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  • 1.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhna, Iryna
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhnyi, Dmytrii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Geletukha, Georgiy
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Lutsenko, Serhii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Yanchenko, Ilona
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Technologies for Environmental Safety Application of Digestate as Biofertilizer2022Inngår i: Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, ISSN 2719-7050, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 106-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the environmentally safe and economically feasible technology of biofertilizer production from the digestate including dewatering process. Methodological basis is based on the systematic approach to the determination of factors effected on the distribution of nutrients and pollutants between liquidand solid fractions after digestate separation. We studied modern technologies aimed at dewatering the digestateand reduction of its volume, showed their effectiveness. These technologies allow expanding the opportunities forcommercialization of the digestate, increasing the cost of its transportation and application to the soil instead ofcomplex fertilizers, using some valuable products. The results of the study showed that the ecological quality ofthe digestate is the highest as well as co-digested thermally pre-treated feedstock is used for solid-liquid separationin centrifuge with polymer addition as post-treatment approach to the flocculation. In order to increase efficiencyof biofertilizer application the technological scheme of production process of granular fertilizers from digestatewas proposed. Special feature of this scheme is in the use of phosphogypsum binder for the production of organomineral fertilizer that contributes phosphogypsum recycling in the waste management system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage2016Inngår i: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 174-185Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Almoosawi, Somar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet.
    Product Related Research Regarding Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, in Hong Kong and South China, Environmental Management Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research was set out to understand the underlying causes for the lack of knowledgeregarding the environmental field in Hong Kong and South China and get a basic view of thedifficulties Environmental Management Systems (EMS) encounter when being put intopractice. Interviews and factory visits were used to collect data needed to build this report.The interviews had the aim to understand how companies in Hong Kong and China managetheir environmental related work. An EMS is a set of processes and practices that enable anorganization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency, buthow was the use of such systems affecting the environmental work in reality.A total of eight persons from six different companies were interviewed. With the aim tounderstand how EMS were implemented and used from their point of view. The maindifficulty for the companies asked was the task of understanding and documenting theprocesses of ones own company. With differences such as language, culture, etc present thereis a need for a mutual ground. In the environmental field EMS are used as the commonground. Western companies are, because of the use of EMS, able to attain a picture of theenvironmental work and processes of their industrial partners in the China and Hong Kong.The result of this research shows that there still are many obstacles, for environmentalmanagement systems used by SME, left to address. There are cultural as well asinfrastructural problems that need to be addressed. It is therefore important to alter EMS inco ordinance with the Chinese social environment that it will be used in.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Petersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Potential for Urban Mining in Norrköping: a Static Quantification of Metal in Subterranean Infrasystems2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the society’s demand for metal increases, the rate of mineral extraction will do the same. This contributes to environmental implications in the form of emissions and depletion of finite natural resources. Conventional recycling is a common practice used to reduce the need for extraction of metal ore and in turn reduce the environmental impact. Recycling is an important source to satisfy the metal demand; as much of 30 % of the metal demand is covered by recycling in some markets. Another form of recycling is the practice of urban mining. A practice which includes recycling of society’s stocks of unused but not discarded metal, these unused amounts metal is part of a so called hibernating stock. An example of a very large stock is the infrasystems in the shape of power cables and pipes. The objective of this thesis is to quantify the metal stocks of copper, aluminium and iron in subterranean infrasystems in the city district of Södra Butängen in Norrköping. Also, a quantification for Norrköping as a whole is performed but on slightly different infrasystems. An economical valuation of these stocks is also performed. The Municipality of Norrköping has the ambition to transform this small industrial area, that Södra Butängen is today, into to a sustainability profiled residential and commercial area which opens up an opportunity to recycle the infrasystems when all buildings are removed and the ground is dug up. To fulfil the objective of the thesis, and quantify the metal stocks, so called static quantification was used. The infrasystems to be included in this study were chosen and the data describing these systems was collected from the respective owner of the systems. The gathered data consists of maps which were digitalized with GIS-software using ArcMap 10 where the stocks then were quantified. The results show that the infrasystems in Södra Butängen holds almost 600 tons of metal with an economical value of 4.67 million SEK. For the Norrköping quantification the results shows that the stock contains about 30,000 tons of metal. The economical value is a little over 70 million SEK. The hibernating stocks in Norrköping equals to 5,100 tons of metal and a value of 9.5 million SEK. There is a potential for urban mining in Södra Butängen that should be considered. However, there are some issues that also must be considered, like cost of extraction. There are large stocks of metal that not have been possible to identify in this thesis. This includes the power grid for Norrköping; a valuable stock due to its large copper content.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Potential for Urban Mining in Norrköping - a Static Quantification of Metal in Subterranean Infrasystems
  • 5.
    Andersson, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Resurseffektivare energi- och växthusföretag genom industriell symbios2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att utreda vilken potential det finns för en samverkan mellan Tekniska Verken och växthus. Målet är att genom industriell symbios skapa en resurseffektiv systemlösning där Tekniska Verkens produktionsanläggningars miljöprestanda förbättras samtidigt som växthusets klimatpåverkan minskas.

    Tekniska Verken har överskottsvärme i sina produktionsanläggningar. Under 2007 hade Gärstad- och Kraftvärmeverket 54 GWh överskottsvärme. Största delen av överskottsvärmen fanns på sommaren, då värmebehovet i fjärrvärmesystemet var som lägst. Effekten som kyldes bort under sommaren uppgick till 25 MW.

    Om ett par år kommer Svensk Biogas anläggning i Linköping ha överskottsvärme på 26 GWh per år. Effekten kommer då vara 4 MW på vintern och 2 MW på sommaren. Koldioxidmängden från biogasanläggningen uppgår till 16 000 ton per år vilket ger ett flöde på 1,8 ton i timmen. Biogasanläggningen i Linköping producerar 45 000 ton biogödsel per år.

    Grönsaker som tomat, gurka, örter och sallat odlas i växthus och trivs bäst vid temperaturer på 15-26 ˚C. Under dagen bör temperaturen vara något högre än nattetid. För att öka tillväxten hos plantorna kan koldioxid tillföras. Vid stark ljusinstrålning och varmt klimat kan koldioxidhalten höjas från 375 ppm till 1 200 ppm. Värmeenergibehovet för en tomatodling ligger mellan 350 till 550 kWh per kvadratmeter och år. Maxeffekten för uppvärmningssystemet varierar mellan 200 och 300 W per kvadratmeter beroende på växthusets placering och isoleringsmaterial. Koldioxidtillförseln är 7-20 gram per kvadratmeter växthus.

    Överskottsvärmen från Tekniska Verkens produktionsanläggningar räcker till att försörja ett traditionellt växthus på 2 hektar. Växthuset har lägst värmebehov på sommaren vilket gör att endast en liten del av värmen från Gärstad- och Kraftvärmeverket kan tas tillvara. Mängden överskottsvärme från biogasanläggningen är som störst under vintern och något lägre under sommaren, vilket gör den väl lämpad för en matchning med växthus. Mängden koldioxid räcker för att tillgodose en växthusareal på 9 hektar. Eventuellt kan det bli möjligt att använda biogödsel som växtnäring i växthus. Dock bör vidare studier utföras innan detta kan fastställas.

    Tekniska Verken utreder hur ett samarbete med företaget Plantagon skulle kunna se ut. Plantagon har tillsammans med Sweco tagit fram ett innovativt odlingskoncept där växter odlas på höjden i ett sfärformat växthus. För att verifiera Swecos uppgifter om energi- och effektbehov samt få en uppfattning om vilka parametrar som påverkar växthusklimatet har beräkningar utförts. De faktorer som tagits hänsyn till i beräkningarna är värmeledning, konvektion, solstrålning, ventilation, avfuktning och vattenanvändning. För att se hur effektbehovet varierar över året har beräkningarna upprepats för varje månad. Överskottsvärmen från Tekniska Verken räcker gott och väl för att täcka Plantagons växthus värmebehov.

