started to build up the infrastructure to support the SMEs to implement the eco-design concept and to work more with product related environmental issues. The focus right now for the SMEs in this research is to comply with the EU Directives, RoHS and WEEE, and this is where the main investments are made, e.g. in order to be able to export to the demanding EU market.

    This research is investigating what kind of environment demands that SMEs in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products have on their products, how they handle these requirements and also what obstacles there are for implementing a more product related environmental concept, also known as eco-design, Design for the Environment (DfE), Green Design or Environmentally Oriented Design. A research in form of interviews and factory visits has been done with five different SMEs in Thailand. These five SMEs have also participated in the first official eco-design projects in Thailand with funding from the government in Thailand and also some from the EU. Interviews have been conducted with involved parties in these project such as institutes and experts provided by Universities. These interviews were made in order to get their opinion and experience about the present situation for SMEs in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products to work with product related green issues.

    The research shows that these companies have the possibilities and conditions to work further on with the eco-design concept in the future. Their participation in the eco-design projects has been a good experience and there is evidence of strong support from the management and owners, environmental awareness, pro-active work and motivation among the companies. The obstacles are as mentioned above concerning lack of resources, knowledge and experience of how these environmental demands and requirements will affect the product development process. This lack of experience depends mostly on the fact that these eco-design projects are the first projects in this field for the companies. These five companies have now built up a fundamental knowledge but are still in need of further support. The communication between the SMEs and supporting parties are important and also one factor these five companies think is functioning well.

  • 44.
    Josefsson, Anna-Sara
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Reliabilitet, validitet och felkällor i Metodik för inventering av förorenade områden (MIFO)2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna uppnå det nationella miljökvalitetsmålet Giftfri miljö ska riskerna med förorenade områden åtgärdas. Detta görs genom att områden med stor risk saneras efter att de har inventerats och riskklassats enligt Metodik för inventering av förorenade områden (MIFO). Det är viktigt att de uppgifter som tas fram vid inventeringen är tillförlitliga, dvs. har hög validitet. Det är också av vikt att riskklassningarna är jämförbara oavsett vem som har gjort bedömningen, dvs. har hög reliabilitet.

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att belysa MIFO-metoden utifrån begreppen validitet, reliabilitet och felkällor. Syftet var också att undersöka om MIFO-metoden ger hög validitet och reliabilitet samt vilka felkällor som förekommer och hur de hanteras. Detta undersöktes genom kvalitativa intervjuer med personer som jobbar på Länsstyrelsen med att inventera förorenade områden.

    I intervjuerna framkom att det finns flera saker som ökar reliabiliteten vi inventering av förorenade områden. Dessa är möten, Branschlistan, branschavgränsningar och MIFO-handboken. Riskklassningar pekades ut som ett moment där subjektivitet som minskar reliabiliteten spelar in. Det skulle kunna undvikas genom att förenkla riskklassningarna i första fasen av MIFO. De flesta felkällorna berör platsen för objekten som inventeras. I metoden finns rutiner för att hantera obekräftade uppgifter. För att kompensera för osäkerheter i materialet baserar inventerarna sina beslut på ett ”troligt men dåligt fall” eller med andra ord på försiktighetsprincipen. I dagsläget går det inte att ta reda på validiteten genom att jämföra inventeringsresultaten med verkligheten eftersom det oftast inte finns några provtagningar gjorda. Det som går att dra slutsatser från är om inventerarna har en metodologi där validering finns i form av hantverksskicklighet och kommunikation. Inventerarna visar en hög grad av hantverksskicklighet genom att kontrollera, ifrågasätta och redovisa tillvägagångssätt och osäkerheter. De har också en kommunikation om validiteten i uppgifter och om felkällor och problem i inventeringen. De har därigenom en god grund för att få fram valida data.

  • 45.
    Karlsson, Angelica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    REACH - effekter för europeisk industri och miljön2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    REACH is a new EU legislation which purpose is to promote safe handling of chemicals. The intention with this report was to investigate the possible effects that REACH might have for European industry and the environment, and especially to look for benefits within these areas.

    The conclusions are as follows:

    - The most important advantage with REACH is that a reliable source is made available for the chemicals industry, with extended information on chemicals that are currently used in a wide range throughout the European market.

    - Companies connected to the chemicals industry see a huge advantage in the fact that REACH will contribute to a standardized classification and labelling inventory that will apply in the European Union.

    - There will be a greater awareness within industry on how dangerous some chemicals actually are that nowadays are commonly used. This will probably lead to that the industry becomes more cautious with its chemical use.

    - The demand for approval of use of certain chemicals, with properties of very high concern, will probably act as a driving force to encourage industry to choose chemicals with less harmful effects.

