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  • 1.
    Czajka, Marcin Piotr
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Frajdenberg, Agata
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. St. Erik Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outcomes after combined 1.8-MM microincision cataract surgery and 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy for posterior segment disease: a retrospective study2014In: Retina, ISSN 0275-004X, E-ISSN 1539-2864, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively review indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes of combined coaxial microincision cataract surgery and 23-gauge vitrectomy for posterior segment disease.

    METHODS:

    The outcomes and findings of surgery in 50 patients (50 eyes) who underwent coaxial microincision cataract surgery and foldable intraocular lens implantation combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy for a variety of indications between January 2010 and March 2012.

    RESULTS:

    No posterior capsule tear was observed during surgery. Intraoperatively, a retinal break was found in 9 eyes (18%), which were successfully treated with laser and/or cryotherapy. Corneal suture was done in 6 eyes (12%), 5 of them left and 1 right. Sclerotomy was sutured in 2 left and 2 right eyes, respectively, a total of 4 eyes (8%). In 1 case, 23-gauge vitrectomy was converted to 20-gauge vitrectomy. The postoperative intraocular pressure (millimeters of mercury, mean ± standard deviation) was 16.7 ± 9.8. Hypotony (intraocular pressure < 9 mmHg) occurred in 9 eyes (18%). In 1 eye (2%) posterior iris synechia were observed 2 weeks after surgery, and intraocular pressure was >40 mmHg. Intraocular pressure was normalized after Nd:YAG laser iridotomy. Fibrin reaction in the anterior chamber was observed in 1 eye (2%) Day 1 after surgery. Posterior capsule opacification, which required Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, was observed in 11 eyes (22%) during the follow-up.

    CONCLUSION:

    Combined sutureless coaxial microincision cataract surgery and 23-gauge vitrectomy offers the advantages of both coaxial microincision cataract surgery (less wound leakage, good anterior chamber stability, and safety) and 23-gauge vitrectomy (decreased inflammation and faster rehabilitation after surgery).

  • 2.
    Dick, H Burkhard
    et al.
    University Eye Hospital Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Schultz, Tim
    University Eye Hospital Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Lesieur, Gilles
    Centre Ophtalmologique Iridis, Albi, France.
    Morselli, Simonetta
    Ospedale di Bassano del Grappa Bassano del Grappa, Bassano del Grappa, Italy.
    Toso, Antonio
    Ospedale di Bassano del Grappa Bassano del Grappa, Bassano del Grappa, Italy.
    Alio, Jorge L
    Vissum-Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, University Miguel Hernandez, Alicante, Spain.
    Buckhurst, Phillip J
    School of Health Professions, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. St. Erik Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of clinical outcomes following implantation of a sub-2-mm hydrophilic acrylic MICS intraocular lens2018In: International ophtalmology, ISSN 0165-5701, E-ISSN 1573-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical outcomes following sub-2-mm microincision cataract surgery (MICS) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.

    SETTING: Five EU clinical sites.

    DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, non-randomized.

    METHODS: Preoperative assessment involved visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure and biometry measurements. 1.4-mm wound-assisted or 1.8-mm MICS was performed. Follow-up visits were made 1 day, 1-2 weeks, 1-2 and 4-6 months after surgery. The incision size, corrected distance VA (CDVA), uncorrected distance VA, manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), refraction predictability/stability and IOL decentration were assessed. At 12-, 18-, and 24-month, long-term centration, posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates were investigated.

    RESULTS: A total of 103 eyes were implanted with the study IOL (INCISE, Bausch & Lomb), 96 of which were included in visual outcome analysis. A mean 6-month CDVA of - 0.02 logMAR (20/20 + 1) was observed and 75 eyes (79.8%) and 93 eyes (98.3%) achieved a visual acuity of at least 20/20 or 20/40. Mean MRSE was - 0.20 ± 0.60 D. Mean absolute predictive error was 0.44 ± 0.36 D, with 90.4% within 1.00 D of target. Mean total decentration was 0.35 ± 0.36 mm at 6 months and 0.32 ± 0.14 mm at 24 months (p > 0.05). 24-month evaluation of posterior capsular opacification score was 0.03 for the central area. A Nd:YAG rate of 3.4% was observed at 24 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: The new MICS IOL provided excellent visual outcomes and was safe and effective for the sub-2-mm procedure. The MICS IOL demonstrated long-term centration, stability and a low rate of PCO development.

  • 3.
    Giles, Kagmeni
    et al.
    University Teaching Hospital Yaoundé (UTHY), Cameroon(1);University of Yaoundé I, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Cameroon.
    Christelle, Domngang
    Mountains University Banganté, Cameroon.
    Yannick, Bilong
    University of Yaoundé I, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Cameroon.
    Fricke, Otto Herrmann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Wiedemann, Peter
    Eye Hospital of Leipzig University, Germany.
    Cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5-15 in local anaesthesia: visual outcomes and complications.2016In: Pan African Medical Journal, ISSN 1937-8688, E-ISSN 1937-8688, Vol. 24, p. 6article id 200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation at the Mana eye Clinic Nkongsamba between 2006 and 2015 Main outcome measures were: best-corrected post operative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Mean age at surgery was 10.18 ± 3.21 years. Mean follow up length was 15.75 ± 3.36 weeks. Etiology included: 10 congenital cataracs (16.12%). 35 developmental cataracts (56.45%) and 17 traumatic cataracts (27.41%). The mean preoperative BCVA was logMAR 1.19 ± 0.33. (range 0.6-2.3). After cycloplegia refraction 2 weeks after surgery, the mean postoperative BCVA was log MAR 0.58 ± 0.88 (range 0.5-1.8). The mean implanted IOL power was 22.01 ±3.16 D. IOL was succefuly implanted in 54 eyes (87.07%). Eight eyes (9.67%) were left aphakic. Increase in BCVA of 4 logMAR lines and above was recorded in 27 patients (43.55%). Intraoperative complications included: 4 posterior capsule holes with vitrous lost, 3 lenses subluxation and 1 case of iris dialyse. Late postoperative complications included: posterior capsular opacity which occurred in 16 patients, 3 posterior synechia, 2 retinal detachment. Peribulbar anaesthesia can be considered as a viable option in selected patients presenting developmental cataract undergoing cataract surgery in developing countries. Effort should be made to improve the early identification of congenital cataract and its early surgical intervention and prompt optical rehabilitation to prevent amblyopia. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 4.
    Griffith, May
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Harkin, Damien G.
    Queensland University of Technology, and Queensland Eye Institute, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Recent advances in the design of artificial corneas2014In: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, ISSN 1040-8738, E-ISSN 1531-7021, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 240-247Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

    Artificial corneas are being developed to meet a shortage of donor corneas and to address cases in which allografting is contraindicated. A range of artificial corneas has been developed. Here we review several newer designs and especially those inspired by naturally occurring biomaterials found with the human body and elsewhere.

