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  • 1.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015Inngår i: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 70-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Abo Al Ahad, George
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Salami, Abbas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Machine Learning for Market Prediction: Soft Margin Classifiers for Predicting the Sign of Return on Financial Assets2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasting procedures have found applications in a wide variety of areas within finance and have further shown to be one of the most challenging areas of finance. Having an immense variety of economic data, stakeholders aim to understand the current and future state of the market. Since it is hard for a human to make sense out of large amounts of data, different modeling techniques have been applied to extract useful information from financial databases, where machine learning techniques are among the most recent modeling techniques. Binary classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have to some extent been used for this purpose where extensions of the algorithm have been developed with increased prediction performance as the main goal. The objective of this study has been to develop a process for improving the performance when predicting the sign of return of financial time series with soft margin classifiers.

    An analysis regarding the algorithms is presented in this study followed by a description of the methodology that has been utilized. The developed process containing some of the presented soft margin classifiers, and other aspects of kernel methods such as Multiple Kernel Learning have shown pleasant results over the long term, in which the capability of capturing different market conditions have been shown to improve with the incorporation of different models and kernels, instead of only a single one. However, the results are mostly congruent with earlier studies in this field. Furthermore, two research questions have been answered where the complexity regarding the kernel functions that are used by the SVM have been studied and the robustness of the process as a whole. Complexity refers to achieving more complex feature maps through combining kernels by either adding, multiplying or functionally transforming them. It is not concluded that an increased complexity leads to a consistent improvement, however, the combined kernel function is superior during some of the periods of the time series used in this thesis for the individual models. The robustness has been investigated for different signal-to-noise ratio where it has been observed that windows with previously poor performance are more exposed to noise impact.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ML for Market Predictions
  • 3.
    Abramsson, Jonatan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    First-principle of Sc / Cr multilayers for x-ray mirrors applications2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce x-ray mirrors the Thin Film Physics group at IFM grows Cr/Sc multilayers, with a typical thickness of the individual layers in the range 5-20 Å, and with as many periods as possible (a few hundred).

    The quality of the multilayer interfaces is crucial for their performance as mirrors. For thick layers poly-crystalline multilayers form with an interface quality that is too poor for the use as x-ray mirrors. For thinner layers, however, amorphous layers are formed with a much better quality of the interface.

    The goal of this project was to understand the formation of amorphous multilayers. Unfortunately it is impossible with the present day's theoretical tools to determine the structure of amorph interfaces. It is also impossible to calculate the interface structure for elements with large mismatch in size.

    So we have to construct interface models that are both simple and based on physical arguments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Agerstig Rosenqvist, Morgan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evaluation of algorithms for accurate micro-doppler effects measurement in FMCW radar2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-Doppler effects are phenomena that occur because of micro-motion. A micro-motion is either a vibration, rotation, or acceleration which is small relative to the motion of the target. These effects can be used in order to characterize a target through their signature movement. These effects were captured using a Frequency Modulated Continous Wave (FMCW) radar on several targets with a distinct signature. The targets were a four-armed drone, a cyclist, and a pedestrian. Using conventional- and super-resolution algorithms allows the user to process the captured data. To best be able to determine these signatures, different algorithms were used, Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Smoothed Pseudo-Wigner-Ville Distribution (SPWVD), Pade Fourier approximation (PFA), and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC). The comparison of the algorithms on the measured data was done in MATLAB where the best possible scenario was taken. From the comparison, it was noticed that in order to capture the most details, the MUSIC, PFA, STFT, and SPWVD performed the best with a decreasing order.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Ahlin, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bredin, Sanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    European Aviation Crisis Management2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of crisis management in European aviation, and to recommend enhancements. To fulfill this, we mapped the current crisis management plans and created a fictive scenario where a cyber-attack shut down the power at five of the major airports in Europe. Air traffic in Europe was reconstructed to a chosen day; the 16th of September 2013, and the reconstructed traffic situation was used in the scenario. We also created a model, for the purpose of showing the effect of a cut in time for the steps in the crisis management plan may have on the traffic waiting to depart at the closed airports. When using these means, we could implement the crisis management plans on the fictive scenario and make changes to the plans for a new implementation. The existing crisis management plans were compared to the modified plans made by us, and it was found that usage of a common platform for the different stakeholders involved in the crisis could improve the efficiency of the crisis management.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alignment2014Inngår i: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology / [ed] Chan Sin-wai, London and New York: Routledge, 2014, s. 395-408Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Alenvret, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evaldsson, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration: How internal stakeholders can be involved in the product development process2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalisation of the market is followed by increased competition between organisations. Therefore it becomes more important to create products with high customer value. To be able to create customer value, deep understanding of the customers’ needs must be obtained by employees, shared between them and transformed into products. Further consequences of globalisation are increasing differences between customers’ needs, which results in demand for customisable and flexible products.The purpose of this study was to analyse how organisations can create more customer value through increased knowledge integration. The focus was on how knowledge that already resides within a globally dispersed organisation can be integrated during the product development process.This study showed that customer value is created throughout the product development process by integrating the knowledge held by R&D and internal stakeholders. Different types of value are created at different phases in the product development process. One important finding is that different parts of the augmented value are created throughout the entire product development process. Since employees obtain different knowledge depending on which customer they interact with, it is important to utilise knowledge from a large number of employees with different roles and in different countries. Hence, the significance of knowledge integration must be disseminated and understood across the organisation. After completing the product development process additional customer value is created by the internal stakeholders’ who sell and implement the product, but it is during the product development process that the basis for their value creation is established.Knowledge needs to be integrated in a formalised, repeatable way, so that the R&D department can ensure that the right product is developed at the right time. Integration means that the tacit knowledge that resides within one employee is codified into an explicit form that can be exploited by more employees. Therefore, four steps must be performed and repeated iteratively to create and spread knowledge throughout the organisation. The first step includes communication by exchanging tacit knowledge. The second step entails documenting the knowledge, and the third step involves combining the knowledge residing in the organisations into one common knowledge system. The final step includes distributing the knowledge so that it recievess wide attention within the organisation. Several factors that have a negative impact on these four steps, and knowledge integration, need to be countered somehow. However, it was found that there are several mechanisms that facilitate knowledge integration, and most often the presence of several mechanisms at the same time had a better effect.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration
  • 9.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Möbelsnickeri.
    Parkettläggning: med massivträ som utgångspunkt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om parkettläggningar och olika tekniker som kan användas för att skapa dem. Parkettläggning är 2- dimensionella mönster i trä och/eller andra material som används för att pryda bland annat möbler och andra produkter. Dem tillverkas i tunna fanerskikt för att kunna appliceras på önskad yta utan att skapa spänningar i materialet. I Europa har parkettläggningar traditionellt sett skapats genom att faner formats till bitar som fogas samman till ett större mönster. Det finns även andra beprövade tillvägagångssätt som utvecklats under olika skeenden i historien och på olika platser i världen.

    I det här arbetet redogör jag för några av de etablerade tekniker samt experimenterar inom området för att jämföra för- och nackdelar med de olika metoderna. Rapportens innehåll vilar på litteraturstudier, observationer från filmklipp, intervjuer samt praktiska empiriska undersökningar. Jag har jämfört olika tekniker för att se i vilken mån det är möjligt att rationalisera tillverkningen av parkettläggningar. Samtidigt har jag provat en metod som gör det möjligt att skapa parkettläggningar med runda former. På så sätt hoppas jag kunna bidra till utvecklingen och modernisering inom området. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Parkettläggning - Martin Alexandersson
  • 10.
    Alghazi, Ziad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wireless instrumentation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka om det finns möjlighet att implementera en trådlöst instrumenterings kit från Emerson Rosemount Process AB på dagens styrsystem som finns på Siemens gasturbiner. En prototyp skapades som bygger på Siemens Simatic PCS-7 med en styrenhet och en switch. Där efter implementerades Emerson Wireless gateway och två trådlösa instrument. I examanearbetet skapades även en logik som hanterar kommunikationen mellan simatic och gateway. Modbus RTU och TCP/IP är kommunikationsprotokollet som användes under arbetet. En undersökning om den uppsättningen klarar av de atex (ATmosphères EXplosibles )och sil (saftey integrity level ) krav gjordes, för att säkerställa om det finns möjligheter att implementera detta på dagens tillverkningsprocess. Utöver dessa kontrollerades om det råder för och nackdelar med den trådlösa allternativet inom IT-säkerhet, instrumentdiagnostik och störkänslighet. Arbetet fullgjordes på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery i Finspång tillsammans med företagets utvecklingsavdelning för styrsystem.

