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  • 1.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhna, Iryna
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhnyi, Dmytrii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Geletukha, Georgiy
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Lutsenko, Serhii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Yanchenko, Ilona
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technologies for Environmental Safety Application of Digestate as Biofertilizer2022In: Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, ISSN 2719-7050, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the environmentally safe and economically feasible technology of biofertilizer production from the digestate including dewatering process. Methodological basis is based on the systematic approach to the determination of factors effected on the distribution of nutrients and pollutants between liquidand solid fractions after digestate separation. We studied modern technologies aimed at dewatering the digestateand reduction of its volume, showed their effectiveness. These technologies allow expanding the opportunities forcommercialization of the digestate, increasing the cost of its transportation and application to the soil instead ofcomplex fertilizers, using some valuable products. The results of the study showed that the ecological quality ofthe digestate is the highest as well as co-digested thermally pre-treated feedstock is used for solid-liquid separationin centrifuge with polymer addition as post-treatment approach to the flocculation. In order to increase efficiencyof biofertilizer application the technological scheme of production process of granular fertilizers from digestatewas proposed. Special feature of this scheme is in the use of phosphogypsum binder for the production of organomineral fertilizer that contributes phosphogypsum recycling in the waste management system.

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  • 2.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage2016In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 174-185Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

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  • 3.
    Almoosawi, Somar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University.
    Product Related Research Regarding Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, in Hong Kong and South China, Environmental Management Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research was set out to understand the underlying causes for the lack of knowledgeregarding the environmental field in Hong Kong and South China and get a basic view of thedifficulties Environmental Management Systems (EMS) encounter when being put intopractice. Interviews and factory visits were used to collect data needed to build this report.The interviews had the aim to understand how companies in Hong Kong and China managetheir environmental related work. An EMS is a set of processes and practices that enable anorganization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency, buthow was the use of such systems affecting the environmental work in reality.A total of eight persons from six different companies were interviewed. With the aim tounderstand how EMS were implemented and used from their point of view. The maindifficulty for the companies asked was the task of understanding and documenting theprocesses of ones own company. With differences such as language, culture, etc present thereis a need for a mutual ground. In the environmental field EMS are used as the commonground. Western companies are, because of the use of EMS, able to attain a picture of theenvironmental work and processes of their industrial partners in the China and Hong Kong.The result of this research shows that there still are many obstacles, for environmentalmanagement systems used by SME, left to address. There are cultural as well asinfrastructural problems that need to be addressed. It is therefore important to alter EMS inco ordinance with the Chinese social environment that it will be used in.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Petersson, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Potential for Urban Mining in Norrköping: a Static Quantification of Metal in Subterranean Infrasystems2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the society’s demand for metal increases, the rate of mineral extraction will do the same. This contributes to environmental implications in the form of emissions and depletion of finite natural resources. Conventional recycling is a common practice used to reduce the need for extraction of metal ore and in turn reduce the environmental impact. Recycling is an important source to satisfy the metal demand; as much of 30 % of the metal demand is covered by recycling in some markets. Another form of recycling is the practice of urban mining. A practice which includes recycling of society’s stocks of unused but not discarded metal, these unused amounts metal is part of a so called hibernating stock. An example of a very large stock is the infrasystems in the shape of power cables and pipes. The objective of this thesis is to quantify the metal stocks of copper, aluminium and iron in subterranean infrasystems in the city district of Södra Butängen in Norrköping. Also, a quantification for Norrköping as a whole is performed but on slightly different infrasystems. An economical valuation of these stocks is also performed. The Municipality of Norrköping has the ambition to transform this small industrial area, that Södra Butängen is today, into to a sustainability profiled residential and commercial area which opens up an opportunity to recycle the infrasystems when all buildings are removed and the ground is dug up. To fulfil the objective of the thesis, and quantify the metal stocks, so called static quantification was used. The infrasystems to be included in this study were chosen and the data describing these systems was collected from the respective owner of the systems. The gathered data consists of maps which were digitalized with GIS-software using ArcMap 10 where the stocks then were quantified. The results show that the infrasystems in Södra Butängen holds almost 600 tons of metal with an economical value of 4.67 million SEK. For the Norrköping quantification the results shows that the stock contains about 30,000 tons of metal. The economical value is a little over 70 million SEK. The hibernating stocks in Norrköping equals to 5,100 tons of metal and a value of 9.5 million SEK. There is a potential for urban mining in Södra Butängen that should be considered. However, there are some issues that also must be considered, like cost of extraction. There are large stocks of metal that not have been possible to identify in this thesis. This includes the power grid for Norrköping; a valuable stock due to its large copper content.

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    Potential for Urban Mining in Norrköping - a Static Quantification of Metal in Subterranean Infrasystems
  • 5.
    Andersson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Resurseffektivare energi- och växthusföretag genom industriell symbios2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to assess the potential from a joint venture between Tekniska Verken and greenhouses. The goal is to, through industrial symbiosis, create a resource-efficient solution in which Tekniska Verken’s facilities can improve their environmental performance while the greenhouse’s climate impact is reduced.

    Tekniska Verken has excess heat in their facilities. In 2007 Gärstad- and Kraftvärmeverket had 54 GWh excess heat. The largest quantity of excess heat occur during the summer when the demand for heat in the district heating system is the lowest. The excess heat during the summer reached a high level as 25MW.

    In a few years, Swedish Biogas’s plant in Linköping will have an excess heat of about 26 GWh per year. The effect will then be 4 MW during the winter and 2 MW during the summer. The amount of carbon dioxide released from the biogas plant is 16 000 tons a year resulting in a flow of 1.8 tons per hour. The biogas plant in Linköping produces 45 000 tons of bio-fertilizer a year.

    Vegetables like tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs and lettuces are grown in greenhouses thrives best at temperatures of 15-26 ˚ C. During the day, the temperature should be slightly higher than during the night. In order to enhance growth of the plants, carbon dioxide can be added. In strong light and warm climates, carbon dioxide concentration can be increased from 375 ppm to 1200 ppm. The energy demand for tomato cultivation is somewhere between 350-550 kWh per square meter and year. The power requirement varies between 200 and 300 W per square meter depending on plant location and the house insulation. The carbon dioxide supply is 7-20 grams per square meter greenhouse.

    The excess heat from Tekniska Verken’s facilities is enough to support a traditional greenhouse with the size of two hectares. The greenhouse has its lowest heat demand in the summer, which has the effect that only a small portion of excess heat from Gärstad- and Kraftvärmeverket can be used. The amount of excess heat from the biogas plant is highest in the winter and slightly lower in the summer, making it well suited for a match with the greenhouse. The amount of carbon dioxide is enough to meet the demand of a greenhouse with an area of 9 hectares. It could potentially be possible to use bio-manure as fertilizer in the greenhouse. However, further studies should be conducted before this can be assured.

    Tekniska Verken is investigating how a joint venture with the company Plantagon could be set up. Plantagon together with Sweco has developed an innovative cultivation concept in which plants are grown in levels in a sphere-shaped greenhouse. To verify the data on energy and power needs given by Sweco, and to get an idea of the parameters that affect greenhouse climate, calculations have been performed. The factors taken into account in the calculations are the heat conduction, convection, solar radiation, ventilation, dehumidification and the use of water. To see how the power requirements vary throughout the year, the calculations have been repeated for every month. The excess heat from Tekniska Verken is more than enough to cover the greenhouse’s heat demand.

