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  • 1.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 2.
    Abramsson, Jonatan
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    First-principle of Sc / Cr multilayers for x-ray mirrors applications2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce x-ray mirrors the Thin Film Physics group at IFM grows Cr/Sc multilayers, with a typical thickness of the individual layers in the range 5-20 Å, and with as many periods as possible (a few hundred).

    The quality of the multilayer interfaces is crucial for their performance as mirrors. For thick layers poly-crystalline multilayers form with an interface quality that is too poor for the use as x-ray mirrors. For thinner layers, however, amorphous layers are formed with a much better quality of the interface.

    The goal of this project was to understand the formation of amorphous multilayers. Unfortunately it is impossible with the present day's theoretical tools to determine the structure of amorph interfaces. It is also impossible to calculate the interface structure for elements with large mismatch in size.

    So we have to construct interface models that are both simple and based on physical arguments.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bredin, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    European Aviation Crisis Management2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of crisis management in European aviation, and to recommend enhancements. To fulfill this, we mapped the current crisis management plans and created a fictive scenario where a cyber-attack shut down the power at five of the major airports in Europe. Air traffic in Europe was reconstructed to a chosen day; the 16th of September 2013, and the reconstructed traffic situation was used in the scenario. We also created a model, for the purpose of showing the effect of a cut in time for the steps in the crisis management plan may have on the traffic waiting to depart at the closed airports. When using these means, we could implement the crisis management plans on the fictive scenario and make changes to the plans for a new implementation. The existing crisis management plans were compared to the modified plans made by us, and it was found that usage of a common platform for the different stakeholders involved in the crisis could improve the efficiency of the crisis management.

  • 4.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alignment2014In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology / [ed] Chan Sin-wai, London and New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 395-408Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

  • 6.
    Alenvret, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaldsson, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration: How internal stakeholders can be involved in the product development process2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalisation of the market is followed by increased competition between organisations. Therefore it becomes more important to create products with high customer value. To be able to create customer value, deep understanding of the customers’ needs must be obtained by employees, shared between them and transformed into products. Further consequences of globalisation are increasing differences between customers’ needs, which results in demand for customisable and flexible products.The purpose of this study was to analyse how organisations can create more customer value through increased knowledge integration. The focus was on how knowledge that already resides within a globally dispersed organisation can be integrated during the product development process.This study showed that customer value is created throughout the product development process by integrating the knowledge held by R&D and internal stakeholders. Different types of value are created at different phases in the product development process. One important finding is that different parts of the augmented value are created throughout the entire product development process. Since employees obtain different knowledge depending on which customer they interact with, it is important to utilise knowledge from a large number of employees with different roles and in different countries. Hence, the significance of knowledge integration must be disseminated and understood across the organisation. After completing the product development process additional customer value is created by the internal stakeholders’ who sell and implement the product, but it is during the product development process that the basis for their value creation is established.Knowledge needs to be integrated in a formalised, repeatable way, so that the R&D department can ensure that the right product is developed at the right time. Integration means that the tacit knowledge that resides within one employee is codified into an explicit form that can be exploited by more employees. Therefore, four steps must be performed and repeated iteratively to create and spread knowledge throughout the organisation. The first step includes communication by exchanging tacit knowledge. The second step entails documenting the knowledge, and the third step involves combining the knowledge residing in the organisations into one common knowledge system. The final step includes distributing the knowledge so that it recievess wide attention within the organisation. Several factors that have a negative impact on these four steps, and knowledge integration, need to be countered somehow. However, it was found that there are several mechanisms that facilitate knowledge integration, and most often the presence of several mechanisms at the same time had a better effect.

  • 7.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Möbelsnickeri.
    Parkettläggning: med massivträ som utgångspunkt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about furniture parquetry and various techniques. Parquetry can be describe as wooden, 2-dimensional patterns used to garnish furniture and other products. It is manufactured in thin veneer layer and applied to the surface. By using thin veneer we are able to minimize stresses in the material, which results in tight joints. In Europe, furniture parquetry is traditionally created by wood veneer pieces that has been formed and joined into a pattern. There are also other proven techniques developed during different stages in history and in different places in the world.

    In my thesis I describe some of those established techniques and some of my experiments in the subject. The report is based on literature studies, observations of movie clips, interviews and empirical practical studies. I have compared different techniques to see in what ways it is possible to rationalize the production of furniture parquetry. At the same time I wanted to try and develop a method that makes it possible to create parquetry patterns containing round shapes. In this way I hope to contribute to the development and modernization in the area. 

  • 8.
    Alghazi, Ziad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wireless instrumentation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka om det finns möjlighet att implementera en trådlöst instrumenterings kit från Emerson Rosemount Process AB på dagens styrsystem som finns på Siemens gasturbiner. En prototyp skapades som bygger på Siemens Simatic PCS-7 med en styrenhet och en switch. Där efter implementerades Emerson Wireless gateway och två trådlösa instrument. I examanearbetet skapades även en logik som hanterar kommunikationen mellan simatic och gateway. Modbus RTU och TCP/IP är kommunikationsprotokollet som användes under arbetet. En undersökning om den uppsättningen klarar av de atex (ATmosphères EXplosibles )och sil (saftey integrity level ) krav gjordes, för att säkerställa om det finns möjligheter att implementera detta på dagens tillverkningsprocess. Utöver dessa kontrollerades om det råder för och nackdelar med den trådlösa allternativet inom IT-säkerhet, instrumentdiagnostik och störkänslighet. Arbetet fullgjordes på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery i Finspång tillsammans med företagets utvecklingsavdelning för styrsystem.

  • 9.
    Ali, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iqbal, Wasim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance analysis of various antennas at 2.45 GHz2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this era of technology, there is a swift increase in the number of applications which operate at the Industrial Scientific Medical Band. The applications of this band ranges from home microwave oven to wireless local area networks (WLAN). Therefore, the design of antennas on this band is essential.

    This thesis work revolves around the detailed study and design of various antennas at 2.45 GHz. All the simulation of the antennas was performed using advanced design system (ADS). Microstrip antenna technology is commonly used in antenna design due to its advantages such as low-profile, small size and easy fabrication on printed circuit boards.

    Firstly, various antennas such as rectangular patch, square patch, dipole, inverted F and printed Yagi were designed using ADS and their different performance parameters such as input impedance matching, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), input reflection, and gain and directivity were discussed. Dipole antenna, inverted F and printed Yagi were fabricated on printed circuit board (PCB) to compare their measured and simulated results.

    At the end, a conclusion is drawn for different antennas based on their various performance parameters.

  • 10.
    Ali, M.
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Svensk, Olle
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Zhen, Z.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Suihkonen, S.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Törmä, P.T.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Lipsanen, H.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Sopanen, M.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Hjort, Klas
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduced photoluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures following 40 MeV iodine ion irradiation2009In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, no 23-24, p. 4925-4928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects following ion irradiation of GaN-based devices are still limited. Here we present data on the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures, which have been exposed to 40 MeV I ion irradiation. The PL is reduced as a function of applied ion fluence, with essentially no PL signal left above 1011 ions/cm2. It is observed that even the ion fluences in the 109 ions/cm2 range have a pronounced effect on the photoluminescence properties of the MQW structures. This may have consequences concerning application of InGaN/GaN MQW’s in radiation-rich environments, in addition to defect build-up during ion beam analysis.

  • 11.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    In orthopaedic practice, fractures are usually stabilised with metal screws or rods. This is done in order to keep the fracture parts in place during the rather slow healing process. The healing time can potentially be reduced by local- or systemic treatment with different bone promoting drugs. In later years, lithium, otherwise used to treat bipolar disease, has shown promise to be such a drug.

     

    The aim of this master thesis was to find a way to coat metal bone screws with lithium and to characterise the coating. The coating was to be designed in such a way that it could release lithium to the surrounding bone tissue.

     

    Lithium chloride was incorporated into a titanate sol-gel and attached to silicon wafers and stainless steel screws by dip coating. Wafers were used for initial in vitro studies of how lithium changed coating characteristics. This was studied using ellipsometry, AFM and SEM. Lithium is most probably physisorbed and not incorporated into the network building up the sol-gel. Coating structure is changed as more lithium is incorporated. For large amounts of lithium, the nanoparticles normally formed when curing the sol-gel are inhibited. One effect of this is reduced bioactivity, seen as a reduced ability for calcium phosphate crystals to nucleate on the coating when immersed in simulated body fluid.