  • 11.
    Algvere, Ebba
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Att designa effektivt lärande med blandade lärmiljöer: Hur lärmiljöer och dess aktiviteter inom blandade lärmiljöer påverkar kunskapsutveckling och förtroende för organisationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt hur olika lärmiljöer inom ett utbildningsupplägg med blandade lärmiljöer skiljer sig i upplevelse, kunskapsutveckling samt förtroende. Vidare har studien undersökt om det finns någon skillnad mellan grupper, med prefererad ordning på lärmiljöer inom ett utbildningsupplägg med blandade lärmiljöer, och prefererad inläringsstil. Fyra olika inläringsstilar, av Honey och Mumford (2000), har använts i studien. Frågeställningarna har undersökts och besvarats genom en triangulering, en kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. Kvalitativ data har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer och har sedan följt en tematisk analysprocess. Kvantitativ data har erhållits genom ett frågeformulär som sedan har analyserats med statistiska tester. Resultaten från den kvalitativa intervjudelen har visat på att olika lärmiljöer, e-lärande och föreläsning, skiljer sig samt kompletterar varandra med avseende på upplevelse, kunskapsutveckling och förtroende för arbetsgivare. Kvantitativa resultat från frågeformulär har visat på att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad mellan grupper, som föredrar att börja ett utbildningsupplägg med blandade lärmiljöer med olik första lärmiljö, och styrka i prefererad inläringsstil. Detta innebär att det inte finns någon direkt koppling mellan föredragen ordning på lärmiljöer inom blandade lärmiljöer och prefererad inläringsstil. Denna studie har studerat ett kunskapsgap för hur blandade lärmiljöer bör struktureras. Studiens fynd kan därmed bidra till en bättre förståelse för hur framtida utbildningsupplägg med blandade lärmiljöer bör designas för effektivt lärande och maximal kunskapsutveckling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Ali, Islam
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Iqbal, Wasim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Performance analysis of various antennas at 2.45 GHz2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this era of technology, there is a swift increase in the number of applications which operate at the Industrial Scientific Medical Band. The applications of this band ranges from home microwave oven to wireless local area networks (WLAN). Therefore, the design of antennas on this band is essential.

    This thesis work revolves around the detailed study and design of various antennas at 2.45 GHz. All the simulation of the antennas was performed using advanced design system (ADS). Microstrip antenna technology is commonly used in antenna design due to its advantages such as low-profile, small size and easy fabrication on printed circuit boards.

    Firstly, various antennas such as rectangular patch, square patch, dipole, inverted F and printed Yagi were designed using ADS and their different performance parameters such as input impedance matching, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), input reflection, and gain and directivity were discussed. Dipole antenna, inverted F and printed Yagi were fabricated on printed circuit board (PCB) to compare their measured and simulated results.

    At the end, a conclusion is drawn for different antennas based on their various performance parameters.

  • 13.
    Ali, M.
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Svensk, Olle
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Zhen, Z.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Suihkonen, S.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Törmä, P.T.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Lipsanen, H.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Sopanen, M.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Hjort, Klas
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reduced photoluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures following 40 MeV iodine ion irradiation2009Inngår i: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, nr 23-24, s. 4925-4928Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects following ion irradiation of GaN-based devices are still limited. Here we present data on the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures, which have been exposed to 40 MeV I ion irradiation. The PL is reduced as a function of applied ion fluence, with essentially no PL signal left above 1011 ions/cm2. It is observed that even the ion fluences in the 109 ions/cm2 range have a pronounced effect on the photoluminescence properties of the MQW structures. This may have consequences concerning application of InGaN/GaN MQW’s in radiation-rich environments, in addition to defect build-up during ion beam analysis.

  • 14.
    Ali Mousa, Jaffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Salim, Saleh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Developing a web application for collecting conversations in lab rooms2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Aliahmad, Abdulhamid
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    McConville, Jennifer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urine recycling - Diffusion barriers and upscaling potential; case studies from Sweden and Switzerland2023Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 414, artikkel-id 137583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored why urine recycling systems have failed to gain wide-scale expansion despite their high potential for food and fertilizer security. Additionally, we examined the future perception of urine recycling in Sweden and Switzerland, as these two countries are at the forefront of technological advancement. Along with identifying barriers, we also proposed pathways for overcoming those barriers and achieving the upscale. The analysis was conducted using the technological innovation (TIS) approach, which is technology-focused, i.e., revolves around emerging technologies. Additionally, the study provides a methodological contribution to the innovation systems research by employing the Delphi method in conjunction with urine recycling experts to enforce transparency and prevent bias in the analysis. For urine recycling to overcome its current challenges, actors must work collectively. There needs to be a combination of top-down and bottom-up efforts to achieve the upscaling pathways. Lobbying and knowledge provision are necessary to adjust the current regulatory framework in a manner that provides public and private incentives. For urine recycling to diffuse and break into the mainstream market, we must move beyond enthusiasts, innovators, and niche markets into the mass market (ordinary people); dedicated service providers can facilitate this process. Pilot projects have been found integral to urine recycling upscaling. Future work could conduct life cycle assessments on existing pilot projects to understand the environmental and economic performance of urine recycling systems when scaled up.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Alsteryd, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    Johansson, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    Strategier för effektivisering av informationsflöden för företag med komplexa produkter: En fallstudie av informationsflödet på Siemens Energy2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decenniernas globaliseringstrend och samhällsutveckling har fått företag att inse att hanteringen av sin supply chain är nödvändig för att bibehålla konkurrenskraft. Internet och ökad digitalisering har förändrat konkurrenssituation på marknaden och information om produkter samt tjänster är mer lättillgängligt än någonsin. Företag som tillverkar komplexa produkter behöver hantera oerhört stora mängder information och på grund av detta blir det väsentligt att företagen utvecklar strategier för att effektivt hantera informationsflöden. Tidigare litteratur har identifierats som begränsad kring hur företag med komplexa produkter och system går till väga för att effektivisera informationsflöden och denna studie syftar där med till att undersöka hur sådana företag använder strategi och styr verktyg för att effektivisera informationsflödet och genom detta minska hanteringskostnader och förbättra kvalité.

    Denna studie genomförs på ett kvalitativt och abduktivt sätt med fokus på två teoretiska områden, Strategi för effektivisering av informationsflödet och Aktiviteter inom Supplier Quality Management. Dessa två teoretiska områden kombineras för att skapa en analysmodell där barriärer och möjligheter för att effektivisera informationsflödet för företag som tillverkar komplexa produkter identifieras. Analysmodellen används sedan för att analysera insamlade empiriska data från intervjuer av personer på det studerade fallföretaget. Resultaten från analysen sammanställdes i ett ramverk där styrverktyg, barriärer och möjligheter sammanställs för varje identifierat strategiskt element, vilket besvarar hur strategiska element kan användas för att effektivisera informationsflödet hos företag med komplexa produkter.Vidare i ramverket presenteras hur aktiviteter inom Supplier Quality Management kan integreras i strategin för att effektivisera informationsflödet, samt identifierade barriärer som förhindrar integration av aktiviteterna med tillhörande möjligheter att lösa barriärerna.