    För att uppskatta hur mycket Tekniska Verkens resurser skulle kunna reducera en växthusodlings klimatpåverkan har sex olika scenarier ställts upp. Med hjälp av en befintlig livscykelanalys för svensk tomatodling har koldioxidekvivalenterna per kilogram producerade tomater för de olika scenarierna beräknats och jämförts. Två av scenarierna är kopplade till Tekniska Verken. Det ena scenariot är en traditionell växthusodling och den andra är Plantagons växthus. En traditionell växthusodling som förses med Tekniska Verkens resurser samt producerar närproducerade grönsaker visade sig få en väsentligt mycket lägre klimatpåverkan än en genomsnittlig växthusodling. Produktion av 78 kilogram tomater i det växthuset motsvarar samma klimatpåverkan som 1 kilogram tomater från en genomsnittlig svensk växthusodling.  Plantagons växthus kan på samma sätt producera 7 kilogram tomater för samma klimatpåverkan som 1 kilogram tomater från en genomsnittlig växthusodling.

    Genom att använda överskottsvärme, koldioxid och biogödsel från Tekniska Verken till att driva växthus kan en systemlösning med låg miljöpåverkan skapas. Resurser som tidigare inte utnyttjats kan få ett användningsområde, vilket ökar miljöprestandan för produktionsanläggningarna. Grönsakerna som produceras får en låg miljöpåverkan vilket gör att de exempelvis kan klimatcertifieras samt säljas som närproducerade i Linköpingstrakten. Genom att undvika långa och kostsamma transporter samt kunna sälja grönsaker till ett högre pris ökar förtjänsten för odlingsföretaget.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Asplund, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    The Biogas Production Plant at Umeå Dairy — Evaluation of Design and Start-up2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of a large project at Norrmejerier, a biogas production plant has been constructed at Umeå Dairy. In this plant wastewater, residual milk and whey are decomposed and biogas is produced. The biogas is burned in a steam boiler. The biogas plant is designed as an anaerobic contact process, with sludge separation and recirculation by a clarifier. The fat in the substrate is treated in a separate reactor.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the design and start-up of this biogas production plant. Further, the interaction with the contractor responsible for construction and start-up is evaluated.

    The plant is generally well designed, the process conditions are suitable and the objectives are realistic. However, the seed sludge is unsuitable and the time plan is too optimistic.

    At the end of the period of this study, the plant was running and all central components are performing as intended. Still, the objectives have not been reached. This is mainly attributed to the poor quality of the seed sludge.

    The management of the plant and the interaction with the contractor has generally been good. Most problems that arose were of typical start-up nature. Others were due to insufficient planning or lack of communication. Further, several design flaws were identified during start-up.

    Washout of sludge has been one of the most significant drawbacks during start-up. This inconvenience seems to be the result of improper seed sludge and a too hasty increase of the organic loading rate.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011Inngår i: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 169-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 8.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik, Sweden.
    Effects of the Different Implementation of Legislation Relating to Sewage Sludge Disposal in the EU2020Inngår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 10, s. 92-99Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Directive 86/278/EEC implemented in 1986 was a means adopted by the European Union to improve use of the valuables in sewage sludge by applying treated sludge on agricultural soils. To prevent an accumulation of pollutants, the Directive provided suggestions limiting concentrations of toxic elements in sewage sludge and agricultural soil. The Directive was implemented diversely throughout EU member states, with current national legislations only partly reflecting the initial intentions of the EU Directive from 30 years ago. This study demonstrates how the European Directive was implemented in three countries currently at different stages of replacing the agricultural application of sewage sludge with incineration (Netherlands, Germany and Sweden). Additionally, recent changes in the legislation with regards to the re-use and final disposal of sewage sludge in the three chosen member states are analysed. The aim was to investigate how each member state has solved the conflict between improvement of nutrient recovery from sludge and limitation of pollutants in agricultural soil. Based on this review, limit values are not necessarily reflected in application rates of sewage sludge in agriculture. Following changes in current legislation, phosphorus recovery will become a priority task. The recovery of other valuables from sewage sludge is currently not regulated in the legislation of the three member states investigated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Berglund, Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Implementation of Lead-Free Soldering in Highly Reliable Applications2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The directive of the European parliament and of the council on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) took effect in the European Union on July 1, 2006. Japan, California, China and Korea are all closed markets for exporters of components containing lead from July 1, 2007. Taiwan and Australia are working with similar directives. The RoHS directive is the reason why this thesis about the implementation of lead-free soldering in highly reliable applications is necessary.

    The European Lead Free soldering NETwork (ELFNET) status survey from 2005 shows that the majority of the companies are well informed, but 20% are still not active in lead-free soldering. The Swedish industry is for the most part prepared and 95% of the components are lead-free. The transition to lead-free soldering will have a major affect on logistics and administration, because the RoHS directive is 90% about administration and logistics problems. Only 10% is technical problems.

    The higher melting point in lead-free soldering affects every stage of the lead-free manufacturing, from assembly to testing and repair.

    The major concern for highly reliable applications are that there are not enough data to understand to what grade lead-free solders will perform differently from lead based solders. Five different types of reliability testing were studied in this thesis; vibration, mechanical shock, thermal shock, thermal cycling and combined environments. Whiskers, voids, brittle fractures and mixed assembly problems were also studied. Individual tests alone should not be used to make definite decisions on lead-free soldering reliability. The lower reliability for lead-free solders in some tests does not necessarily mean that lead-free solders not can be used in highly reliable applications like defence electronics.

    The most important conclusions from this thesis are:

    • Update or change the logistic system and mark/label according to available standards.

    • Secure a good board layout.

    • Secure a good process control.

    • Alternative surface board should be used. Tin-silver-copper (SAC) is the most reliable solder and Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) is the most reliable surface finish.

    • Remember that the higher temperature affects every stage of the manufacturing.

    • No increased problems with whiskers or risk of high voiding levels.

    • Mixed assembly is a risk. Compatibility and contamination risks must be taken seriously.

    • Which environment will the applications be in? If it is not a highly vibrating and thermal cycling environment, lead-free soldering should be safe to use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Bertling, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Röstberg, Sebastian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Hur uppfattas biogas och el?: En diskursanalys av debatten kring två alternativa bränslen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har sedan bilens uppkomst funnits samhällsdebatter kring vilket bränsle som är mest passande. Trots att fossila bränslen dominerar som fordonsbränsle, har debatten om alternativa bränslen pågått under en längre tid. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka en del av denna debatt. Inriktningen är fokuserad på el och biogas som alternativa bränslen i Sverige. Ett antal debattartiklar ur tidsskrifter har valts ut och analyserats med en diskursanalytisk metod. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna härstammar ifrån N. Fairclough, M. A. Hajer samt U. Beck. I debatten har ett antal problem kring respektive bränsle framträtt. Det handlar bland annat om infrastruktur, teknisk utveckling och privata sektorns ansvar. Alternativa bränslen uppfattas som attraktiva lösningar på transportsektorns miljöproblem. Staten har en roll i utvecklingen av dessa bränslen då ekonomiska bidrag är högt värderade och anses nödvändiga. Det framgår tydligt i debatten att miljöproblemen som härstammar ifrån transportsektorn ska lösas med teknisk utveckling. Det återstår att se vilket bränsle som kommer att gynnas mest av staten och därmed hur transportsektorns problem kommer att lösas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hur uppfattas biogas och el?
  • 11.
    Biswas, Rajib
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibility of anaerobic conversion of red algae Polysiphonia, rich in nitrogen and phosphorous, was investigated. Biogas and methane potential of Polysiphonia, harvested in two different seasons [October and March], was investigated through three different batch digestion experiments and laboratory scale CSTR [continuous stirred tank reactor] at mesophilic (37oC) condition. Autoclavation [steam and heat] and ultrasound pretreatments were applied in order to enhance the biodegradation. In STR, anaerobic codigestion of algal biomass with SS [sewage sludge] was applied with a gradual increase in organic loading rate [1.5-4.0 g VS/L/day] and operated for 117 days at 20days HRT [hydraulic retention time]. Reactor digestate was analyzed four times over the period to determine the nutrients and heavy metals content. It is concluded that the methane potential of algae harvested in October is almost two-fold than that of algae harvested in March, probably due to it’s higher [more than double] nitrogen richness. An increase in biogas yield was observed upto 28% and VS reduction was increased from 37% to 45% due to autoclave pretreatment. Ultrasound pretreatment had no effect on digestion. In batch digestion, maximum methane yield 0.25 m3/kg VS added at 273oK, was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated in autoclave. Codigestion of algae with SS worked well in STR with a comparatively lower OLR. At a higher OLR, methanogens were inhibited due to increased VFAs accumulation and decreased pH. A maximum biogas yield 0.49 m3/kg VS added at 310oK , was obtained from algae [harvested in October] pretreated with autoclave. The methane content of the produced biogas was 54%. Average [over a short period, day 99-107, reactor showed steady performance] maximum biogas yields from untreated algae obtained 0.44 m3/kg VSadded at 310oK and the VS reduction was calculated 32%. Digestate, to be used as a fertilizer, was found NH4-N, N, P, K, S and Na rich and only Cadmium level was above the maximal limit among the heavy metals. The sand content in algae during harvesting was considered as a factor to disrupt the operation. Codigestion of Polysiphonia algal biomass with substrate with higher C:N ratio like paper mill waste should be more appropriate to increase the methane and biogas yield. It is inconclusive whether AD process is a good method to dewater redalgae or not but large scale harvesting of algae will definitely contribute to curb eutrophication of the Baltic Sea through decreasing N and P level.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-FETs Using Multivariate Statistics2015Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 214, s. 225-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive field effect transistors based on silicon carbide, SiC-FETs, have been studied for indoor air quality applications. The selectivity of the sensors was increased by temperature cycled operation, TCO, and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of benzene, naphthalene, and formaldehyde independent of the level of background humidity is possible by using shape describing features as input for Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA, or Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA. Leave-one-out cross-validation leads to a correct classification rate of 90 % for LDA, and for PLS-DA a classification rate of 83 % is achieved. Quantification of naphthalene in the relevant concentration range, i.e. 0 ppb to 40 ppb, was performed by Partial Least Squares Regression and a combination of LDA with a second order polynomial fit function. The resolution of the model based on a calibration with three concentrations was approximately 8 ppb at 40 ppb naphthalene for both algorithms.