    In order to estimate how much Tekniska Verken could reduce a greenhouse cultivation’s climate impact, six different scenarios is set. Using an existing life cycle analysis of Swedish tomato cultivation the carbon dioxide emission per kilogram of tomatoes for the different scenarios were calculated and compared. Two of the scenarios are linked to Tekniska Verken. One scenario is traditional greenhouse cultivation and the other is Plantagon greenhouse. A traditional greenhouse cultivation which is provided with resources from Tekniska Verken and is locally producing vegetables has a smaller carbon footprint than average greenhouse cultivation. The production of 78 kg of tomatoes in that greenhouse corresponds to the same carbon footprint as 1 kilogram tomatoes from average greenhouse cultivation. Plantagon greenhouse can similarly produce 7 kilograms of tomatoes in the same climate impact as 1 kilogram of tomatoes from average greenhouse cultivation.

    By using excess heat, carbon dioxide and bio-manure from Tekniska Verken to power the greenhouse, a system solution with low environmental impact is created. Previously not used resources will have a sector of application, which increases the environmental performance of the production facilities. The produced vegetables will get a lower environmental impact and could, for example be climate certified and sold as locally produced in the Linköping area. By avoiding long and expensive transports and to be able to sell vegetables at a higher price increases the profits for cultivation company.

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  • 6.
    Asplund, Stina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The Biogas Production Plant at Umeå Dairy — Evaluation of Design and Start-up2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of a large project at Norrmejerier, a biogas production plant has been constructed at Umeå Dairy. In this plant wastewater, residual milk and whey are decomposed and biogas is produced. The biogas is burned in a steam boiler. The biogas plant is designed as an anaerobic contact process, with sludge separation and recirculation by a clarifier. The fat in the substrate is treated in a separate reactor.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the design and start-up of this biogas production plant. Further, the interaction with the contractor responsible for construction and start-up is evaluated.

    The plant is generally well designed, the process conditions are suitable and the objectives are realistic. However, the seed sludge is unsuitable and the time plan is too optimistic.

    At the end of the period of this study, the plant was running and all central components are performing as intended. Still, the objectives have not been reached. This is mainly attributed to the poor quality of the seed sludge.

    The management of the plant and the interaction with the contractor has generally been good. Most problems that arose were of typical start-up nature. Others were due to insufficient planning or lack of communication. Further, several design flaws were identified during start-up.

    Washout of sludge has been one of the most significant drawbacks during start-up. This inconvenience seems to be the result of improper seed sludge and a too hasty increase of the organic loading rate.

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  • 7.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 8.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Effects of the Different Implementation of Legislation Relating to Sewage Sludge Disposal in the EU2020In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 10, p. 92-99Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Directive 86/278/EEC implemented in 1986 was a means adopted by the European Union to improve use of the valuables in sewage sludge by applying treated sludge on agricultural soils. To prevent an accumulation of pollutants, the Directive provided suggestions limiting concentrations of toxic elements in sewage sludge and agricultural soil. The Directive was implemented diversely throughout EU member states, with current national legislations only partly reflecting the initial intentions of the EU Directive from 30 years ago. This study demonstrates how the European Directive was implemented in three countries currently at different stages of replacing the agricultural application of sewage sludge with incineration (Netherlands, Germany and Sweden). Additionally, recent changes in the legislation with regards to the re-use and final disposal of sewage sludge in the three chosen member states are analysed. The aim was to investigate how each member state has solved the conflict between improvement of nutrient recovery from sludge and limitation of pollutants in agricultural soil. Based on this review, limit values are not necessarily reflected in application rates of sewage sludge in agriculture. Following changes in current legislation, phosphorus recovery will become a priority task. The recovery of other valuables from sewage sludge is currently not regulated in the legislation of the three member states investigated.

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  • 9.
    Berglund, Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Implementation of Lead-Free Soldering in Highly Reliable Applications2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The directive of the European parliament and of the council on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) took effect in the European Union on July 1, 2006. Japan, California, China and Korea are all closed markets for exporters of components containing lead from July 1, 2007. Taiwan and Australia are working with similar directives. The RoHS directive is the reason why this thesis about the implementation of lead-free soldering in highly reliable applications is necessary.

    The European Lead Free soldering NETwork (ELFNET) status survey from 2005 shows that the majority of the companies are well informed, but 20% are still not active in lead-free soldering. The Swedish industry is for the most part prepared and 95% of the components are lead-free. The transition to lead-free soldering will have a major affect on logistics and administration, because the RoHS directive is 90% about administration and logistics problems. Only 10% is technical problems.

    The higher melting point in lead-free soldering affects every stage of the lead-free manufacturing, from assembly to testing and repair.

    The major concern for highly reliable applications are that there are not enough data to understand to what grade lead-free solders will perform differently from lead based solders. Five different types of reliability testing were studied in this thesis; vibration, mechanical shock, thermal shock, thermal cycling and combined environments. Whiskers, voids, brittle fractures and mixed assembly problems were also studied. Individual tests alone should not be used to make definite decisions on lead-free soldering reliability. The lower reliability for lead-free solders in some tests does not necessarily mean that lead-free solders not can be used in highly reliable applications like defence electronics.

    The most important conclusions from this thesis are:

    • Update or change the logistic system and mark/label according to available standards.

    • Secure a good board layout.

    • Secure a good process control.

    • Alternative surface board should be used. Tin-silver-copper (SAC) is the most reliable solder and Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) is the most reliable surface finish.

    • Remember that the higher temperature affects every stage of the manufacturing.

    • No increased problems with whiskers or risk of high voiding levels.

    • Mixed assembly is a risk. Compatibility and contamination risks must be taken seriously.

    • Which environment will the applications be in? If it is not a highly vibrating and thermal cycling environment, lead-free soldering should be safe to use.

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  • 10.
    Bertling, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Röstberg, Sebastian
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hur uppfattas biogas och el?: En diskursanalys av debatten kring två alternativa bränslen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har sedan bilens uppkomst funnits samhällsdebatter kring vilket bränsle som är mest passande. Trots att fossila bränslen dominerar som fordonsbränsle, har debatten om alternativa bränslen pågått under en längre tid. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka en del av denna debatt. Inriktningen är fokuserad på el och biogas som alternativa bränslen i Sverige. Ett antal debattartiklar ur tidsskrifter har valts ut och analyserats med en diskursanalytisk metod. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna härstammar ifrån N. Fairclough, M. A. Hajer samt U. Beck. I debatten har ett antal problem kring respektive bränsle framträtt. Det handlar bland annat om infrastruktur, teknisk utveckling och privata sektorns ansvar. Alternativa bränslen uppfattas som attraktiva lösningar på transportsektorns miljöproblem. Staten har en roll i utvecklingen av dessa bränslen då ekonomiska bidrag är högt värderade och anses nödvändiga. Det framgår tydligt i debatten att miljöproblemen som härstammar ifrån transportsektorn ska lösas med teknisk utveckling. Det återstår att se vilket bränsle som kommer att gynnas mest av staten och därmed hur transportsektorns problem kommer att lösas.