    Som slutsats kan det konstateras att rapporten presenterar ett ramverk som besvara hur strategi kan utformas för att effektivisera informationsflödet. Ramverket kan även användas för att analysera strategier för att effektivisera informationsflödet hos företag med komplexa produkter.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    In orthopaedic practice, fractures are usually stabilised with metal screws or rods. This is done in order to keep the fracture parts in place during the rather slow healing process. The healing time can potentially be reduced by local- or systemic treatment with different bone promoting drugs. In later years, lithium, otherwise used to treat bipolar disease, has shown promise to be such a drug.

     

    The aim of this master thesis was to find a way to coat metal bone screws with lithium and to characterise the coating. The coating was to be designed in such a way that it could release lithium to the surrounding bone tissue.

     

    Lithium chloride was incorporated into a titanate sol-gel and attached to silicon wafers and stainless steel screws by dip coating. Wafers were used for initial in vitro studies of how lithium changed coating characteristics. This was studied using ellipsometry, AFM and SEM. Lithium is most probably physisorbed and not incorporated into the network building up the sol-gel. Coating structure is changed as more lithium is incorporated. For large amounts of lithium, the nanoparticles normally formed when curing the sol-gel are inhibited. One effect of this is reduced bioactivity, seen as a reduced ability for calcium phosphate crystals to nucleate on the coating when immersed in simulated body fluid.

    Lithium release was investigated using AAS. Lithium is released from the coating, showing a burst effect. By changing the number of coating layers used, the release profile can be partly altered. The coating was also applied to screws, showing good attachment, and the lithium release profile was similar to the one seen from wafers.

    Finally, a screw model was used in rats to assess the effect of local lithium treatment from screws and systemic lithium treatment on fracture healing. In the model, a screw was inserted in tibia, mimicking a fracture. When the bone around the screw was healed, a pullout test was performed, giving information about the strength of the bone surrounding the screw. No significant difference could be found for either local- or systemic lithium treatment compared to control. However, when evaluating the strength of intact bone in a similar way, a positive effect of systemic lithium treatment could be seen. Therefore, it is still likely that lithium has a positive effect on bone and further studies are needed to fully evaluate its role in fracture healing.

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Ander, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Coating actions for an intersection affected by repeated rutting.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Korsningar, busshållplatser, söderbackar och lastkajer är ytor med extrem påkänning på grund av hög trafikbelastning, låg hastighet, accelerationer, inbromsningar, svängningar, spårbundenhet och utsatthet för höga temperaturer. Den speciella lastsituationen riskerar orsaka spårbildning, vilket är det vanligaste problemet i korsningar. Genom att anpassa beläggningen efter den utsatta ytan så kan projektören påverka vägens funktion och livslängd. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att studera vilka beläggningsåtgärder som är lämpliga för utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser samt att se vad som orsakar skadebilden i en skadedrabbad korsning. Vidare var syftet att jämföra tre beläggningsalternativ för att se vilket som var mest fördelaktigt ur ett livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv. Frågeställningarna var följande: 1. Vilka beläggningar är lämpliga för särskilt utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser? 2. Vad orsakar skadebilden vid frånfarten på Malmslättsvägen vid korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? 3. Vilken beläggningsåtgärd av ABS11, Densiphalt och PMA är bäst ur ett livslängd- och kostnadsperspektiv under 20 år för korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? För att besvara frågeställningarna gjordes litteraturstudier samt en fallstudie i form av okulär bedömning och balkanalys i det aktuella vägsnittet. Dessutom jämfördes livslängd och kostnader mellan beläggningsalternativen i PMS Objekt respektive genom en ekonomisk beräkningsmetod. Resultatet visade att ett bindlager kan uppta de skjuvkrafter som uppstår på utsatta ytor och förhindrar därmed sprickbildning och deformationer. CBÖ och platsgjuten betong har i studier visat begränsa spårbildning. Densiphalt är lämplig som beläggning på utsatta ytor och ger samtidigt ytan motståndskraft mot olja och bensin. IM är starkare, styvare och mindre deformationsbenägen än en vanlig asfalt och är därför lämplig på högtrafikerade vägar. Fallstudien på det aktuella vägsnittet visade att skadebilden hade två orsaker. Dels fanns ett ytslitage som var orsakat av den spårbundna dubbdäckstrafiken. Dessutom förekom plastisk deformation i det andra och tredje asfaltlagret till följd av otillräcklig stabilitet i asfaltmassan med hänsyn till den långsamtgående och stillastående trafiken. De obundna lagren var till synes opåverkade vid balkanalysen. Jämförelsen mellan beläggningsalternativen visade att Densiphalt hade längst livslängd följt av PMA och ABS11. Kostnadsmässigt hade PMA lägst annuitet följt av Densiphalt och ABS11. Orsaken till att ABS11 var dyrast var troligen behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt. Slutsatsen var att kompletterande bindlager, CBÖ, PMA, Densiphalt, betong och IM var lämpliga beläggningar för särskilt utsatta ytor. Skadebilden vid det undersökta vägsnittet bedömdes bero på ytslitage på grund av spårbunden dubbdäckstrafik samt plastisk deformation till följd av tung trafik. Densiphalt hade längst livslängd och PMA hade lägst annuitet. Konventionell ABS11 var sämst ur både livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv, vilket bedömdes bero på behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Idwall, Ewa
    Malmö University, Sweden .
    Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare2013Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, nr 48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare.

    METHODS:

    A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS:

    The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Andersson et al Evaluation a questionnaire 2013
  • 20.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandholm, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Total Cost Analysis of frame suppliers in construction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Gotec, som är ett bygg och förvaltningsföretag, är just nu inne på etapp ett av ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden, Linköping. För etapp ett slöt Gotec ett avtal med den polska stomleverantören Baumat, att de skulle leverera samtliga stommar till Gotecs byggnader i projektet. Valet av leverantör baserades till största del på det låga inköpspriset. Dock upplever Gotec idag att det har uppstått vissa problem med Baumat som leverantör. Ett problem som Gotec upplever är att kommunikationen inte har fungerat så bra som de hade hoppats på, detta då engelskan är ytterst bristfällig inom Baumat. Andra problem som märkts av under samarbetet är bland annat att flexibiliteten och leveransprecisionen inte har varit perfekt. Detta har lett till att leveransförseningar har uppstått som i sin tur har givit upphov till extra kostnader, så kallade ÄTOR. Denna fallstudie utreder vilken leverantör av stommar som skulle vara det bästa alternativet för Gotec att använda sig av vid ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden i framtiden. En leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland eller en leverantör från Sverige. De leverantörer som utreds är Gotecs nuvarande leverantör Baumat som representerar en leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland och Strängbetong som representerar en leverantör från Sverige.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Total Cost Analysis of frame suppliers in construction
  • 21.
    Andersson, Filip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    GPGPU-Sim2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the impact of hardware features of graphics cards on performance of GPU computing using GPGPU-Sim simulation software tool. GPU computing is a growing topic in the world of computing, and could be an important milestone for computers. Therefore, such a study that seeks to identify the performance bottlenecks of the program with respect to hardware parameters of the devvice can be considered an important step towards tuning devices for higher efficiency.

    In this work we selected convolution algorithm - a typical GPGPU application - and conducted several tests to study different performance parameters. These tests were performed on two simulated graphics cards (NVIDIA GTX480, NVIDIA Tesla C2050), which are supported by GPGPU-Sim. By changing the hardware parameters of graphics card such as memory cache sizes, frequency and the number of cores, we can make a fine-grained analysis on the effect of these parameters on the performance of the program.