    Hence, the suggested strategy is suitable for on demand ventilation control in indoor air quality application systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-Field Effect Transistors2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive FETs based on SiC have been studied for the discrimination and quantification of hazardous volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in the low ppb range. The sensor performance was increased by temperature cycled operation (TCO) anddata evaluation based on multivariate statistics, here Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Discrimination of formaldehyde,naphthalene and benzene with varying concentrations in the ppb range is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that naphthalenecan be quantified in the relevant concentration range independent of the relative humidity and against a high ethanol background.Hence, gas sensitive SiC-FETs are suitable sensors for determining indoor air quality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Cai, Weidong
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Jiajun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Xinyu
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Shun
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Muyi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Tianjun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pang, Tiqiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Morat, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shang, Yuequn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ji, Fuxiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yue, Shengying
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Multicolor light emission and multifunctional applications in double perovskite-Cs 2 NaInCl 6 by Cu + /Sb 3+co-doping2024Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 489, artikkel-id 151212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halide double perovskites managed by metal doping approach can exhibit dual emission colors, which have been considered as promising multicolor luminescent materials. However, an independent and stable emission at yellow region is missing owing to limited doping candidates, hindering the further commercialization of multicolor luminescence applications in double perovskites. In this work, we successfully obtain stable multicolor emission with PLQE (photoluminescence quantum yield) as high as 78% through developing the CuI doping strategy in Sb-Cs2NaInCl6. By introducing a high CuI feed ratio in airtight autoclave to compete the oxidization effect, the oxidization of CuI into CuII (detrimental factor for high PLQE due to serious quenching effect) is largely suppressed. With changing the CuI feed ratio, at least four distinct emission colors ranging from blue, purple, pink to yellow can be realized via changing the excitation wavelength. Depending on tunable multicolor emission, we further demonstrate the promise of our co-doped double perovskites in anti-counterfeiting technology and multicolor lighting devices. Our results open the way for enriching the optical applications of double perovskites based on multicolor emission.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Theres
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning.
    Vem ska få chansen att använda biogasen?: En studie utifrån en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie om bland annat behandlar vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå för biogasägare och användare av biogas om efterfrågan på biogas överstiger tillgången. Studien bygger på intervjuer som gjorts med tolv utvalda kommuner vilka alla har en biogasanläggning som tar emot avfall utifrån och dessutom levererar biogas till fordon. Studie består av två typer av frågeområden. Det första som undersökts är varför de svenska biogasanläggningarna byggt där de har och av vilken anledning det inte finns fler anläggningar. Syftet med studien är att uppmärksamma ett troligt framtida problem vilket grundar sig på ett tänkbart scenario om att oljan antigen stiger i pris eller sinar. Den problematik som uppmärksammats är om efterfrågan på biogas, på grund utav scenariot med oljan, överstiger tillgången och hur kommunerna skulle förhålla sig till en sådan situation. Frågeställningarna har analyserats utifrån ekonomisk teori med inriktning på begreppen utbud, efterfrågan, äganderätter och styrmedel. Dessutom har en ekologisk-ekonomisk modell använts för lättare se sambanden mellan de olika ingående delar i studien. Orsaken till att kommunerna har en biogasanläggning skiljer sig relativt mycket åt. De orsaker som nämndes var att vissa hade ett avfall att ta hade om medan en annan kommun hade en efterfrågan på biogasen. Vidare kunde biogastillverkningen motverka dels övergödning och dels föroreningsproblem orsakade av trafiken i innerstaden. Att inte fler kommuner har biogastillverkning tros enligt de undersökta kommunerna bland annat bero på att det dels kan vara svårt att räkna hem en anläggning idag och dels rädsla för luktproblem. Vidare anses det vara en otrygg marknad på grund utav oklara spelregler och dessutom krävs mycket i form av kunskap med mera av de kommuner som vill uppföra en anläggning. Troliga lösningar på det framtida scenariot som uppges av kommunerna är att komplettera med naturgas eller utvidga produktionen av biogasen. Det var endast en kommun som haft någon fundering på scenariot tidigare. Ett par kommuner ansåg dock att det var en viktig fråga att fundera vidare på. Flertalet av kommunerna är emellertid inte oroade över det givna scenariot. Andra tänkbara lösningar på problemet är att antingen privatisera biogasen eller att upprätta avtal mellan biogasanvändare och biogasägare.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Celander_Haglund_2014_Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure
  • 17.
    Cliffoord, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Use of future oriented studies in corporate environmental management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the future methods are used in areas like economical studies, predicting future markets or legislations that might have an effect on a company or an organization. There is a necessity for knowing what the future holds. Following sustainable development companies has begun to adopt standardized environmental management systems like EMAS and ISO 14001. The companies that use scenario methods are often companies that also use environmental management and standardized management systems, which also is the case in this study. The aim of the study is to examine how future oriented studies can be used to develop the environmental strategic arena, by suggesting possible work procedures. The aim is also to describe how different future studies and techniques theoretically can be used within the strategic environmental area and to examine the use of future studies within different companies. Four Semi-structured interviews were made with companies that both use EMS and future studies. The interviews and the theoretical framework in study were used to answer the aim.

    The results indicate that company future studies only have an effect on the market area and not the company EMS, the influence at the best is only indirect. The companies are more focused on factors that can change the market and economical aspects surrounding their products and services, than on factors that can be of important in making strategic important decisions about the appearance of the future environmental arena. Future oriented studies can be of use in EMS, the forecasting used in company A or the external method used in the three other companies. The methods each have qualities that are of use in different areas of the standardized EMS. Forecasting can help the user in the beginning of the planning process of EMS, with its short term visions the user can create an understanding about which way to go and this can then be complemented with backcasting. External scenarios used in the other three companies should be able to be integrated with the environmental area of the companies. These companies have god conditions to integrate their scenario work with the EMS because of the knowledge and use of future studies today.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Cordova, Stephanie S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Utilizing CO2 from biomethane production: Sustainability and climate performance2023Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions offer many benefits for the environment and society, including organic waste treatment as well as being an enabler for energy and nutrient recovery. The products of anaerobic digestion are a biogas, which contains a share of 30 to 50% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50 to 70% methane, and a liquid remanent, rich in nutrients. The biogas can be upgraded by removing the CO2 to increase the energy content, producing biomethane. At present, CO2 is considered a waste in biomethane production systems, and hence it is emitted into the atmosphere. Nevertheless, biogas upgrading technologies separate a pure-grade CO2 and, likewise, carbon capture processes, providing a pure CO2 flow that can be stored or utilized. Compared to storage, carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies deliver valuable carbon-based products required to sustain human activities. The valorization of green CO2 could aid the transition towards defossilization of the economy. Indeed, several CO2 utilization technologies could be incorporated into biomethane production systems, but there is still a limited understanding of the available alternatives and their potential impacts on biomethane systems.