    Lithium release was investigated using AAS. Lithium is released from the coating, showing a burst effect. By changing the number of coating layers used, the release profile can be partly altered. The coating was also applied to screws, showing good attachment, and the lithium release profile was similar to the one seen from wafers.

    Finally, a screw model was used in rats to assess the effect of local lithium treatment from screws and systemic lithium treatment on fracture healing. In the model, a screw was inserted in tibia, mimicking a fracture. When the bone around the screw was healed, a pullout test was performed, giving information about the strength of the bone surrounding the screw. No significant difference could be found for either local- or systemic lithium treatment compared to control. However, when evaluating the strength of intact bone in a similar way, a positive effect of systemic lithium treatment could be seen. Therefore, it is still likely that lithium has a positive effect on bone and further studies are needed to fully evaluate its role in fracture healing.

     

  • 12.
    Ander, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coating actions for an intersection affected by repeated rutting.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Korsningar, busshållplatser, söderbackar och lastkajer är ytor med extrem påkänning på grund av hög trafikbelastning, låg hastighet, accelerationer, inbromsningar, svängningar, spårbundenhet och utsatthet för höga temperaturer. Den speciella lastsituationen riskerar orsaka spårbildning, vilket är det vanligaste problemet i korsningar. Genom att anpassa beläggningen efter den utsatta ytan så kan projektören påverka vägens funktion och livslängd. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att studera vilka beläggningsåtgärder som är lämpliga för utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser samt att se vad som orsakar skadebilden i en skadedrabbad korsning. Vidare var syftet att jämföra tre beläggningsalternativ för att se vilket som var mest fördelaktigt ur ett livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv. Frågeställningarna var följande: 1. Vilka beläggningar är lämpliga för särskilt utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser? 2. Vad orsakar skadebilden vid frånfarten på Malmslättsvägen vid korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? 3. Vilken beläggningsåtgärd av ABS11, Densiphalt och PMA är bäst ur ett livslängd- och kostnadsperspektiv under 20 år för korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? För att besvara frågeställningarna gjordes litteraturstudier samt en fallstudie i form av okulär bedömning och balkanalys i det aktuella vägsnittet. Dessutom jämfördes livslängd och kostnader mellan beläggningsalternativen i PMS Objekt respektive genom en ekonomisk beräkningsmetod. Resultatet visade att ett bindlager kan uppta de skjuvkrafter som uppstår på utsatta ytor och förhindrar därmed sprickbildning och deformationer. CBÖ och platsgjuten betong har i studier visat begränsa spårbildning. Densiphalt är lämplig som beläggning på utsatta ytor och ger samtidigt ytan motståndskraft mot olja och bensin. IM är starkare, styvare och mindre deformationsbenägen än en vanlig asfalt och är därför lämplig på högtrafikerade vägar. Fallstudien på det aktuella vägsnittet visade att skadebilden hade två orsaker. Dels fanns ett ytslitage som var orsakat av den spårbundna dubbdäckstrafiken. Dessutom förekom plastisk deformation i det andra och tredje asfaltlagret till följd av otillräcklig stabilitet i asfaltmassan med hänsyn till den långsamtgående och stillastående trafiken. De obundna lagren var till synes opåverkade vid balkanalysen. Jämförelsen mellan beläggningsalternativen visade att Densiphalt hade längst livslängd följt av PMA och ABS11. Kostnadsmässigt hade PMA lägst annuitet följt av Densiphalt och ABS11. Orsaken till att ABS11 var dyrast var troligen behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt. Slutsatsen var att kompletterande bindlager, CBÖ, PMA, Densiphalt, betong och IM var lämpliga beläggningar för särskilt utsatta ytor. Skadebilden vid det undersökta vägsnittet bedömdes bero på ytslitage på grund av spårbunden dubbdäckstrafik samt plastisk deformation till följd av tung trafik. Densiphalt hade längst livslängd och PMA hade lägst annuitet. Konventionell ABS11 var sämst ur både livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv, vilket bedömdes bero på behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Idwall, Ewa
    Malmö University, Sweden .
    Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare.

    METHODS:

    A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS:

    The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandholm, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Total Cost Analysis of frame suppliers in construction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gotec, som är ett bygg och förvaltningsföretag, är just nu inne på etapp ett av ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden, Linköping. För etapp ett slöt Gotec ett avtal med den polska stomleverantören Baumat, att de skulle leverera samtliga stommar till Gotecs byggnader i projektet. Valet av leverantör baserades till största del på det låga inköpspriset. Dock upplever Gotec idag att det har uppstått vissa problem med Baumat som leverantör. Ett problem som Gotec upplever är att kommunikationen inte har fungerat så bra som de hade hoppats på, detta då engelskan är ytterst bristfällig inom Baumat. Andra problem som märkts av under samarbetet är bland annat att flexibiliteten och leveransprecisionen inte har varit perfekt. Detta har lett till att leveransförseningar har uppstått som i sin tur har givit upphov till extra kostnader, så kallade ÄTOR. Denna fallstudie utreder vilken leverantör av stommar som skulle vara det bästa alternativet för Gotec att använda sig av vid ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden i framtiden. En leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland eller en leverantör från Sverige. De leverantörer som utreds är Gotecs nuvarande leverantör Baumat som representerar en leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland och Strängbetong som representerar en leverantör från Sverige.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    GPGPU-Sim2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the impact of hardware features of graphics cards on performance of GPU computing using GPGPU-Sim simulation software tool. GPU computing is a growing topic in the world of computing, and could be an important milestone for computers. Therefore, such a study that seeks to identify the performance bottlenecks of the program with respect to hardware parameters of the devvice can be considered an important step towards tuning devices for higher efficiency.

    In this work we selected convolution algorithm - a typical GPGPU application - and conducted several tests to study different performance parameters. These tests were performed on two simulated graphics cards (NVIDIA GTX480, NVIDIA Tesla C2050), which are supported by GPGPU-Sim. By changing the hardware parameters of graphics card such as memory cache sizes, frequency and the number of cores, we can make a fine-grained analysis on the effect of these parameters on the performance of the program.

    A graphics card working on a picture convolution task releis on the L1 cache but has the worst performance with a small shared memory. Using this simulator to run performance tests on a theoretical GPU architecture could lead to better GPU design for embedded systems.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jon Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlling the Formation and Stability of Alumina Phases2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, physical phenomena related to the growth and phase formation of alumina, Al2O3, are investigated by experiments and computer calculations. Alumina finds applications in a wide variety of areas, due to many beneficial properties and several existing crystalline phases. For example, the α and κ phases are widely used as wear-resistant coatings due to their hardness and thermal stability, while, e.g., the metastable γ and θ phases find applications as catalysts or catalyst supports, since their surface energies are low and, hence, they have large surface areas available for catalytic reactions.

    The metastable phases are involved in transition sequences, which all irreversibly end in the transformation to the stable α phase at about 1050 °C. As a consequence, the metastable aluminas, which can be grown at low temperatures, cannot be used in high temperature applications, since they are destroyed by the transformation into α. In contrast, α-alumina, which is the only thermodynamically stable phase, typically require high growth temperatures (~1000 °C), prohibiting the use of temperature sensitive substrates. Thus, there is a need for increasing the thermal stability of metastable alumina and decreasing the growth temperature of the α phase.

    In the experimental part of this work, hard and single-phased α-alumina thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering at temperatures down to 280 °C. This dramaticdecrease in growth temperature was achieved by two main factors. Firstly, the nucleation stage of growth was controlled by pre-depositing a chromia “template” layer, which is demonstrated to promote nucleation of α-alumina. Secondly, it is shown that energetic bombardment was needed to sustain growth of the α phase. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry measurements demonstrate that the likely source of energetic bombardment, in the present case, was oxygen ions/atoms originating from the target surface. Overall, these results demonstrate that low-temperature α-alumina growth is possible by controlling both the nucleation step of growth as well as the energetic bombardment of the growing film. In addition, the mass spectrometry studies showed that a large fraction of the deposition flux consisted of AlO molecules, which were sputtered from the target. Since the film is formed by chemical bonding between the depositing species, this observation is important for the fundamental understanding of alumina thin film growth.