    A graphics card working on a picture convolution task releis on the L1 cache but has the worst performance with a small shared memory. Using this simulator to run performance tests on a theoretical GPU architecture could lead to better GPU design for embedded systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schelander, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design and verification of automotive power supply2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the current and next generation automotive telematic platforms, high demands are put on high efficiency power supplies. This thesis investigates different switch mode power converter solutions that operates with high efficiency for both low and high power loads. A market survey was conducted alongside meetings with ACTIA Nordic and their subcontractors. Three solutions from the market survey were selected for further investigation. One solution from the investigation was selected and implemented as a demonstration platform for further testing. The result shows a full test sequence for the designed power supply solution.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Design and verification of automotive power supply
  • 23.
    Andersson, Jon Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och ytbeläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Controlling the Formation and Stability of Alumina Phases2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, physical phenomena related to the growth and phase formation of alumina, Al2O3, are investigated by experiments and computer calculations. Alumina finds applications in a wide variety of areas, due to many beneficial properties and several existing crystalline phases. For example, the α and κ phases are widely used as wear-resistant coatings due to their hardness and thermal stability, while, e.g., the metastable γ and θ phases find applications as catalysts or catalyst supports, since their surface energies are low and, hence, they have large surface areas available for catalytic reactions.

    The metastable phases are involved in transition sequences, which all irreversibly end in the transformation to the stable α phase at about 1050 °C. As a consequence, the metastable aluminas, which can be grown at low temperatures, cannot be used in high temperature applications, since they are destroyed by the transformation into α. In contrast, α-alumina, which is the only thermodynamically stable phase, typically require high growth temperatures (~1000 °C), prohibiting the use of temperature sensitive substrates. Thus, there is a need for increasing the thermal stability of metastable alumina and decreasing the growth temperature of the α phase.

    In the experimental part of this work, hard and single-phased α-alumina thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering at temperatures down to 280 °C. This dramaticdecrease in growth temperature was achieved by two main factors. Firstly, the nucleation stage of growth was controlled by pre-depositing a chromia “template” layer, which is demonstrated to promote nucleation of α-alumina. Secondly, it is shown that energetic bombardment was needed to sustain growth of the α phase. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry measurements demonstrate that the likely source of energetic bombardment, in the present case, was oxygen ions/atoms originating from the target surface. Overall, these results demonstrate that low-temperature α-alumina growth is possible by controlling both the nucleation step of growth as well as the energetic bombardment of the growing film. In addition, the mass spectrometry studies showed that a large fraction of the deposition flux consisted of AlO molecules, which were sputtered from the target. Since the film is formed by chemical bonding between the depositing species, this observation is important for the fundamental understanding of alumina thin film growth.

    In the computational part of the work, the effect of additives on the phase stability of α- and θ-alumina was investigated by density functional theory calculations. A systematic study was performed of a large number of substitutional dopants in the alumina lattices. Most tested dopants tended to reverse the stability between α- and θ-alumina; so that, e.g., Modoping made the θ phase energetically favored. Thus, it is possible to stabilize the metastable phases by additives. An important reason for this is the physical size of the dopant ions with respect to the space available within the alumina lattices. For example, large ions induced θ stabilization, while ions only slightly larger than Al, e.g., Co and Cu, gave a slight increase in the relative stability of the α phase. We also studied the stability of some of these compounds with respect to pure alumina and other phases, containing the dopants, with the result that phase separations are energetically favored and will most likely occur at elevated temperatures.

    Delarbeid
    1. Microstructure of α-alumina thin films deposited at low temperatures on chromia template layers
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Microstructure of α-alumina thin films deposited at low temperatures on chromia template layers
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 117-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency sputtering has been used to deposit -alumina (-Al2O3) thin films at substrate temperatures of 280–560 °C. The films are shown to be single phased and hard. Nanoindentation gives values of 306±31 and 27±3 GPa for elastic modulus and hardness, respectively, for a substrate temperature of 280 °C. Growth of the phase was achieved by in situ predeposition of a chromia template layer. Chromia crystallizes in the same hexagonal structure as -alumina, with a lattice mismatch of 4.1% in the a- and 4.6% in the c-parameter, and is shown to nucleate readily on the amorphous substrates (silicon with a natural oxide layer). This results in local epitaxy of -alumina on the chromia layer, as is shown by transmission electron microscopy. The alumina grains are columnar with grain widths increasing from 22±7 to 41±9 nm, as the temperature increases from 280 to 560 °C. This is consistent with a surface diffusion dominated growth mode and suggests that -alumina deposition at low temperatures is possible once initial grain nucleation has occurred. Results are also presented demonstrating chromia/-alumina growth on a technological substrate (Haynes230 Ni-based super alloy, Haynes International, Inc.).

    Emneord
    alumina, chromium compounds, sputtered coatings, indentation, elastic moduli, hardness, sputter deposition, transmission electron microscopy, epitaxial layers, grain size, surface diffusion, nucleation, wear resistant coatings, thermal barrier coatings
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13578 (URN)10.1116/1.1636157 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-13 Laget: 2008-09-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13
    2. Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures
    Vise andre…
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 513, nr 1-2, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature growth (500 °C) of α-Al2O3 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering was achieved for the first time. The films were grown onto Cr2O3 nucleation layers and the effects of the total and O2 partial pressures were investigated. At 0.33 Pa total pressure and ≥ 16 mPa O2 partial pressure α-Al2O3 films formed, while at lower O2 pressure or higher total pressure (0.67 Pa), only γ phase was detected in the films (which were all stoichiometric). Based on these results we suggest that α phase formation was promoted by a high energetic bombardment of the growth surface. This implies that the phase content of Al2O3 films can be controlled by controlling the energy of the depositing species. The effect of residual H2O (10− 4 Pa) on the films was also studied, showing no change in phase content and no incorporated H (< 0.1%). Overall, these results are of fundamental importance in the further development of low-temperature Al2O3 growth processes.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2006
    Emneord
    Aluminum oxide, Chromium oxide, Sputtering, Ion bombardment, X-ray diffraction
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14318 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.016 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original publication: Andersson, J.M., Wallin, E., Helmersson, U., Kreissig, U. and Münger, E.P., Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures, 2006, Thin Solid Films, (513), 1-2, 57-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.016. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-03-02 Laget: 2007-03-02 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, nr 05, s. Art. No. 054101 JAN 30 2006-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The deposition flux obtained during reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 gas mixtures was studied by mass spectrometry. The results show significant amounts of molecular AlO+ (up to 10% of the Al+ flux) in the ionic flux incident onto the substrate. In the presence of ~10–4 Pa H2O additional OH+ and AlOH+ were detected, amounting to up to about 100% and 30% of the Al+ flux, respectively. Since the ions represent a small fraction of the total deposition flux, an estimation of the neutral content was also made. These calculations show that, due to the higher ionization probability of Al, the amount of neutral AlO in the deposition flux is of the order of, or even higher than, the amount of Al. These findings might be of great aid when explaining the alumina thin film growth process.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2006
    Emneord
    alumina, dielectric thin films, sputter deposition, mass spectra
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10452 (URN)10.1063/1.2170404 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original publication: Andersson, J.M., Wallin, E., Münger, E.P. & Helmersson, U., Molecular content of the deposition flux during reactive Ar/O2 magnetron sputtering of Al, 2006, Applied Physics Letters, (88), 054101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2170404. Copyright: American Institute of Physics, http://apl.aip.org/apl/top.jspTilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-17 Laget: 2007-12-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14
    4. Effects of additives in α- and θ-alumina: an ab initio study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of additives in α- and θ-alumina: an ab initio study
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, Vol. 16, nr 49, s. 8971-8980Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is of high fundamental and practical importance to be able to control the formation and stability of the different crystalline phases of alumina (Al2O3). In this study, we have used density functional theory methods to investigate the changes induced in the thermodynamically stable α phase and the metastable θ phase as one eighth of the Al atoms are substituted for different additives (Sc, W, Mo, Cr, Cu, Si, and B). The calculations predict that the additives strongly affect the relative stability between the two phases. Most tested additives are shown to shift the relative stability towards, and in some cases completely stabilize, the θ phase, while Cu doping is predicted to increase the relative stability of the α phase. The reasons for these effects are discussed, as are possible implications on the growth and use of doped aluminas in practical applications. In addition, the effects of the additives on bulk moduli and densities of states have been investigated.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13581 (URN)10.1088/0953-8984/16/49/012 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-12-13 Laget: 2005-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2013-10-30
    5. Ab initio calculations on the effects of additives on alumina phase stability
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ab initio calculations on the effects of additives on alumina phase stability
    Vise andre…
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Physical review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 71, nr 014101, s. 014101-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of substitutional additives on the properties and phase stability of - and -alumina (Al2O3), are investigated by density functional theory total energy calculations. The dopants explored are 5 at. % of Cr, Mo, Co, and As substituting for Al, respectively, N and S substituting for O, in the and lattices. Overall, the results show that it is possible to shift, and even reverse, the relative stability between - and -alumina by substitutional additives. The alumina bulk moduli are, in general, only slightly affected by the dopants but density of states profiles reveal additional peaks in the alumina band gaps. We also show that phase separations into pure oxides are energetically favored over doped alumina formation, and we present results on a number of previously unstudied binary oxides.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13582 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.71.014101 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-12-13 Laget: 2005-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2013-10-30
    6. Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. Art. No. 033305 AUG 1 2006-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ion flux obtained during reactive magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 gas mixtures was studied by energy-resolved mass spectrometry, as a function of the total and O2 partial pressures. The positive ions of film-forming species exhibited bimodal energy distributions, both for direct current and radio frequency discharges, with the higher energy ions most likely originating from sputtered neutrals. For the negative oxygen ions a high-energy peak was observed, corresponding to ions formed at the target surface and accelerated towards the substrate over the sheath potential. As the total pressure was increased the high-energy peaks diminished due to gas-phase scattering. Based on these results, the role of energetic bombardment for the phase constituent of alumina thin films are discussed.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    College Park, MD, United States: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2006
    Emneord
    aluminium, sputter deposition, diffusion, mass spectra, high-frequency discharges, plasma materials processing
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10472 (URN)10.1063/1.2219163 (DOI)000239764100014 ()
    Merknad