    This thesis aims to investigate the integration of CO2 utilization technologies in biomethane production systems by revealing its potential, identifying alternatives, and assessing the impacts of the integration. Using Sweden as an example, scenarios of future biomethane production were employed to estimate the potential CO2 available for utilization. To complement the analysis, a qualitative approach made possible the identification of aspects that could affect CO2 utilization in biomethane production. Moreover, a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework was developed to identify relevant indicators for assessment and available alternatives for CO2 utilization. The research also includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the climate performance of relevant CCU alternatives in the biomethane production system.

    Results show that 160 kt of CO2 could be obtained from biomethane production in Sweden, which could potentially increase threefold from 2020 to 2030. The evaluation of alternatives for CO2 utilization includes environmental, technical, economic, and social criteria with sound indicators within an MCA framework. Indicators to evaluate each criterion provide valuable information to identify feasible and sustainable alternatives that can be integrated into biomethane plants. The identified alternatives with a high readiness level are additional methane through methanation, horticulture, mineral carbonates, fuels, pH control, bulk chemicals, and liquefied CO2 for direct use. The results provide information to decision-makers in relation to considerations to take before implementation, like energy requirements, the existence of regulations and standards, and uncertainty. In terms of the climate performance of biomethane with the inclusion of CCU alternatives, the results show a possible reduction of CO2 emissions that depends on the possibility of substituting fossil-based products. The investigated alternatives all result in lower emissions, but concrete curing and methanation using renewable hydrogen produce the best results.

    To conclude, the potential future increase of green CO2 from biomethane in Sweden creates opportunities to substitute fossil carbon in current applications and mature conversion pathways. Moreover, the inclusion of CCU in biomethane production contributes to reducing biomethane system emissions and diversifying its products. Possible alternatives of CCU that can be integrated into biomethane production systems in the short term include methanation and concrete curing. Other alternatives could be possible but present lower performance and higher uncertainties at the moment.

    Delarbeid
    1. Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide from biogas production in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide from biogas production in Sweden
    2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 370, artikkel-id 133498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions offer many advantages to improve sustainable development, but there is still untapped potential in its environmental performance. During biogas upgrading, CO2 is separated from the gas to deliver a flow with high methane concentration and thus high energy content. In this practice, CO2 is commonly emitted to the atmosphere without contributing to a net addition of climate gases because of its biological origin, being a missed opportunity for carbon capture. In this paper, CO2 valorization is an option that has been evaluated using a qualitative and quantitative approach, taking Sweden as an example. Results showed that around 140 kt of CO2 can potentially be captured and utilized from biogas upgrading, which can significantly increase in future scenarios. If CO2 were turned into methane using power-to-gas technology, an additional 35% of biogas could be produced in the short term, meaning up to additional 0.7 TWh in 2020. By 2050, around 600 to 1600 kt of CO2 could be available, depending on how well the biogas production develops and how much of the biogas is upgraded, resulting in up to 6.2 TWh of biomethane. The qualitative assessment suggested that only minor modifications in the upgrading process are required for this practice. Biogas actors are interested in getting involved in valorization projects that enhance their circular business and avoid carbon lock-in mainly to improve the environmental performance of biomethane. Moreover, the application of CO2 valorization requires collaboration with different actors to integrate current CO2 demand or innovative transformation technologies.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier Science Ltd, 2022
    Emneord
    Biogas; CO2 valorization; CCU; Power-to-gas
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189062 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133498 (DOI)000860684400002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Kamprad Family Foundation for Entrepreneurship, Research Charity [20200041]; Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency [35624-3]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-10-10 Laget: 2022-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-12
    2. Corrigendum to “Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide frombiogas production in Sweden” [J. Clean. Prod. 370 (2022) 133498]
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Corrigendum to “Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide frombiogas production in Sweden” [J. Clean. Prod. 370 (2022) 133498]
    2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 378, artikkel-id 134392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier Science Ltd, 2022
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190187 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134392 (DOI)000880122000007 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-11-28 Laget: 2022-11-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-05-12
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 19.
    Davy, Jonathan
    et al.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa.
    Todd, Andrew
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa.
    Metson, Genevieve S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Thatcher, Andrew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologisk och miljövetenskaplig modellering. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Designing a greywater treatment system in a highly adaptive urban environment: an ergonomics and human factors observational analysis2023Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, E-ISSN 1744-9006, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 624-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unplanned, high-density settlements in low-middle income countries often lack functional wastewater management systems. Nature-based solutions, such as constructed wetlands, are an option for the treatment of greywater, provided they are used by and useful to the community. We explored the effectiveness of iterative design for two pilot constructed wetlands in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) design approaches, this study evaluated the usability and postural risks associated with interactions with the constructed wetlands to motivate (and evaluate) design changes to increase use and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal pain. An elevated work area reduced musculoskeletal risks and a larger work area allowed more users at one time. The raised work areas provided other benefits such as stormwater and sewerage protection. The value of E/HF as part of a broader transdisciplinary team was demonstrated by embedding the design in the activities of the community.

  • 20.
    Ek, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Ultrasonic treatment of sewage sludge in order to increase biogas yields2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. After anaerobic digestion, the digested sludge is often allowed to degas for one or two days. This gas is seldom utilised, but if the degassing could be accelerated, utilisation would be easier. Ultrasound can be used as a pretreatment method for waste activated sludge. It has a disintegrating effect on the sludge and causes lysis of bacteria in the sludge. It also speeds up the hydrolysis; the limiting step of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Ultrasound can be used to degas waterbased liquids. Ultrasonic degassing of sewage sludge has not been examined previously. The present study aims to investigate the effect of ultrasound on waste activated sludge as well as the potential of ultrasound to speed up the degassing of digested sludge. A semi-continuous, lab-scale digestion experiment was performed with four reactors: two receiving untreated sludge and two receiving treated sludge. The effect of the sonicator was 420 W and the treatment time was 6 min, which corresponds to an energy input of 8.4 kWh/m3. Total solids (TS) of the waste activated sludge was ~3.5 %. The ultrasonic treatment caused an increase in gas production of 13 %. There was no difference in methane content. The concentration of filterable chemical oxygen demand (fCOD) increased 375 %, or from 2.8 % to 11 % of total COD. In terms of energy loss/gain the increase in gas production resulted in a loss of 2.7 kWh/m3, i.e. more energy is needed to treat the sludge than the potential energy of the increased gas production. However, if the sludge is thickened to a TS >5 %, a net energy gain should be reached. The effect of ultrasound on the degassing of digested sludge was examined in three barrels. The degassing was measured with and without circulation as well as with ultrasonic treatment. The digested sludge had a gas emission rate of 115 L/(m3 day). No direct burst of gas occurred due to ultrasonic treatment. Over two days more gas was emitted from the barrel equipped with ultrasound, probably due to an induced post-digestion. Thus, ultrasonic pretreatment of waste activated sludge increases the biogas yield. It is inconclusive, whether ultrasonic treatment of digested sludge effects the degassing or not.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Ekman, Linus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    What sewage sludge is and conflicts in Swedish circular economy policymaking2022Inngår i: Environmental Sociology, ISSN 2325-1042, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 292-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling nutrients from renewable sources, like sewage sludge, has been promoted as a step towards a circular economy by decreasing extraction and dependency on inorganic fertilizers. Implementation, however, is often controversial. In 2018, a Swedish governmental inquiry was commissioned to propose a complete ban on land application of sewage sludge to reduce soil pollution and increase phosphorus recovery. In 2020, the inquiry suggested two pathways, one to ban all land application, and one where agricultural land use should continuously be allowed. This paper is based on interviews with experts tied to the inquiry where they reference to sewage sludge, related objects, and future management. The inquiry’s inability to propose a coherent suggestion is analysed inspired by the concept of multiple ontology. Several ontological versions of sewage sludge emerge that unveil tensions between concepts of danger and cleanliness, pollution and naturalness, often captured in previous studies of waste. Some versions of sewage sludge conflict, which can explain the difficulty to establish an ontologically singular knowledge base for a transformation of sewage sludge from waste to resource. Though most of the experts agree that circular economy and nutrient recycling are good things, policymaking is caught in an ontological conundrum.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Elfving, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Hydrolys av primärslam för förbättrande av biologisk fosforreduktion vid behandling av hushållsavloppsvatten [Hydrolysis of primary sludge for enhancement of biological phosphorus removal in household wastewater]2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarby Sjöstad is a new district of southern Stockholm built with focus on reduced environmental impact by recirculation of materials and sustainability. The environmental goals aim to cut the water consumption by half and a separate storm water treatment. Thus, the wastewater will be more concentrated and will originate from the households only. The Sjöstad project includes the idea of a local treatment plant for the household wastewater. To evaluate this possibility, Sjöstadsverket, an experimental treatment plant was constructed. New wastewater treatment processes are tested and evaluated and compared to conventional methods including both aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes.