    In the computational part of the work, the effect of additives on the phase stability of α- and θ-alumina was investigated by density functional theory calculations. A systematic study was performed of a large number of substitutional dopants in the alumina lattices. Most tested dopants tended to reverse the stability between α- and θ-alumina; so that, e.g., Modoping made the θ phase energetically favored. Thus, it is possible to stabilize the metastable phases by additives. An important reason for this is the physical size of the dopant ions with respect to the space available within the alumina lattices. For example, large ions induced θ stabilization, while ions only slightly larger than Al, e.g., Co and Cu, gave a slight increase in the relative stability of the α phase. We also studied the stability of some of these compounds with respect to pure alumina and other phases, containing the dopants, with the result that phase separations are energetically favored and will most likely occur at elevated temperatures.

    List of papers
    1. Microstructure of α-alumina thin films deposited at low temperatures on chromia template layers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure of α-alumina thin films deposited at low temperatures on chromia template layers
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 117-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency sputtering has been used to deposit -alumina (-Al2O3) thin films at substrate temperatures of 280–560 °C. The films are shown to be single phased and hard. Nanoindentation gives values of 306±31 and 27±3 GPa for elastic modulus and hardness, respectively, for a substrate temperature of 280 °C. Growth of the phase was achieved by in situ predeposition of a chromia template layer. Chromia crystallizes in the same hexagonal structure as -alumina, with a lattice mismatch of 4.1% in the a- and 4.6% in the c-parameter, and is shown to nucleate readily on the amorphous substrates (silicon with a natural oxide layer). This results in local epitaxy of -alumina on the chromia layer, as is shown by transmission electron microscopy. The alumina grains are columnar with grain widths increasing from 22±7 to 41±9 nm, as the temperature increases from 280 to 560 °C. This is consistent with a surface diffusion dominated growth mode and suggests that -alumina deposition at low temperatures is possible once initial grain nucleation has occurred. Results are also presented demonstrating chromia/-alumina growth on a technological substrate (Haynes230 Ni-based super alloy, Haynes International, Inc.).

    Keyword
    alumina, chromium compounds, sputtered coatings, indentation, elastic moduli, hardness, sputter deposition, transmission electron microscopy, epitaxial layers, grain size, surface diffusion, nucleation, wear resistant coatings, thermal barrier coatings
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13578 (URN)10.1116/1.1636157 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 513, no 1-2, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature growth (500 °C) of α-Al2O3 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering was achieved for the first time. The films were grown onto Cr2O3 nucleation layers and the effects of the total and O2 partial pressures were investigated. At 0.33 Pa total pressure and ≥ 16 mPa O2 partial pressure α-Al2O3 films formed, while at lower O2 pressure or higher total pressure (0.67 Pa), only γ phase was detected in the films (which were all stoichiometric). Based on these results we suggest that α phase formation was promoted by a high energetic bombardment of the growth surface. This implies that the phase content of Al2O3 films can be controlled by controlling the energy of the depositing species. The effect of residual H2O (10− 4 Pa) on the films was also studied, showing no change in phase content and no incorporated H (< 0.1%). Overall, these results are of fundamental importance in the further development of low-temperature Al2O3 growth processes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2006
    Keyword
    Aluminum oxide, Chromium oxide, Sputtering, Ion bombardment, X-ray diffraction
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14318 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.016 (DOI)
    Note
    Original publication: Andersson, J.M., Wallin, E., Helmersson, U., Kreissig, U. and Münger, E.P., Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures, 2006, Thin Solid Films, (513), 1-2, 57-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.016. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2007-03-02 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al
    2006 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 05, p. Art. No. 054101 JAN 30 2006-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The deposition flux obtained during reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 gas mixtures was studied by mass spectrometry. The results show significant amounts of molecular AlO+ (up to 10% of the Al+ flux) in the ionic flux incident onto the substrate. In the presence of ~10–4 Pa H2O additional OH+ and AlOH+ were detected, amounting to up to about 100% and 30% of the Al+ flux, respectively. Since the ions represent a small fraction of the total deposition flux, an estimation of the neutral content was also made. These calculations show that, due to the higher ionization probability of Al, the amount of neutral AlO in the deposition flux is of the order of, or even higher than, the amount of Al. These findings might be of great aid when explaining the alumina thin film growth process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2006
    Keyword
    alumina, dielectric thin films, sputter deposition, mass spectra
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10452 (URN)10.1063/1.2170404 (DOI)
    Note
    Original publication: Andersson, J.M., Wallin, E., Münger, E.P. & Helmersson, U., Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al, 2006, Applied Physics Letters, (88), 054101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2170404. Copyright: American Institute of Physics, http://apl.aip.org/apl/top.jspAvailable from: 2007-12-17 Created: 2007-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    4. Effects of additives in α- and θ-alumina: an ab initio study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of additives in α- and θ-alumina: an ab initio study
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, Vol. 16, no 49, p. 8971-8980Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is of high fundamental and practical importance to be able to control the formation and stability of the different crystalline phases of alumina (Al2O3). In this study, we have used density functional theory methods to investigate the changes induced in the thermodynamically stable α phase and the metastable θ phase as one eighth of the Al atoms are substituted for different additives (Sc, W, Mo, Cr, Cu, Si, and B). The calculations predict that the additives strongly affect the relative stability between the two phases. Most tested additives are shown to shift the relative stability towards, and in some cases completely stabilize, the θ phase, while Cu doping is predicted to increase the relative stability of the α phase. The reasons for these effects are discussed, as are possible implications on the growth and use of doped aluminas in practical applications. In addition, the effects of the additives on bulk moduli and densities of states have been investigated.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13581 (URN)10.1088/0953-8984/16/49/012 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2013-10-30
    5. Ab initio calculations on the effects of additives on alumina phase stability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ab initio calculations on the effects of additives on alumina phase stability
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Physical review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 71, no 014101, p. 014101-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of substitutional additives on the properties and phase stability of - and -alumina (Al2O3), are investigated by density functional theory total energy calculations. The dopants explored are 5 at. % of Cr, Mo, Co, and As substituting for Al, respectively, N and S substituting for O, in the and lattices. Overall, the results show that it is possible to shift, and even reverse, the relative stability between - and -alumina by substitutional additives. The alumina bulk moduli are, in general, only slightly affected by the dopants but density of states profiles reveal additional peaks in the alumina band gaps. We also show that phase separations into pure oxides are energetically favored over doped alumina formation, and we present results on a number of previously unstudied binary oxides.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13582 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.71.014101 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2013-10-30
    6. Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 100, no 3, p. Art. No. 033305 AUG 1 2006-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ion flux obtained during reactive magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 gas mixtures was studied by energy-resolved mass spectrometry, as a function of the total and O2 partial pressures. The positive ions of film-forming species exhibited bimodal energy distributions, both for direct current and radio frequency discharges, with the higher energy ions most likely originating from sputtered neutrals. For the negative oxygen ions a high-energy peak was observed, corresponding to ions formed at the target surface and accelerated towards the substrate over the sheath potential. As the total pressure was increased the high-energy peaks diminished due to gas-phase scattering. Based on these results, the role of energetic bombardment for the phase constituent of alumina thin films are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    College Park, MD, United States: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2006
    Keyword
    aluminium, sputter deposition, diffusion, mass spectra, high-frequency discharges, plasma materials processing
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10472 (URN)10.1063/1.2219163 (DOI)000239764100014 ()
    Note

    Original publication: Jon M. Andersson, E. Wallin, E. P. Münger & U. Helmersson, Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures, 2006, Journal of Applied Physics, (100), 033305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2219163. Copyright: American Institute of Physics, http://jap.aip.org/jap/top.jsp

    Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14
  • 17.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adjusting route charges to increase profit2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Route charges are fees that airlines pay in order to utilize the Air Navigation Services (ANS) of a European state. The fee is based on three values; the weight of the aircraft, the length of the flight, and the state’s specific unit rate. The unit rate of each state is in turn based on the forecasted costs of providing ANS for that state and the amount of traffic forecasted for the year to come.

    This makes for different unit rates for different states, which leads to different costs for flying different routes in the European airspace. A state having costs that are increasing faster than the amount of traffic is increasing will lead to a higher unit rate. A higher unit rate may lead to airlines avoiding the state’s airspace due to higher costs, thus accounting for even less traffic and an increase in unit rate.