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    Hur uppfattas biogas och el?
  • 11.
    Biswas, Rajib
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibility of anaerobic conversion of red algae Polysiphonia, rich in nitrogen and phosphorous, was investigated. Biogas and methane potential of Polysiphonia, harvested in two different seasons [October and March], was investigated through three different batch digestion experiments and laboratory scale CSTR [continuous stirred tank reactor] at mesophilic (37oC) condition. Autoclavation [steam and heat] and ultrasound pretreatments were applied in order to enhance the biodegradation. In STR, anaerobic codigestion of algal biomass with SS [sewage sludge] was applied with a gradual increase in organic loading rate [1.5-4.0 g VS/L/day] and operated for 117 days at 20days HRT [hydraulic retention time]. Reactor digestate was analyzed four times over the period to determine the nutrients and heavy metals content. It is concluded that the methane potential of algae harvested in October is almost two-fold than that of algae harvested in March, probably due to it’s higher [more than double] nitrogen richness. An increase in biogas yield was observed upto 28% and VS reduction was increased from 37% to 45% due to autoclave pretreatment. Ultrasound pretreatment had no effect on digestion. In batch digestion, maximum methane yield 0.25 m3/kg VS added at 273oK, was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated in autoclave. Codigestion of algae with SS worked well in STR with a comparatively lower OLR. At a higher OLR, methanogens were inhibited due to increased VFAs accumulation and decreased pH. A maximum biogas yield 0.49 m3/kg VS added at 310oK , was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated with autoclave. The methane content of the produced biogas was 54%. Average [over a short period, day 99-107, reactor showed steady performance] maximum biogas yields from untreated algae obtained 0.44 m3/kg VSadded at 310oK and the VS reduction was calculated 32%. Digestate, to be used as a fertilizer, was found NH4-N, N, P, K, S and Na rich and only Cadmium level was above the maximal limit among the heavy metals. The sand content in algae during harvesting was considered as a factor to disrupt the operation. Codigestion of Polysiphonia algal biomass with substrate with higher C:N ratio like paper mill waste should be more appropriate to increase the methane and biogas yield. It is inconclusive whether AD process is a good method to dewater redalgae or not but large scale harvesting of algae will definitely contribute to curb eutrophication of the Baltic Sea through decreasing N and P level.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-FETs Using Multivariate Statistics2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 214, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive field effect transistors based on silicon carbide, SiC-FETs, have been studied for indoor air quality applications. The selectivity of the sensors was increased by temperature cycled operation, TCO, and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of benzene, naphthalene, and formaldehyde independent of the level of background humidity is possible by using shape describing features as input for Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA, or Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA. Leave-one-out cross-validation leads to a correct classification rate of 90 % for LDA, and for PLS-DA a classification rate of 83 % is achieved. Quantification of naphthalene in the relevant concentration range, i.e. 0 ppb to 40 ppb, was performed by Partial Least Squares Regression and a combination of LDA with a second order polynomial fit function. The resolution of the model based on a calibration with three concentrations was approximately 8 ppb at 40 ppb naphthalene for both algorithms.

    Hence, the suggested strategy is suitable for on demand ventilation control in indoor air quality application systems.

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-Field Effect Transistors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive FETs based on SiC have been studied for the discrimination and quantification of hazardous volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in the low ppb range. The sensor performance was increased by temperature cycled operation (TCO) anddata evaluation based on multivariate statistics, here Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Discrimination of formaldehyde,naphthalene and benzene with varying concentrations in the ppb range is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that naphthalenecan be quantified in the relevant concentration range independent of the relative humidity and against a high ethanol background.Hence, gas sensitive SiC-FETs are suitable sensors for determining indoor air quality.

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  • 14.
    Carlsson, Theres
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Vem ska få chansen att använda biogasen?: En studie utifrån en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie om bland annat behandlar vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå för biogasägare och användare av biogas om efterfrågan på biogas överstiger tillgången. Studien bygger på intervjuer som gjorts med tolv utvalda kommuner vilka alla har en biogasanläggning som tar emot avfall utifrån och dessutom levererar biogas till fordon. Studie består av två typer av frågeområden. Det första som undersökts är varför de svenska biogasanläggningarna byggt där de har och av vilken anledning det inte finns fler anläggningar. Syftet med studien är att uppmärksamma ett troligt framtida problem vilket grundar sig på ett tänkbart scenario om att oljan antigen stiger i pris eller sinar. Den problematik som uppmärksammats är om efterfrågan på biogas, på grund utav scenariot med oljan, överstiger tillgången och hur kommunerna skulle förhålla sig till en sådan situation. Frågeställningarna har analyserats utifrån ekonomisk teori med inriktning på begreppen utbud, efterfrågan, äganderätter och styrmedel. Dessutom har en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell använts för lättare se sambanden mellan de olika ingående delar i studien. Orsaken till att kommunerna har en biogasanläggning skiljer sig relativt mycket åt. De orsaker som nämndes var att vissa hade ett avfall att ta hade om medan en annan kommun hade en efterfrågan på biogasen. Vidare kunde biogastillverkningen motverka dels övergödning och dels föroreningsproblem orsakade av trafiken i innerstaden. Att inte fler kommuner har biogastillverkning tros enligt de undersökta kommunerna bland annat bero på att det dels kan vara svårt att räkna hem en anläggning idag och dels rädsla för luktproblem. Vidare anses det vara en otrygg marknad på grund utav oklara spelregler och dessutom krävs mycket i form av kunskap med mera av de kommuner som vill uppföra en anläggning. Troliga lösningar på det framtida scenariot som uppges av kommunerna är att komplettera med naturgas eller utvidga produktionen av biogasen. Det var endast en kommun som haft någon fundering på scenariot tidigare. Ett par kommuner ansåg dock att det var en viktig fråga att fundera vidare på. Flertalet av kommunerna är emellertid inte oroade över det givna scenariot. Andra tänkbara lösningar på problemet är att antingen privatisera biogasen eller att upprätta avtal mellan biogasanvändare och biogasägare.

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  • 15.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

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  • 16.
    Cliffoord, John
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Use of future oriented studies in corporate environmental management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the future methods are used in areas like economical studies, predicting future markets or legislations that might have an effect on a company or an organization. There is a necessity for knowing what the future holds. Following sustainable development companies has begun to adopt standardized environmental management systems like EMAS and ISO 14001. The companies that use scenario methods are often companies that also use environmental management and standardized management systems, which also is the case in this study. The aim of the study is to examine how future oriented studies can be used to develop the environmental strategic arena, by suggesting possible work procedures. The aim is also to describe how different future studies and techniques theoretically can be used within the strategic environmental area and to examine the use of future studies within different companies. Four Semi-structured interviews were made with companies that both use EMS and future studies. The interviews and the theoretical framework in study were used to answer the aim.

    The results indicate that company future studies only have an effect on the market area and not the company EMS, the influence at the best is only indirect. The companies are more focused on factors that can change the market and economical aspects surrounding their products and services, than on factors that can be of important in making strategic important decisions about the appearance of the future environmental arena. Future oriented studies can be of use in EMS, the forecasting used in company A or the external method used in the three other companies. The methods each have qualities that are of use in different areas of the standardized EMS. Forecasting can help the user in the beginning of the planning process of EMS, with its short term visions the user can create an understanding about which way to go and this can then be complemented with backcasting. External scenarios used in the other three companies should be able to be integrated with the environmental area of the companies. These companies have god conditions to integrate their scenario work with the EMS because of the knowledge and use of future studies today.