    One of the aerobic treatment processes includes enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR or Bio-P) as the method for the removal of phosphorus. In biological phosphorus removal the wastewater is alternately being exposed to anaerobic and aerobic conditions, which favours a certain bacteria, which can accumulate more phosphorus than is required for their growth. For this phosphorus accumulation the bacteria need volatile fatty acids (VFA) to cover their energy demand, but normally there is a shortage in VFA in the incoming wastewater.

    The main purpose of this master thesis work has been to create the best possible conditions in order to produce VFA by hydrolysis and fermentation of primary sludge. In this way the organic material in the incoming wastewater can be used in biological phosphorus removal.

    The sludge temperature, total solids (TS) and retention time are regarded as important parameters for a successful biological phosphorus removal and a laboratory study was set up to investigate these conditions for the wastewater at the Hammarby Sjöstad experimental plant. These laboratory-scale hydrolysis experiments showed that high temperature and high TS favours VFA-production. The results have also shown that four to five days retention time is suitable at a process temperature higher than 23°C, but also that the retention time likely should be extended at lower temperatures.

    In a full-scale process experiment, primary sludge was pumped from a primary clarifier to a hydrolysis tank and then back to the primary clarifier. The hydrolysis gave rise to increased VFA-production when TS was increased. A temperature difference between the primary sludge and the hydrolysis sludge of 3°C was observed. The reason behind the difference has not been determined, but is considered important, since the temperature affects the VFA-production. Further on, analyses with gas chromatograph (GC) have shown that acetate has been the most frequently occurring VFA, although significant levels of other VFA, such as propionate, has also been detected.

    Phosphorus release tests in laboratory-scale, where phosphorus was released during an anaerobic phase and taken up during an aerobic phase, proved that biological phosphorus removal occurred at the full-scale experimental train.

    The full-scale hydrolysis experiment has shown that the VFA contribution by the hydrolysis tank to the biological phosphorus removal was low. The main reason is that the sludge-flow through the hydrolysis tank has been insignificant compared to the incoming wastewater flow. The problem is most likely connected to the incoming wastewater characteristics, since the low share of suspended solids (SS) entailed that not enough organic material in the primary clarifier settled.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Engel, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    The Value-chain of Biochar: Case developement and value validation for providers and customers from an environmental, economic and social perspective2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The growing need for climate mitigation solutions has contributed so thatbiochar has gained significant interest. Primary for its ability as a carbon sinkbut there is also a growing interest due to several other aspects within industriese.g. substitution effects, increased resource efficiency, an enabler forindustrial symbiosis, and its beneficial properties when put in soil that can increasegrowth.

    Previous studies of biochar have been dominant within the environmentalperspective of biochar, analyzing detailed characteristics of its propertiesand carbon sink potential. Some studies have a holistic perspective reflectingon countries specific energy mix and the different benefits of producingbiochar. However, previous studies are far too few to determine the value-chainof biochar. Hence previous studies have knowledge gaps within the holistic lifecycle approach from a provider or customer perspective of biochar, not reflectingon demand for quality requirements in different utilization areas and markets.The need for validation of the environmental and the economic performanceof biochar has to be established, and the economic perspective of biochar hasmajor knowledge gaps since previous studies are scarce.

    The study aims to establish the value-chain of biochar by evaluating theenvironmental, economic, and social perspectives through life cycle thinking.The core of the study is to distinguish value, which first has to reflect thebiochar quality requirements from providers and customers, captured throughinterviews and literature research. The quality requirements enable a goal forproducing biochar and determine what processes and biomass are needed fordifferent markets. This is evaluated through a case development which considersthe different quality requirements. Life cycle assessment (LCA) with acradle-to-grave perspective and life cycle costing (LCC) with a cradle-to-gatewere then used to distinguish biochar´s environmental and economic performance.

    The interviews and researched literature resulted in three cases being developed,biochar application in electric arc furnaces in steel production, agriculturalapplication, and commercial application through biochar-macadam. Thesteel industry has higher quality requirements due to the need to have a similarcomposition as fossil coal, resulting in biochar produced from wood being theonly option. The limitations for agricultural application are more related tothe allowed amount of phosphorus per ha and thus all the researched biocharapplies to different degrees. Biochar application in biochar-macadam is similarto agricultural application, however limited due to the EBC certification notallowing the production of biochar from sludge.

    The generated results from the LCA show that the climate performance isvastly different depending on what biomass was utilized and the different markets.Biochar produced from park and garden, and wood results in a higher climateperformance due to the higher carbon sequestration compared to biocharproduced from straw and sludge, however depending on how the biocharis utilized, the performance varies. During biochar application in electric arcfurnaces, the majority of the produced carbon sink is destroyed which resultsin worse climate performance, instead the majority of the reduced emissionscomes from the substituted fossil coal. Compared to biochar application inagricultural and biochar-macadam where the carbon sink stays intact, steel applicationstill has worse climate performance even when including substitution.Biochar-macadam production results in more emissions compared to agriculturalapplication due to the need to mix biochar with stones and compost,thus biochar in agriculture is the best option from a climate perspective. The economic aspects are generated through the conducted LCC which resulted inbiochar produced from park and garden, and sludge being more beneficial dueto the absence of acquisition costs. Production of biochar from wood provesto be difficult when considering a larger time frame, with the market for steelproduction not returning the investment. Biochar produced from straw hasa positive return on investment when considering the agriculture market, butnot for the production of biochar-macadam. The results show that the marketof biochar is very uncertain due to being considered immature and a futuremarket. The major uncertainty is connected with the immaturity of the market.The quality requirements are not reflected in the market pricing which isone of the major reasons for biochar utilization in the steel industry not beingeconomically beneficial.