    This thesis examines the relationship between unit rate and amount of traffic, and specifically tries to find out how much the unit rate affects the traffic count. This has been done by reading previous papers on the subject, and creating a model to easily present facts found.

    The result of the thesis suggests that states actually profits more by increasing the unit rate rather than actively trying to reduce it. This contradicts the idea of lowering prices always being a good thing. There is a limit to how much the unit rate can be increases however, at which all traffic will choose to circumnavigate the airspace. Finding a good balance between traffic lost and unit rate increased is suggested as the best way to go.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wandfelt, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of maintenance system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an optimization of the allocation of maintenance resources for Air Navigation Service (ANS) equipment of which LFV is responsible for the maintenance. The purpose the authors have worked after is to research ways of minimizing travelling time linked to maintenance visits for ANS equipment, this report includes the suggestions where the maintenance facilities should be placed in order to minimize the total travelling time. The report describes the problem background and presents the customer, LFV. It includes a chapter on some of the theories used for facility location and routing, and also presents methods for reducing the total travelling time used for maintenance visits annually. The authors have worked with a given set of airports in Sweden. Information about the general work with maintenance as well as the annual demand of maintenance, including the frequency of visits, for each airport included in this project was received by Pär Oberger, the task expert and contact at LFV for this report. A model for facility location based on the p-median model have been created and used when solving the problem, it was written in AMPL and solved with the CPLEX solver. The model was modified with two additional constraints regulating the minimum annual working time and the maximum distance for one-way travelling. The authors deems that a solution with five facilities is better since the benefit of additional facilities, in term of lower total distance, do not compensate for the assumed cost of establishing them.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pearce, Ruth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NPL, London from March 2012.
    Recent trends in Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Graphene based gas sensors2013In: Semiconductor Gas Sensors / [ed] R. Jaaniso and O. K. Tan, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013, p. 117-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) as the semiconductorin gas sensitive field effect devices has tremendously improved this sensor platform extending the temperature range and number of detectable gases. Here we review the recent trends in research, starting with transducer mechanisms, latest findings regarding the detection mechanism, and present new material combinations as sensing layers and smart operation of the field effect sensors enabling one sensor to act as a sensor array. Introducing epitaxially-grown graphene on SiC as gas sensing layer shows the potential of ppb detection of NO2 .

  • 20.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Radio Frequency Thermal Treatment of Liver Tumours: -Influence of Blood Perfusion and Large Vessels2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is a commonly used minimally invasive method of treating liver cancer tumours which utilises RF current for heating tumour tissue up to a lethal temperature. RF current is generated by a power generator and applied to the tumour by an electrode which is inserted into the tumour either during percutaneous or open surgery.

    RFA is a method that has great advantages compared to traditional surgical resection of tumours due to minimal invasiveness, it can be used for a greater number of patients and enables repeated treatments. Even though there are many advantages coupled to RFA there are still some problems and difficulties associated with the method. One of these problems is the cooling effect from large vessel blood flow within the liver, the so called heat sink effect.

    The aim of this master thesis work has been to develop a theoretical finite element model of RFA within Comsol Multiphysics software. This theoretical model has been used to simulate blood perfusion effects on resulting ablation volume. The effects from different large vessel blood flow parameters has been investigated, these parameters are: blood flow velocity, blood vessel diameter and distance between blood vessel and RF electrode. A factorial design has been utilised to setup parameter levels for the different simulations. A linear- and a second degree regression model has been calculated based on simulation results. The parameter with largest impact on simulative ablation volume and the interaction effects between the parameters were determined from the regression model coefficients. In addition to this has two simulations been performed, modelling perfused- and unperfused liver tissue, in order to investigate the effects resulting from microvascular perfusion.

    The result shows that the parameter with largest impact on simulative ablation volume are the distance, it was also shown that there are a small interactional effects between diameter and distance, where a small distance increases the effect from a varying diameter. Modelled microvascular perfusion was shown to give a decrease in simulative ablation volume. A shortage of this master thesis work is the lack of experimental verification of the developed model.

  • 21.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The impact of geometrical variations on the transport properties of organic electronic ion pumps2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an electrically controlled polymer-based device that has the capability to interact with biological systems down to a single cell level by mimicking neural signalling. This is accomplished by translation of an electrical signal into a chemical output, such as ions and neurotransmitters. Because of the combined spatial and temporal precision, this is a technology with a promising future as an advanced therapeutic device. Depending on the application, the OEIP requires different geometries. Implants that will be used to control on a single cell level require very small dimensions, while for example extracorporeal mounted OIEPs, with only the delivery channel penetrating the skin, require much longer channels. Despite the application, it is necessary to have a good knowledge about the transport and delivery properties and how they change due to the geometry. These properties have been observed as very varying and unstable in early unpublished results, and these findings motivate this project. This project includes photolithographic fabrication and investigation of transport and delivery properties such as effective resistance, efficiency and stability of OEIPs with varying delivery channel lengths and widths. Shorter delivery channels show a consistent but relatively low efficiency. Delamination between different layers of the device is suspected as the cause. Initially, the longer delivery channels show a low functionality, most probably due to poor encapsulation. It is suggested that a soft, water-permeable plastic best encapsulates OEIPs that will be used as a medical implant, while a material impermeable to water, for example a metal, could successfully encapsulate OEIPs operating in air.

  • 22.
    Arhall, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cox, Emmie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Key Performance Indicators for SAS Flights2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Revenue management is a thoroughly researched field of study and it is widely used in several different industries. The Revenue Management Department at the airline SAS (Scandinavian Airline System) serves to maximise the profit of the company’s flights. At their disposal they have a number of tools, which use KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) as a measurement. The KPIs are used in prognosis to determine future initiatives, and to analyse and verify results. SAS does not know if the KPIs they focus on to measure performance are the most relevant for optimisation of revenue for their flights. In an attempt to simplify the use of SAS’ optimisation system we have performed a correlation analysis on a set of selected KPIs and assessed the influence relationships between these KPIs, in order to identify pivotal KPIs. Furthermore, we have researched origindestination control and the network effect to broaden the scope of the investigation. We have presented the work and the results in this thesis. The correlation analysis was performed using data, spanning a two-year period, for domestic flights (within Sweden) provided by SAS. The results of the analysis showed that the assessed KPIs could be divided into three groups; within each group the KPIs are closely correlated. As a result, we concluded that to focus on one KPI in each group should be adequate for evaluating performance. The three pivotal KPIs are revenue passenger kilometre, cabin factor and revenue per available seat kilometre. We have recommended SAS to continue working with origin-destination control and that the pivotal KPIs should be used as a measurement for the network, as well as measurements such as net leg revenue. Additionally, we have suggested that SAS conducts equivalent or similar analyses in other suitable areas to identify or confirm pivotal KPIs.

  • 23.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Dialogical Emergency Management and Strategic Awareness in Emergency Communication2011In: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] Maria A. Santos, Julie Dugdale, David Mendonça, Lissabon, 2011, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper introduces two concepts—dialogical emergency management and strategic awareness—as means to use and understand the content of social media for the purpose of emergency communication. Dialogical emergency management denotes that the emergency management organizations follow what people publish in various social media on emergencies and ongoing emergency response, and then adjust their information strategies in a way that matches the expectations and needs for emergency information of ..

  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Distribuerad elproduktion och mikroproduktion av solel: En studie av energibolagens roll vid egenproduktion av el2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several utility companies are today offering products and services related to microgeneration of solar electricity which may seem irrational since a decreased usage of energy of a customer will lead to a decreased profitability for the core business. An increased demand for microgenerating facilities therefore creates a need for change of the utility companies’ current business models. Solar cells and distributed electricity generation are today developing into new markets that constitutes a new competitive force within the energy sector. The companies need to take this competitive force into account if they are not to be harmed in the long-term as the market develops. The aim of this thesis is to examine how the utility companies can develop their business models in order to support distributed electricity generation and microgeneration of solar electricity in a sustainable way.