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 1536-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a model comprising a pulp mill, a sawmill, a district heating network and a biofuel upgrading plant is used to demonstrate how the MIND method, an optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming, can be used to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry. Using this method, both energy and material flows on both the supply and the demand side can be studied simultaneously. The method can be used to find improvements in the structure of the modelled system, to find the optimal operational strategy of a given system, and to evaluate and compare different systems. The total system costs for stand-alone cases and integrated industrial symbiosis system configuration are compared, generating results that can be used as decision support when planning industrial symbiosis initiatives in the forest industry. The results of this study showed that there are financial benefits to industrial symbiosis compared to the same system operated in stand-alone mode, and that the industrial symbiosis configuration generates a more stable system. However, it is difficult to generalize the results from a case study, and the main conclusion drawn is that it is possible to show that industrial symbiosis has economical benefits, although the magnitude of these benefits needs to be evaluated from case to case.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekonomiska och miljömässiga förutsättningar för landfill mining: En förstudie av tre olika deponityper på Filbornaanläggningen i Helsingborg2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive material use in today's society is demanding for the Earth's natural resources. A possible source for future resources is landfills; the landfills often contain both recyclable metals and other waste fractions suitable for energy recovery. The concept landfill mining (LFM) is a way to exploit the resources found in landfills. In a LFM-project the landfill is excavated with subsequent material and energy recycling.A location where landfill mining could be suitable is the Filborna landfill in Helsingborg. Three sections of the landfill are considered to be especially interesting for a possible excavation; Lagringsytan, BCR1, and Rökille. This thesis is a pilot study for future LFM-projects on Filborna with the aim to identify critical factors for the projects’ implementation. It includes retrieving the material composition of the landfills and an evaluation of the economic and environmental performance of each project.The method is a case study-approach with the goal to identify the specific conditions for each landfill. This is achieved by a background study for each landfill, where factors such as landfill volume, age, material composition, and methane production are examined. The background study complements through a field study where excavation/exploration drilling, picking analysis, and chemical analysis provide extended information. In order to perform the economic and environmental calculations, two scenarios are set up for each landfill; a reference case with business as usual and a LFM-scenario with excavation and subsequent treatment according to the specific landfill conditions.The financial calculations show that two out of three projects have a greater cost connected to the LFM-scenario than for the business as usual scenario. Regarding the environmental performance, the LFM-processes at the landfills Lagringsytan and BCR1 result in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the reference case. On the contrary, the results show that the gypsym landfill Rökille yields more greenhouse gas emissions in the LFM-scenario.Based on the results, six critical factors for profitability and environmental performance are identified: (1) It is difficult to find data on a landfill’s material composition in advance and the information available is often uncertain. (2) A landfill mining project can prevent future methane emissions. However, it is possible that methane hidden in the landfill is released during excavation. (3) LFM requires a specific design of the separation process and suitable technology developed specifically for landfill mining is not available on the market today. (4) The law on this area is unclear and several regulations discourage resource recycling of old landfills. For example the limits for metal content and landfill taxation affect the outcome of an excavation. (5) Metals are the only material fractions generating an income in today’s LFM-projects. In addition, the recycling of metals leads to avoided emissions from virgin metals. (6) The cost of sending the fuel fraction to combustion is the largest single cost item in the LFM-scenarios for the two landfills with combustible waste. Also, the combustion causes emissions of fossil carbon dioxide due to the waste’s high plastic content.

  • 48.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Concentrate or dilute contaminants?: Strategies for Swedish wood waste2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to assess the environmental consequences of management strategies for wood waste in Sweden. There is a special focus on separation strategies and in what way such measures influence environmental aspects such as the presence of heavy metals in the waste. Actors’ incentives and capacity to influence wood waste management are analysed, emphasising the importance of driving forces such as governmental regulation and market interactions.

    The results show that, in comparison to present dilution practice, separation of contaminants would lead to decreased heavy metal emissions during combustion of wood waste while still recovering a similar energy yield from the waste. Such measures would also increase possibilities for resource-saving reuse of the generated ash. For most metals, however, long-term pollution concerns related to accumulations in landfills and unintentional co-recycling are difficult to address, regardless of separation strategy. An exception is industrial preservative-treated wood waste that according to regulation is to be separately handled as hazardous, for which separation measures also would address such future concerns. This indicates that governments could play an important role in environmental policy by, for instance, stimulating separate handling of certain discarded products.

    Actors in the energy sector involved in fuel and heat production have quite restricted capacities for separation of contaminants in wood waste. Instead, achieving substantially less contaminated wood waste seems to require actors in the waste and construction sectors to develop source separation measures. The fact that such measures often involve actors lacking professional standards for waste management constitutes a fundamental obstacle to efficient separation. Perhaps even more hampering is that source separation at present leads to increased waste disposal costs for actors in the construction sector. Such economic outcomes of source separation are unfavourable, since these actors consider wood waste as a disposal problem for which the costs should be minimised. Despite these obstacles, however, the results show that some actors have proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation.

    At present, only a minor share of industrial preservative–treated wood waste is separately handled as hazardous. For actors in the energy, waste and construction sectors, the incentives for such measures appear low even though introduced regulations potentially could have created such incentives. It appears as if a lack of steering mechanisms such as communication and supervision have neutralised the inherent pressure from regulation in many cases. Quality requirements, on the other hand, can be concluded to be of outmost importance for motivating separation measures. Unfortunately, market forces encourage actors in the energy sector to practice inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements. As a consequence, actors in the waste and construction sectors do not experience any strong pressure for separation of contaminants from their customers. In fact, such an inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements seems to have counteracted legal pressures for separation, due to present customer-oriented business management.

    List of papers
    1. Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    2004 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

    Keywords
    Heavy metal pollution, Demolition waste, Recovered waste wood, Industrial waste streams, Sustainable development, Waste bioenergy
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14069 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00100-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    2006 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14070 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2005.07.017 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

    Keywords
    Waste management strategies, Heavy metals, Problem shifting, Substance flow analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14071 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    2006 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

    Keywords
    preservatives; sawn timber; wood waste; waste management; hazardous substances; environmental pollution; material flow analysis; substance flow analysis; environmental policy; regulations; industrial ecology; strategic sustainable development; Sweden
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14072 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2006.012272 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    5. Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    2008 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14073 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.010 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    6. Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14074 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 49.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban and landfill mining: emerging global perspectives and approaches2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 16-17, p. 1772-1773Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 50.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verktyg för bättre sortering på återvinningscentraler2009Report (Other academic)
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