    The value chain of biochar is a combination of many different economic,environmental, and social values. The conducted LCA shows that there areclimate benefits due to carbon sequestration, and a possibility to replace fossilreferences. Other than biochar there are also by-products such as heat and oilwhich can be utilized, improving the climate performance further. The multipleproducts also have economic benefits due to the potential of creating multipleproducts. The carbon sink can be sold as carbon credits, and the heat can beutilized in district heating. For providers, the creation of biochar is an enablerto reduce environmental impact, utilize products already within the system,and create value from waste. The structure of biochar generates a lot of valuefor customers. The porosity enables water storing capabilities which increasesthe efficiency of watering. This reduced the amount needed for soil applications,while also securing the harvest from drought and flooding. Even though thevalue chain of biochar shows that there is a lot of potential, it is still uncertainhow it will be integrated into society, and how the market will be shaped in theyears to come.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The Value-chain of Biochar
  • 24.
    Esguerra, John
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Laner, David
    Univ Kassel, Germany.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Landfill mining in Europe: Assessing the economic potential of value creation from generated combustibles and fines residue2021Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, s. 221-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that resources recovery through landfill mining (LFM) is generally challenging from an economic perspective and that a large share of project costs is related to the external treatment and disposal of bulk process wastes such as combustibles and fines residue. Building on these analyses, this study aims to explore the potential for improving the economy of LFM in Europe by creating value from these bulk process wastes. Specifically, the combustibles are treated through internal incineration with subsequent energy recovery, while fines residue is utilized as construction aggregates. These explored possibilities are investigated considering other varying factors at the site, project, and system levels that cover possible LFM project settings in Europe. A set-based modelling approach is adapted generate multiple LFM scenarios (531,441) and investigate the underlying critical factors that drive the economy of LFM through global sensitivity analysis. Results show that an additional 16% of LFM sce-narios become net profitable, mainly driven by fines residue utilization. Avoided costs for re-landfilling are higher than the revenues from construction aggregates. By contrast, internal incineration is driven by the revenues from recovered energy rather than the avoided gate fee, which is substituted by the costs for building and operating own plants. Overall, the policy conditions remain critical to further improve the economy of LFM in Europe. Recommendations include an inclusive quality standard that relies on pollutant leachability rather than total concentration for higher-value application of fines residue and incentive rather than taxation for producing renewable energy from the combustibles. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations2019Inngår i: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, s. 125-140Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB Publ, Dept Technol and Syst, Box 1500, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Key performance indicators for biogas production: methodological insights on the life-cycle analysis of biogas production from source-separated food waste2020Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 200, artikkel-id 117462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of food waste can not only enhance the treatment of organic wastes, but also contributes to renewable energy production and the recirculation of nutrients. These multiple benefits are among the main reasons for the expansion of biogas production from food waste in many countries. We present methodological insights and recommendations on assessing the environmental and economic performance of these systems from a life-cycle perspective. We provide a taxonomy of the value chain of biogas from food waste which describes major activities, flows, and parameters across the value chain with a relatively high detail. By considering the multiple functions of biogas production from food waste, we propose a few key performance indicators (KPI) to allow comparison of different biogas production systems from the perspectives of climate impact, primary energy use, nutrients recycling, and cost. We demonstrate the operational use of our method through an example, where alternatives regarding the heat supply of the biogas plant are investigated. We demonstrate how global and local sensitivity analyses can be combined with the suggested taxonomy and KPIs for uncertainty management and additional analyses. The KPIs provide useful input into decision-making processes regarding the future development of biogas solutions from food waste. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Feiz Aghaei, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hagman, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of biogas solutions for enhanced nutrient recovery in biobased industries-three case studies from different industrial sectors2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 175, artikkel-id 105897Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed to what extent biogas solutions can improve the nutrient recovery of biobased industrial clusters in different sectors. Three cases representing the agricultural, marine and forest sectors were analysed quantitatively using mass flow analysis. Adding a biogas plant facilitated production expansion and development of collaborative waste management, e.g. a wheat processing biorefinery with a mill and agricultural actors, or a pulp and paper mill with the aquaculture industry. In the marine- and forest-based cases, this decreased the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) input by 18% while increasing the recovery rate; e.g. for P from 32 to 96% for the marine-based and from 52 to 91%, for the forest-based. The impact in the agro-based case was minor as the actors were already operating with a high nutrient recovery. For the marine-based case, the impact was due to a huge increase in P recovery for the aquaculture actor while for the forest-based case, N from the aquacultural sector could be reused in the wastewater treatment. For the agro- and marine-based cases, adding a biogas plant also resulted in less transports and more local nutrient recycling; the total transport of organic waste, by-products and biofertilizers (in km x tonne) was reduced by 40% and 90%, respectively. The results demonstrate that biogas solutions can stimulate the development of biobased industrial symbiosis with integrated waste management, and contribute to more efficient recycling of key resources, which is essential for the transition to a circular society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable mobility in the low carbon city: digging up the highway in Odense, Denmark2017Inngår i: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 29, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world are facing the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting urban sustainability. If comprehensive low-carbon development of cities is to be possible, transportation, as a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, is a particularly important sector to address. Major changes to transport behaviour and systems will be required in order to secure a shift to sustainable modes of transport and removal of infrastructure that reinforces unsustainable patterns of transportation. This paper examines the links between low-carbon urban development and sustainable mobility, with reference to the case of Odense, Denmark. With a reputation as a city of cyclists, Odense has recently closed a highway that divided central districts of the city, and is constructing a new tramway in its place. Results from a qualitative study, including interviews with individuals active in local policy processes, provide insights into Odense’s experiences and inform analysis of the influences on municipal strategies and plans for sustainable mobility, questioning if climate change need be the primary focus when designing policies to enable low-carbon urban development.

  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nolz, Pamela C.
    AIT Austrian Inst Technol, Austria; St Polten Univ Appl Sci, Austria.
    Seragiotto, Clovis
    AIT Austrian Inst Technol, Austria.
    A mixed method evaluation of economic and environmental considerations in construction transport planning: The case of Ostlänken2021Inngår i: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 69, artikkel-id 102840Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the construction related transports, the transport of soil and rock materials stand for a major part. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach enabling scenario analysis of the relation between storage location and soil and rock material transport planning. The study follows a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First a literature review and a qualitative case study identifies the problem. Second a quantitative optimization method is used to evaluate possible scenarios showing the interdependence between storage location costs and transport impact. The study has two main contributions, the mixed methods approach to evaluate economic and environmental considerations in an infrastructure project and the scenario analysis of different options for inventory control and transport. The presented study adds knowledge to transport efficiency of rock and soil materials.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Fredriksson (numera: Björn), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nestor, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of an organotin PVC stabiliser on anoxic degradation of organic matter2003Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organotin compounds are toxic, thus their occurrence in the environment is of considerable concern, and several of these substances are regarded as priority pollutants that require further investigation. Organotins are used primarily as heat stabilisers in PVC plastic, and they are therefore found in landfills in which discarded PVC products have been deposited. In an earlier study, it was found that a widely used methyl tin PVC stabiliser inhibited microbial generation of CH4during anoxic degradation, and the objective of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of such inhibition. CH4 and fermentation products were measured continuously for a period of 219 days in waste material amended with a methyl tin stabiliser. The results show that CH4 formation was retarded for 84-198 days during fermentation of the waste material. Furthermore, it seemed that not only the methyl tins, but also their sulphur organic ligands, play an important role in retarding the formation of CH4. The methyl tin stabiliser apparently affected both the fermentative organisms that provided the substrate for the methanogens, as well as the methanogens.