    RECENT FINDINGS:

    Recent trends in the development of artificial corneas indicate a move towards the use of materials derived from native sources including decellularized corneal tissue and tissue substitutes synthesized by corneal cells in vitro when grown either on their own or in conjunction with novel protein-based scaffolds. Biologically inspired materials are also being considered for implantation on their own with the view to promoting endogenous corneal tissue.

    SUMMARY:

    More recent attempts at making artificial corneas have taken a more nature-based or nature-inspired approach. Several will in the near future be likely to be available clinically.

  • 5.
    Holmstrom, Gerd
    et al.
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Hellstrom, Ann
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lundgren, Pia
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    University of Lund Hospital, Sweden.
    Wallin, Agneta
    St Eriks Eye Hospital, Sweden.
    Evaluation of new guidelines for ROP screening in Sweden using SWEDROP - a national quality register2015In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo investigate whether recent Swedish guidelines for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) screening, that is, a gestational age (GA) at birth of less than31weeks (w), are applicable in a new national cohort of prematurely born infants. MethodsSWEDROP is a national register for ROP, initiated in 2006. The present paper reports on data from the register on various aspects of screening for ROP in infants born between 2010 and 2011 and compares the results with those for a previously published cohort born between 2008 and 2009. ResultsDuring the study period, 1744 infants were screened for ROP. Mean GA was 28.4w (22-31), and mean birth weight was 1239g (382-2615). Screening started at postnatal age (PNA) 5.4w (0.4-13.3) and postmenstrual age (PMA) 33.8 w (24.9-50.1) Mean number of examinations was 5.4 per infant (1-38). Mild (stages 1-2) and severe ( stage 3) ROP was found in 15.4% and 8.7%, respectively. Treatment was performed in 4.2% (73/1744) of the infants, but in none with a GA of 30weeks or more. The first treatment was performed at a mean PNA and PMA of 12.7 w (7.7-25.4) and 37.4 w (32.1-51.4), respectively. ConclusionsRecently introduced new guidelines for ROP screening in Sweden remain applicable. Reassuringly, in infants born between 2010 and 2011, incidence of ROP, frequency and timing of treatment, frequency and timing of examinations and national coverage of ROP screening remained almost identical to those for a previous cohort from 2008 to 2009. The two SWEDROP cohorts provide a basis for discussion among Swedish ophthalmologists and neonatologists on the question of further lowering the upper screening limit with 1week.

  • 6.
    Holmstrom, Gerd
    et al.
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Hellström, Ann
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lundgren, Pia
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Törnqvist, Kristina
    University of Lund Hospital, Sweden.
    Wallin, Agneta
    St Erik Eye Hospital, Sweden.
    Five years of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Sweden: results from SWEDROP, a national quality register2016In: British Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 0007-1161, E-ISSN 1468-2079, Vol. 100, no 12, p. 1656-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a sight-threatening disease, requiring efficient screening and treatment. The present study aims to describe various aspects on treatment for ROP in Sweden. Methods Data on treatment for ROP in infants born in 2008-2012 were extracted from Swedish national register for retinopathy of prematurity, a web-based national register. Results During 2008-2012, 3488 infants with a gestational age (GA) at birth of amp;lt;31 weeks had been screened for ROP in Sweden. Altogether, 30.3% (1057/3488) of the infants developed ROP and 5.2% (181/3488) were treated. Type 1 ROP was found in at least one eye in 83.2% (149/179) of the treated infants. One third of the eyes (32.2% right, 29.9% left eyes) were treated more than once. Laser was the only treatment in 90% of the eyes. Mean number of laser spots at first laser session was 1177 and 1386 in right and left eyes, respectively. Number of laser spots correlated negatively with GA at birth (p=0.01). There was no change in frequency of treatment or number of laser spots during the 5-year period. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections were performed in 28 eyes, encircling band was used in five eyes and vitrectomies were performed in seven eyes. Twenty-six retinal surgeons performed 9.4 (range 1-37) treatment sessions in the 181 infants. Conclusions The present study reveals similar incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment during the 5-year study period. Many surgeons were involved in treatment of a rather limited number of infants. The results call for national discussions on organisation of ROP treatment.

  • 7.
    Huang-Link, Yu-Min
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Al-Hawasi, Abbas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lindehammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Acute optic neuritis: retinal ganglion cell loss precedes retinal nerve fiber thinning.2015In: Neurological Sciences, ISSN 1590-1874, E-ISSN 1590-3478, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 617-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optic neuritis (ON) causes axonal loss as reflected by thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and can be tracked by optical coherence tomography (OCT) about 6 months after ON onset, when swelling of optic nerve head (ONH) has vanished. Changes of macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness provide another window to track the disease process in ON. GCL thinning over time in relation to RNFL change after ON remains elusive. Using OCT, we followed 4 patients with acute unilateral isolated ON for more than 9 months. A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was established in all 4 patients. First follow-up was 2-3 weeks after ON onset, and thereafter every 2-3 months. RNFL swelling peaked during first month after acute ON, followed by rapidly reduced swelling (pseudoatrophy) during following 2 months, and thereafter successively vanished 6 months after ON onset. GCL thinning was observed 1-3 months after ON onset, i.e. already during optic disk swelling and before real RNFL thinning. The results imply that quantifying GCL thickness provides opportunities to monitor early axonal loss and ON-to-MS progression, and facilitates distinguishing real atrophy from pseudoatrophy of RNFL after acute ON.

