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  • 1.
    Allard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Katastrofisk design: Ett designförslag för en digital scenarioeditor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med det här arbetet var att skapa en konceptuell designprototyp för en scenarioeditor åt en digital version av utbildningsverktyget Emergo Train System. Rapporten ämnar ta upp och presentera den arbetsprocess som lett fram till designprototypen och dess utvärdering. I rapporten tillkommer även en diskussion kring hur en scenarioeditor bör utformas för att stödja skapandet av ETS-scenarion samt hur ett flexibelt arbetssätt stöds i form av skapandet av scenariorepresentationer.

    Intervjuer genomfördes med instruktörer och systemansvarige för ETS, samt observationer av iordningställande av ett ETS-scenario. Datainsamlingen analyserades och resulterade i en kravspecifikation för den digitala scenarioeditorn. Den prototyp som utformades gjordes så i pappersformat och utvärderades tillsammans med personal från Katastrofmedicinskt centrum i Linköping. 

  • 2.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Användarbehov och kontextuella krav för val av mobil interaktionsteknik: Behovs- och användarundersökning i Scanias verkstäder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mobil informationsteknik har på senaste tiden fått mer uppmärksamhet inom industriella applikationer, inte minst inom underhåll och reparation där teknisk dokumentation förekommer i stor utsträckning. Scania har tagit fram ett nytt koncept för interaktion med teknisk dokumentation i verkstaden där en viktig del av konceptet är mobilitet. Scanias förhoppningar är att en ökad möjlighet till mobilitet ska kunna förbättra användarupplevelsen.

    I detta arbete har en observationsstudie genomförts för att identifiera användarnas behov av mobilitet vid reparation och underhållsarbete samt de kontextuella faktorer som påverkar val av mobil interaktionsteknik.

    Fyra olika behov av mobilitet kunde identifieras efter analysen och till dessa kunde olika krav knytas för att skapa ett underlag för bedömning av olika teknikers potential att uppfylla de aktuella behoven.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Möller, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Field Effect Based Gas Sensors, from Basic Mechanisms to the Latest Commercial Device Designs2016In: SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION ADVANCES (SEIA), INT FREQUENCY SENSOR ASSOC-IFSA , 2016, p. 19-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution treats the latest developments in the understanding of basic principles regarding device design, transduction mechanisms, gas-materials-interactions, and materials processing for the tailored design and fabrication of SiC FET gas sensor devices, mainly intended as products for the automotive sector.

  • 5.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karsvall, Arvid
    Södertörns Högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och IT, Medieteknik.
    Tholander, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Mobile Life.
    Values and qualities in interaction design meetings2011In: The Endless End: The 9th International European Academy of Design Conference. Porto, Portugal, May 4-7, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are values and qualities expressed in interaction design? Previous research into this topic has largely been conceptual. How interaction designers and clients actually reason has only been touched upon in empirical studies. The research question for this paper is how interaction designers, as a collective and in an unfolding design process, concretize values and qualities in meetings with clients. By way of video recordings, we have analyzed two interaction design workshops. The analysis indicated that values were concretized top-down, from general conceptions and the design brief given, while also explored bottom-up. Several kinds of communicative means (e.g. talk, gestures, whiteboards, post-it notes) were used to animate values and design visions. Mixing a top-down and bottom-up approach allowed the designers to be both prescriptive and sensitive the uniqueness of the design situation. Thedifferences in communicative means did not really matter for how values and qualities weremade concrete. What mattered was that people really started talking with each other.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Scaffolding Executive Function Capabilities via Play-&-Learn Software for Preschoolers2016In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 969-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational software in the form of games or so called "computer assisted intervention" for young children has become increasingly common receiving a growing interest and support. Currently there are, for instance, more than 1,000 iPad apps tagged for preschool. Thus, it has become increasingly important to empirically investigate whether these kinds of software actually provide educational benefits for such young children. The study presented in the present article investigated whether preschoolers have the cognitive capabilities necessary to benefit from a teachable-agent-based game of which pedagogical benefits have been shown for older children. The role of executive functions in childrens attention was explored by letting 36 preschoolers (3;9-6;3 years) play a teachable-agent-based educational game and measure their capabilities to maintain focus on pedagogically relevant screen events in the presence of competing visual stimuli. Even though the participants did not succeed very well in an inhibition pretest, results showed that they nonetheless managed to inhibit distractions during game-play. It is suggested that the game context acts as a motivator that scaffolds more mature cognitive capabilities in young children than they exhibit during a noncontextual standardized test. The results further indicate gender differences in the development of these capabilities.

  • 7.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ambienta displayer i varuhandeln: Färgkategorisering i tidningssektionen ger en omedelbar vägledning utan ansträngning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En ambient display är menad att fungera för användaren enbart genom att hen snabbt överblickar produkten. Denna form av display är perfekt att nyttja i dagligvaruhandeln där utbuden ständigt växer samtidigt som konsumenten snabbt vill hitta det den söker. I denna studie utforskas fördelarna med att använda färg och symbolkombinationer, som skapar en ambient display, istället för text när det kommer till att kategorisera i tidningssektionen. Feature- integrationsteorin beskriver hur den ambienta displayen ger stöd för användarens kognitiva processer, den är mer effektiv genom att den låter konsumenten använda det perifera seendet i sitt sökande.

    Tidningssektionen är en produkt användaren inte nyttjar frekvent och denna design fungerar genom att kunden redan ska veta hur den önskade kategorin är representerad, det är därför väldigt viktigt att inlärningen sker snabbt. I studien framkommer vikten av att skapa bra associationer mellan färg och kategori, vilket har en extremt signifikant påverkan på inlärningsförmågan hos användaren.