    Six different business models have been identified that are used in different parts of the world in order to deploy solar cell technologies. These are 1) customer owned that implies that the customer owns the solar cell facility after delivery, 2) community owned where an utility company or a third-party actor coordinates and runs a solar cell project with several owners or customers, 3) third-party owned that implies that a service company offers a complete solution to end customers and finances this through a third-party actor, 4) cross-selling where solar cells are sold as extra equipment or add-ons to other products, 5) host-owned feed-in that implies that all the generated electricity are fed in to the grid for a high compensation and also 6) modular based value propositions where a customer can choose between different packages of products and services that builds upon each other. The four groups customer related-, supplier related-, policy related- and technology related barriers against diffusion of solar cells and microgeneration could be identified within the theoretical framework of the thesis. In total, 17 theoretical barriers could be identified.

    After an initial study of literature, a proper method constituted by three different parts could be chosen for the empirical work of the thesis. An online focus group discussion is together with desk research providing a foundation for a mapping of contextual opportunities and threats. A focus group discussion was decided to provide a proper combination of width and depth and was executed online since this demands less resources and can reach geographically spread respondents. Desk research was decided to be a proper supplement for the e-focus group. In order to be able to study the current business models in more depth, a case study was also executed constituting five different interviews at a Swedish utility company that offers sales of electricity and solar cells and also is a grid owner.

    The empirical work resulted in a mapping of 38 opportunities and 27 threats that utility companies are faced with as the market for distributed electricity generation and microgeneration of solar electricity expands. There is also a need for contextual changes regarding policies and research as the utility companies are changing their business models. Though, utility companies should be able to anticipate a change towards a more distributed electricity market and implement new business models already today. There should already exist a basis for the utility companies to influence both politics and research through for example industry associations. It can through the result of this thesis be found that microgeneration is a growing substitute to traditional sales of electricity that threatens companies in several activities in the electricity sector. The way Swedish companies handle this new market threat is not sustainable and needs to be changed. This thesis finally presents three different directions that the business models of the utility companies can develop towards.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remote Tower Centre - Configuration and Planning of the Remote Tower Modules2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many small aerodromes have a hard time surviving economically, and amongst the largest cost is air traffic control. Airlines are cutting costs where they can, and many times this affects the aerodromes as well, e.g. when airlines decide to park remotely instead of at the gate. The project called Remotely Operated Towers, initiated by SESAR and run by Saab and LFV, is aiming to address this problem. The project revolves around remotely providing ATS to aerodromes where it is deemed suitable. A big challenge in this project is how to assign aerodromes to remote tower modules in the remote control centre. There are many ways to do this, but there is only a few ways to do it to achieve the least amount of modules. This thesis aims to find an optimal solution to the challenge mentioned above. The thesis resulted in a model where the user can provide the input of choice, i.e. aerodromes with associated ATS operating hours and movements, for a specific period – and receive the assignment schedule for the modules, saying exactly which aerodrome are to be controlled by which module at what time.

  • 26.
    Ballem, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Córdoba, José M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of synthesis temperature on morphology of SBA-16 mesoporous materials with a three-dimensional pore system2010In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 129, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spherical particles of mesoporous silica SBA-16 with cubic Im3m structure were synthesized at low pH using Pluronic F127 as template and TEOS as silica source. The diameter of the spherical particles can be controlled in the range of 0.5–8 μm by varying synthesis temperature from 1 °C up to 40 °C. A sharp transition from large particle sizes at approximately 20 °C to smaller ones is observed when the temperature is increased. It is suggested that this morphology transition is due to a change in hydrolysis and condensation rate of the silica source and as a result the assembly of F127 micelles will differ. The SBA-16 samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption techniques.

  • 27.
    Barata, J.
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa /UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal .
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa /UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal.
    Colombo, A-W
    P&T/H6O HUB, Schneider Electric GmbH, Steinheimer Straße 117, 63500, Seligenstadt, Germany.
    A Service-oriented Shop Floor to Support Collaboration in Manufacturing Networks2010In: Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Networked Manufacturing Enterprises Management / [ed] Lyes Benyoucef and Bernard Grabot, Springer London, 2010, p. 483-503Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work addresses the problem of shop-floor agility, presenting it as the fundamental cornerstone for true agility and responsiveness of an enterprise willing to participate in highly dynamic collaborative organizations and supply chains. Clearly, as the economic climate toughens, the exploration of the increasingly volatile business opportunities requires such complex organizations. The feasibility of the architecture proposed is demonstrated in a pilot implementation in a near-real shop-floor. Emerging web standards such as the device profile for web services were used to guarantee cross-layer/abstraction interoperability ensuring that the shop-floor reacts positively to adjustments in the supply chain.

  • 28.
    Barata, José
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, Portuga.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    UNINOVA institute, , Monte de Caparica, Portugal.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric GmbH, P&T/H6O HUB, Seligenstadt, German.
    Diagnosis using service oriented architectures (SOA)2007In: Industrial Informatics, 2007 5th IEEE International Conference on  (Volume: 2), IEEE , 2007, Vol. 2, p. 1203-1208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an emergent approach to industrial control that accompanies new industrial paradigms in the response to the continuously changing socio-economic challenges posed to modern and future enterprises. Maximizing the profit under adverse market conditions is also a matter of cost cut and the use of distributed and intelligent devices with efficient diagnosis mechanisms can help improving equipment's uptime either by reacting before a breakdown or recovering gracefully from failures.

  • 29.
    Barata, José
    et al.
    Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica Universidade Nova de Lisboa Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica Universidade Nova de Lisboa Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
    Onori, Mauro
    KTH-Production Eng. Dept. EPS Group Stockholm, Sweden.
    Diagnosis on evolvable production systems2007In: Industrial Electronics, 2007. ISIE 2007. IEEE International Symposium on, 2007, p. 3221-3226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolvable production systems (EPS) lies at the leading edge of the new paradigms currently emerging as a response to the continuously changing socio-economic challenges that modern enterprises have to deal with. Maximizing the profit under adverse market conditions is also a matter of cost cut and EPS targets this through an efficient diagnosis mechanism embedded in future production systems. Evolvable production systems goes beyond other manufacturing paradigms, and offers intelligent devices with biologically inspired behaviours, heavily dependent on self-diagnosis, self healing and other autonomous actions to ensure the systems' proper functioning and a timely response and recover from unpredictable situations.

  • 30.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Sauerwald, T.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Exploring the selectivity of WO3 with iridium catalyst in an ethanol/naphthalene mixture using multivariate statistics2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 618, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature cycled operation and multivariate statistics have been used to compare the selectivity of two gate (i.e. sensitive) materials for gas-sensitive, silicon carbide based field effect transistors towards naphthalene and ethanol in different mixtures of the two substances. Both gates have a silicon dioxide (SiO2) insulation layer and a porous iridium (Ir) electrode. One of it has also a dense tungsten trioxide (WO3) interlayer between Ir and SiO2. Both static and transient characteristics play an important role and can contribute to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor. The Ir/SiO2 is strongly influenced by changes in ethanol concentration, and is, thus, able to quantify ethanol in a range between 0 and 5 ppm with a precision of 500 ppb, independently of the naphthalene concentrations applied in this investigation. On the other hand, this sensitivity to ethanol reduces its selectivity towards naphthalene, whereas Ir/WO3/SiO2 shows an almost binary response to ethanol. Hence, the latter has a better selectivity towards naphthalene and can quantify legally relevant concentrations down to 5 ppb with a precision of 2.5 ppb, independently of a changing ethanol background between 0 and 5 ppm. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-04 14:48
  • 31.
    Bastuk, Emanuel
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Identification of ammonia and carbon monoxide based on the hysteresis of a gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistor2013In: Transducers 2013 & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, p. 250-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work gate bias cycled operation (GBCO) is used on a gas-sensitive SiC field effect transistor(“GasFET”) to increase the sensitivity and selectivity. Gate bias ramps introduce strong hysteresis in the sensor signal. The shape of this hysteresis is shown to be an appropriate feature both for the discrimination of various gases (NH3, CO, NO, CH4) and also different gas concentrations (250 and 500 ppm). The shape is very sensitive to ambient conditions. Thus, the influence of oxygen concentration and relative humidity as well as sensor temperature is investigated and reasons for the observed signal changes are discussed.

  • 32.
    Belousov, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Development of a Vehicle Simulation Model Consisting of Low and High Frequency Dynamics2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicle testing on existing vehicles is both time and resource consuming, the work of testing safety algorithms on vehicle is desired to be made more efficient. Therefore the goal of this thesis is to study and develop a vehicle simulation model that can simulate desired dynamics of existing and non-existing vehicles.