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  • 17. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Cordova, Stephanie S.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Utilizing CO2 from biomethane production: Sustainability and climate performance2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions offer many benefits for the environment and society, including organic waste treatment as well as being an enabler for energy and nutrient recovery. The products of anaerobic digestion are a biogas, which contains a share of 30 to 50% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50 to 70% methane, and a liquid remanent, rich in nutrients. The biogas can be upgraded by removing the CO2 to increase the energy content, producing biomethane. At present, CO2 is considered a waste in biomethane production systems, and hence it is emitted into the atmosphere. Nevertheless, biogas upgrading technologies separate a pure-grade CO2 and, likewise, carbon capture processes, providing a pure CO2 flow that can be stored or utilized. Compared to storage, carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies deliver valuable carbon-based products required to sustain human activities. The valorization of green CO2 could aid the transition towards defossilization of the economy. Indeed, several CO2 utilization technologies could be incorporated into biomethane production systems, but there is still a limited understanding of the available alternatives and their potential impacts on biomethane systems.

    This thesis aims to investigate the integration of CO2 utilization technologies in biomethane production systems by revealing its potential, identifying alternatives, and assessing the impacts of the integration. Using Sweden as an example, scenarios of future biomethane production were employed to estimate the potential CO2 available for utilization. To complement the analysis, a qualitative approach made possible the identification of aspects that could affect CO2 utilization in biomethane production. Moreover, a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework was developed to identify relevant indicators for assessment and available alternatives for CO2 utilization. The research also includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the climate performance of relevant CCU alternatives in the biomethane production system.

    Results show that 160 kt of CO2 could be obtained from biomethane production in Sweden, which could potentially increase threefold from 2020 to 2030. The evaluation of alternatives for CO2 utilization includes environmental, technical, economic, and social criteria with sound indicators within an MCA framework. Indicators to evaluate each criterion provide valuable information to identify feasible and sustainable alternatives that can be integrated into biomethane plants. The identified alternatives with a high readiness level are additional methane through methanation, horticulture, mineral carbonates, fuels, pH control, bulk chemicals, and liquefied CO2 for direct use. The results provide information to decision-makers in relation to considerations to take before implementation, like energy requirements, the existence of regulations and standards, and uncertainty. In terms of the climate performance of biomethane with the inclusion of CCU alternatives, the results show a possible reduction of CO2 emissions that depends on the possibility of substituting fossil-based products. The investigated alternatives all result in lower emissions, but concrete curing and methanation using renewable hydrogen produce the best results.

    To conclude, the potential future increase of green CO2 from biomethane in Sweden creates opportunities to substitute fossil carbon in current applications and mature conversion pathways. Moreover, the inclusion of CCU in biomethane production contributes to reducing biomethane system emissions and diversifying its products. Possible alternatives of CCU that can be integrated into biomethane production systems in the short term include methanation and concrete curing. Other alternatives could be possible but present lower performance and higher uncertainties at the moment.

    List of papers
    1. Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide from biogas production in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide from biogas production in Sweden
    2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 370, article id 133498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions offer many advantages to improve sustainable development, but there is still untapped potential in its environmental performance. During biogas upgrading, CO2 is separated from the gas to deliver a flow with high methane concentration and thus high energy content. In this practice, CO2 is commonly emitted to the atmosphere without contributing to a net addition of climate gases because of its biological origin, being a missed opportunity for carbon capture. In this paper, CO2 valorization is an option that has been evaluated using a qualitative and quantitative approach, taking Sweden as an example. Results showed that around 140 kt of CO2 can potentially be captured and utilized from biogas upgrading, which can significantly increase in future scenarios. If CO2 were turned into methane using power-to-gas technology, an additional 35% of biogas could be produced in the short term, meaning up to additional 0.7 TWh in 2020. By 2050, around 600 to 1600 kt of CO2 could be available, depending on how well the biogas production develops and how much of the biogas is upgraded, resulting in up to 6.2 TWh of biomethane. The qualitative assessment suggested that only minor modifications in the upgrading process are required for this practice. Biogas actors are interested in getting involved in valorization projects that enhance their circular business and avoid carbon lock-in mainly to improve the environmental performance of biomethane. Moreover, the application of CO2 valorization requires collaboration with different actors to integrate current CO2 demand or innovative transformation technologies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science Ltd, 2022
    Keywords
    Biogas; CO2 valorization; CCU; Power-to-gas
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189062 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133498 (DOI)000860684400002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Kamprad Family Foundation for Entrepreneurship, Research Charity [20200041]; Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency [35624-3]

    Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-05-12
    2. Corrigendum to “Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide frombiogas production in Sweden” [J. Clean. Prod. 370 (2022) 133498]
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum to “Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide frombiogas production in Sweden” [J. Clean. Prod. 370 (2022) 133498]
    2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 378, article id 134392Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science Ltd, 2022
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190187 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134392 (DOI)000880122000007 ()
    Available from: 2022-11-28 Created: 2022-11-28 Last updated: 2023-05-12
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  • 18.
    Davy, Jonathan
    et al.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa.
    Todd, Andrew
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa.
    Metson, Genevieve S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Thatcher, Andrew
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecological and Environmental Modeling. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing a greywater treatment system in a highly adaptive urban environment: an ergonomics and human factors observational analysis2023In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, E-ISSN 1744-9006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unplanned, high-density settlements in low-middle income countries often lack functional wastewater management systems. Nature-based solutions, such as constructed wetlands, are an option for the treatment of greywater, provided they are used by and useful to the community. We explored the effectiveness of iterative design for two pilot constructed wetlands in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) design approaches, this study evaluated the usability and postural risks associated with interactions with the constructed wetlands to motivate (and evaluate) design changes to increase use and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal pain. An elevated work area reduced musculoskeletal risks and a larger work area allowed more users at one time. The raised work areas provided other benefits such as stormwater and sewerage protection. The value of E/HF as part of a broader transdisciplinary team was demonstrated by embedding the design in the activities of the community.

  • 19.
    Ek, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Ultrasonic treatment of sewage sludge in order to increase biogas yields2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. After anaerobic digestion, the digested sludge is often allowed to degas for one or two days. This gas is seldom utilised, but if the degassing could be accelerated, utilisation would be easier. Ultrasound can be used as a pretreatment method for waste activated sludge. It has a disintegrating effect on the sludge and causes lysis of bacteria in the sludge. It also speeds up the hydrolysis; the limiting step of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Ultrasound can be used to degas waterbased liquids. Ultrasonic degassing of sewage sludge has not been examined previously. The present study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound on waste activated sludge as well as the potential of ultrasound to speed up the degassing of digested sludge. A semi-continuous, lab-scale digestion experiment was performed with four reactors: two receiving untreated sludge and two receiving treated sludge. The effect of the sonicator was 420 W and the treatment time was 6 min, which corresponds to an energy input of 8.4 kWh/m3. Total solids (TS) of the waste activated sludge was ~3.5 %. The ultrasonic treatment caused an increase in gas production of 13 %. There was no difference in methane content. The concentration of filterable chemical oxygen demand (fCOD) increased 375 %, or from 2.8 % to 11 % of total COD. In terms of energy loss/gain the increase in gas production resulted in a loss of 2.7 kWh/m3, i.e. more energy is needed to treat the sludge than the potential energy of the increased gas production. However, if the sludge is thickened to a TS >5 %, a net energy gain should be reached. The effect of ultrasound on the degassing of digested sludge was examined in three barrels. The degassing was measured with and without circulation as well as with ultrasonic treatment. The digested sludge had a gas emission rate of 115 L/(m3 day). No direct burst of gas occurred due to ultrasonic treatment. Over two days more gas was emitted from the barrel equipped with ultrasound, probably due to an induced post-digestion. Thus, ultrasonic pretreatment of waste activated sludge increases the biogas yield. It is inconclusive, whether ultrasonic treatment of digested sludge effects the degassing or not.