    Studien utvärderar även vilka färg- och kategorikombinationer som är lämpliga för Tidsam, distributör av tidningar. 17 kategorier associeras med 17 olika färger där multipla källor används för att styrka resultatet. Resultatet presenteras i form av virtuella prototyper av kategoriskyltar för samtliga 17 kategorier.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Aseel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Siliberto, Fabio
    University of Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Reactive and Strategic Game Mechanics in Motion-based Games2017In: 2017 IEEE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SERIOUS GAMES AND APPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH (SEGAH), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion-based games offer positive effects on physical, social, and mental health for the players and have been common during the past decade, enabled by commercial motion tracking devices. However, little is known about the impact of game mechanics on the player experience, movement, and performance in motion-based games. In this paper we present results from a study with 35 participants comparing two different game mechanics, one reactive and one strategic, for a casual motion-based game. The assumption was that a more strategic mechanic would lead to less movement but more enjoyment. However, there was no significant difference in player experience, performance, or movement between the two game mechanics. In addition, a key aspect for the players preferred game mechanics was the perceived amount of thinking the game mechanic required.

  • 9.
    Bergquist, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Stenbeck, Nicholas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Using Augmented Reality to Measure Vertical Surfaces2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality is commonly used for entertainment purposes on today’s smartphones. We intend to aid the evolution of Augmented Reality as a tool as opposed to a toy. With the use of Apple’s ARKit 1.5 release, which features vertical surface recognition, we implement and evaluate a solution to a target problem which aims to contribute to the knowledge of Augmented Reality’s strength and weaknesses. The implementation allows an iPhone user to measure surface areas by placing anchors to mark an area to be measured. We find that our Augmented Reality tool does not provide the same precision as manual measurements but is still reasonably within boundaries if an estimation is acceptable.

  • 10.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions2009In: Third Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, WorldHaptics 2009, IEEE , 2009, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a history dependent transfer function (HDTF) as a possible approach to enable improved haptic feature detection in high dynamic range (HDR) volume data. The HDTF is a multi-dimensional transfer function that uses the recent force history as a selection criterion to switch between transfer functions, thereby adapting to the explored force range. The HDTF has been evaluated using artificial test data and in a realistic application example, with the HDTF applied to haptic protein-ligand docking. Biochemistry experts performed docking tests, and expressed that the HDTF delivers the expected feedback across a large force magnitude range, conveying both weak attractive and strong repulsive protein-ligand interaction forces. Feature detection tests have been performed with positive results, indicating that the HDTF improves the ability of feature detection in HDR volume data as compared to a static transfer function covering the same range.

  • 11.
    Björk Timm, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Looking at text simplification: Using eye tracking to evaluate the readability of automatically simplified sentences2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with an increasing flow of written information online and offline, the demand for automatic translation, simplification and summarization technology is growing. The tool StilLett uses several lexical and semantic rules to automatically simplify text, shortening the time from original text to simplified text compared to manual simplification. Four of the simplification types were evaluated in this study, using three different eye tracking measures; total dwell time, number of regressions, and average fixation duration. No statistically significant differences were found for any of the simplification types when compared to the corresponding original sentences, indicating that for this population the difficulty of the sentences was roughly the same.

  • 12.
    Bleser, Gabriele
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Steffen, Daniel
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Weber, Markus
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Stricker, Didier
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Fradet, Laetitia
    Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Marin, Frédéric
    Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Ville, Nathalie
    CIC-IT Inserm 804, Rennes, France.
    Carré, Francois
    CIC-IT Inserm 804, Rennes, France.
    A personalized exercise trainer for the elderly2013In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, ISSN 1876-1364, E-ISSN 1876-1372, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 547-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular and moderate physical activity practice provides many physiological benefits. It reduces the risk of disease outcomes and is the basis for proper rehabilitation after a severe disease. Aerobic activity and strength exercises are strongly recommended in order to maintain autonomy with ageing. Balanced activity of both types is important, especially to the elderly population. Several methods have been proposed to monitor aerobic activities. However, no appropriate method is available for controlling more complex parameters of strength exercises. Within this context, the present article introduces a personalized, home-based strength exercise trainer designed for the elderly. The system guides a user at home through a personalized exercise program. Using a network of wearable sensors the user's motions are captured. These are evaluated by comparing them to prescribed exercises, taking both exercise load and technique into account. Moreover, the evaluation results are immediately translated into appropriate feedback to the user in order to assist the correct exercise execution. Besides the direct feedback, a major novelty of the system is its generic personalization by means of a supervised teach-in phase, where the program is performed once under supervision of a physical activity specialist. This teach-in phase allows the system to record and learn the correct execution of exercises for the individual user and to provide personalized monitoring. The user-driven design process, the system development and its underlying activity monitoring methodology are described. Moreover, technical evaluation results as well as results concerning the usability of the system for ageing people are presented. The latter has been assessed in a clinical study with thirty participants of 60 years or older, some of them showing usual diseases or functional limitations observed in elderly population.

  • 13.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing2015In: 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference Proceedings / [ed] Dr. Essam Radwan, Dr. Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida , 2015, p. 793-803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a video see-through augmented reality system for active safety testing. The development is explained in detail, with focus on the design considerations for the different subsystems. It is shown that it is possible to build a system using available commercial off-the-shelf components, while still maintaining the performance needed for the intended application. Accuracy and resolution requirements of the tracking systems are discussed along with measurement methods. We also examine how to use the hardware efficiently to minimize latency and a device to measure and quantify end-to-end latency has been developed.

  • 14.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study2016In: Proceedings of the DSC 2016 Europe / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association , 2016, p. 179-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 15.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior2016In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 5:1-5:12, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

  • 16.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems2013In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, Rome, Italy, 23-25 October, 2013, Aracne editrice, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the realism of driving simulators increases constantly, there is a potential issue with how representative the test is compared to a real life scenario. An alternative to simulators is to present a mixture of real and simulated environment to the driver and perform the scenario at a test track when driving a real vehicle. This enables an efficient way of testing that inherits many of the advantages of driving simulators as well as some of the advantages of physical testing in prototype vehicles. The present paper is a compilation of previous research in augmented reality in vehicle driving situations, focusing on technical limitations of Head-Mounted-Displays.