    Original publication: Jon M. Andersson, E. Wallin, E. P. Münger & U. Helmersson, Energy distributions of positive and negative ions during magnetron sputtering of an Al target in Ar/O2 mixtures, 2006, Journal of Applied Physics, (100), 033305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2219163. Copyright: American Institute of Physics, http://jap.aip.org/jap/top.jsp

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-19 Laget: 2007-12-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Adjusting route charges to increase profit2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Route charges are fees that airlines pay in order to utilize the Air Navigation Services (ANS) of a European state. The fee is based on three values; the weight of the aircraft, the length of the flight, and the state’s specific unit rate. The unit rate of each state is in turn based on the forecasted costs of providing ANS for that state and the amount of traffic forecasted for the year to come.

    This makes for different unit rates for different states, which leads to different costs for flying different routes in the European airspace. A state having costs that are increasing faster than the amount of traffic is increasing will lead to a higher unit rate. A higher unit rate may lead to airlines avoiding the state’s airspace due to higher costs, thus accounting for even less traffic and an increase in unit rate.

    This thesis examines the relationship between unit rate and amount of traffic, and specifically tries to find out how much the unit rate affects the traffic count. This has been done by reading previous papers on the subject, and creating a model to easily present facts found.

    The result of the thesis suggests that states actually profits more by increasing the unit rate rather than actively trying to reduce it. This contradicts the idea of lowering prices always being a good thing. There is a limit to how much the unit rate can be increases however, at which all traffic will choose to circumnavigate the airspace. Finding a good balance between traffic lost and unit rate increased is suggested as the best way to go.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wandfelt, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimization of maintenance system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an optimization of the allocation of maintenance resources for Air Navigation Service (ANS) equipment of which LFV is responsible for the maintenance. The purpose the authors have worked after is to research ways of minimizing travelling time linked to maintenance visits for ANS equipment, this report includes the suggestions where the maintenance facilities should be placed in order to minimize the total travelling time. The report describes the problem background and presents the customer, LFV. It includes a chapter on some of the theories used for facility location and routing, and also presents methods for reducing the total travelling time used for maintenance visits annually. The authors have worked with a given set of airports in Sweden. Information about the general work with maintenance as well as the annual demand of maintenance, including the frequency of visits, for each airport included in this project was received by Pär Oberger, the task expert and contact at LFV for this report. A model for facility location based on the p-median model have been created and used when solving the problem, it was written in AMPL and solved with the CPLEX solver. The model was modified with two additional constraints regulating the minimum annual working time and the maximum distance for one-way travelling. The authors deems that a solution with five facilities is better since the benefit of additional facilities, in term of lower total distance, do not compensate for the assumed cost of establishing them.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pearce, Ruth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. NPL, London from March 2012.
    Recent trends in Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Graphene based gas sensors2013Inngår i: Semiconductor Gas Sensors / [ed] R. Jaaniso and O. K. Tan, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013, s. 117-158Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) as the semiconductorin gas sensitive field effect devices has tremendously improved this sensor platform extending the temperature range and number of detectable gases. Here we review the recent trends in research, starting with transducer mechanisms, latest findings regarding the detection mechanism, and present new material combinations as sensing layers and smart operation of the field effect sensors enabling one sensor to act as a sensor array. Introducing epitaxially-grown graphene on SiC as gas sensing layer shows the potential of ppb detection of NO2 .

  • 27.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Radio Frequency Thermal Treatment of Liver Tumours: -Influence of Blood Perfusion and Large Vessels2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is a commonly used minimally invasive method of treating liver cancer tumours which utilises RF current for heating tumour tissue up to a lethal temperature. RF current is generated by a power generator and applied to the tumour by an electrode which is inserted into the tumour either during percutaneous or open surgery.

    RFA is a method that has great advantages compared to traditional surgical resection of tumours due to minimal invasiveness, it can be used for a greater number of patients and enables repeated treatments. Even though there are many advantages coupled to RFA there are still some problems and difficulties associated with the method. One of these problems is the cooling effect from large vessel blood flow within the liver, the so called heat sink effect.

    The aim of this master thesis work has been to develop a theoretical finite element model of RFA within Comsol Multiphysics software. This theoretical model has been used to simulate blood perfusion effects on resulting ablation volume. The effects from different large vessel blood flow parameters has been investigated, these parameters are: blood flow velocity, blood vessel diameter and distance between blood vessel and RF electrode. A factorial design has been utilised to setup parameter levels for the different simulations. A linear- and a second degree regression model has been calculated based on simulation results. The parameter with largest impact on simulative ablation volume and the interaction effects between the parameters were determined from the regression model coefficients. In addition to this has two simulations been performed, modelling perfused- and unperfused liver tissue, in order to investigate the effects resulting from microvascular perfusion.

    The result shows that the parameter with largest impact on simulative ablation volume are the distance, it was also shown that there are a small interactional effects between diameter and distance, where a small distance increases the effect from a varying diameter. Modelled microvascular perfusion was shown to give a decrease in simulative ablation volume. A shortage of this master thesis work is the lack of experimental verification of the developed model.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Johan
    Unit of Integrated Product Development and Design, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agarwal, Girish
    CDIO Piab AB, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Dynamics of related and unrelated digital diversification in established firms: Strategies, programs, process, and outcomes2024Inngår i: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 202, artikkel-id 123300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on digital transformation focuses on business models and technological innovation but it often lacks a detailed exploration of how firms develop, execute, and evaluate related and unrelated digital diversification strategies. To address this gap, this study employs a multiple case study approach to uncover the varied processes and outcomes of implementing digital diversification programs in established firms. The findings reveal that established firms frequently refine and adjust their digital diversification strategies to achieve desired results. Specifically, related digital diversification strategies benefit from well-defined market segments, clear technological focus, and robust senior management support. In contrast, unrelated digital diversification strategies thrive through extensive exploration and experimentation with novel digital technologies and markets, reduced senior managerial intervention and increased middle- and lower-level management involvement. Semi-related digital diversification strategies, which incorporate elements of both related and unrelated approaches, often encounter tensions owing to conflicting traditional and new program execution methods, posing significant realization challenges. Key factors identified as instrumental in the success of digital diversification strategies include technology, markets, management & organization, and program execution. The study concludes by discussing the managerial and academic implications and offers recommendations for future research in this domain.