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  • 20.
    Ekman, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What sewage sludge is and conflicts in Swedish circular economy policymaking2022In: Environmental Sociology, ISSN 2325-1042, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 292-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling nutrients from renewable sources, like sewage sludge, has been promoted as a step towards a circular economy by decreasing extraction and dependency on inorganic fertilizers. Implementation, however, is often controversial. In 2018, a Swedish governmental inquiry was commissioned to propose a complete ban on land application of sewage sludge to reduce soil pollution and increase phosphorus recovery. In 2020, the inquiry suggested two pathways, one to ban all land application, and one where agricultural land use should continuously be allowed. This paper is based on interviews with experts tied to the inquiry where they reference to sewage sludge, related objects, and future management. The inquiry’s inability to propose a coherent suggestion is analysed inspired by the concept of multiple ontology. Several ontological versions of sewage sludge emerge that unveil tensions between concepts of danger and cleanliness, pollution and naturalness, often captured in previous studies of waste. Some versions of sewage sludge conflict, which can explain the difficulty to establish an ontologically singular knowledge base for a transformation of sewage sludge from waste to resource. Though most of the experts agree that circular economy and nutrient recycling are good things, policymaking is caught in an ontological conundrum.

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  • 21.
    Elfving, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hydrolys av primärslam för förbättrande av biologisk fosforreduktion vid behandling av hushållsavloppsvatten [Hydrolysis of primary sludge for enhancement of biological phosphorus removal in household wastewater]2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarby Sjöstad is a new district of southern Stockholm built with focus on reduced environmental impact by recirculation of materials and sustainability. The environmental goals aim to cut the water consumption by half and a separate storm water treatment. Thus, the wastewater will be more concentrated and will originate from the households only. The Sjöstad project includes the idea of a local treatment plant for the household wastewater. To evaluate this possibility, Sjöstadsverket, an experimental treatment plant was constructed. New wastewater treatment processes are tested and evaluated and compared to conventional methods including both aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes.

    One of the aerobic treatment processes includes enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR or Bio-P) as the method for the removal of phosphorus. In biological phosphorus removal the wastewater is alternately being exposed to anaerobic and aerobic conditions, which favours a certain bacteria, which can accumulate more phosphorus than is required for their growth. For this phosphorus accumulation the bacteria need volatile fatty acids (VFA) to cover their energy demand, but normally there is a shortage in VFA in the incoming wastewater.

    The main purpose of this master thesis work has been to create the best possible conditions in order to produce VFA by hydrolysis and fermentation of primary sludge. In this way the organic material in the incoming wastewater can be used in biological phosphorus removal.

    The sludge temperature, total solids (TS) and retention time are regarded as important parameters for a successful biological phosphorus removal and a laboratory study was set up to investigate these conditions for the wastewater at the Hammarby Sjöstad experimental plant. These laboratory-scale hydrolysis experiments showed that high temperature and high TS favours VFA-production. The results have also shown that four to five days retention time is suitable at a process temperature higher than 23°C, but also that the retention time likely should be extended at lower temperatures.

    In a full-scale process experiment, primary sludge was pumped from a primary clarifier to a hydrolysis tank and then back to the primary clarifier. The hydrolysis gave rise to increased VFA-production when TS was increased. A temperature difference between the primary sludge and the hydrolysis sludge of 3°C was observed. The reason behind the difference has not been determined, but is considered important, since the temperature affects the VFA-production. Further on, analyses with gas chromatograph (GC) have shown that acetate has been the most frequently occurring VFA, although significant levels of other VFA, such as propionate, has also been detected.

    Phosphorus release tests in laboratory-scale, where phosphorus was released during an anaerobic phase and taken up during an aerobic phase, proved that biological phosphorus removal occurred at the full-scale experimental train.

    The full-scale hydrolysis experiment has shown that the VFA contribution by the hydrolysis tank to the biological phosphorus removal was low. The main reason is that the sludge-flow through the hydrolysis tank has been insignificant compared to the incoming wastewater flow. The problem is most likely connected to the incoming wastewater characteristics, since the low share of suspended solids (SS) entailed that not enough organic material in the primary clarifier settled.

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  • 22.
    Esguerra, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Laner, David
    Univ Kassel, Germany.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Landfill mining in Europe: Assessing the economic potential of value creation from generated combustibles and fines residue2021In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that resources recovery through landfill mining (LFM) is generally challenging from an economic perspective and that a large share of project costs is related to the external treatment and disposal of bulk process wastes such as combustibles and fines residue. Building on these analyses, this study aims to explore the potential for improving the economy of LFM in Europe by creating value from these bulk process wastes. Specifically, the combustibles are treated through internal incineration with subsequent energy recovery, while fines residue is utilized as construction aggregates. These explored possibilities are investigated considering other varying factors at the site, project, and system levels that cover possible LFM project settings in Europe. A set-based modelling approach is adapted generate multiple LFM scenarios (531,441) and investigate the underlying critical factors that drive the economy of LFM through global sensitivity analysis. Results show that an additional 16% of LFM sce-narios become net profitable, mainly driven by fines residue utilization. Avoided costs for re-landfilling are higher than the revenues from construction aggregates. By contrast, internal incineration is driven by the revenues from recovered energy rather than the avoided gate fee, which is substituted by the costs for building and operating own plants. Overall, the policy conditions remain critical to further improve the economy of LFM in Europe. Recommendations include an inclusive quality standard that relies on pollutant leachability rather than total concentration for higher-value application of fines residue and incentive rather than taxation for producing renewable energy from the combustibles. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 125-140Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