  • 17.
    Boodé, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping of a mobile, Augmented Reality assisted maintenance tool2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis work is to create a prototype for an augmented reality application that isaimed to support service technician when performing service and maintenance of machines andengines. The prototype will be used for investigating what technical limitations there is and toestablish basic usability for the user interface. The method that is used is user studies and analysis toevaluate use cases and user stories. An iterative work process is then applied for design and theprototype is continuously user tested.The resulting prototype uses a Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 running on Android operating system. Theframework used for augmented reality is NyARToolkit which handles marker recognition andconnections to Android. NyARToolkit uses OpenGL to visualize 3D models. The 3D models used isin the metasequoia fileformat. The application that implements the framework gets reasonableperformance on Galaxy Tab 2 and the visualization of 3D model is accomplished. A stabile markerrecognition is not attained.The usability has not been studied thoroughly, but it is designed based on the unofficial standard fordesign on mobile devices and for 3D manipulation on mobile devices. The graphical design is aimingfor an open workspace with as few interrupting objects as possible. Clear descriptions of objects are apart that has resulted from usertesting.Judging by the functionality that the prototype indicates it could be assumed that an application of thistype is possible in the given field, which is worked performed by a service technician. The testingequipment that has been used is not of the latest generation of mobile devices which can mean thatnewer models perform better than the ones used for testing. What seems to be limiting the use of themarker recognition is the quality of the video input. The device’s processing power affects howadvanced the 3D environment can be, which in turn can reduce performance when more complex 3Dmodels are used. Since there are several frameworks for the Android platform there is also severalsolutions to making a prototype with the sane functionality. Since I have only explored oneframework there is a possibility that another framework could have produced a more stabile prototypeThe user testing that has been performed points out that a distinct design is needed. Clearly describingtexts for different objects should be used to make the user less confused. An unofficial user designthat is generally used has to be implemented so that the users fell at home when handling theapplication on mobile devices.

  • 18.
    Bruckner, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Isenberg, Tobias
    AVIZ, INRIA, Saclay, France.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Institute of Media Informatics / Visual Computing Research Group, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
    Wiebel, Alexander
    Department of Computer Science, Hochschule Worms, 52788 Worms, Germany.
    A Model of Spatial Directness in Interactive Visualization2018In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the concept of directness in the context of spatial interaction with visualization. In particular, we propose a model that allows practitioners to analyze and describe the spatial directness of interaction techniques, ultimately to be able to better understand interaction issues that may affect usability. To reach these goals, we distinguish between different types of directness. Each type of directness depends on a particular mapping between different spaces, for which we consider the data space, the visualization space, the output space, the user space, the manipulation space, and the interaction space. In addition to the introduction of the model itself, we also show how to apply it to several real-world interaction scenarios in visualization, and thus discuss the resulting types of spatial directness, without recommending either more direct or more indirect interaction techniques. In particular, we will demonstrate descriptive and evaluative usage of the proposed model, and also briefly discuss its generative usage.

  • 19.
    Bång, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rybing, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Cognitive design of a digital desk for the emergency room setting2014In: 2014 AMIA Annual Symposium / [ed] Westra, Bonnie L, Oxford University Press, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bångerius, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Fröberg, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Functional testing of an Android application2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is an important step in the software development process in order to increase the reliability of the software. There are a number of different methods available to test software that use different approaches to find errors, all with different requirements and possible results. In this thesis we have performed a series of tests on our own mobile application developed for the Android platform. The thesis starts with a theory section in which most of the important terms for software testing are described. Afterwards our own application and test cases are presented. The results of our tests along with our experiences are reviewed and compared to existing studies and literature in the field of testing. The test cases have helped us find a number of faults in our source code that we had not found before. We have discovered that automated testing for Android is a field where there are a lot of good tools, although these are not often used in practice. We believe the app development process could be improved greatly by regularly putting the software through automated testing systems.

  • 21.
    Dahlberg, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En Android-applikation: för övervakning av varningar och fel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lawson Software, ett dotterbolag till Infor, är ett företag med mer än 4000 anställda i 40 länder. De levererar affärsystemlösningar och tjänster till företag inom hälsovård, tillverkning, distribution, underhåll och service.

    Grundsystemet i Lawsons affärssystem består av en mängd mindre applikationer som körs mot ett egenutvecklat system. Vad jag ska göra är att undersöka möjligheten att övervaka dessa applikationer genom en smartphone och bygga en prototyp för övervakningen i Java, för Android.

    Applikationen mottogs positivt av Lawson och det finns redan planer på vidare utveckling av den efter exjobbets avslut.

  • 22.
    Djerf, Frithiof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att hantera sömmar i interaktiva system2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how seams in an interactive system should be managed. Seamsin this study refer to the boundaries that arise when users move between for example differentsoftware, products or positioning systems. These seams are a cornerstone of the relatively unexploredarea called seamful design, which is based on that users can avail highlighted seams through activeparticipation in the use of a system. To analyze this area, seamful design is applied to the developmentof an interface of a smoothie vending machine. This smoothie machine thus provides the analyzedinteractive system, which the research questions are applied to as well as answered by. The researchquestions are infused by seams and seamful design. More specifically, this paper questions how, whenand why these seams should be made visible or hidden. Another question stresses if the visualizationof seams can be applied to a smoothie machine and create distinct advantages in this system.

    To accomplish this, the project was divided in three separate phases. The first phase consisted ofexamining the conditions, environment and design of the service and the product. The second phaseconsisted of an iterative creation of concept proposals and usage of related methods. The third andfinal phase involved performing user tests, evaluating the interface and drawing conclusions about theformulated research questions.

    The project results are visualized partly by the final interface that was generated, and partly by theresults of the performed user tests during the third phase, which later came to form the basis for theconclusions that arose. The results included the understanding that the visualization of seams have thepotential to increase the task success rate, but at the same time may entail the risk of extending thetime it takes to perform a task. This was distinguished from the result of the test where the user wasgiven the task to place a cup in the machine. In one case, the seam was highlighted, while it was hiddenin the other. An additional result was that users expressed that seams could entail an advantage whenthe system was used repeatedly, while they in situations where they only used the system once, arguedthat it was beneficial to hide the seam because of lack of interest of the additional information.