  • 29.
    Andreopoulou, Areti
    et al.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
    Walker, Bruce N.Georgia Institute of Technology.McMullen, KylaUniversity of Florida.Rönnberg, NiklasLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Safe and Sound: Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference on Auditory Display2022Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The impact of geometrical variations on the transport properties of organic electronic ion pumps2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an electrically controlled polymer-based device that has the capability to interact with biological systems down to a single cell level by mimicking neural signalling. This is accomplished by translation of an electrical signal into a chemical output, such as ions and neurotransmitters. Because of the combined spatial and temporal precision, this is a technology with a promising future as an advanced therapeutic device. Depending on the application, the OEIP requires different geometries. Implants that will be used to control on a single cell level require very small dimensions, while for example extracorporeal mounted OIEPs, with only the delivery channel penetrating the skin, require much longer channels. Despite the application, it is necessary to have a good knowledge about the transport and delivery properties and how they change due to the geometry. These properties have been observed as very varying and unstable in early unpublished results, and these findings motivate this project. This project includes photolithographic fabrication and investigation of transport and delivery properties such as effective resistance, efficiency and stability of OEIPs with varying delivery channel lengths and widths. Shorter delivery channels show a consistent but relatively low efficiency. Delamination between different layers of the device is suspected as the cause. Initially, the longer delivery channels show a low functionality, most probably due to poor encapsulation. It is suggested that a soft, water-permeable plastic best encapsulates OEIPs that will be used as a medical implant, while a material impermeable to water, for example a metal, could successfully encapsulate OEIPs operating in air.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Arhall, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cox, Emmie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Key Performance Indicators for SAS Flights2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Revenue management is a thoroughly researched field of study and it is widely used in several different industries. The Revenue Management Department at the airline SAS (Scandinavian Airline System) serves to maximise the profit of the company’s flights. At their disposal they have a number of tools, which use KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) as a measurement. The KPIs are used in prognosis to determine future initiatives, and to analyse and verify results. SAS does not know if the KPIs they focus on to measure performance are the most relevant for optimisation of revenue for their flights. In an attempt to simplify the use of SAS’ optimisation system we have performed a correlation analysis on a set of selected KPIs and assessed the influence relationships between these KPIs, in order to identify pivotal KPIs. Furthermore, we have researched origindestination control and the network effect to broaden the scope of the investigation. We have presented the work and the results in this thesis. The correlation analysis was performed using data, spanning a two-year period, for domestic flights (within Sweden) provided by SAS. The results of the analysis showed that the assessed KPIs could be divided into three groups; within each group the KPIs are closely correlated. As a result, we concluded that to focus on one KPI in each group should be adequate for evaluating performance. The three pivotal KPIs are revenue passenger kilometre, cabin factor and revenue per available seat kilometre. We have recommended SAS to continue working with origin-destination control and that the pivotal KPIs should be used as a measurement for the network, as well as measurements such as net leg revenue. Additionally, we have suggested that SAS conducts equivalent or similar analyses in other suitable areas to identify or confirm pivotal KPIs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Dialogical Emergency Management and Strategic Awareness in Emergency Communication2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] Maria A. Santos, Julie Dugdale, David Mendonça, Lissabon, 2011, s. 1-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper introduces two concepts—dialogical emergency management and strategic awareness—as means to use and understand the content of social media for the purpose of emergency communication. Dialogical emergency management denotes that the emergency management organizations follow what people publish in various social media on emergencies and ongoing emergency response, and then adjust their information strategies in a way that matches the expectations and needs for emergency information of ..

  • 33.
    Arvidsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Distribuerad elproduktion och mikroproduktion av solel: En studie av energibolagens roll vid egenproduktion av el2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget erbjuder ett flertal energibolag produkter och tjänster som är relaterade till mikroproduktion av solel vilket kan verka irrationellt då en minskad energianvändning hos företagets kunder leder till minskad lönsamhet för kärnverksamheten. En ökande efterfrågan på mikroproducerande anläggningar skapar därför ett behov av förändring av företagens nuvarande affärsmodeller. Solceller och distribuerad elproduktion växer idag fram som en ny marknad och utgör en ny konkurrensfaktor inom energibranschen. Denna konkurrensfaktor måste företagen ta hänsyn till för att inte ta skada på längre sikt allt eftersom marknaden utvecklas. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur energibolag kan utveckla sina affärsmodeller för att på ett hållbart sätt främja distribuerad elproduktion och mikroproduktion av solel.

    I arbetet har det identifierats sex olika affärsmodeller som används i olika delar av världen för att sprida solcellsteknologier. Dessa är 1) kundägande som innebär att kunden äger sin solcellsanläggning efter leverans, 2) samordnat ägande där ett energibolag eller en tredjepartsfirma samordnar och driver ett solcellsprojekt med ett flertal ägare eller kunder, 3) tredjepartsägande som innebär att ett tjänsteföretag erbjuder helhetslösningar till slutkonsumenter och finansierar detta genom en tredje part, 4) integrerad försäljning där solceller säljs som tillval eller extrautrustning till andra produkter, 5) nätinmatning som innebär att all producerad el matas in på nätet till en hög ersättning samt 6) modulbaserade värdeerbjudanden där kunden kan välja mellan olika paket av produkter och tjänster som bygger vidare på varandra. Inom den teoretiska referensramen kunde vidare de fyra grupperna kundrelaterade-, leverantörsrelaterade-, styrmedelsrelaterade- och tekniska barriärer identifieras mot spridning av solceller och mikroproduktion. Totalt identifierades 17 teoretiska barriärer.

    Efter en inledande litteraturgenomgång kunde en lämplig metod bestående av tre olika delar väljas ut för den empiriska delen av arbetet. En e-fokusgruppsdiskussion ligger tillsammans med skrivbordsforskning till grund för en kartläggning av omgivande möjligheter och hot. En fokusgruppsdiskussion bedömdes ge en bra kombination av bredd och djup och genomfördes online då detta är mindre resurskrävande och kan nå geografiskt spridda respondenter. Skrivbordsforskning bedömdes vara ett bra komplement till e-fokusgruppsdiskussionen. För att kunna studera de nuvarande affärsmodellerna mer djupgående genomfördes även en fallstudie bestående av fem intervjuer på ett svenskt energibolag som arbetar med både elhandel och solcellsförsäljning samt är nätägare.