  • 8.
    Huang-Link, Yu-Min
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Al-Hawasi, Abbas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm
    Charite University of Medical Berlin, Germany.
    Jin, Ya-Ping
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    OCT measurements of optic nerve head changes in idiopathic intracranial hypertension2015In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print), ISSN 0303-8467, E-ISSN 1872-6968, Vol. 130, p. 122-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Severity of papilledema and vision loss constitute a basis for therapeutic intervention in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), but both are often subjective and insensitive in guiding clinical management. The aim of this study was to identify reliable and sensitive measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) and macula, to provide objective guidance for prognostic evaluation and treatment in IIH. We analyzed potential of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), to measure neuro-retinal rim thickness and area, optic cup-to-disc ratio (C/D) and cup volume of ONH which have not previously been reported in IIH. In parallel, thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) together with inner plexiform layer (IPL) (GCL-IPL) were examined. Results: All 7 enrolled IIH patients had increased neuro-retinal rim thickness (p less than 0.01 for both eyes) and rim area (p less than 0.05), decreased C/D (p less than 0.01) and optic cup volume (p less than 0.01) when compared to findings in 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC). In a longitudinal study, two IIH patients were followed repetitively by SD-OCT before and after measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) and removal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by lumbar puncture. Rim thickness and area, C/D and optic cup volume remained altered. RNFL thickness may change with very high ICP, but not immediately after CSF removal. GCL-IPL thickness was unchanged irrespective of ICP change or CSF removal. Conclusion: SD-OCT allows detection of ONH changes even in subtle IIH without papilledema and has potential for routine use in IIH.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Study of Some Temporal Properties of the Human Visual Evoked Potential, and Their Relation to Binocular Function2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As disturbed binocular functions in small children may lead to severe amblyopia it is of interest to detect it as early as possible. Most tests for binocular functions, however, demand active cooperation and may be unreliable in children up to 4-5 years of age. This study therefore aims to employ visual evoked potentials (VEP) to enable the examiner to evaluate the binocular function in a subject without need of active cooperation from the subject.

    Initially we studied the relation of suprathreshold contrast to the latency of the transient pattern VEP (tpVEP). Although suprathreshold contrast independently influenced the tpVEP latency, interindividual variation was too large to suggest tpVEP as a possible method for objectively measuring contrast sensitivity in a subject.

    The tpVEP latency in normal and microstrabismic adult subjects was examined. It was significantly shorter with binocular viewing in normals, but not in the microstrabismic group.

    Contrast sensitivity and tpVEP latency was examined in adults, both with normal binocularity and with microstrabismus, using both luminance (black-and-white) contrast and colour contrast patterns. The tpVEP latency to colour contrast, like that to luminance contrast, is shorter in normal subjects who view the stimulus binocularly. Interindividual variation or overlap between the normal and microstrabismic groups did not improve with colour contrast.

    The most significant features of the tpVEP are amplitude and latency. Depending on stimulus conditions, the response may show variations in configuration, amplitude and, to a lesser degree, latency. To decrease the influence of such variations steady-state VEP (ssVEP) can be used. The stimulus is presented in a fast repetitive manner, yielding a VEP response shaped as a continuous curve. The frequency components of this curve can be analysed using Fast Fourier Analysis.

    Fast Fourier analysis of ssVEP in children aged 8-15 years with normal binocularity and with microstrabismus showed that the power of the second harmonic (the double frequency of stimulus frequency) of the response with binocular viewing was larger than with monocular viewing, both in normals and microstrabismic subjects. For higher stimulus frequencies, microstrabismic subjects showed a significantly lower power of the second harmonic compared with subjects with normal binocularity, when the stimulus was presented binocularly.

    Finally, Fast Fourier analysed ssVEP in pre-school children aged 4-5 years was studied. A normal group was compared with a group with microstrabismus and a group with significant amblyopia. Amblyopic subjects had significant interocular differences in the first harmonic. We confirmed the significant difference found between microstrabismic subjects and subjects with normal binocularity regarding the second harmonic’s power with higher temporal frequency binocular stimulation, although at a slightly lower frequency than for older children. A low power of the second harmonic in the ssVEP to a binocular stimulus with high temporal frequency is a strong indicator of disturbed binocular function.

    List of papers
    1. The effect of spatial frequency and contrast on the latency in the visual evoked potential
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of spatial frequency and contrast on the latency in the visual evoked potential
    1992 (English)In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The latency in the visual evoked potential was measured at spatial frequencies of 2–12 c/deg in 10 subjects. The contrast levels of the sinuosoidal grating patterns were set at 1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, 2.5, 2.75 and 3.0 log units above each subject's contrast sensitivity threshold. Two factors were shown to influence the latency: suprathreshold contrast and, to a lesser extent, spatial frequency. The visual evoked potential latencies at contrast sensitivity threshold were extrapolated. These threshold latencies showed considerable variation with spatial frequency and between subjects. Therefore, the visual evoked potential latency cannot be considered a useful tool for estimating the contrast sensitivity function.

    Keywords
    Latency, spatial frequency, suprathreshold contrast, visual evoked potential
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14094 (URN)10.1007/BF00156577 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-23 Created: 2006-10-23 Last updated: 2009-08-19
    2. VEP latency: a comparison between normal and defective binocularity.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>VEP latency: a comparison between normal and defective binocularity.
    1993 (English)In: Clinical Vision Sciences, ISSN 0887-6169, Vol. 8, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pergamon Press, 1993
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14095 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-10-23 Created: 2006-10-23 Last updated: 2018-05-09
    3. Luminance and color contrast sensitivity and VEP latency in subjects with normal and defective binocularity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Luminance and color contrast sensitivity and VEP latency in subjects with normal and defective binocularity
    1997 (English)In: European Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 1724-6016, Vol. 7, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14096 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-10-23 Created: 2006-10-23 Last updated: 2009-08-19
    4. Fourier analysis of steady-state visual evoked potentials in subjects with normal and defective stereo vision
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fourier analysis of steady-state visual evoked potentials in subjects with normal and defective stereo vision
    2000 (English)In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to study the second harmonic in the steady state pattern visual evoked potential (ssVEP) to various stimulus frequencies in subjects with normal and defective binocularity. ssVEPs were elicited by 4 c/deg sinusoidal gratings, with temporal frequencies ranging from 5 to 20 Hz (exp. 1) and 15 to 27.5 Hz (exp. 2). Responses were Fourier analysed and power and phase of the second harmonic to stimulus frequency were measured. For power, binocular enhancement in a bimodal fashion was found both in normals and in subjects with defective binocularity. The power with binocular stimulation was significantly higher in the normal group in the high frequency domain. Latency, estimated from the phase-frequency function, was longer in the group with defective binocularity, but this was statistically significant only for the high frequency domain. The results suggest that a visual system with normal binocular function can follow a stimulus with high temporal frequency more accurately than a system with disturbed binocularity.