    The conclusions based on this result, included both guidelines of how, when and why it is appropriateto highlight or hide seams, and also the finding that that seamful design has potential to be applied toa smoothie machine with clear benefits. The first of these guidelines implies that seams should behidden in systems which focus on performance and efficiency, as there is a risk that the usage time isprolonged when the seam is highlighted. Another guideline states that seams should be hidden whenmanipulation of the system could entail a serious risk, due to that users in most cases create a deeperunderstanding of the underlying technology when the seams are highlighted. On the contrary, insystems where possible manipulation entails no significant risk, seams may be highlighted to facilitatean individual use of the system. Furthermore, it is advantageous to highlight seams when a repeateduse of the system occurs, because of the fact that many users expressed that they pay greater attentionto seams when they have acquired some familiarity with the interface. Finally, perhaps the mostimportant aspect when a seam is about to be highlighted, is to make sure that the user physically canact and respond to the additional information that comes with the seam.

  • 23.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Statement by Robert Eklund2017In: Dagstuhl Reports, E-ISSN 2192-5283, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 173-175Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a background in Speech Technology (I worked on the first concatenative speech synthesizer for Swedish, the first commercial ASR system for Swedish (now Nuance) and the first open prompt human–computer support system in Scandinavia (Telia 90 200) it has, for a long time been ”natural” for me to think in terms of interaction, and concepts like agents, avatars, Theory of Mind and interface design (auditory and visual) have all been part of parcel of my work activities during the period 1994 to (roughly) 2012....

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    CRISIS: Virtual-reality-based training for emergency management2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Escher, Cecilia
    et al.
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rystedt, Hans
    Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Creutzfeldt, Johan
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meurling, Lisbet
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordahl Amorøe, Torben
    Simulator Centre West, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    CLINTEC-Department of Clinical Science Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; CAMST-Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Method matters: impact of in-scenario instruction on simulation-based teamwork training2017In: Advances in Simulation, E-ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2, no 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The rationale for introducing full-scale patient simulators in training to improve patient safety is to recreate clinical situations in a realistic setting. Although high-fidelity simulators mimic a wide range of human features, simulators differ from the body of a sick patient. The gap between the simulator and the human body implies a need for facilitators to provide information to help participants understand scenarios. The authors aimed at describing different methods that facilitators in our dataset used to provide such extra scenario information and how the different methods to convey information affected how scenarios played out.

    Methods

    A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to examine the variation of methods to deliver extra scenario information to participants. A multistage approach was employed. The authors selected film clips from a shared database of 31 scenarios from three participating simulation centers. A multidisciplinary research team performed a collaborative analysis of representative film clips focusing on the interplay between participants, facilitators, and the physical environment. After that, the entire material was revisited to further examine and elaborate the initial findings.

    Results

    The material displayed four distinct methods for facilitators to convey information to participants in simulation-based teamwork training. The choice of method had impact on the participating teams regarding flow of work, pace, and team communication. Facilitators’ close access to the teams’ activities when present in the simulation suite, either embodied or disembodied in the simulation, facilitated the timing for providing information, which was critical for maintaining the flow of activities in the scenario. The mediation of information by a loudspeaker or an earpiece from the adjacent operator room could be disturbing for team communication.

    Conclusions

    In-scenario instruction is an essential component of simulation-based teamwork training that has been largely overlooked in previous research. The ways in which facilitators convey information about the simulated patient have the potential to shape the simulation activities and thereby serve different learning goals. Although immediate timing to maintain an adequate pace is necessary for professionals to engage in training of medical emergencies, novices may gain from a slower tempo to train complex clinical team tasks systematically.

  • 26.
    Field, Joris
    et al.
    National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lemmers, Arjan
    National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Systems, Sweden.
    Instructor tools for virtual training Systems2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis management exercises require a lot of preparation and planning to ensure that the training objectives are met. This is often a time consuming and expensive process and can be a major barrier to setting up frequent crisis management training sessions. The introduction of virtual training environments to supplement the live exercises enables the development of tools to support the instructors in their planning, management, observation and analysis of training exercises. This can simplify the planning process, and give instructors control over the configuration of the exercises to tailor them to the needs of individual trainees. In this paper we present a tool that supports instructors in the planning of virtual exercises, and can be used to provide templates for live exercises. This tool has been developed with ongoing feedback from instructors and crisis management personnel and forms part of a crisis management virtual training system.

  • 27.
    Fjellström, Jonatan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Gaze Interaction in Modern Trucks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis project carried out on Scania’s interaction design department in Södertälje an evaluation of the technology gaze interaction has been done. The aim was to see if the technology was suitable for implementation in a truck environment and what potential it had. The work started by doing a context analysis to get a deeper knowledge of the research done on within the area related to the subject. Following the context analysis a comprehensive need finding process was done. In this process, data from interviews, observations, ride along with truck drivers, benchmarking and more was analysed. The analysis of this was used to identify the user needs. Based on the user needs the concept development phase was conducted. The whole development phase was done in different stages and started off by an idea generation process. The work flow was made in small iterations with the idea to continuously improve the concepts. All concepts were evaluated in a concept scoring chart to see which of the concepts that best fulfilled the concept specifications. The concepts that best could highlight the techniques strengths and weaknesses were chosen and these are Head Up Display Interaction and Gaze Support System.. These concepts focused on the interaction part of the technique rather than a specific function. Test of the two concepts were conducted in a simulator to get data and see how they performed compared to today´s Scania trucks. The result overall was good and the test subjects were impressed with the systems. However there was no significance in most of the cases of driving except for some conditions where the concepts prove to be better than the systems used today. Gaze interaction is a technology that is suitable for a truck driving environment given that a few slight improvements are made. Implementation of the concepts have a good potential of reducing road accidents caused by human errors. 