  • 31.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 24-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Funkquist, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Malmstens Linköpings universitet.
    Att hitta och släppa kontroll: Hantverk i teori och praktik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how theoretical studies on handicrafts may be rewarding and usefull for a craftsman. The aim is also to explore how quality is defined within crafts and to explore different aesthetic qualities that can be achieved within the craft of cabinetmaking. In addition, the aim is also to broaden the view on how skillfullnes may be expressed within the craft of cabinetmaking. The work begins with theoretical studies of two craft philosophers - David Pye and Soetsu Yanagi. Then, their ideas are applied practically through the making of two pieces of furniture. Aesthetic expressions characterized by randomness, imperfection and irregularity is specially sought after. The conclusions of the thesis shows that theoretical studies may be benefiting and rewarding for a craftsman.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Georgiadou, Maria
    et al.
    European Commission.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Proietti, Stefano
    ISINNOVA.
    Fredriksson Möller, Björn
    ETIP Bioenergy.
    Sfetsas, Themistoklis
    Qlab.
    Salonen, Petteri
    Finrenes.
    Stålhandske, Jonas
    Biofrigas Sweden.
    Innovative technologies for biomethane production: Review of the current state of the art2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Navarra, Carlo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Cederlund, Douglas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sjulander, Jennifer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Development and user testing of the ICT-platform Visual Water supporting sustainable municipal stormwater planning2022Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, E-ISSN 1744-9006, Vol. 19, nr 9, s. 962-974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to develop sustainable stormwater management is intensifying due to climate impacts and urban densification. Such complex planning processes require insights into disparate issues, connecting heterogeneous actors. While many decision-support tools are developed to facilitate such planning, research assessing their usefulness is requested. This study introduces and assesses one such ICT-tool; the Visual Water platform, aiming to support sustainable stormwater planning in Swedish municipalities. The study aims to identify critical points to consider for developers of related decision-support tools and to detangle requirements and tradeoffs in making them relevant and user-friendly, building on test-sessions with Swedish practitioners. Results show that the platform responds to challenges within municipal planning as outlined by Swedish practitioners. However, though the platform content is considered relevant, its application in real-world planning is perceived as somewhat unclear. The paper discusses ideas for how sustainability-related decision-support tools better can respond to user demands.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    González Ocón, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of Potentially Eco-Efficient Solutions: Functional Sales and Industrial Ecology2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Design of products permits to yield goods and services to produce satisfaction on customers, which is measured as value. However, it is at this stage in which most of the environmental impact, from a lifecycle perspective, is added to the product. Eco-design aims at increasing value of products while reducing the burdens on the environment by means conscious design towards efficient use of resources. That efficiency, referred to as eco-efficiency, can be increased in a number of manners within environmental engineering. Traditionally, different fields have tackled materials, energy flows and products from different angles or approaches. In this thesis we describe Functional Sales (FS) and Industrial Ecology (IE) as examples of these. Within this latter, we put emphasis on Industrial Symbiosis (IS) and Eco-effectiveness. We consider these approaches are suitable to work in the framework of eco-design to increase ecoefficiency. By adding services to material products, and managing material and energy flows with a more ecological consciousness, we expect to increase value of products while reducing the impact on the environment.

    To analyse this potential improvement, we developed a method involving a new eco-efficiency index (VERI), that recursively intends to ease decisions on possible eco-efficient alternatives. This index and its method are applied to a case study on management of olive oil supply in region of Murcia, Spain. Here, we propose three scenarios that will involve the implementation of FS and IE to compare the outcomes in value and environmental performance against an idealised current supply chain. The results obtained, although not accurate, suggest that FS and EI should be more taken into account in eco-design and, this latter, to also consider holistic viewpoints to find more eco-efficient alternatives for a product development.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Div. of Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Raburu, Phillip O
    Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 11-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

  • 37.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Potential valorisation of shredder fines: Towards integrated processes formaterial upgrading and resource recovery2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 104590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of process development based on a comprehensive understanding of the material characteristics and the marketability of recoverables is the primary reason why the valorisation of shredder fines has not been realised in practice. In response, a systematic approach was undertaken consisting of 1) strategic sampling and material characterisation, 2) establishing gate and regulatory requirements of potential valorisation applications, and 3) initial feasibility assessment of the selected applications, to guide future research.

    The material was sampled over ten weeks in order to obtain both average values and variations of the physical and chemical composition. Thus weekly, primary fractions and sieved fractions ZA (7.10–5.00 mm), ZB (5.00–3.35 mm), ZC (3.35–2.00 mm), ZD (2.00–0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25–0.063 mm) were prepared, and analysed, and benchmarked against the requirements pertaining to five potential applications. The mercury and aluminium concentrations are the biggest challenge in copper smelting and only ZA and ZB show significant potential. Energy recovery is limited to ZA, ZB, and ZC, provided the chlorine and metals concentrations are decreased. Regarding the recovery as bulk-material in construction, the reduction of the metal content would likely be a pre-requisite.

    The utilisation of fines in the individual applications would either leave a significant amount of fines un-valorised or overlook the recovery of valuable resources. The upgrading of the material to suit the different applications would also require addressing multiple material constraints simultaneously. Therefore, realising the full resource potential of shredder fines would require the integration of different upgrading and recovery processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Att ständigt bli bättre i sitt miljöarbete: En intervjustudie kring hur företag med certifierade miljöledningssystem arbetar med ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöledningssystem används av företag och organisationer världen över. Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur företag som är certifierade enligt ISO 14001 arbetar att uppfylla standardens krav på ständig förbättring. De övergripande frågeställningarna handlar bland annat om hur företagen arbetar med och mäter ständig förbättring av miljöprestanda. Hur företagen ser på utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Samt vad det blev för skillnader för dem att vara certifierade enligt den nya ISO-standarden (ISO 14001:2004) jämfört med den gamla (ISO 14001:1996). För att få svar på dessa frågor har intervjuer genomförts på 10 företag.

    Företagen arbetar med att säkerställa att det blir en ständig förbättring genom att arbeta med miljömål och avvikelsehanteringen. Några av respondenterna påpekar att det kan vara svårt att mäta ständiga förbättringar. Företagen upplevde inte att det hade blivit någon större skillnad för dem att certifieras enligt den uppdaterade ISO 14001 standarden. Det råder delade meningar om utvecklingsbehovet av metodik för uppföljning av miljöprestanda. Respondenterna är överlag nöjda med företagens arbete med ständig förbättring.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Centralized or decentralized? How to exploit Sweden’s agricultural biomethane potential2024Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector holds great potential for contributing to European biomethane production, but how to best exploit it is still not clear. This study compares three technical solutions for producing liquefied biomethane from manure in Sweden: centralized biogas production and liquefaction, decentralized biogas production and centralized liquefaction, and decentralized biogas production and liquefaction. Technical and practical aspects of the three configurations are assessed through interviews with professionals, and the economic performance is compared through life cycle cost analysis. Depending on the conditions, the most cost-efficient alternative is either a gas pipeline from decentralized biogas production to a centralized liquefaction, or fully centralized production. The economic benefit of centralization increases with the number of farms involved but decreases with the biogas capacity of the system and the transport distance. The pipeline solution provides simple logistics and operation, although concession for pipe laying can be challenging. Moreover, a partly or fully centralized setup improves the delivery security of the system and reduces downtime. However, decentralized biomethane production can be an option for remote farms where centralization is not possible. For existing biogas plants, small-scale liquefaction or a pipeline to centralized liquefaction can be options for developing more biomethane production.

  • 40.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Påledal, Sören Nilsson
    Tekniska Verken I Linkoping AB, S-58115 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sensitive Drone Mapping of Methane Emissions without the Need for Supplementary Ground-Based Measurements2021Inngår i: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, E-ISSN 2472-3452, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 2668-2676Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) is one of the main greenhouse gas for which sources and sinks are poorly constrained and better capacity of mapping landscape emissions are broadly requested. A key challenge has been comprehensive, accurate, and sensitive emission measurements covering large areas at a resolution that allows separation of different types of local sources. We present a sensitive drone-based system for mapping CH4 hotspots, finding leaks from gas systems, and calculating total CH4 fluxes from anthropogenic environments such as wastewater treatment plants, landfills, energy production, biogas plants, and agriculture. All measurements are made onboard the drone, with no requirements for additional ground-based instruments. Horizontal flight patterns are used to map and find emission sources over large areas and vertical flight patterns for total CH4 fluxes using mass balance calculations. The small drone system (6.7 kg including batteries, sensors, loggers, and weather proofing) maps CH4 concentrations and wind speeds at 1 Hz with a precision of 0.84 ppb/s and 0.1 m/s, respectively. As a demonstration of the system and the mass balance method for a CH4 source that is difficult to assess with traditional methods, we have quantified fluxes from a sludge deposit at a wastewater treatment plant. Combining data from three 10 min flights, emission hotspots could be mapped and a total flux of 178.4 +/- 8.1 kg CH4 d(-1) was determined.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, s. 3982-3989Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 43.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2020Inngår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 3567-3577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Power production and environmental opinions: Environmentally motivated resistance to wind power in Sweden2016Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, s. 1545-1555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, every form of large scale power production in Sweden has given rise to organised, sustained and partly successful resistance motivated by environmental arguments. Since wind power is identified by the Swedish Parliament as an important energy source for the future and the wind power industry is expected to expand on a large scale, there is reason to believe that the already existing environmental opposition to wind power will continue to grow and will attempt to limit or at least partly obstruct the wind power expansion. In order to facilitate an understanding of this opposition and its possibility to significantly influence future wind power expansion in Sweden, this paper draws upon previous research on the opposition towards hydropower, nuclear power and biomass in Sweden, and discusses these findings in relation to previous research on wind power opposition.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Impact analysis of energy efficiency measures in the electrolysis process in primary aluminium production2019Inngår i: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, 2019, Vol. 4(2), s. 177-184Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement includes the goals of ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels’ and ‘making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions’. Industrial energy efficiency will play an important role in meeting those goals as well as becoming a competitive advantage due to reduced costs for companies. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and uses fossil fuels both for energy purposes and as reaction material. Additionally, the aluminium industry uses significant amounts of electricity. The electrolysis process in the primary production of aluminium is the most energy- and carbon-intensive process within the aluminium industry. The aim of this paper is to study the effects on primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs when three energy efficiency measures are implemented in the electrolysis process. The effects on the primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs are calculated by multiplying the savings in final energy use by a primary energy factor, emissions factor and price of electricity, respectively. The results showed significant savings in primary energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and cost from the implementation of the three measures. These results only indicate the size of the potential savings and a site-specific investigation needs to be conducted for each plant. This paper is a part of a research project conducted in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47.
    Hedberg, Erika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Danielsson, Helén
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Potential for Absorption Cooling Generated from Municipal Solid Waste in Bangkok: A Comparison between Waste Incineration & Biogas Production with Combustion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis has been performed in Bangkok, Thailand at the company Eco Design Consultant Co., Ltd. The aim is to investigate the possibilities to generate absorption cooling from municipal solid waste in the Bangkok area. The investigation includes a comparison between waste incineration and biogas production with combustion to see which alternative is preferable. During the investigation, a Swedish perspective has been used.