    Keywords
    binocular vision, Fourier analysis, strabismus, temporal frequency, visual evoked potential (VEP)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14097 (URN)10.1023/A:1002876804178 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-23 Created: 2006-10-23 Last updated: 2009-08-19
    5. Fourier-analysed steadystate VEPs in pre-school children with and without normal binocularity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fourier-analysed steadystate VEPs in pre-school children with and without normal binocularity
    2006 (English)In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-school children aged 4–5 were examined with steady-state VEP in response to a sinusoidal grating pattern with a spatial frequency of 4 c/deg, reversing at rates 5, 10, and 15 Hz. Normal children (n = 10) were compared with subjects lacking stereo perception (n = 6) and with subjects showing significant unilateral amblyopia with visual acuity in the worse eye <0.5 (n = 7). Fast Fourier Transform was used for analysis of the crude steady-state VEP responses. Compared to normals, the subjects lacking stereo perception showed a significantly lower power of the second harmonic in the response evoked by binocular stimulation with gratings reversed at 15 Hz. The amblyopic group showed a significant difference between the dominant and the non-dominant eye regarding the first harmonic power in the responses evoked by gratings reversed at 5 and 10 Hz. These findings are discussed in relation to the magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathways and suggested models for linear and non-linear processing of visual signals.

    Keywords
    amblyopia, binocularity, Fourier analysis, strabismus, visual evoked potential
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14098 (URN)10.1007/s10633-005-5889-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-23 Created: 2006-10-23
  • 10.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glistenings, anterior/posterior capsular opacification and incidence of Nd:YAG laser treatments with two aspheric hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses - a long-term intra-individual study2017In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 671-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare two hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) regarding long-term anterior/posterior capsular opacification (ACO/PCO) development and need for neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment due to visually disturbing PCO, and to study development of glistenings in the IOL materials. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, intra-individual, comparative trial, 50 cataract patients received either an AcrySof IQ((R)) SN60WF (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) or a Tecnis((R)) ZCB00 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA) IOL in the first operated eye, and the second eye received the IOL type not implanted in the first eye. Anterior/posterior capsular opacification (ACO/PCO) and fibrosis were monitored with slit-lamp photography and semi-automated digital analysis 2 and 3years postoperatively. Glistenings were semi-quantitatively assessed in slit-lamp photographs. Nd:YAG laser treatment for visually disturbing PCO was monitored. Results: Visual outcomes were similar for the two IOLs. Anterior capsular fibrosis and/or opacification developed more often in SN60WF eyes. Mean PCO area percentage was larger in ZCB00 eyes 3years after surgery, but severity score did not differ with statistical significance between the two IOLs. Six ZCB00 eyes and 2 SN60WF eyes underwent Nd:YAG laser treatment during a mean of 4years 8months after surgery. This difference was not statistically significant. A high amount of glistenings developed in most SN60WF IOLs, while only few ZCB00 IOLs displayed a low degree of glistenings. Conclusion: Visual outcomes, PCO development over time and need for Nd:YAG laser treatment were similar for the two IOLs. Anterior capsule fibrosis/contraction and glistenings were more pronounced with the SN60WF IOL.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Björn
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Opacification of anterior part of hydrophilic acrylic IOL or a prelenticular inflammatory membrane?2012In: Journal of cataract and refractive surgery, ISSN 0886-3350, E-ISSN 1873-4502, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1115-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their recent case report, Park and Chuck1 describe the bilateral appearance of an opacification at the plane of the anterior surface of the hydrophilic acrylic Akreos MI60 intraocular lens (IOL) (Bausch & Lomb). The patient's general history of diabetes mellitus, proliferative retinopathy, and iris rubeosis explains the limited pupil dilation preventing visualization of the capsulorhexis opening in their slitlamp images.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Visual field defect during low-dose methotrexate therapy1992In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, E-ISSN 1573-2622, Vol. 79, p. 91-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A patient was treated with low-dose methotrexate because of psoriasis that did not respond to conventional therapy. During treatment, visual symptoms occurred; optic disc swelling was found, and later slight optic disc atrophy. Moreover, paracentral relative visual field defects showed fluctuations parallel to methotrexate dose changes. It seems likely that methotrexate affected optic nerve function.

  • 13.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elizondo, Rodolfo A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Edin, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsen, David
    FibroGen Incorporated, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute–Vision Programme, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Lee, Chang-Jang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute–Vision Programme, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarek, James
    FibroGen Incorporated, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of Surgical Technique on Corneal Implant Performance2014In: Translational Vision Science & Technology, ISSN 2164-2591, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Our aim was to determine the effect of a surgical technique on biomaterial implant performance, specifically graft retention.

     

    Methods: Twelve mini pigs were implanted with cell-free, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) hydrogels as substitutes for donor corneal allografts using overlying sutures with or without human amniotic membrane (HAM) versus interrupted sutures with HAM. The effects of the retention method were compared as well as the effects of collagen concentration (13.7% to 15% RHCIII).

    Results: All implanted corneas showed initial haze that cleared with time, resulting in corneas with optical clarity matching those of untreated controls. Biochemical analysis showed that by 12 months post operation, the initial RHCIII implants had been completely remodeled, as type I collagen, was the major collagenous protein detected, whereas no RHCIII could be detected. Histological analysis showed all implanted corneas exhibited regeneration of epithelial and stromal layers as well as nerves, along with touch sensitivity and tear production. Most neovascularization was seen in corneas stabilized by interrupted sutures.

    Conclusions: This showed that the surgical technique used does have a significant effect on the overall performance of corneal implants, overlying sutures caused less vascularization than interrupted sutures.

    Translational Relevance: Understanding the significance of the suturing technique can aid the selection of the most appropriate procedure when implanting artificial corneal substitutes. The same degree of regeneration, despite a higher collagen content indicates that future material development can progress toward stronger, more resistant implants.

  • 14.
    Lagali, Neil S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Allgeier, Stephan
    Institute for Applied Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Guimarães, Pedro
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Badian, Reza A.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, Norway; Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Department of Ophthalmology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger/Clinical Institute 1, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Ruggeri, Alfredo
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Köhler, Bernd
    Institute for Applied Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Utheim, Tor Paaske
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, Norway; Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Peterson, Magnus
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Department of Translational Medicine-Hand Surgery, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Reduced Corneal Nerve Fiber Density in Type 2 Diabetes by Wide-Area Mosaic Analysis2017In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 58, no 14, p. 6318-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine if corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) parameters derived from wide-area depth-corrected mosaic images are associated with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: One hundred sixty-three mosaics were produced from eyes of 82 subjects by laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Subjects were of the same age, without (43 subjects) or with type 2 diabetes (39 subjects). Mosaic corneal nerve fiber length density (mCNFL) and apical whorl corneal nerve fiber length density (wCNFL) were quantified and related to the presence and duration of diabetes (short duration < 10 years and long duration ≥ 10 years).