  • 28.
    Fors Johansson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    OpenModelica Interactive Simulation using an OPC UA client2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Simulating a model of a complex physical system can beuseful in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the system.OpenModelica is an open-source, modeling and simulation environmentin which such a simulation could be performed. This thesispresents a design and implementation of an interactive simulationprototype for the OpenModelica Connection Editor. After aninvestigation of the possibilities in the current OpenModelicaenvironment, several requirements were determined about howinteractive simulation should look and work. A prototype wasdeveloped based on these requirements. As a result, the prototypecan act as a base for applying further functionality to theinteractive simulation in both parallel and future works.

  • 29.
    Forsström, D.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, M.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, P.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiences of Playscan: Interviews with users of a responsible gambling tool2017In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 8, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online gambling, encompassing a wide variety of activities and around-the-clock access, can be a potential risk factor for gamblers who tend to gamble excessively. Yet, the advent of online gambling has enabled responsible gambling (RG) features that may help individuals to limit their gambling behaviour. One of these features is RG tools that track gamblers’ behaviour, performs risk assessments and provides advice to gamblers. This study investigated users’ views and experiences of the RG tool Playscan from a qualitative perspective using a semi-structured interview. The tool performs a risk assessment on a three-step scale (low, medium and high risk). Users from every risk category were included. Twenty interviews were carried out and analysed using thematic analysis. Two main themes with associated sub-themes were identified: “Usage of Playscan and the gambling site” and “Experiences of Playscan”. Important experiences in the sub-themes were lack of feedback from the tool and confusion when signing up to use Playscan. These experiences counteracted positive attitudes that should have promoted usage of the tool. Providing more feedback directly to users is a suggested solution to increase usage of the RG tool. © 2017 The Authors

  • 30.
    Gao, Haichang
    et al.
    Xidian Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ping
    Xidian Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jeff
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Mengyun
    Xidian Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Fang
    Xidian Univ, Peoples R China.
    Extended Security Analysis of Hollow Captchas2018In: Journal of Internet Technology, ISSN 1607-9264, E-ISSN 2079-4029, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1075-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Text-based Captchas are now most widely used security technology for differentiating between computers and humans. Hollow Captchas have emerged as one of the latest designs, and they have been deployed by more and more major companies. Besides Yahoo!, Tencent, Sina, China Mobile and Baidu, some other websites, especially for higher security requirement shopping websites are also using this scheme. A main feature of such schemes is to use contour lines to form connected hollow characters with the aim of improving security and usability simultaneously. It is hard for standard techniques to segment and recognize such connected characters, which are however easy for human eyes. In this paper, we provide a systematic security analysis of hollow Captchas. We show that with a simple but novel attack, we can break most hollow Captchas with a relatively high success rate, including those deployed by the major companies. Our attack for the first time combines segmentation and recognition in a single step. We also discuss lessons and guidelines for designing better Captchas.

  • 31.
    Gawell, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Hedvall, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Att designa en produkt för vuxna med ADHD och/eller autismspektrumtillstånd2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live as an adult diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD and/or autism spectrum disorder, ASD, can be a challenge in everyday life. To help them in their daily lives, a concept that solves an everyday problem has been developed. The experience acquired from the development of the product concept have been summarized in a way that it can be used by other product developers, and thereby make products in the future more adopted to people with ADHD and/or ASD.

    Different areas have been studied to enable development of the concept. These areas are information about the diagnoses, guidelines to develop products for people with ADHD and ASD as well as what kind of cognitive assistive technology there is on the market for people with ADHD and ASD that is useful in their everyday life. The development process has consisted of idea generations, one of those where executed with people diagnosed with ADHD/ASD or with knowledge about the diagnoses, concept development with a concept evaluation with people diagnosed with ADHD/ASD or with knowledge about the diagnoses, detailed design of chosen concept and usability testing after which further modification has been made.

    The conclusion drawn from this work is that there are characteristic features of ADHD and ASD that are relevant to the development of a product concept. There are existing guidelines for designers when designing for adults with the diagnoses, but it is more common with guidelines when designing for children with these diagnoses. The guidelines that have been identified are in the areas of interior design, user centered design and interaction design. These guidelines don’t create understanding for the individuals with diagnoses regarding both a design- and a psychological perspective. The compiled insights presented in this thesis can be used by other product developers without knowledge about the diagnoses and make products more adopted to people with ADHD and/or ASD in the future.

  • 32.
    Goodwin, Marjorie
    et al.
    Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Cekaite, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orchestrating directive trajectories in communicative projects in family interaction2014In: Requesting in social interaction / [ed] Paul Drew, Elisabeth Couper-Kuhlen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins , 2014, 1, p. 185-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring the entanglement of resources (facial expressions, gesture, gaze, and intonation) that mutually elaborate each other in the production of social action, across the life of a particular communicative project in family interactions (getting children to bed), we investigate the ways in which participants calibrate actions with reference to each other’s actions. Our specific concern is the choreographing of directive response sequences. While directives are commonly thought of as “doing things with words”, in face -to-face interaction they frequently entail doing things with bodies as well. Thus, along with a consideration of action formation, syntactic formats, and prosody used to construct directives and build responses, we examine the haptic forms that overlay verbal directive forms, as well as configurations of bodies in lived social space. Compliance may take the shape of nonverbal responses such as willing movement towards the target space indexed by the directive, minimal verbal agreement – plaintive, reluctant, or joyful – with a parent’s directive, or response cries, e.g. exasperation or disgruntled disbelief. As agents with projects of their own, children can respond to directives with considerable resistance. Very different types of affective landscapes are created in the midst of interaction. People in interaction form environments for each other, either ones displaying deference and accountability for one’s actions or alternatively displaying outright antagonism and disdain. Examples in this study are drawn from video recordings of naturally occurring interaction in middle class families who were part of the project of UCLA’s Center on Everyday Lives of Families and Sweden’s sister project.