    The developed model consist of two areas of application: slow dynamics and vibrational dynamics. These areas are developed and validated using different methods, but as a part of the simulator, they are to be simulated together.

    For the slow, low frequency, vehicle motion, a three state transient motion model is derived and examined. The possibility of parametrisation is studied and performed using prediction error minimisation.

    For the vibration, high frequency model, a combination of a linear quarter car model with wheel motion is used to estimate road vibration characteristics. The modelled road is used to simulate the vehicle behaviour. The suggested methods regarding the vibration modelling and road estimation are performed using power spectral density as the road is not known determinately. Wheel speeds are used to study the power spectral densities as they are available at high sampling frequencies.

    The available tools and sensors used during this thesis are limited to existing vehicle sensors and GPS signals. The effect of this limitation is studied and the results are discussed.

  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

    List of papers
    1. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 0089416-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105901 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0089416 (DOI)000331711900141 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 34.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    iipax WebDAV connector: An integration of the Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning protocol in a case management system2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ida Infront AB is an IT company whose business is based on case management for both small and large organizations, mainly in the public sector. Ida Infront’s product iipax is a piece of software which manages cases. Users of iipax have a client that handles everything in a case in iipax. There is a growing interest in finding an external way to manage files in iipax. Therefore the purpose of this project is to use WebDAV, which is an extension to the HTTP protocol, to implement and evaluate a way of managing files in iipax remotely. I have created a server to which an external client can connect to browse the iipax structure. The server also makes it possible to open, move and create files within iipax. The conclusion of the project is that the server works satisfactorily and can serve as a basis to extend with greater functionality in the future.

  • 35.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    TIS dynamics in technological, sectoral, political and geographical context: lessons for analysts2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in the criticism raised against the technological innovation system (TIS) literature in relation to the research field of socio-technical (sustainability) transitions for neglecting interactions between individual technologies and wider societal “contexts”. We first show that TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual systems, while also acknowledging that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more explicit conceptualization of TIS contexts and TIS-context interaction. We then propose a conceptual framework, which builds on the idea that TIS contexts could be seen as institutionally coherent structures that reside outside of the focal TIS. Four especially important types of context structures are identified and discussed: technological, sectoral, political and geographical. For each of these, we provide example of different ways in which each type of context can interact with a focal TIS and identify new questions that can be answered if analysts take the respective context more explicitly into account in TIS analyses. From the point of view of future research, this paper is a first step towards developing a framework for analyzing the interrelation between TIS dynamics and sectoral change and building a new TIS-based model of socio-technical transitions.

  • 36.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is one path enough? Multiple paths and path interaction as an extension of path dependency theory2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1261-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explain the development of multi-technology companies and industries where several alternative technologies co-exist and interact over long periods, this article suggests an extension of path dependency theory by providing a conceptualization of the path notion that incorporates the theoretical possibility of multiple paths and path interaction. The conceptualization is applied to a patent study of three leading companies in the lighting industry: General Electric, Osram/Siemens, and Philips. The study shows technology development patterns that are characterized by strong persistence, both within each path and across the whole technology field. These results demonstrate that multiple technological paths can co-exist in companies and industries, characterized by simultaneous long-term presence of several technologies. In such cases, path interaction takes place both between co-existing paths and when new, radically different paths are created. Although further studies are needed to identify the underlying self-reinforcing mechanisms, there is a clear indication that technological path dependency is not restricted to unitary progression patterns, as implied by previous conceptualizations.

  • 37.
    Berggren, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Asplund, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Identifying and analyzing digital payment flows regarding illegal purposes on the Internet: I samarbete med CGI och Finanskoalitionen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illustrate an unexplored illegal exploitation of legal businesses, with the purpose of limiting this market and especially the related transactions. The issue of transactions regarding illegal material executed with credit cards was solved through involving the companies who issues the credit cards, making the market more transparent and thus preventing this kind of transactions. The thesis will illustrate how cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, are being exploited regarding illegal transactions and more specifically, transactions regarding selling and purchasing Child Abusive Material within file hosting services (cyberlockers). The analyzed data was gathered using a webcrawler and different methods for analyzing correlation were implemented on the data to find relationships between different data points. The data points were then clustered, using an algorithm to create a relationship network. The developed model analyzed the data to identify trends and patterns regarding the illegal transactions and the results can be used to find the most prominent users who are potential perpetrators that actively distributes illegal material. A deeper analysis is then performed on the, according to the model, most interesting users in an attempt to identify their underlying identity.

    When cryptocurrencies are used by perpetrators to pay and get paid for illegal material, the transaction flows cannot immediately be connected to specific identities and therefore it is required to first identify potential perpetrators and track their transactions, to later compare them with the transactions that has already been identified as payments for illegal material. Apart from this model, a framework has been created to identify certain patterns and trends regarding the cyberlockers’ transaction flows. This was performed through analysis of the transaction flows connected to cyberlockers that were suspected to contain Child Abusive Material or other illegal material.

    With the results from the first and second model, the most interesting cyberlockers for future investigations were discovered, according to the trends and patterns in their surrounding transaction flows. When that analysis was performed and the first model was implemented, potential perpetrators was identified through collaborations between the investigating unit, the Police, the cyberlockers in question and the relevant exchange services. Through this collaboration the identities of the perpetrators are revealed and the transaction flows can then be analyzed to limit further distribution of Child Abusive Material within cyberlockers and consequently limit the illegal transactions with cryptocurrencies.

    Keywords: Bitcoin, Child Abusive Material, Cyberlockers, Illegal payments, Cryptocurrency, Webcrawler, Correlation, Relationship network.

  • 38.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Developing an instrument for measuring shared understanding2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International ISCRAM Conference: Defining Crisis Management 3.0 / [ed] Simon French Brian Tomaszewski Christopher Zobel, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the need for an easy-to-use, easy-to-administer measure that can capture shared understanding in a team of professionals working together towards a successful performance. In the paper the development of such a measure is described using two empirical studies. Command-and-Control tasks are complex and often dynamic, and a way of capturing the degree of which a team of individuals have a common understanding of priorities in such a task is imperative.

    Two studies are presented. In the first study students participated in a microworld experiment where they tried to rank order pre-determined factors in order to measure shared understanding. In the second study officers from the Swedish Armed Forces participated in an exercise where they rank ordered self-generated factors. 

  • 39.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karltun, Johan
    Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Human, technological and organizational aspects influencing the production scheduling process2007In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 160-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of scheduling work in practice addresses how the production-scheduling processes in four companies are influenced by human, technological, and organizational aspects. A conclusion is that the outcome of the scheduling process is influenced by the scheduler adding human capabilities that cannot be automated, by technical constraints in the scheduled production system and by the available scheduling software tools. Furthermore, the outcome is influenced not only by how the scheduling process is formally organized, but also by the scheduler's informal authority and the role taken to interconnect activities between different organizational groups. The findings from the study support a number of previous studies done on scheduling in practice whilst giving new insights into their interpretation.