    Det empiriska arbetet resulterade i en kartläggning av 38 möjligheter och 27 hot som energibolag ställs inför när marknaden för distribuerad elproduktion och mikroproduktion av solel expanderar. För att energiföretagen ska kunna förändra sina affärsmodeller finns det ett behov av omvärldsförändringar gällande politik och forskning. Energiföretagen borde dock kunna förekomma en förändring mot en mer distribuerad elmarknad och implementera nya affärsmodeller redan idag. Samtidigt bör det redan i nuläget finnas förutsättningar för företagen att arbeta för att påverka både politiken och forskningen genom exempelvis branschorganisationer. Det kan utifrån resultatet i detta arbete konstateras att mikroproduktion är ett framväxande substitut till traditionell elhandel som hotar företag inom flera verksamheter i elbranschen. Svenska företags sätt att hantera detta nya marknadshot är inte hållbart och behöver förändras. Rapporten presenterar slutligen tre olika riktningar som energiföretagens affärsmodeller kan utvecklas mot.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Atterflod, Melina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glenning Ströberg, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olivolja, fetaost och profilering – en fallstudie om att förmedla ett varumärkes kärnvärden genom storytelling2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Kandidatarbetet syftar till att genom en designansats undersöka hur ett företag kan förmedla varumärkets kärnvärden genom storytelling. Detta görs genom en reklamfilm, med företaget Zeta som exempelvarumärke.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Olivolja, fetaost och profilering – en fallstudie om att förmedla ett varumärkes kärnvärden genom storytelling
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petersson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Remote Tower Centre - Configuration and Planning of the Remote Tower Modules2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many small aerodromes have a hard time surviving economically, and amongst the largest cost is air traffic control. Airlines are cutting costs where they can, and many times this affects the aerodromes as well, e.g. when airlines decide to park remotely instead of at the gate. The project called Remotely Operated Towers, initiated by SESAR and run by Saab and LFV, is aiming to address this problem. The project revolves around remotely providing ATS to aerodromes where it is deemed suitable. A big challenge in this project is how to assign aerodromes to remote tower modules in the remote control centre. There are many ways to do this, but there is only a few ways to do it to achieve the least amount of modules. This thesis aims to find an optimal solution to the challenge mentioned above. The thesis resulted in a model where the user can provide the input of choice, i.e. aerodromes with associated ATS operating hours and movements, for a specific period – and receive the assignment schedule for the modules, saying exactly which aerodrome are to be controlled by which module at what time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Ballem, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Córdoba, José M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of synthesis temperature on morphology of SBA-16 mesoporous materials with a three-dimensional pore system2010Inngår i: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 129, s. 106-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spherical particles of mesoporous silica SBA-16 with cubic Im3m structure were synthesized at low pH using Pluronic F127 as template and TEOS as silica source. The diameter of the spherical particles can be controlled in the range of 0.5–8 μm by varying synthesis temperature from 1 °C up to 40 °C. A sharp transition from large particle sizes at approximately 20 °C to smaller ones is observed when the temperature is increased. It is suggested that this morphology transition is due to a change in hydrolysis and condensation rate of the silica source and as a result the assembly of F127 micelles will differ. The SBA-16 samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption techniques.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 37.
    Barata, J.
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa /UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal .
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa /UNINOVA, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal.
    Colombo, A-W
    P&T/H6O HUB, Schneider Electric GmbH, Steinheimer Straße 117, 63500, Seligenstadt, Germany.
    A Service-oriented Shop Floor to Support Collaboration in Manufacturing Networks2010Inngår i: Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Networked Manufacturing Enterprises Management / [ed] Lyes Benyoucef and Bernard Grabot, Springer London, 2010, s. 483-503Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work addresses the problem of shop-floor agility, presenting it as the fundamental cornerstone for true agility and responsiveness of an enterprise willing to participate in highly dynamic collaborative organizations and supply chains. Clearly, as the economic climate toughens, the exploration of the increasingly volatile business opportunities requires such complex organizations. The feasibility of the architecture proposed is demonstrated in a pilot implementation in a near-real shop-floor. Emerging web standards such as the device profile for web services were used to guarantee cross-layer/abstraction interoperability ensuring that the shop-floor reacts positively to adjustments in the supply chain.

  • 38.
    Barata, José
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, Portuga.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    UNINOVA institute, , Monte de Caparica, Portugal.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric GmbH, P&T/H6O HUB, Seligenstadt, German.
    Diagnosis using service oriented architectures (SOA)2007Inngår i: Industrial Informatics, 2007 5th IEEE International Conference on  (Volume: 2), IEEE , 2007, Vol. 2, s. 1203-1208Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an emergent approach to industrial control that accompanies new industrial paradigms in the response to the continuously changing socio-economic challenges posed to modern and future enterprises. Maximizing the profit under adverse market conditions is also a matter of cost cut and the use of distributed and intelligent devices with efficient diagnosis mechanisms can help improving equipment's uptime either by reacting before a breakdown or recovering gracefully from failures.

  • 39.
    Barata, José
    et al.
    Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica Universidade Nova de Lisboa Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica Universidade Nova de Lisboa Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
    Onori, Mauro
    KTH-Production Eng. Dept. EPS Group Stockholm, Sweden.
    Diagnosis on evolvable production systems2007Inngår i: Industrial Electronics, 2007. ISIE 2007. IEEE International Symposium on, 2007, s. 3221-3226Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolvable production systems (EPS) lies at the leading edge of the new paradigms currently emerging as a response to the continuously changing socio-economic challenges that modern enterprises have to deal with. Maximizing the profit under adverse market conditions is also a matter of cost cut and EPS targets this through an efficient diagnosis mechanism embedded in future production systems. Evolvable production systems goes beyond other manufacturing paradigms, and offers intelligent devices with biologically inspired behaviours, heavily dependent on self-diagnosis, self healing and other autonomous actions to ensure the systems' proper functioning and a timely response and recover from unpredictable situations.

  • 40.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Sauerwald, T.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Exploring the selectivity of WO3 with iridium catalyst in an ethanol/naphthalene mixture using multivariate statistics2016Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 618, s. 263-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature cycled operation and multivariate statistics have been used to compare the selectivity of two gate (i.e. sensitive) materials for gas-sensitive, silicon carbide based field effect transistors towards naphthalene and ethanol in different mixtures of the two substances. Both gates have a silicon dioxide (SiO2) insulation layer and a porous iridium (Ir) electrode. One of it has also a dense tungsten trioxide (WO3) interlayer between Ir and SiO2. Both static and transient characteristics play an important role and can contribute to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor. The Ir/SiO2 is strongly influenced by changes in ethanol concentration, and is, thus, able to quantify ethanol in a range between 0 and 5 ppm with a precision of 500 ppb, independently of the naphthalene concentrations applied in this investigation. On the other hand, this sensitivity to ethanol reduces its selectivity towards naphthalene, whereas Ir/WO3/SiO2 shows an almost binary response to ethanol. Hence, the latter has a better selectivity towards naphthalene and can quantify legally relevant concentrations down to 5 ppb with a precision of 2.5 ppb, independently of a changing ethanol background between 0 and 5 ppm. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Bastuk, Emanuel
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Identification of ammonia and carbon monoxide based on the hysteresis of a gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistor2013Inngår i: Transducers 2013 & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, s. 250-253Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work gate bias cycled operation (GBCO) is used on a gas-sensitive SiC field effect transistor(“GasFET”) to increase the sensitivity and selectivity. Gate bias ramps introduce strong hysteresis in the sensor signal. The shape of this hysteresis is shown to be an appropriate feature both for the discrimination of various gases (NH3, CO, NO, CH4) and also different gas concentrations (250 and 500 ppm). The shape is very sensitive to ambient conditions. Thus, the influence of oxygen concentration and relative humidity as well as sensor temperature is investigated and reasons for the observed signal changes are discussed.

  • 42.
    Belousov, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem.
    Development of a Vehicle Simulation Model Consisting of Low and High Frequency Dynamics2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicle testing on existing vehicles is both time and resource consuming, the work of testing safety algorithms on vehicle is desired to be made more efficient. Therefore the goal of this thesis is to study and develop a vehicle simulation model that can simulate desired dynamics of existing and non-existing vehicles.

    The developed model consist of two areas of application: slow dynamics and vibrational dynamics. These areas are developed and validated using different methods, but as a part of the simulator, they are to be simulated together.

    For the slow, low frequency, vehicle motion, a three state transient motion model is derived and examined. The possibility of parametrisation is studied and performed using prediction error minimisation.

    For the vibration, high frequency model, a combination of a linear quarter car model with wheel motion is used to estimate road vibration characteristics. The modelled road is used to simulate the vehicle behaviour. The suggested methods regarding the vibration modelling and road estimation are performed using power spectral density as the road is not known determinately. Wheel speeds are used to study the power spectral densities as they are available at high sampling frequencies.