  • 33.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Design Sciences, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Swede.
    Gulz, Agneta
    LUCS (Div. of Cognitive Science), Lund University, Kungshuset, Lundagård, Lund, Sweden.
    Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents2008In: Journal of Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual pedagogical characters introduce anything novel with regard to the use of visual stereotypes - as compared both to real life interaction between humans and to the use of visual stereotypes in traditional non-interactive media such as magazines, film, television and video. It is proposed that novel affordances, as well as novel drawbacks, indeed are being introduced with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual characters. The conclusion of the paper is that knowledge on these matters can be useful both for developers of educational systems and for educators in enabling them to strengthen some pedagogical settings and activities.

  • 34.
    Hanssen Seferidis, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geoexplorer: A free open-source framework for black-box testing and scraping information from geographic services2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report on the development of a free open-source framework. The framework is meant to be used to mainly black-box test and/or scrape information from a geographic service like Google Places, Facebook Places or Foursquare. In reality any service that is based on geographic coordinates can be used with the framewok.

    Amongst others, the framework offers functionalities like visualisation on-the-fly and logging of different aspects of the service. There are a few similar tools scattered on the world-wide web, but they usually are hard to find and if they are found, they either are not open-source, free or they lack in functionality. Another major drawback is that the available solutions are very generic, and thus limiting their capabilities. The work described here is an attempt for a concise, easy to use, extendible framework solely focused on geographic services.

    In this report, the technologies used are demonstrated, while at the same time the reasons are given as to why a specific technology was selected in each case. Some documentation is also presented and a few references to the actual code-base in case someone wants to extend Geoexplorer or use it at their organization.

  • 35.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    mRunning: New Ways of Running in Kenya2015In: Journal of Sports Pedagogy and Physical Education, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for new ways for Kenyan elite runners to use smartphones. The study focused on everyday use in social and professional practices to understand the interaction between smartphones, learning, and running. Thus, it was a specific example of how mobile technology can become integrated in existing practices, develop them, and become absorbed in daily routines. Thirty elite runners between the ages of 19 and 34 were provided with a simple smartphone in an intervention study that used a participatory action research approach (PAR) for a period of one and half years. The analysis was based on multiple sources of data and the Silverstone et al. (1992) Domestication of Technology Framework. The Kenyan runners in this study had limited educational background and low incomes, but smartphones with internet connectivity became a powerful catalyst for change. This project showed a distinct example of mRunning; considering the runners’ intensive use of the smartphones and their applications for running. The smartphones had an impact on their professions as runners and acted in a practice-building capacity. The runners were armed with better information about their own training, training programs, rehab information, health, race calendars, race venues, courses profiles, etc. Therefore, most of the runners in the study performed better in competitions. Smartphones were a substantial resource that made a significant impact on the Kenyan  runners’ daily practice and became an important and supportive tool for the runner to get out of poverty.

  • 36.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jobe, William
    Department of Informatics, University West, Sweden.
    Daily Usage of Smartphones: New Activities for Kenyan Elite Runners2016In: Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 2155-4811, E-ISSN 2155-4811, Vol. 2016, article id 469363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how a group of Kenyan elite runners used smartphones in their daily activities for one year. This study used a participatory action research approach to explore 30 young Kenyan runners’ appropriation and day-to-day use of smartphones. The runners lived in two different low-income areas in Nairobi and were not accustomed to smartphones. The research focused on how the participants utilized the smartphone, its applications, and the Web to improve their learning, training, living conditions, and social interactions. To investigate the participants’ progress, every smartphone was tracked and its usage was analyzed according to Koole’s (2009) FRAME model. Findings highlighted that new activities arose through frequent usage of the Web and smartphone applications. 180,000 different visits to websites were made and the most popular usage was searching with Google and Yahoo, entertainment, social media, news, and sports related websites. In total, 346,832 applications were used and the phone, launcher and contacts were the primary applications. However, the findings showed a significant use of communication, camera, native applications and applications for running. A concluding remark is that the smartphone acted as a powerful tool for real-life improvement such as improved learning, current events awareness and social interactions for poor people in a developing country.

  • 37.
    Hedin, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ITIL i små och medelstora företag: Utifrån ett säkerhetsperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work addressed the problem of SMEs in relation to ITIL from a safety perspective. The work is based on two case studies in which one of these two is more profound and thus treated as principal. These two case studies are analyzed from a theoretical foundation based on literary, scientific and oral sources that are processed on the basis of the study's two overarching questions: What are the crucial factors affecting the organization during an ITIL implementation and what are the differences between large and small organizations in relation to security?

    The study's main conclusions is that it is possible that the overall factors affecting the implementation are related to how the organization handles the organizational change that occurs in the context of implementation, and how they relate to ITIL before implementation. Further, the study finds that it is possible to question whether the size of the organization is really a critical factor in relation to the work on security and that it is more about the cultural differences between large organizations and SMEs.

  • 38.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reducing workload by navigational support in dynamic situations2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z. Franco, 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By presenting continuously updated heading and distance information on a small head-mounted display (HMD), as a supplement to a GPS-receiver, we examined if workload could be reduced and performance increased, when navigating in a demanding situation. The purpose was to present limited but sufficient information to facilitate navigation. The technique was tested on ground troops, but could also be used by rescue services and police in situations that require navigation in unknown environments. The main findings were that the workload was reduced in one aspect (during navigation) but increased in another (looking for foot placement). There were no clear differences in performance, except that participants stopped fewer times to look at the GPS-receiver if they had updated heading and distance information. This suggests that a supplement display with minimal information could be useful when navigating with a GPS-receiver in an unknown environment.

  • 39.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidström, Helene
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygård, Louise
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Use of Assistive Technology Devices in mainstream schools; students´ perspective2009In: American Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1943-7676, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 463-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE. The use and nonuse of assistive technology devices in school by students with physical disabilities was investigated, and the students’ experiences in using these devices is described.

    METHOD. We used a mixed-methods approach with predominantly qualitative methods to collect and analyze data, which included observations of and interviews with 20 students with physical disabilities and the number and type of assistive technology devices provided.

    RESULTS. It is vital that devices be integrated into educational practice and that students experience immediate benefits for their function in everyday school activities without detrimental effects on their social participation. The latter was often more important than being able to perform activities independently.