  • 40.
    Bergman, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsén, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Terminal Gothenburg North - A posssible dry port?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Green Cargo driver idag ett antal terminaler i Sverige i syfte att främja transporter på järnväg och ser möjligheter i att utveckla en av sina terminaler i Göteborg, Göteborg Norra, till en så kallad dry port, alltså en intermodal terminal i inlandet. Detta gav upphov till projektet Terminal Göteborg Norra – en möjlig dry port? med målet att undersöka potentialen och omställningarna med att utveckla befintligt kunderbjudande på Göteborg Norra genom att utreda konceptet dry port samt undersöka efterfrågan på marknaden. Syftet med en dry port är att fungera som en förlängning av hamnen och bör enligt forskare erbjuda samma servicetjänster som en hamn, det vill säga förtullning, säker lagring av både lastade och tomma containrar samt underhåll och städning av containrar. En dry port kan ses som ett bra komplement till hamnar som ligger inne i städer och har problem med begränsade utrymmen i hamnområdet och svårt att expandera då ytan inte längre räcker till. Dessutom kan man minska utsläppen av CO2 genom att få mer gods transporterat på järnvägen. Att utveckla Göteborg Norra, som Green Cargo idag driver i egen regi, skulle innebära att befintliga tjänster behöver kompletteras med de tjänster som fullbordar en dry port. Projektet resulterade i en utredning med potentiella intäkter och kostnader som förväntas uppstå vid ett utvecklande av Göteborg Norra till en dry port. Det visade sig att kostnaderna med att utveckla Göteborg Norra till en dry port är fullt möjliga att tjäna in inom den bestämda tidsramen på två år. Trots det så anser projektet att det finns många delar i utvecklandet som talar emot ett fulländat dry port koncept på Göteborg Norra. Då projektet anser att terminalens läge inte är optimalt för en dry port och att det finns begränsade lagringmöjligheter, oklarheter gällande tulltjänster samt att hamnen inte visar något intresse för att utnyttja tjänsten så är det svårt att motivera omställningen till en fulländad dry port. Däremot finns det en del i dry port konceptet som projektet ser positivt till och det skulle innebära att Göteborg Norra tar emot lastade containrar för transport till hamnen. Då projektets marknadsundersökning visade att många speditörer anser att det är problem med långa köer för att hämta och lämna gods i Göteborgs hamn så skulle Green Cargo kunna erbjuda en tjänst där dessa kunder kan åka till Göteborg Norra och lämna eller hämta sitt gods. Detta under förutsättning att Green Cargo kan erbjuda en billigare lösning och att det inte uppstår köer i trafiken runt terminalen. Klarar Green Cargo detta har de ett bra argument som borde locka både speditörer och Göteborgs hamn att nappa på lösningen.

  • 41.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Högskolan på Gotland.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alive and kicking – but will quality management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe how Quality Management (QM) is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years. Data were collected through structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field. The results show that QM currently is perceived as consisting of a set of core of principles, methods and tools. The future outlook includes three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines.

  • 42.
    Björsing, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En Uppdaterad Arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet för mig i det här examensarbete har varit att skapa en kollektion möbler anpassade för mitt koncept om en uppdaterad arbetsplats. Syftet har varit att där igenom bidra till utvecklingen av alternativa konceptuella arbetsplatser med utrymme för mycket kreativitet.

    Med utgångspunkt i litteraturstudier, företagsanalyser och det formulär jag bad ett antal nyckelpersoner att besvara har jag bildat mig en egen uppfattning om hur ett nytt alternativ till kontorsarbetsplats kan komma att se ut för att fungera på bästa sätt och låtit den uppfattningen styra utformningen hos de enskilda komponenterna.

    Resultatet är en kollektion av fjorton delar som utmanar föreställningen om hur en kontorsmöbel ska se ut och där form, materialmöten, och hantverkskaraktär stimulerar det kreativa sinnet. Jag tänker mig en arbetsplats med ett utbud av sociala ytor för sammarbete och kommunikation, drivkraften bakom ett kreativt företag, men också möjligheter till avskärmning. Inga platser eller möbler är personliga utan istället inbjuds till flexibel rörlighet och variation i sittandet. Konceptet passar både större och mindre företag, nya som gamla.

  • 43.
    Blok, Dennis
    et al.
    Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ruiter, Iemkje
    Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Operability of child-resistant caps: review of current solutions and alternative ideas2016In: Innovation, development and sustainability in packaging, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Child-safe or child-resistant caps come in a range of solutions, but the dominant solution is a closure which has to be pushed down and turned simultaneously. The idea is that young children have neither the strength nor the dexterity required for this operation. Safe use of such a packaging solution requires that the safety feature is restored to the same condition after re-closing the package. Practice shows however, that child-safe caps also present a challenge to elderly and people with reduced hand function. For them, child-resistant caps are hard to open, which causes the packs to be poorly reclosed (intentionally or unintentionally), or even left open, leading to incidents.   

    Current solutions are (partly) based on the force to be exerted, but this may not be the best approach. As part of a re-design process of this type of packaging, a theoretical ergonomic assessment was made, combined with a set of expert interviews of academics in the field of packaging ergonomics. It is concluded that the push-and-turn solution is based on physical ergonomic properties that insufficiently distinguish children and intended users. An alternative solution space is mapped and evaluated based on different working principles. An ideal safety cap should utilise a cognitive set of actions and physical ergonomic distinction between children and users with reduced hand function or strength. 

  • 44.
    Blomér, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Kallström, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Identifying Potential Effects of Using ERP-Connected Mobile Devices in Manufacturing Companies2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones and other mobile devices are a common sight in our daily lives. The improvement in technology has given us small and portable devices that have the performance only found in desktop computers and more high-end devices less than a decade ago. An industry that has been quick to adopt technologies in the past is the manufacturing industry, examples of these adoptions are the conveyor belt and robots, which both are innovations of their time. Aside from hardware technologies, there are software technologies that the manufacturing industry has been using, e.g. complex information systems to manage materials and resources in the production. With the developments in mobile technology, a question arises whether the information systems can be combined with it in the manufacturing companies.

    One of the technologies that has become popular in the past years is the use of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. These kinds of devices can improve communication and flexibility. This leads us to the purpose of identifying how the use of ERP-connected mobile and mobility-supporting devices can affect processes among shop floor and production management personnel in large manufacturing companies.

    Using a qualitative approach, case studies of eleven companies were conducted using semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Personnel with different roles were interviewed to identify applications and devices that would reduce execution time, improve quality, or improve the flexibility of processes and tasks. These eleven companies were analysed with a model that focus on the dimensions complexity, specificity, and dynamism of a company's production structure, as well as a model that focus on the same dimensions in the roles of production personnel.

    The result was six applications and corresponding devices that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of a process in a significant way. The analysis showed that the management in companies had similar needs in mobile or mobility-supporting devices. Similarly, the assemblers and machine operators also had similar needs. No connection was found between the production strategy and the need for mobile or mobility-supporting devices.

  • 45.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE SICS AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, John
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piggybacking on an Autonomous Hauler: Business Models Enabling a System-of-Systems Approach to Mapping an Underground Mine2017In: 2017 IEEE 25TH INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (RE), IEEE , 2017, p. 372-381Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever-increasing productivity targets in mining operations, there is a growing interest in mining automation. In future mines, remote controlled and autonomous haulers will operate underground guided by LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors. We envision reusing LiDAR measurements to maintain accurate mine maps that would contribute to both safety and productivity. Extrapolating from a pilot project on reliable wireless communication in Bolidens Kankberg mine, we propose establishing a System-of-Systems (SoS) with LiDAR-equipped haulers and existing mapping solutions as constituent systems. SoS requirements engineering inevitably adds a political layer, as independent actors are stakeholders both on the system and SoS levels. We present four SoS scenarios representing different business models, discussing how development and operations could be distributed among Boliden and external stakeholders, e.g., the vehicle suppliers, the hauling company, and the developers of the mapping software. Based on eight key variation points, we compare the four scenarios from both technical and business perspectives. Finally, we validate our findings in a seminar with participants from the relevant stakeholders. We conclude that to determine which scenario is the most promising for Boliden, trade-offs regarding control, costs, risks, and innovation must be carefully evaluated.

  • 46.
    Borghei, Behbood
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Transitions in Established Industries: The case of European Commercial Transport Vehicles2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing trends in trade of goods and services as well as the expansion of road infrastructure and networks, commercial road transport has dominated a significant share of inland and urban logistics in the world and particularly in Europe. This includes not only the basic supply of citizens’ needs through long-haul traffic and short-distance city trucks but also by providing urban services such as courier delivery, household waste  pickup and refuse collection as well as passengers movements by public bus transport and inter-city coach transit.

    Meanwhile, concerns over air quality problems and environmental sustainability of road transportation have soared up as more and more vehicles travelled on fossil fuels resulting in more pollution, particularly in dense urban areas. The problem is not only limited to the air pollution and adverse health effects caused by exhaust gas emissions, but also dependency on fossil fuels as non-renewable sources of energy and as a major contributor to global warming and climate change over the long time.

    Having said that, the purpose of this thesis is to provide an understanding that could be helpful in envisioning sustainability transitions in an established industry setting which is dominated by a very few number of incumbent firms who retain majority of the market share as well as current technological paradigm which mainly determines the choice of technological solutions in this field.

    Study results suggest that sustainability transitions can be envisaged through evolutionary processes that include both technological and institutional change at the same time. Regarding technological change, the role of incumbent firms must be considered as important sources of knowledge, skills, experience as well as R&D investment capital and the pool of critical human expertise that would otherwise remain unexploited if their competences were not effectively absorbed in synergies for sustainability transitions. This is termed as regime-driven transformation in this study.