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  • 24.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Key performance indicators for biogas production: methodological insights on the life-cycle analysis of biogas production from source-separated food waste2020In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 200, article id 117462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of food waste can not only enhance the treatment of organic wastes, but also contributes to renewable energy production and the recirculation of nutrients. These multiple benefits are among the main reasons for the expansion of biogas production from food waste in many countries. We present methodological insights and recommendations on assessing the environmental and economic performance of these systems from a life-cycle perspective. We provide a taxonomy of the value chain of biogas from food waste which describes major activities, flows, and parameters across the value chain with a relatively high detail. By considering the multiple functions of biogas production from food waste, we propose a few key performance indicators (KPI) to allow comparison of different biogas production systems from the perspectives of climate impact, primary energy use, nutrients recycling, and cost. We demonstrate the operational use of our method through an example, where alternatives regarding the heat supply of the biogas plant are investigated. We demonstrate how global and local sensitivity analyses can be combined with the suggested taxonomy and KPIs for uncertainty management and additional analyses. The KPIs provide useful input into decision-making processes regarding the future development of biogas solutions from food waste. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 25.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions for enhanced nutrient recovery in biobased industries-three case studies from different industrial sectors2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 175, article id 105897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed to what extent biogas solutions can improve the nutrient recovery of biobased industrial clusters in different sectors. Three cases representing the agricultural, marine and forest sectors were analysed quantitatively using mass flow analysis. Adding a biogas plant facilitated production expansion and development of collaborative waste management, e.g. a wheat processing biorefinery with a mill and agricultural actors, or a pulp and paper mill with the aquaculture industry. In the marine- and forest-based cases, this decreased the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) input by 18% while increasing the recovery rate; e.g. for P from 32 to 96% for the marine-based and from 52 to 91%, for the forest-based. The impact in the agro-based case was minor as the actors were already operating with a high nutrient recovery. For the marine-based case, the impact was due to a huge increase in P recovery for the aquaculture actor while for the forest-based case, N from the aquacultural sector could be reused in the wastewater treatment. For the agro- and marine-based cases, adding a biogas plant also resulted in less transports and more local nutrient recycling; the total transport of organic waste, by-products and biofertilizers (in km x tonne) was reduced by 40% and 90%, respectively. The results demonstrate that biogas solutions can stimulate the development of biobased industrial symbiosis with integrated waste management, and contribute to more efficient recycling of key resources, which is essential for the transition to a circular society.

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  • 26.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable mobility in the low carbon city: digging up the highway in Odense, Denmark2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 29, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world are facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting urban sustainability. If comprehensive low-carbon development of cities is to be possible, transportation, as a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, is a particularly important sector to address. Major changes to transport behaviour and systems will be required in order to secure a shift to sustainable modes of transport and removal of infrastructure that reinforces unsustainable patterns of transportation. This paper examines the links between low-carbon urban development and sustainable mobility, with reference to the case of Odense, Denmark. With a reputation as a city of cyclists, Odense has recently closed a highway that divided central districts of the city, and is constructing a new tramway in its place. Results from a qualitative study, including interviews with individuals active in local policy processes, provide insights into Odense’s experiences and inform analysis of the influences on municipal strategies and plans for sustainable mobility, questioning if climate change need be the primary focus when designing policies to enable low-carbon urban development.

  • 27.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nolz, Pamela C.
    AIT Austrian Inst Technol, Austria; St Polten Univ Appl Sci, Austria.
    Seragiotto, Clovis
    AIT Austrian Inst Technol, Austria.
    A mixed method evaluation of economic and environmental considerations in construction transport planning: The case of Ostlänken2021In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 69, article id 102840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the construction related transports, the transport of soil and rock materials stand for a major part. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach enabling scenario analysis of the relation between storage location and soil and rock material transport planning. The study follows a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First a literature review and a qualitative case study identifies the problem. Second a quantitative optimization method is used to evaluate possible scenarios showing the interdependence between storage location costs and transport impact. The study has two main contributions, the mixed methods approach to evaluate economic and environmental considerations in an infrastructure project and the scenario analysis of different options for inventory control and transport. The presented study adds knowledge to transport efficiency of rock and soil materials.

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  • 28.
    Fredriksson (numera: Björn), Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nestor, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of an organotin PVC stabiliser on anoxic degradation of organic matter2003In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organotin compounds are toxic, thus their occurrence in the environment is of considerable concern, and several of these substances are regarded as priority pollutants that require further investigation. Organotins are used primarily as heat stabilisers in PVC plastic, and they are therefore found in landfills in which discarded PVC products have been deposited. In an earlier study, it was found that a widely used methyl tin PVC stabiliser inhibited microbial generation of CH4during anoxic degradation, and the objective of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of such inhibition. CH4 and fermentation products were measured continuously for a period of 219 days in waste material amended with a methyl tin stabiliser. The results show that CH4 formation was retarded for 84-198 days during fermentation of the waste material. Furthermore, it seemed that not only the methyl tins, but also their sulphur organic ligands, play an important role in retarding the formation of CH4. The methyl tin stabiliser apparently affected both the fermentative organisms that provided the substrate for the methanogens, as well as the methanogens.

  • 29.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

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  • 30.
    Funkquist, John
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Att hitta och släppa kontroll: Hantverk i teori och praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how theoretical studies on handicrafts may be rewarding and usefull for a craftsman. The aim is also to explore how quality is defined within crafts and to explore different aesthetic qualities that can be achieved within the craft of cabinetmaking. In addition, the aim is also to broaden the view on how skillfullnes may be expressed within the craft of cabinetmaking. The work begins with theoretical studies of two craft philosophers - David Pye and Soetsu Yanagi. Then, their ideas are applied practically through the making of two pieces of furniture. Aesthetic expressions characterized by randomness, imperfection and irregularity is specially sought after. The conclusions of the thesis shows that theoretical studies may be benefiting and rewarding for a craftsman.

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  • 31.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Navarra, Carlo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Cederlund, Douglas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjulander, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Development and user testing of the ICT-platform Visual Water supporting sustainable municipal stormwater planning2022In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, E-ISSN 1744-9006, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 962-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to develop sustainable stormwater management is intensifying due to climate impacts and urban densification. Such complex planning processes require insights into disparate issues, connecting heterogeneous actors. While many decision-support tools are developed to facilitate such planning, research assessing their usefulness is requested. This study introduces and assesses one such ICT-tool; the Visual Water platform, aiming to support sustainable stormwater planning in Swedish municipalities. The study aims to identify critical points to consider for developers of related decision-support tools and to detangle requirements and tradeoffs in making them relevant and user-friendly, building on test-sessions with Swedish practitioners. Results show that the platform responds to challenges within municipal planning as outlined by Swedish practitioners. However, though the platform content is considered relevant, its application in real-world planning is perceived as somewhat unclear. The paper discusses ideas for how sustainability-related decision-support tools better can respond to user demands.

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  • 32.
    González Ocón, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Evaluation of Potentially Eco-Efficient Solutions: Functional Sales and Industrial Ecology2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Design of products permits to yield goods and services to produce satisfaction on customers, which is measured as value. However, it is at this stage in which most of the environmental impact, from a lifecycle perspective, is added to the product. Eco-design aims at increasing value of products while reducing the burdens on the environment by means conscious design towards efficient use of resources. That efficiency, referred to as eco-efficiency, can be increased in a number of manners within environmental engineering. Traditionally, different fields have tackled materials, energy flows and products from different angles or approaches. In this thesis we describe Functional Sales (FS) and Industrial Ecology (IE) as examples of these. Within this latter, we put emphasis on Industrial Symbiosis (IS) and Eco-effectiveness. We consider these approaches are suitable to work in the framework of eco-design to increase ecoefficiency. By adding services to material products, and managing material and energy flows with a more ecological consciousness, we expect to increase value of products while reducing the impact on the environment.

    To analyse this potential improvement, we developed a method involving a new eco-efficiency index (VERI), that recursively intends to ease decisions on possible eco-efficient alternatives. This index and its method are applied to a case study on management of olive oil supply in region of Murcia, Spain. Here, we propose three scenarios that will involve the implementation of FS and IE to compare the outcomes in value and environmental performance against an idealised current supply chain. The results obtained, although not accurate, suggest that FS and EI should be more taken into account in eco-design and, this latter, to also consider holistic viewpoints to find more eco-efficient alternatives for a product development.