    Results: In mosaics with a mean size of 6 mm2 in subjects aged 69.1 ± 1.2 years, mCNFL in type 2 diabetes was reduced relative to nondiabetic subjects (13.1 ± 4.2 vs. 15.0 ± 3.2 mm/mm2, P = 0.018). Also reduced relative to nondiabetic subjects was mCNFL in both short-duration (14.0 ± 4.0 mm/mm2, 3.2 ± 3.9 years since diagnosis) and long-duration diabetes (12.7 ± 4.2 mm/mm2, 15.4 ± 4.2 years since diagnosis; ANOVA P = 0.023). Lower mCNFL was associated with presence of diabetes (P = 0.032) and increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (P = 0.047). By contrast, wCNFL was unaffected by diabetes or HbA1c (P > 0.05). Global SBP patterns revealed marked degeneration of secondary nerve fiber branches outside the whorl region in long-duration diabetes.

    Conclusions: Wide-area mosaic images provide reference values for mCNFL and wCNFL and reveal a progressive degeneration of the SBP with increasing duration of type 2 diabetes.

  • 15.
    Landsend, Erlend C. S.
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Utheim, Oygunn A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Pedersen, Hilde R.
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Aass, Hans Christian D.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Dartt, Darlene A.
    Harvard Med Sch, MA USA.
    Baraas, Rigmor C.
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Utheim, Tor P.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Bergen, Norway.
    The Level of Inflammatory Tear Cytokines is Elevated in Congenital Aniridia and Associated with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction2018In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 2197-2204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To investigate the tear cytokine profile in congenital aniridia, and correlate cytokine levels with ophthalmologic findings. METHODS. We examined 35 patients with aniridia and 21 healthy controls. Tear fluid was collected with Schirmer I test and capillary tubes from each eye, and the concentration of 27 inflammatory cytokines determined using multiplex bead assay. Eyes of all participants were examined with tests for dry eye disease, including evaluation of meibomian glands (meibography). Differences in cytokine levels between the two groups were analyzed, and correlations between cytokine concentrations and ophthalmologic findings in the aniridia group investigated. RESULTS. The concentrations of six tear cytokines were significantly higher in aniridia patients than controls in both eyes, and included interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-9, IL-17A; eotaxin; basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF2); and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha/ CCL3). The ratio between the anti-inflammatory IL-1RA and the proinflammatory IL-1 beta was significantly lower in patients than controls in both eyes (P = 0.005 right eye and P = 0.001 left eye). Increasing concentration of IL-1 beta, IL-9, IL-17A, FGF2, and MIP-1 alpha correlated with parameters for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in the aniridia group, including increasing atrophy of meibomian glands, and shorter break-up time of the tear film. CONCLUSIONS. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines are significantly elevated in tear fluid from aniridia patients, and correlate with parameters for MGD in aniridia. Increased inflammation of the ocular surface may be a factor in the development of MGD in aniridia patients, and explain the high prevalence of MGD and dry eye disease in these patients.

  • 16.
    Landsend, Erlend S.
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Utheim, Oygunn A.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Pedersen, Hilde R.
    University of Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Baraas, Rigmor C.
    University of Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Utheim, Tor P.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway; University of Coll Southeast Norway, Norway; Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    The genetics of congenital aniridia-a guide for the ophthalmologist2018In: Survey of ophthalmology, ISSN 0039-6257, E-ISSN 1879-3304, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 105-113Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital aniridia is a rare panocular disease caused by fundamental disturbances in the development of the eye, characterized primarily by hypoplasia of the iris and macula. Severe secondary complications such as keratopathy, cataract, and glaucoma are common and often lead to considerable visual impairment or blindness. Many complications in aniridia patients are difficult to treat and present a challenge for the ophthalmologist. Increasingly, associated nonocular features of the disease are also being recognized. Over the past decades, major steps have been made in the understanding of the genetic basis of aniridia. Moreover, recent studies have prepared the ground for future treatment options based on specific mutations. Therefore, specific knowledge about genetics in aniridia has become more important than ever. We provide an overview of the field of aniridia genetics and its clinical implications. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Lee, Chyan-Jang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Buznyk, Oleksiy
    Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy, Odessa, Ukraine .
    Kuffova, Lucia
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Rajendran, Vijayalakshmi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Forrester, John V.
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Islam, Mohammad Mirazul
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skog, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    Vironova AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cathelicidin LL-37 and HSV-1 Corneal Infection: Peptide Versus Gene Therapy2014In: Translational Vision Science & Technology, ISSN 2164-2591, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential utility of collagen-based corneal implants with anti?Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 activity achieved through sustained release of LL-37, from incorporated nanoparticles, as compared with cell-based delivery from model human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) transfected to produce endogenous LL-37. Methods: We tested the ability of collagen-phosphorylcholine implants to tolerate the adverse microenvironment of herpetic murine corneas. Then, we investigated the efficacy of LL-37 peptides delivered through nanoparticles incorporated within the corneal implants to block HSV-1 viral activity. In addition, LL-37 complementary DNA (cDNA) was transferred into HCECs to confer viral resistance, and their response to HSV-1 infection was examined. Results: Our implants remained in herpetic murine corneas 7 days longer than allografts. LL-37 released from the implants blocked HSV-1 infection of HCECs by interfering with viral binding. However, in pre-infected HCECs, LL-37 delayed but could not prevent viral spreading nor clear viruses from the infected cells. HCECs transfected with the LL-37 expressed and secreted the peptide. Secreted LL-37 inhibited viral binding in vitro but was insufficient to protect cells completely from HSV-1 infection. Nevertheless, secreted LL-37 reduced both the incidence of plaque formation and plaque size. Conclusion: LL-37 released from composite nanoparticle-hydrogel corneal implants and HCEC-produced peptide, both showed anti?HSV-1 activity by blocking binding. However, while both slowed down virus spread, neither was able on its own to completely inhibit the viruses. Translational Relevance: LL-37 releasing hydrogels may have potential utility as corneal substitutes for grafting in HSV-1 infected corneas, possibly in combination with LL-37 producing therapeutic cells.