    Meanwhile, continuous landscape pressure have to be maintained through effective regulatory frameworks that govern further reductions in the greenhouse gas emissions and to engage incumbents in a collectively shared envisioning of sustainability transitions. This can be enabled by bringing back the role of institutions as an alternative (complementary) entry point to the existing literature on sociotechnical transitions. In doing so, the predominant notion of institutions as the rigid and static structures that constrain innovation is questioned. Instead, it is suggested that institutions can provide resources and structures for actors to engage and for technologies to advance and thus to facilitate long-term sustainability transitions.

    List of papers
    1. Institutionalization of Environmental Innovation: Co-evolutionary development of standards, technologies and actor networksin the European heavy vehicles sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutionalization of Environmental Innovation: Co-evolutionary development of standards, technologies and actor networksin the European heavy vehicles sector
    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a coevolutionary account on the development of Euro emissions standards and enhanced environmental innovation in the European heavy-duty vehicles sector. The aim is to understand the complexities and challenges of environmental regulation and the dynamics of environmental innovation at the European level, and draw lessons for policy makers. The analysis points at the need for reciprocal interactions to build consensus, consistency and continuity in regulatory frameworks, and a widening in the scope of knowledge and technologies to meet increasingly stringent requirements. Contributions are three folded: 1) providing a systemic perspective based on sectoral systems of innovation framework 2) shedding light on the commercial vehicles sector that is often overlooked in the management and innovation literature 3) elaborating on the European institutional context and its unique features of environmental regulation.

    Keyword
    Sectoral Systems of Innovation, Environmental Innovation, Technology-Forcing Regulation, Co-evolution, Innovation Policy, Institutionalization, Emissions Standards
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114397 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Transnational Institutional Governance to tackle Global Climate Change: Lessons from European Emissions Standards for Commercial Transport Vehicles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transnational Institutional Governance to tackle Global Climate Change: Lessons from European Emissions Standards for Commercial Transport Vehicles
    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutions that crossed over national boundaries might have been in place for a while, but institutionalization induced by globalization, or in this case Europeanization, is rather a contemporary phenomenon. In the early 1990’s Euro emissions standards emerged as an EUwide regulatory framework to reduce exhaust gas emissions from motor vehicles. Initially it was low demanding in comparison to the more stringent standards already existed in the US and Japan for commercial vehicles. Nevertheless, with stepwise reductions in each release since then, the Euro-VI currently stands among the most stringent emissions standards for commercial vehicles.

    The distinctive feature of Euro emissions standards however does not merely concern stringent measures, but rather the supra-national institutional characteristics for environmental regulation that can be considered as a role model in the design of governance systems for transitioning towards low fossil carbon societies. Particularly, with differences in the social and politico-economic structures among national institutional systems, it is crucial to acknowledge the imperative role of institutional interactions in an international context. The aim with this paper is to draw lessons from European experience in governing environmental regulation in transnational institutional settings that could be extended further to the development, diffusion and implementation of low fossil carbon societies of the future.

    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114398 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2015-02-20
    3. An empirical investigation of technological innovations in the heavy vehicles industry: Observations from 64th IAA International Motor Show, Hannover, Germany
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical investigation of technological innovations in the heavy vehicles industry: Observations from 64th IAA International Motor Show, Hannover, Germany
    2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Motor Show in Hannover, Germany – IAA Nutzfahrzeuge – is considered as one of the major exhibitions in the commercial vehicle industry and a central meeting point for European automotive manufacturers as well as their suppliers and other affiliated firms and industries to demonstrate their latest achievements in producing innovative products and advanced technologies as well as exchanging information and updating status with regards to the position of other companies and their products/technologies in the mobility, logistics and transport solutions related to commercial vehicles.

    Publisher
    p. 23
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86777 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-04 Created: 2013-01-04 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
  • 47.
    Borghei, Behbood
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transnational Institutional Governance to tackle Global Climate Change: Lessons from European Emissions Standards for Commercial Transport Vehicles2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutions that crossed over national boundaries might have been in place for a while, but institutionalization induced by globalization, or in this case Europeanization, is rather a contemporary phenomenon. In the early 1990’s Euro emissions standards emerged as an EUwide regulatory framework to reduce exhaust gas emissions from motor vehicles. Initially it was low demanding in comparison to the more stringent standards already existed in the US and Japan for commercial vehicles. Nevertheless, with stepwise reductions in each release since then, the Euro-VI currently stands among the most stringent emissions standards for commercial vehicles.

    The distinctive feature of Euro emissions standards however does not merely concern stringent measures, but rather the supra-national institutional characteristics for environmental regulation that can be considered as a role model in the design of governance systems for transitioning towards low fossil carbon societies. Particularly, with differences in the social and politico-economic structures among national institutional systems, it is crucial to acknowledge the imperative role of institutional interactions in an international context. The aim with this paper is to draw lessons from European experience in governing environmental regulation in transnational institutional settings that could be extended further to the development, diffusion and implementation of low fossil carbon societies of the future.

  • 48.
    Borghei, Behbood
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khanagha, Saeed
    Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Professional service organization in manufacturing firms: Adapting innovation routines for services context at Ericsson AB2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are becoming an essential element of the global economy and have already taken majority of sales and profit share in many firms, particularly from the developed economies. This has also affected manufacturing firms to shift their focus from sole production towards services, or integrated services. The need to stay competitive in a service economy highlights the importance of service innovation for service firms or firms in transition to services. This paper is the result of more than half-a-year investigation at an international Professional Service Organization (the service organization of a manufacturing firm that has made a transition towards services for more than a decade). The organization (Ericsson-Business Unit Global Services) provides world-class engineering services to its customers within telecom and datacom (data communication systems) around the world.

     

    This study aimed at bridging the gap in the service innovation literature, particularly in a Business to Business (B2B) context, where direct contact with customers seemed not only difficult on a daily basis for large multinational organizations, it might be also impediment in providing standardized services in a global scale without considering the inherent differences in the nature of services. Adapted managerial approaches were found critical to address challenges and requirements for the development of new services in this context. Further implications also included improvement proposals with regards to service lifecycle management, New Service Development (NSD) process as well as effective knowledge management systems to enhance organizational learning, knowledge sharing and replication of best practices to leverage global-scale synergies in providing competitive services to the customers.

     

    Empirical data for this study gathered through three phases of data collection, including two rounds of face-to-face interviews with service managers, and two separate surveys covering more than 300 respondents from employees in different branches of the company worldwide. The acquired data were then synthesized in connection with extant literature reviews within service and innovation literature.

  • 49.
    Borghei, Behbood
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Institutionalization of Environmental Innovation: Co-evolutionary development of standards, technologies and actor networksin the European heavy vehicles sector2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a coevolutionary account on the development of Euro emissions standards and enhanced environmental innovation in the European heavy-duty vehicles sector. The aim is to understand the complexities and challenges of environmental regulation and the dynamics of environmental innovation at the European level, and draw lessons for policy makers. The analysis points at the need for reciprocal interactions to build consensus, consistency and continuity in regulatory frameworks, and a widening in the scope of knowledge and technologies to meet increasingly stringent requirements. Contributions are three folded: 1) providing a systemic perspective based on sectoral systems of innovation framework 2) shedding light on the commercial vehicles sector that is often overlooked in the management and innovation literature 3) elaborating on the European institutional context and its unique features of environmental regulation.

  • 50.
    Borghei, Behbood
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Institutionalization of Environmental Innovation: Understanding co-evolutionary processes of European emission standards and technological innovation in the European heavy vehicles sector2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing global trades and commercial logistics, the environmental impact from transportation has become one of the most challenging issues for the policy makers. Meanwhile, the heavy vehicle sector holds a considerable share of transportation of goods and delivering basic needs of civilians in the modern life. While the automotive industry as a whole is the largest private actor by the share of R&D investment in Europe, the heavy vehicle sector (including buses, trucks, construction and commercial vehicles) corresponds to the largest share of economic activities in this region. Today, commercial road logistics is responsible for the majority of transportation which accounts for 75% of the total volume and 90% of the total value of goods transported within Europe (IRU, 2008).

1234567 1 - 50 of 368
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