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  • 33.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Div. of Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raburu, Phillip O
    Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin2017In: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

  • 34.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, article id 104590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of process development based on a comprehensive understanding of the material characteristics and the marketability of recoverables is the primary reason why the valorisation of shredder fines has not been realised in practice. In response, a systematic approach was undertaken consisting of 1) strategic sampling and material characterisation, 2) establishing gate and regulatory requirements of potential valorisation applications, and 3) initial feasibility assessment of the selected applications, to guide future research.

    The material was sampled over ten weeks in order to obtain both average values and variations of the physical and chemical composition. Thus weekly, primary fractions and sieved fractions ZA (7.10–5.00 mm), ZB (5.00–3.35 mm), ZC (3.35–2.00 mm), ZD (2.00–0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25–0.063 mm) were prepared, and analysed, and benchmarked against the requirements pertaining to five potential applications. The mercury and aluminium concentrations are the biggest challenge in copper smelting and only ZA and ZB show significant potential. Energy recovery is limited to ZA, ZB, and ZC, provided the chlorine and metals concentrations are decreased. Regarding the recovery as bulk-material in construction, the reduction of the metal content would likely be a pre-requisite.

    The utilisation of fines in the individual applications would either leave a significant amount of fines un-valorised or overlook the recovery of valuable resources. The upgrading of the material to suit the different applications would also require addressing multiple material constraints simultaneously. Therefore, realising the full resource potential of shredder fines would require the integration of different upgrading and recovery processes.

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  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Att ständigt bli bättre i sitt miljöarbete: En intervjustudie kring hur företag med certifierade miljöledningssystem arbetar med ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöledningssystem används av företag och organisationer världen över. Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur företag som är certifierade enligt ISO 14001 arbetar att uppfylla standardens krav på ständig förbättring. De övergripande frågeställningarna handlar bland annat om hur företagen arbetar med och mäter ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda. Hur företagen ser på utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Samt vad det blev för skillnader för dem att vara certifierade enligt den nya ISO-standarden (ISO 14001:2004) jämfört med den gamla (ISO 14001:1996). För att få svar på dessa frågor har intervjuer genomförts på 10 företag.

    Företagen arbetar med att säkerställa att det blir en ständig förbättring genom att arbeta med miljömål och avvikelsehanteringen. Några av respondenterna påpekar att det kan vara svårt att mäta ständiga förbättringar. Företagen upplevde inte att det hade blivit någon större skillnad för dem att certifieras enligt den uppdaterade ISO 14001 standarden. Det råder delade meningar om utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Respondenterna är överlag nöjda med företagens arbete med ständig förbättring.

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  • 36.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Påledal, Sören Nilsson
    Tekniska Verken I Linkoping AB, S-58115 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sensitive Drone Mapping of Methane Emissions without the Need for Supplementary Ground-Based Measurements2021In: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, E-ISSN 2472-3452, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 2668-2676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) is one of the main greenhouse gas for which sources and sinks are poorly constrained and better capacity of mapping landscape emissions are broadly requested. A key challenge has been comprehensive, accurate, and sensitive emission measurements covering large areas at a resolution that allows separation of different types of local sources. We present a sensitive drone-based system for mapping CH4 hotspots, finding leaks from gas systems, and calculating total CH4 fluxes from anthropogenic environments such as wastewater treatment plants, landfills, energy production, biogas plants, and agriculture. All measurements are made onboard the drone, with no requirements for additional ground-based instruments. Horizontal flight patterns are used to map and find emission sources over large areas and vertical flight patterns for total CH4 fluxes using mass balance calculations. The small drone system (6.7 kg including batteries, sensors, loggers, and weather proofing) maps CH4 concentrations and wind speeds at 1 Hz with a precision of 0.84 ppb/s and 0.1 m/s, respectively. As a demonstration of the system and the mass balance method for a CH4 source that is difficult to assess with traditional methods, we have quantified fluxes from a sludge deposit at a wastewater treatment plant. Combining data from three 10 min flights, emission hotspots could be mapped and a total flux of 178.4 +/- 8.1 kg CH4 d(-1) was determined.

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  • 37.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

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  • 38.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

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  • 39.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2020In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 3567-3577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

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  • 40.
    Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Power production and environmental opinions: Environmentally motivated resistance to wind power in Sweden2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, p. 1545-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, every form of large scale power production in Sweden has given rise to organised, sustained and partly successful resistance motivated by environmental arguments. Since wind power is identified by the Swedish Parliament as an important energy source for the future and the wind power industry is expected to expand on a large scale, there is reason to believe that the already existing environmental opposition to wind power will continue to grow and will attempt to limit or at least partly obstruct the wind power expansion. In order to facilitate an understanding of this opposition and its possibility to significantly influence future wind power expansion in Sweden, this paper draws upon previous research on the opposition towards hydropower, nuclear power and biomass in Sweden, and discusses these findings in relation to previous research on wind power opposition.

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  • 41.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impact analysis of energy efficiency measures in the electrolysis process in primary aluminium production2019In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, 2019, Vol. 4(2), p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement includes the goals of ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels’ and ‘making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions’. Industrial energy efficiency will play an important role in meeting those goals as well as becoming a competitive advantage due to reduced costs for companies. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and uses fossil fuels both for energy purposes and as reaction material. Additionally, the aluminium industry uses significant amounts of electricity. The electrolysis process in the primary production of aluminium is the most energy- and carbon-intensive process within the aluminium industry. The aim of this paper is to study the effects on primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs when three energy efficiency measures are implemented in the electrolysis process. The effects on the primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs are calculated by multiplying the savings in final energy use by a primary energy factor, emissions factor and price of electricity, respectively. The results showed significant savings in primary energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and cost from the implementation of the three measures. These results only indicate the size of the potential savings and a site-specific investigation needs to be conducted for each plant. This paper is a part of a research project conducted in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

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  • 42.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

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  • 43.
    Hedberg, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Danielsson, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Potential for Absorption Cooling Generated from Municipal Solid Waste in Bangkok: A Comparison between Waste Incineration & Biogas Production with Combustion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis has been performed in Bangkok, Thailand at the company Eco Design Consultant Co., Ltd. The aim is to investigate the possibilities to generate absorption cooling from municipal solid waste in the Bangkok area. The investigation includes a comparison between waste incineration and biogas production with combustion to see which alternative is preferable. During the investigation, a Swedish perspective has been used.

    The research for the report mainly consisted of published scientific articles from acknowledged sources as well as information from different Thai authorities. Also, experts within different areas were contacted and interviewed. In order to determine which of the two techniques (waste incineration or biogas production with combustion) that is best suited to generate absorption cooling, a model was designed. This model involved several parameters regarding e.g. plant efficiency, amount of treated waste and internal heat usage. As for the results of the model, three parameters were calculated: the generated cooling, the net electricity generation and the reduced greenhouse emissions.

    The overall Thai municipal solid waste generation in Thailand is estimated to approximately 15 million tons per year and the majority of the waste ends up at open dumps or landfills. There are only two to three waste incinerators in the country and a few projects with biogas generation from municipal solid waste. The main electricity is today generated from natural gas which makes the majority of the Thai electricity production fossil fuel based. As for absorption cooling, two applications of this technique has been found in Thailand during the research; one at the Naresuan University and one at the Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok.