    The research for the report mainly consisted of published scientific articles from acknowledged sources as well as information from different Thai authorities. Also, experts within different areas were contacted and interviewed. In order to determine which of the two techniques (waste incineration or biogas production with combustion) that is best suited to generate absorption cooling, a model was designed. This model involved several parameters regarding e.g. plant efficiency, amount of treated waste and internal heat usage. As for the results of the model, three parameters were calculated: the generated cooling, the net electricity generation and the reduced greenhouse emissions.

    The overall Thai municipal solid waste generation in Thailand is estimated to approximately 15 million tons per year and the majority of the waste ends up at open dumps or landfills. There are only two to three waste incinerators in the country and a few projects with biogas generation from municipal solid waste. The main electricity is today generated from natural gas which makes the majority of the Thai electricity production fossil fuel based. As for absorption cooling, two applications of this technique has been found in Thailand during the research; one at the Naresuan University and one at the Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok.

    The model resulted in that the best alternative to power absorption cooling technique is waste incineration. This alternative has potential to generate 3200 GWh cooling per year and 1100 GWh electricity per year. Also, this alternative resulted in the largest decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, ‐500 000 tons per year. The model also showed that the same amounts of generated cooling and electricity can never be achieved from biogas production with combustion compared to waste incineration. Regardless, waste incineration has an important drawback: the citizens of Thailand seem to oppose further development of waste incineration in the country. The biogas technique seems more approved in Thailand, which benefits this alternative. Due to the high moisture and organic content in the municipal solid waste, a combination between the two waste handling alternatives is suggested. This way, the most energy can be withdrawn from the waste and the volume of disposed waste is minimized.

    Our overall conclusion is that the absorption cooling technique has great potential in Thailand. There is an increasing power‐ and cooling demand, absorption cooling generated from either or both of the alternatives can satisfy these demands while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We also believes that the cost for using absorption cooling has to be lower than for the current compression cooling if the new technique is to be implemented further.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Hedin, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Konceptuell arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling inom trämanufaktur2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av en ökad miljömedvetenhet i samhället och ett initiativ för att utveckla miljövänligare möbler, så syftar det här examensarbetet till att ta fram en arbetsmodell för miljöanpassad produktutveckling för möbelindustriföretaget EFG. För det resultat som presenteras i och med denna rapport, så har arbetet bedrivits i ett nära samarbete mellan EFG och Linköpings tekniska högskola, liksom att utvecklingsarbetet har utförts vid EFG:s huvudkontor och produktionsenhet i Tranås.

    Den arbetsmodell som har utvecklats för att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling utgår utifrån två etablerade arbetsmodeller men har genom en utvecklingsprocess anpassats för att tillgodose företagets behov och rutiner för produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen beskrivs till sitt utförande av ett steg-försteg- verktyg som kompletteras med verktyg enligt:

    • Checklistor

    • Ekostrategihjulet

    • Materialmatris

    • Processträd

    Arbetsmodellen som kompletterats av verktygen ovan, förväntas tillsammans med steg-för-stegverktyget att utgöra det underlag som syftar till att bedriva miljöanpassad produktutveckling vid EFG. Den har således anpassats för att tillgodose företagets förväntningar och som genom hela utvecklingsperioden främst har utgått från tre kriterier. Kriterierna för arbetsmodellen råder:

    • Tidseffektiv

    • Högt resursutnyttjande

    • God miljöanpassning

    Arbetet förväntas således att bedrivas enligt integrerad produktutveckling och sker parallellt med de aktiviteter som bedrivs enligt företagets nuvarande rutiner för produktutveckling. Genomloppstiden för projektet förväntas vara relativt kort, liksom utnyttjandegraden av företagets resurser för kompetens och produktionsteknik. I relation till det beslut och de resurser som avsatts för att ligga till grund för en miljöanpassning, så skall resultatet slutligen generera en god miljöanpassning av produkten.

    Målgruppen för rapporten är främst de personer som koordinerar i miljö- och produktutvecklingsarbete, men för utvalda delar liksom de verktyg som presenteras, så avser dessa att användas för personer som är involverade i miljöanpassad produktutveckling. Arbetsmodellen presenteras slutligen i rapporten i form av en plansch där arbetet illustreras för en överskådlig förståelse till arbetsmetodiken och tillämpningen av verktygen. Planschen kan således vara lämplig att tillhandahållas för samtliga personer som involveras i arbetet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Hu, Yuetong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Development Trends of World Energy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century whichhas a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes andenvironment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses thecurrent world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, thebalance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the globalenvironmental and economic and social development by using a series of indicators such as total primaryenergy, total final energy, energy consumption and CO2 emission intensity per capita and per GDP tocompare and study. The main development trends contains depletion of fossil fuels, rapid developmentof renewable energy, aggravated environmental problems by energy-related GHG emissions, moreunbalanced and interdependent regional energy production and consumption, more efficient energyindustry; globalization and so on. This article expounds humans’ efforts to make progress in developingrenewable energy and reducing energy-related environmental impacts. In the end of the paper, worldenergy structure development and middle-term energy consumption are projected, and the generalorientations of world energy development trends in future are presented.

  • 50.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Preventing Microbial Growth on pall-rings when upgrading biogas using absorption with water wash2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For produced biogas to be usable as vehicle fuel it has to be upgraded to a higher energy content. This is accomplished by elevation of the methane concentration through removal of carbon dioxide. Absorption with water wash is the most common upgrading method used in Sweden today. The upgrading technique is based on the fact that carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than methane. Upgrading plants that utilises this method have problems with microbial growth in the system. This growth eventually leads to a stop in operation due to the gradually drop in upgrading capacity.

    The aim of this thesis were to evaluate the possibility to through some kind of water treatment maintain an acceptable level of growth or altogether prevent it in order to maintain an acceptable process capacity and thereby avoid the need to clean. Through collection of literature the implementation possibilities were evaluated with regard to efficiency, economic sustainability and if there would be a release of any harmful substances.

    In order to prevent the microbial growth in the columns the treatment should either focus on removing microorganisms or limit the accessible nutrients. For the single pass system it is concluded that the treatment should reduce the biofilm formation and be employed in an intermittent way. Among the evaluated treatments focusing on the reduction of microorganisms the addition of peracetic acid seems to be the most promising one. For the regenerating system the treatment method could focus on either one. As for the single pass system peracetic acid could be added to reduce the amount of microorganism. To reduce the amount of organic matter an advanced oxidation process could be deployed with the advantage that it also could remove the microorganisms.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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