  • 18.
    Li, Fengfu
    et al.
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada / University of Ottawa Eye Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada.
    Hurley, Bernard
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada / University of Ottawa Eye Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada.
    Liu, Yun
    Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, and Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Leonard, Brian
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada / University of Ottawa Eye Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada / University of Ottawa Eye Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H8L6, Canada.
    Controlled release of bevacizumab through nanospheres for extended treatment of age-related macular degeneration.2012In: The open ophthalmology journal, ISSN 1874-3641, Vol. 6, p. 54-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bevacizumab (Avastin(®)) has been used by ophthalmologists in many countries as an off-label drug for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Due to its short half-life necessitating frequent intravitreal injection, a method for sustained delivery is in need. We demonstrated that bevacizumab could be released in a sustained fashion over 90 days from nano- and microspheres fabricated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactic acid), respectively. The drug release rate could be adjusted by alteration of the drug/polymer ratio. The use of such nano- and microspheres as bevacizumab delivery vehicles may improve the treatment of wet AMD.

  • 19.
    Lightman, Sue
    et al.
    UCL, England.
    Niederer, Rachael
    Auckland Dist Hlth Board, New Zealand.
    Sharma, Srilakshmi
    Oxford Univ Hosp NHS Trust, England.
    Hooper, Claire
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Tomkins-Netzer, Oren
    Technion Israel Inst Technol, Israel.
    Kramer, Michal
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Damato, Erika Marie
    Cambridge Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    McCluskey, Peter
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Re: Hughes et al.: Costeffectiveness analysis of adalimumab for the treatment of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol 126, issue 3, pp E22-E242019In: Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.), ISSN 0161-6420, E-ISSN 1549-4713, Vol. 126, no 3, p. E22-E24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 20.
    Mostafa Elbadawy, Hossein
    et al.
    Taibah University, Saudi Arabia; Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Mirabelli, Pierfrancesco
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Xeroudaki, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Parekh, Mohit
    Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Bertolin, Marina
    Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Breda, Claudia
    Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Cagini, Carlo
    University of Perugia, Italy.
    Ponzin, Diego
    Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Ferrari, Stefano
    Veneto Eye Bank Fdn, Italy.
    Effect of connexin 43 inhibition by the mimetic peptide Gap27 on corneal wound healing, inflammation and neovascularization2016In: British Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0007-1188, E-ISSN 1476-5381, Vol. 173, no 19, p. 2880-2893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and PurposeThe connexin 43 (Cx43) mimetic peptide Gap27 was designed to transiently block the function of this gap junction. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Gap27 on corneal healing, inflammation and neovascularization. Experimental ApproachThe effect of Gap27 on wound healing, inflammation and vascularization was assessed in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) in vitro and whole human corneas ex vivo, and in an in vivo rat wound healing model. Key ResultsGap27 enhanced the wound closure of HCEC in vitro and accelerated wound closure and stratification of epithelium in human corneas ex vivo, but did not suppress the corneal release of inflammatory mediators IL-6 or TNF- in vivo. In human corneas ex vivo, F4/80 positive macrophages were observed around the wound site. In vivo, topical Gap27 treatment enhanced the speed and density of early granulocyte infiltration into rat corneas. After 7days, the expressions of TNF- and TGF1 were elevated and correlated with inflammatory cell accumulation in the tissue. Additionally, Gap27 did not suppress VEGF release in organotypic culture, nor did it suppress early or late VEGFA expression or neovascularization in vivo. Conclusions and ImplicationsGap27 can be effective in promoting the healing of superficial epithelial wounds, but in deep stromal wounds it has the potential to promote inflammatory cell migration and accumulation in the tissue and does not suppress the subsequent neovascularization response. These results support the proposal that Gap27 acts as a healing agent in the transient, early stages of corneal epithelial wounding.

  • 21.
    Mukwaya, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis in the cornea2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation and angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, are involved in tumor growth, ocular diseases and wound healing. In ocular angiogenesis, new pathological vessels grow into a specific eye tissue, leak fluid, and disrupt vision. The development of safe and effective therapies for ocular angiogenesis is of great importance for preventing blindness, given that current treatments have limited efficacy or are associated with undesirable side effects. The search for alternative treatment targets requires a deeper understanding of inflammation and how it can lead to angiogenesis in the eye in pathologic situations. This thesis provides new insights into the regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis, particularly at the gene expression and phenotypic levels, in different situations characterized by angiogenesis of the cornea, often called corneal neovascularization. For instance, specific genes and pathways are either endogenously activated or suppressed during active inflammation, wound healing, and during resolution of inflammation and angiogenesis, serving as potential targets to modulate the inflammatory and angiogenic response. In addition, as part of the healing response to restore corneal transparency, inflammation and angiogenesis subside with time in the cornea. In this context, LXR/RXR signaling was found to be activated in a time-dependent manner, to potentially regulate resolution of inflammation and angiogenesis. During regression of new angiogenic capillaries, ghost vessels and empty basement membrane sleeves are formed, which can persist in the cornea for a long time. Here, ghost vessels were found to facilitate subsequent revascularization of the cornea, while empty basement membrane sleeves did not revascularize. The revascularization response observed here was characterised by vasodilation, increased inflammatory cell infiltration and by sprouting at the front of the reperfused vessels. Importantly, reactive oxygen species and nitrous oxide signaling among other pro-inflammatory pathways were activated, and at the same time anti-inflammatory LXR/RXR signaling was inhibited. The interplay between activation and inhibition of these pathways highlights potential mechanisms that regulate corneal revascularization. When treating corneal neovascularization clinically, corticosteroids are in widespread use due to their effectiveness. To minimize the many undesirable side effects associated with corticosteroid use, however, identifying new and more selective agents is of great importance. Here, it was observed that corticosteroids not only suppressed pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, but also activated the classical complement pathway. Classical complement may represent a candidate for further selective therapeutic manipulation to investigate its effect on treatment of corneal neovascularization.

    In summary, this thesis identifies genes, pathways, and phenotypic responses involved in sprouting and remodeling of corneal capillaries, highlights novel pathways and factors that may regulate inflammation and angiogenesis in the cornea, and provides insights into regulation of capillary regression and reactivation. Further investigation of these regulatory mechanisms may offer alternative and effective treatment targets for the treatment of corneal inflammation and angiogenesis.