    CONCLUSION. The students adopted both a functional and a psychosocial perspective of their devices, and providers should neglect neither. Children and youth need both verbal information and practical experience using devices to be able to make informed decisions.

  • 40.
    Honarpardaz, Mohammadali
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    ABB, Sweden.
    Sirkett, Daniel
    ABB, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    GENERIC AUTOMATED FINGER DESIGN2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2016, VOL 5B, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, article id V05BT07A071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finger design automation for grippers is one of the areas of highest interest for robot industries. The few studies that have been carried out in the finger design automation research area are limited to objects with specific geometrical properties (e.g. polyhedral). This paper introduces the Generic Automated Finger Design (GAFD) method that contains the essential key processes for automatic design of reliable fingers. The proposed method is implemented on two geometrically complex workpieces and appropriate fingers are designed. The results are discussed in detail and benchmarked against existing approaches.

  • 41.
    Jaber, Zeinab
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enklare sjukvårdsrådgivning med mobil app: designförslag och utvärdering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different options for seeking healthcare advice, such as calling a health care provider or by searching for information about different symptoms online. The most common option people today use for healthcare advice, is by calling ta healthcare center, mainly 1177. There is however no easy accessible option for mobile technology. This study serves to examine the needs and possibilities for a healthcare service application for a mobile phone. Furthermore, the study serves to examine what additional features such service shall hold. Based on whether there is a need and what function there should exist, the study serves to develop a mobile application that meets the need and requirements.

    The result of the study, shows that there is a need for an additional option for healthcare services. The needs can be achieved through the development of a mobile application. Furthermore, the results indicates which features deemed to be necessary by the potential users. The design process, proceeds from a goal-oriented design method and where the application is developed along the key design principles of a behaviour-change system. The study also has defined target group that serves as the primary users. The primary users serves as the primary tools for the design development, and has been used for data collection through interviews and testing sessions.

    Based on the results, a prototype could be designed, developed and also evaluated. This led to a final design of the product that also reached up to the users’ needs and expectation.

  • 42.
    Jakobsson, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Saab AB.
    Larsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Saab AB.
    Konceptstudie för nästa version Brand- och räddningsinstruktion2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When accidents happen it’s important that the airport's fire fighters feel safe with the knowledge that they have. This is why it’s important that they receive the information that is needed so that they know how to act when an aircraft crashes. In addition to being an aid during critical situations the Fire and Rescue Instruction, FRI, is a digital data bank, which is used to educate new fire fighters, and also to keep fully trained fire fighters up to date. Users perceive the FRI as a boring website which isn't designed for them. Which is why this master thesis will investigate how the FRI should be designed to improve the user experience and increase the learning effect.

    The process, which has been implemented during this thesis, is an iterative user-centered design process. The work began with a contextual inquiry to determine the users' needs. Their needs were then used to develop a user interface concept that followed Saab's graphic profile. The users’ then evaluated the concept to make sure that it met the users' key requirements. The concept was visualized with an interactive prototype.

    A positive user experience can be accomplished by structuring the visualizations with its corresponding text, you should also ensure that no information is concealed and apply a consistent navigation structure. This study has identified the importance of the interaction between information and visualizations to promote the learning effect and usability.

  • 43.
    Jalkebo, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Placement of Controls in Construction Equipment Using Operators´Sitting Postures: Process and Recommendations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An ergonomically designed work environment may decrease work related musculoskeletal disorders, lead to less sick leaves and increase production time for operators and companies all around the world.

    Volvo Construction Equipment wants to deepen the knowledge and investigate more carefully how operators are actually sitting whilst operating the machines, how this affects placement of controls and furthermore optimize controls placements accordingly. The purpose is to enhance their product development process by suggesting guidelines for control placement with improved ergonomics based on operators’ sitting postures. The goal is to deliver a process which identifies and transfers sitting postures to RAMSIS and uses them for control placement recommendations in the cab and operator environments. Delimitations concerns: physical ergonomics, 80% usability of the resulted process on the machine types, and the level of detail for controls and their placements.

    Research, analysis, interviews, test driving of machines, video recordings of operators and the ergonomic software RAMSIS has served as base for analysis. The analysis led to (i) the conclusion that sitting postures affect optimal ergonomic placement of controls, though not ISO-standards, (ii) the conclusion that RAMSIS heavy truck postures does not seem to correspond to Volvo CE’s operators’ sitting postures and (iii) and to an advanced engineering project process suitable for all machine types and applicable in the product development process. The result can also be used for other machines than construction equipment.

    The resulted process consists of three independent sub-processes with step by step explanations and recommendations of; (i) what information that needs to be gathered, (ii) how to identify and transfer sitting postures into RAMSIS, (iii) how to use RAMSIS to create e design aid for recommended control placement. The thesis also contains additional enhancements to Volvo CE’s product development process with focus on ergonomics.

    A conclusion is that the use of motion capture could not be verified to work for Volvo Construction Equipment, though it was verified that if motion capture works, the process works. Another conclusion is that the suggested body landmarks not could be verified that they are all needed for this purpose except for those needed for control placement. Though they are based on previous sitting posture identification in vehicles and only those that also occur in RAMSIS are recommended, and therefore they can be used. This thesis also questions the most important parameters for interior vehicle design (hip- and eye locations) and suggests that shoulder locations are just as important. The thesis concluded five parameters for control categorization, and added seven categories in addition to those mentioned in the ISO-standards. Other contradictions and loopholes in the ISO-standards were identified, highlighted and discussed.

    Suggestions for improving the ergonomic analyses in RAMSIS can also be found in this report. More future research mentioned is more details on control placement as well as research regarding sitting postures are suggested. If the resulted process is delimited to concern upper body postures, other methods for posture identification may be used.

  • 44.
    Jansson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and implementation of a timeline for the Web2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visuzalizing time information using a timeline has been done for over 250 years.

    Using a timeline can assist users in making sense of time data which could otherwise be hard to understand.

    A timeline has been implemented at Ida Infront, and its purpose is to help managers understand how cases are progressing in a case management system created by Ida Infront. The timeline is designed using usability methods and has been evaluated with regards to its usability and how it interacts.