    The model resulted in that the best alternative to power absorption cooling technique is waste incineration. This alternative has potential to generate 3200 GWh cooling per year and 1100 GWh electricity per year. Also, this alternative resulted in the largest decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, ‐500 000 tons per year. The model also showed that the same amounts of generated cooling and electricity can never be achieved from biogas production with combustion compared to waste incineration. Regardless, waste incineration has an important drawback: the citizens of Thailand seem to oppose further development of waste incineration in the country. The biogas technique seems more approved in Thailand, which benefits this alternative. Due to the high moisture and organic content in the municipal solid waste, a combination between the two waste handling alternatives is suggested. This way, the most energy can be withdrawn from the waste and the volume of disposed waste is minimized.

    Our overall conclusion is that the absorption cooling technique has great potential in Thailand. There is an increasing power‐ and cooling demand, absorption cooling generated from either or both of the alternatives can satisfy these demands while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We also believes that the cost for using absorption cooling has to be lower than for the current compression cooling if the new technique is to be implemented further.

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  • 44.
    Hedin, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Konceptuell arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling inom trämanufaktur2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av en ökad miljömedvetenhet i samhället och ett initiativ för att utveckla miljövänligare möbler, så syftar det här examensarbetet till att ta fram en arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling för möbelindustriföretaget EFG. För det resultat som presenteras i och med denna rapport, så har arbetet bedrivits i ett nära samarbete mellan EFG och Linköpings tekniska högskola, liksom att utvecklingsarbetet har utförts vid EFG:s huvudkontor och produktionsenhet i Tranås.

    Den arbetsmodell som har utvecklats för att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling utgår utifrån två etablerade arbetsmodeller men har genom en utvecklingsprocess anpassats för att tillgodose företagets behov och rutiner för produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen beskrivs till sitt utförande av ett steg-försteg- verktyg som kompletteras med verktyg enligt:

    • Checklistor

    • Ekostrategihjulet

    • Materialmatris

    • Processträd

    Arbetsmodellen som kompletterats av verktygen ovan, förväntas tillsammans med steg-för-stegverktyget att utgöra det underlag som syftar till att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling vid EFG. Den har således anpassats för att tillgodose företagets förväntningar och som genom hela utvecklingsperioden främst har utgått från tre kriterier. Kriterierna för arbetsmodellen råder:

    • Tidseffektiv

    • Högt resursutnyttjande

    • God miljöanpassning

    Arbetet förväntas således att bedrivas enligt integrerad produktutveckling och sker parallellt med de aktiviteter som bedrivs enligt företagets nuvarande rutiner för produktutveckling. Genomloppstiden för projektet förväntas vara relativt kort, liksom utnyttjandegraden av företagets resurser för kompetens och produktionsteknik. I relation till det beslut och de resurser som avsatts för att ligga till grund för en miljöanpassning, så skall resultatet slutligen generera en god miljöanpassning av produkten.

    Målgruppen för rapporten är främst de personer som koordinerar i miljö- och produktutvecklingsarbete, men för utvalda delar liksom de verktyg som presenteras, så avser dessa att användas för personer som är involverade i miljöanpassad produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen presenteras slutligen i rapporten i form av en plansch där arbetet illustreras för en överskådlig förståelse till arbetsmetodiken och tillämpningen av verktygen. Planschen kan således vara lämplig att tillhandahållas för samtliga personer som involveras i arbetet.

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  • 45.
    Hu, Yuetong
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Development Trends of World Energy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century whichhas a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes andenvironment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses thecurrent world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, thebalance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the globalenvironmental and economic and social development by using a series of indicators such as total primaryenergy, total final energy, energy consumption and CO2 emission intensity per capita and per GDP tocompare and study. The main development trends contains depletion of fossil fuels, rapid developmentof renewable energy, aggravated environmental problems by energy-related GHG emissions, moreunbalanced and interdependent regional energy production and consumption, more efficient energyindustry; globalization and so on. This article expounds humans’ efforts to make progress in developingrenewable energy and reducing energy-related environmental impacts. In the end of the paper, worldenergy structure development and middle-term energy consumption are projected, and the generalorientations of world energy development trends in future are presented.

  • 46.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Preventing Microbial Growth on pall-rings when upgrading biogas using absorption with water wash2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For produced biogas to be usable as vehicle fuel it has to be upgraded to a higher energy content. This is accomplished by elevation of the methane concentration through removal of carbon dioxide. Absorption with water wash is the most common upgrading method used in Sweden today. The upgrading technique is based on the fact that carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than methane. Upgrading plants that utilises this method have problems with microbial growth in the system. This growth eventually leads to a stop in operation due to the gradually drop in upgrading capacity.

    The aim of this thesis were to evaluate the possibility to through some kind of water treatment maintain an acceptable level of growth or altogether prevent it in order to maintain an acceptable process capacity and thereby avoid the need to clean. Through collection of literature the implementation possibilities were evaluated with regard to efficiency, economic sustainability and if there would be a release of any harmful substances.

    In order to prevent the microbial growth in the columns the treatment should either focus on removing microorganisms or limit the accessible nutrients. For the single pass system it is concluded that the treatment should reduce the biofilm formation and be employed in an intermittent way. Among the evaluated treatments focusing on the reduction of microorganisms the addition of peracetic acid seems to be the most promising one. For the regenerating system the treatment method could focus on either one. As for the single pass system peracetic acid could be added to reduce the amount of microorganism. To reduce the amount of organic matter an advanced oxidation process could be deployed with the advantage that it also could remove the microorganisms.

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  • 47.
    Ibem-Ezera, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Environmental Control in Oil & Gas Exploration & Production: A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P), the roles of legislation, and the environmental management strategies in the petroleum industry with respect to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study seeks to suggest sustainable solutions to the endemic economic, social, and environmental problems associated with oil and gas E&P in the region. The focus is on the environmental control in the upstream (E&P) operations of the oil and gas industry as it affects the Niger Delta region of Nigeria with a view to proffering sustainable solutions.

    The heavily polluting activities and environmental impacts of the upstream oil and gas operations in the Niger Delta have over the years taken a routine dimension and are endemic as a result of inadequate environmental legislations and ineffective enforcements. Sequel to these environmental impacts is militancy, adoption of expatriates, communal conflicts, inter-ethnic conflicts, human right abuses, restiveness and other social vices as the study reveals. These social and environmental impacts of oil and gas activities in this region bring impoverishment, abject poverty, hunger, squalor, birth disease, gene mutation, and death while exposing inhabitants of the region to afflictions and diseases as the study explicitly documents.

    The study also reveals that the persistence rate of unrest, restiveness, militancy and other social vices is as a result of non-dialogue status between the different stakeholders, lack of infrastructural development, lack of basic amenities, high rate of unemployment, poor policy construct, federalized mineral right / resource ownership structure, and the monopolistic nature of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earning in petroleum resources.

    In this dissertation, both proactive and corrective measures to curb the menace of the social, economic and environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration & production operations in Nigeria are presented and discussed with suggestions to sustainable solution and development, better environmental legislation, and better resource policy construct while advocating for good industrial practices in the petroleum industry with emphasis on the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

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  • 48.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

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  • 49.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Användarhandledning2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna handledning är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

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    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner : Användarhandledning
  • 50.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Exempelsamling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna exempelsamling är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner : Exempelsamling
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