    List of papers
    1. Factors regulating capillary remodeling in a reversible model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors regulating capillary remodeling in a reversible model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-15, article id 32137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Newly formed microcapillary networks arising in adult organisms by angiogenic and inflammatory stimuli contribute to pathologies such as corneal and retinal blindness, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therapeutic inhibition of pathologic angiogenesis has focused on targeting the VEGF pathway, while comparatively little attention has been given to remodeling of the new microcapillaries into a stabilized, functional, and persistent vascular network. Here, we used a novel reversible model of inflammatory angiogenesis in the rat cornea to investigate endogenous factors rapidly invoked to remodel, normalize and regress microcapillaries as part of the natural response to regain corneal avascularity. Rapid reversal of an inflammatory angiogenic stimulus suppressed granulocytic activity, enhanced recruitment of remodelling macrophages, induced capillary intussusception, and enriched pathways and processes involving immune cells, chemokines, morphogenesis, axonal guidance, and cell motility, adhesion, and cytoskeletal functions. Whole transcriptome gene expression analysis revealed suppression of numerous inflammatory and angiogenic factors and enhancement of endogenous inhibitors. Many of the identified genes function independently of VEGF and represent potentially new targets for molecular control of the critical process of microvascular remodeling and regression in the cornea.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2016
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131501 (URN)10.1038/srep32137 (DOI)000381967600002 ()27561355 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Bayer HealthCare AB, Solna, Sweden; Swedish Research Council [2012-2472]

    Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
    2. A microarray whole-genome gene expression dataset in a rat model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A microarray whole-genome gene expression dataset in a rat model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis
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    2016 (English)In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 3, article id UNSP 160103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In angiogenesis with concurrent inflammation, many pathways are activated, some linked to VEGF and others largely VEGF-independent. Pathways involving inflammatory mediators, chemokines, and micro-RNAs may play important roles in maintaining a pro-angiogenic environment or mediating angiogenic regression. Here, we describe a gene expression dataset to facilitate exploration of pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory, and remodelling/normalization-associated genes during both an active capillary sprouting phase, and in the restoration of an avascular phenotype. The dataset was generated by microarray analysis of the whole transcriptome in a rat model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularisation. Regions of active capillary sprout growth or regression in the cornea were harvested and total RNA extracted from four biological replicates per group. High quality RNA was obtained for gene expression analysis using microarrays. Fold change of selected genes was validated by qPCR, and protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We provide a gene expression dataset that may be re-used to investigate corneal neovascularisation, and may also have implications in other contexts of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133892 (URN)10.1038/sdata.2016.103 (DOI)000390238000001 ()27874850 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2472]; Bayer HealthCare AB, Solna, Sweden; Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (BILS) Sweden

    The publication is a peer-reviewed description of a research dataset. Aims and scope of the journal:Scientific Data primarily publishes Data Descriptors, a new type of publication that provides detailed descriptions of research datasets, including the methods used to collect the data and technical analyses supporting the quality of the measurements. Data Descriptors focus on helping others reuse data, rather than testing hypotheses, or presenting new interpretations, methods or in-depth analyses.

    Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2017-01-13 Last updated: 2018-05-21
    3. Time-dependent LXR/RXR pathway modulation characterizes capillary remodeling in inflammatory corneal neovascularization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-dependent LXR/RXR pathway modulation characterizes capillary remodeling in inflammatory corneal neovascularization
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    2018 (English)In: Angiogenesis, ISSN 0969-6970, E-ISSN 1573-7209, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 395-413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation in the normally immune-privileged cornea can initiate a pathologic angiogenic response causing vision-threatening corneal neovascularization. Inflammatory pathways, however, are numerous, complex and are activated in a time-dependent manner. Effective resolution of inflammation and associated angiogenesis in the cornea requires knowledge of these pathways and their time dependence, which has, to date, remained largely unexplored. Here, using a model of endogenous resolution of inflammation-induced corneal angiogenesis, we investigate the time dependence of inflammatory genes in effecting capillary regression and the return of corneal transparency. Endogenous capillary regression was characterized by a progressive thinning and remodeling of angiogenic capillaries and inflammatory cell retreat in vivo in the rat cornea. By whole-genome longitudinal microarray analysis, early suppression of VEGF ligand-receptor signaling and inflammatory pathways preceded an unexpected later-phase preferential activation of LXR/RXR, PPAR alpha/RXR alpha and STAT3 canonical pathways, with a concurrent attenuation of LPS/IL-1 inhibition of RXR function and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. Potent downstream inflammatory cytokines such as Cxcl5, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and Ccl2 were concomitantly downregulated during the remodeling phase. Upstream regulators of the inflammatory pathways included Socs3, Sparc and ApoE. A complex and coordinated time-dependent interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways highlights a potential anti-inflammatory role of LXR/RXR, PPAR alpha/RXR alpha and STAT3 signaling pathways in resolving inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2018
    Keywords
    Cornea neovascularization; Inflammation; Angiogenesis; Remodeling
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147374 (URN)10.1007/s10456-018-9604-y (DOI)000428924500016 ()29445990 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042119664 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2472]

    Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-08-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Genome-wide expression differences in anti-Vegf and dexamethasone treatment of inflammatory angiogenesis in the rat cornea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide expression differences in anti-Vegf and dexamethasone treatment of inflammatory angiogenesis in the rat cornea
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    2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 7616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis as a pathological process in the eye can lead to blindness. In the cornea, suppression of angiogenesis by anti-VEGF treatment is only partially effective while steroids, although effective in treating inflammation and angiogenesis, have broad activity leading to undesirable side effects. In this study, genome-wide expression was investigated in a suture-induced corneal neovascularization model in rats, to investigate factors differentially targeted by dexamethasone and anti-Vegf. Topical treatment with either rat-specific anti-Vegf, dexamethasone, or normal goat IgG (sham) was given to sutured corneas for 48 hours, after which in vivo imaging, tissue processing for RNA microarray, and immunofluorescence were performed. Dexamethasone suppressed limbal vasodilation (P amp;lt; 0.01) and genes in PI3K-Akt, focal adhesion, and chemokine signaling pathways more effectively than anti-Vegf. The most differentially expressed genes were confirmed by immunofluorescence, qRTPCR and Western blot. Strong suppression of Reg3g and the inflammatory chemokines Ccl2 and Cxcl5 and activation of classical complement pathway factors C1r, C1s, C2, and C3 occurred with dexamethasone treatment, effects absent with anti-Vegf treatment. The genome-wide results obtained in this study provide numerous potential targets for specific blockade of inflammation and angiogenesis in the cornea not addressed by anti-Vegf treatment, as possible alternatives to broad-acting immunosuppressive therapy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
    National Category
    Immunology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140047 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-07129-4 (DOI)000407569300001 ()28811496 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2472]; Swedish Foundation Stiftelsen Synframjandets Forskningsfond/Ogonfonden