    Results show that there are a number of things that can increase usability and add meaningful interaction, such as using icons to collect similar data into one point and adding filtering capabilities so that users can find interesting data faster.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Supporting situation awareness on the move - the role of technology for spatial orientation in the field2013In: Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann, T. Müller, 2013, p. 442-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper has investigated how technology can support spatial awareness when moving in wooded terrain. By “spatial awareness”, we refer to the ability to point in the approximate direction of several objects while navigating in unknown terrain. The ability to localize objects in the terrain has importance for emergency operations, for example firefighting and search and rescue operations. A field experiment was conducted with two conditions, one with technical support and one without. The results show that technical support in terms of GPS, digital maps and electronic compass can dramatically improve the ability to accurately indicate directions to objects. Further, findings concerning use of tests on spatial orientation to predict the ability to indicate directions to objects in the terrain when having no technical support are presented.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Björn J E
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datatjänster, Muggebo Fridensborg, Sweden.
    Götmar, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Effect of a Geographical Information System on Performance and Communication of a Command and Control Organization2010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION, ISSN 1044-7318, Vol. 26, no 2-3, p. 228-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests the claimed benefits of using geographical information systems (GIS) in emergency response. An experimental study, which compares command and control (C2) teams using (a) a C2 tool with GIS-functionality and (b) traditional paper maps in a forest firefighting scenario, is presented. A total of 132 persons, forming 22 teams, participated in the study. Eleven teams had access to a C2 tool with GIS-functionality, which provided real-time data about the position of the firefighting units and the fire outbreak. The other 11 teams were using traditional paper maps. The result shows that the teams with access to the C2 tool with GIS-functionality performed significantly better than the teams using the traditional paper maps in terms of saved area. Communication volume was reduced in the case of the C2 teams using the C2 tool with GIS-functionality. The content of exchanged messages was also significantly different in the two settings.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Stenius, Charlotte
    Totalförsvarets Forskningssinstitut.
    Navigation support for dismounted soldiers using minimal information as a supplement to a digital map2015In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By presenting continuously updated heading and distance information on a small head-mounted display, as a supplement to a GPS-receiver, the authors examined if workload could be reduced and performance increased when navigating in a demanding situation. The purpose was to present as limited, but sufficient, information as possible to facilitate navigation. The technique was tested on ground troops, but could also be used by rescue services and police in situations that require navigation in unknown environments. The main findings were that the workload was reduced in two aspects (during navigation and handling personal equipment) but increased in another (looking for foot placement). When using the head mounted display, it was found that participants stopped fewer times to look at the GPS-receiver if they had continuous updated heading and distance information. This suggests that a supplement with minimal information on a head mounted display could be useful when navigating with a GPS-receiver in an unknown environment.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Förändra vårdsökande beteende genom Act4Heart: En agil systemutvecklingsprocess av ett sekundärpreventivt beslutsstöd för patienter som drabbats av hjärtinfarkt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows the development process and results of an interactive decision support for patients who are at risk of suffering from a recurrence in myocardial infarction.  The decision support has taken the form of a mobile application that aim to help patients in their decision making. The design is derived from persuasive design with the goal to influence patients in seeking the correct type of care at the desired time. The key objective is to reduce prehospital delay and increase the use of ambulances. The system has also been tested regarding usability to ensure end-user harmonization. The software development process proceeded with the agile method Scrum. Members of an interdisciplinary team have been involved in the development to ensure its quality, doctors, scientists, nurses and various experts. 

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Rikard
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Utvärdering av kvalitetsregistret och processtödssystemet Carath2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien genomförs i syfte att utvärdera hur arbetsflödet i sjukvårdssystemet Carath är anpassat efter rutiner hos användarna på de thoraxkliniker som äger systemet och där det används. Tre arbetsplatsundersökningar och elva stycken intervjuer genomfördes med sjukhuspersonal på olika kliniker i Sverige med metoden kontextuell design.

    Resultaten från studien visar att Carath är anpassat efter patientflödet på klinikerna men i mindre grad anpassat efter användares arbetsrutiner och roller. Studien visar även på att systemet saknar inbyggd hantering för återkoppling och kontroller av registrerad data. Dessa funktioner utförs istället manuellt utanför systemet. Samtliga av de saknade funktionerna bekräftas även genom SEIPS-modellen som funktioner som är rekommenderbara inom ett sjukvårdssystem. Sammantaget visar resultatet från kontextuella intervjuer med kommentarer från personal, genererade sekvensmodeller över arbetsflöden och utvärderingar mot SEIPS-modellen att Carath skulle behöva balanseras mellan patientflöde och personalens arbetsflöde. Funktioner för återkoppling och kontroll skulle integreras i systemet. Framtida arbete innefattar en undersökning kring integration mot andra system inom sjukvården.

  • 50.
    Klasson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att författa en Design- en processorienterad fallstudie av manusförfattandets arbetsprocess i ett interaktionasdesignarbete2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a process oriented case-study. The studied case is a interactiondesignassignment of a databasevisualisation and the process. The goalis to do this according to the ways of a screenwriter.When the computers spread from the military and university's into homes all around the world the computers and the programs had to becomeeasier for the users to understand and use. User interfacedesign became more and more important and companies like Apple put a lot of resources intothe designprocess. This quite new and evolving area of research, interactiondesign, has been forced to search for methods in other areas like lm, gamedesign, psychology and behavioural science. The area still needs to evolve and keep looking for new methods to bring the area forward.In this thesis the methods of a screenwriter is used in a interaction designwork.The main advantage of the screenwritingprocess might be the focuson the users feelings. This aspect was noted by Adam Connor during his speech at the conference InteractionEleven last year. Though Connor hasn't been writing any articles on this domain, it surely is an interesting aspectthat can help bring interaction deign forward. This thesis proves that it is possible to conduct a interaction designwork according to a screenwriters workingprocess with some advantages compared to common interactiondesignprocess.

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