    The available tools and sensors used during this thesis are limited to existing vehicle sensors and GPS signals. The effect of this limitation is studied and the results are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 43. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

    Delarbeid
    1. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 0089416-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Public Library of Science, 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105901 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0089416 (DOI)000331711900141 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-14 Laget: 2014-04-12 Sist oppdatert: 2021-06-14bibliografisk kontrollert
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    fulltext
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
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    presentationsbild
  • 44.
    Bengtsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Foolishness without consequence? From physical to virtual modeling in the history of military aircraft development at Saab2020Inngår i: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 163-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From Jim March we learned that organizational intelligence demands adaptation to the needs of a distant future as well as the efficient use of resources in the present. Commitment to new ideas that deviate from norm is necessary for long-term adaptation, but comes with great uncertainty as to if when or how success will come. This article uses a historical study of military aircraft manufacturer Saab to explore the transition from experimenting with physical models and dangerous test flights in the development of rather simple aircraft systems, to the development of complex integrated aircraft systems using virtual models that can be tested in a simulated world, thereby postponing choice and the need for commitment of resources in the physical world. We show how modeling techniques and tools were developed over five generations of aircraft to help developers represent and evaluate alternative ideas, in an increasingly realistic virtual reality, thereby reducing material and fatal consequences in aircraft development. We distinguish hybrid forms of evaluation and a transition that seems to be moving in the direction of "virtual online evaluation," where empirically informed simulation models, based on real flight data reduces the fidelity gap between reality and representation. Drawing upon a selection of Jim Marchs writings, we speculate what this transition implies for learning from experience and the possibility of foolishness without consequence.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    iipax WebDAV connector: An integration of the Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning protocol in a case management system2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ida Infront AB is an IT company whose business is based on case management for both small and large organizations, mainly in the public sector. Ida Infront’s product iipax is a piece of software which manages cases. Users of iipax have a client that handles everything in a case in iipax. There is a growing interest in finding an external way to manage files in iipax. Therefore the purpose of this project is to use WebDAV, which is an extension to the HTTP protocol, to implement and evaluate a way of managing files in iipax remotely. I have created a server to which an external client can connect to browse the iipax structure. The server also makes it possible to open, move and create files within iipax. The conclusion of the project is that the server works satisfactorily and can serve as a basis to extend with greater functionality in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    TIS dynamics in technological, sectoral, political and geographical context: lessons for analysts2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in the criticism raised against the technological innovation system (TIS) literature in relation to the research field of socio-technical (sustainability) transitions for neglecting interactions between individual technologies and wider societal “contexts”. We first show that TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual systems, while also acknowledging that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more explicit conceptualization of TIS contexts and TIS-context interaction. We then propose a conceptual framework, which builds on the idea that TIS contexts could be seen as institutionally coherent structures that reside outside of the focal TIS. Four especially important types of context structures are identified and discussed: technological, sectoral, political and geographical. For each of these, we provide example of different ways in which each type of context can interact with a focal TIS and identify new questions that can be answered if analysts take the respective context more explicitly into account in TIS analyses. From the point of view of future research, this paper is a first step towards developing a framework for analyzing the interrelation between TIS dynamics and sectoral change and building a new TIS-based model of socio-technical transitions.

  • 47.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Is one path enough? Multiple paths and path interaction as an extension of path dependency theory2014Inngår i: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1261-1297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To explain the development of multi-technology companies and industries where several alternative technologies co-exist and interact over long periods, this article suggests an extension of path dependency theory by providing a conceptualization of the path notion that incorporates the theoretical possibility of multiple paths and path interaction. The conceptualization is applied to a patent study of three leading companies in the lighting industry: General Electric, Osram/Siemens, and Philips. The study shows technology development patterns that are characterized by strong persistence, both within each path and across the whole technology field. These results demonstrate that multiple technological paths can co-exist in companies and industries, characterized by simultaneous long-term presence of several technologies. In such cases, path interaction takes place both between co-existing paths and when new, radically different paths are created. Although further studies are needed to identify the underlying self-reinforcing mechanisms, there is a clear indication that technological path dependency is not restricted to unitary progression patterns, as implied by previous conceptualizations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Berggren, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Asplund, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi.
    Identifying and analyzing digital payment flows regarding illegal purposes on the Internet: I samarbete med CGI och Finanskoalitionen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illustrate an unexplored illegal exploitation of legal businesses, with the purpose of limiting this market and especially the related transactions. The issue of transactions regarding illegal material executed with credit cards was solved through involving the companies who issues the credit cards, making the market more transparent and thus preventing this kind of transactions. The thesis will illustrate how cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, are being exploited regarding illegal transactions and more specifically, transactions regarding selling and purchasing Child Abusive Material within file hosting services (cyberlockers). The analyzed data was gathered using a webcrawler and different methods for analyzing correlation were implemented on the data to find relationships between different data points. The data points were then clustered, using an algorithm to create a relationship network. The developed model analyzed the data to identify trends and patterns regarding the illegal transactions and the results can be used to find the most prominent users who are potential perpetrators that actively distributes illegal material. A deeper analysis is then performed on the, according to the model, most interesting users in an attempt to identify their underlying identity.

    When cryptocurrencies are used by perpetrators to pay and get paid for illegal material, the transaction flows cannot immediately be connected to specific identities and therefore it is required to first identify potential perpetrators and track their transactions, to later compare them with the transactions that has already been identified as payments for illegal material. Apart from this model, a framework has been created to identify certain patterns and trends regarding the cyberlockers’ transaction flows. This was performed through analysis of the transaction flows connected to cyberlockers that were suspected to contain Child Abusive Material or other illegal material.

    With the results from the first and second model, the most interesting cyberlockers for future investigations were discovered, according to the trends and patterns in their surrounding transaction flows. When that analysis was performed and the first model was implemented, potential perpetrators was identified through collaborations between the investigating unit, the Police, the cyberlockers in question and the relevant exchange services. Through this collaboration the identities of the perpetrators are revealed and the transaction flows can then be analyzed to limit further distribution of Child Abusive Material within cyberlockers and consequently limit the illegal transactions with cryptocurrencies.

    Keywords: Bitcoin, Child Abusive Material, Cyberlockers, Illegal payments, Cryptocurrency, Webcrawler, Correlation, Relationship network.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In Vivo Organic Bioelectronics for Neuromodulation2022Inngår i: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 122, nr 4, s. 4826-4846Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nervous system poses a grand challenge for integration with modern electronics and the subsequent advances in neurobiology, neuroprosthetics, and therapy which would become possible upon such integration. Due to its extreme complexity, multifaceted signaling pathways, and similar to 1 kHz operating frequency, modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based electronics appear to be the only technology platform at hand for such integration. However, conventional CMOS-based electronics rely exclusively on electronic signaling and therefore require an additional technology platform to translate electronic signals into the language of neurobiology. Organic electronics are just such a technology platform, capable of converting electronic addressing into a variety of signals matching the endogenous signaling of the nervous system while simultaneously possessing favorable material similarities with nervous tissue. In this review, we introduce a variety of organic material platforms and signaling modalities specifically designed for this role as "translator" , focusing especially on recent implementation in in vivo neuromodulation. We hope that this review serves both as an informational resource and as an encouragement and challenge to the field.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Developing an instrument for measuring shared understanding2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International ISCRAM Conference: Defining Crisis Management 3.0 / [ed] Simon French Brian Tomaszewski Christopher Zobel, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the need for an easy-to-use, easy-to-administer measure that can capture shared understanding in a team of professionals working together towards a successful performance. In the paper the development of such a measure is described using two empirical studies. Command-and-Control tasks are complex and often dynamic, and a way of capturing the degree of which a team of individuals have a common understanding of priorities in such a task is imperative.

    Two studies are presented. In the first study students participated in a microworld experiment where they tried to rank order pre-determined factors in order to measure shared understanding. In the second study officers from the Swedish Armed Forces participated in an exercise where they rank ordered self-generated factors. 

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