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-04-18
    5. Genome-wide expression datasets of anti-VEGF and dexamethasone treatment of angiogenesis in the rat cornea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide expression datasets of anti-VEGF and dexamethasone treatment of angiogenesis in the rat cornea
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 4, article id 170111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Therapeutics against pathologic new blood vessel growth, particularly those targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are of enormous clinical interest. In the eye, where anti-VEGF agents are in widespread clinical use for treating retinal and corneal blindness, only partial or transient efficacy and resistance to anti-VEGF agents are among the major drawbacks. Conversely, corticosteroids have long been used in ophthalmology for their potency in suppressing inflammation and angiogenesis, but their broad biological activity can give rise to side effects such as glaucoma and cataract. To aid in the search for more targeted and effective anti-angiogenic therapies in the eye, we present here a dataset comparing gene expression changes in dexamethasone versus anti-Vegfa treatment of inflammation leading to angiogenesis in the rat cornea. Global gene expression analysis with GeneChip Rat 230 2.0 microarrays was conducted and the metadata submitted to Expression Omnibus repository. Here, we present a high-quality validated dataset enabling genome-wide comparison of genes differentially targeted by dexamethasone and anti-Vegf treatments, to identify potential alternative therapeutic targets for evaluation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2017
    National Category
    Ophthalmology Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140046 (URN)10.1038/sdata.2017.111 (DOI)000407551900002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012- 2472]; Swedish Ophthalmological Society Stiftelsen Synframjandets Forskningsfond/Ogonfonden

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
  • 22.
    Mukwaya, Anthony
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mirabelli, Pierfrancesco
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lennikov, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Xeroudaki, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Schaupper, Mira
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Genome-wide expression datasets of anti-VEGF and dexamethasone treatment of angiogenesis in the rat cornea2017In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 4, article id 170111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Therapeutics against pathologic new blood vessel growth, particularly those targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are of enormous clinical interest. In the eye, where anti-VEGF agents are in widespread clinical use for treating retinal and corneal blindness, only partial or transient efficacy and resistance to anti-VEGF agents are among the major drawbacks. Conversely, corticosteroids have long been used in ophthalmology for their potency in suppressing inflammation and angiogenesis, but their broad biological activity can give rise to side effects such as glaucoma and cataract. To aid in the search for more targeted and effective anti-angiogenic therapies in the eye, we present here a dataset comparing gene expression changes in dexamethasone versus anti-Vegfa treatment of inflammation leading to angiogenesis in the rat cornea. Global gene expression analysis with GeneChip Rat 230 2.0 microarrays was conducted and the metadata submitted to Expression Omnibus repository. Here, we present a high-quality validated dataset enabling genome-wide comparison of genes differentially targeted by dexamethasone and anti-Vegf treatments, to identify potential alternative therapeutic targets for evaluation.

  • 23.
    Ong, Jeb A.
    et al.
    Maisonneuve Rosemt Hospital, Canada; University of Montreal, Canada.
    Auvinet, Edouard
    University of Montreal, Canada.
    Forget, Karolyn J.
    Maisonneuve Rosemt Hospital, Canada.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Maisonneuve Rosemt Hospital, Canada.
    Meunier, Jean
    University of Montreal, Canada; University of Montreal, Canada.
    Brunette, Isabelle
    Maisonneuve Rosemt Hospital, Canada; University of Montreal, Canada.
    3D Corneal Shape After Implantation of a Biosynthetic Corneal Stromal Substitute2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 2355-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. The current and projected shortage of transplantable human donor corneas has prompted the development of long-term alternatives to human donor tissue for corneal replacement. The biosynthetic stromal substitutes (BSS) characterized herein represent a potentially safe alternative to donor organ transplantation for anterior corneal stromal diseases. The goal of this phase 1 safety study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) corneal shape of the first 10 human patients implanted with a BSS and assess its stability over time. METHODS. Ten patients underwent anterior lamellar keratoplasty using a biosynthetic corneal stromal implant for either advanced keratoconus or central corneal scarring. Surgeries were performed at Linkoping University Hospital, between October and November 2007. Serial corneal topographies were performed on all eyes up to a 4-year follow-up when possible. Three-dimensional shape average maps were constructed for the 10 BSS corneas and for 10 healthy controls. Average 3D shape corneal elevation maps, difference maps, and statistics maps were generated. RESULTS. The biosynthetic stromal substitutes implants remained stably integrated into the host corneas over the 4-year follow-up period, without signs of wound dehiscence or implant extrusion. The biosynthetic stromal substitutes corneas showed steeper surface curvatures and were more irregular than the healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS. Corneal astigmatism and surface steepness were observed 4 years after BSS implantation, while the implants remained stably integrated in the host corneas. Future studies will indicate if biomaterials technology will allow for the optimization of postoperative surface irregularity after anterior stromal replacement, a new window of opportunity that is not available with traditional corneal transplantation techniques.

  • 24.
    Piotr Czajka, Marcin
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Byhr, Eva
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Olivestedt, Goran
    St Eriks University Hospital, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Eva M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Endophthalmitis after small-gauge vitrectomy: a retrospective case series from Sweden2016In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 94, no 8, p. 829-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo investigate the anatomical and functional outcomes of acute-onset endophthalmitis after small-gauge vitrectomy. MethodsRetrospective case series of patients who underwent 23- or 25-gauge vitrectomy at four centres in Sweden between 2008 and 2012. Postvitrectomy endophthalmitis was identified through the search of the journal records of each institution, and the diagnosis was based on clinical criteria regardless of culture results. ResultsTwenty-four patients (24 eyes) were included. The incidence of endophthalmitis following small-gauge vitrectomy was 0.14%. Indications for small-gauge vitrectomy enclosed epiretinal membrane (n=13), retinal detachment (n=5) and others (n=6). Surgical technique included 23- and 25-gauge vitrectomy (23:1). Four eyes had sutured sclerotomies, and two had postoperative hypotony amp;lt;7mmHg. Days to endophthalmitis presentation varied between 1 and 21 (mean 66). Treatment methods included the following: tap and antibiotic injection (n=7), tap, antibiotic injection with subsequent vitrectomy (n=2) and prompt vitrectomy with antibiotics (n=15). Sixteen eyes (66.7%) were culture positive, whereas the other eight cases were culture negative. Anatomical results included evisceration (n=1), phthisis (n=1), and globe intact (n=22). Presenting best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were hand motion (n=14), light perception (n=7), counting fingers (n=2), and no data (n=1). Functionally 19 eyes (79%) had Snellen VA 0.1; 11 eyes (46%) had VA 0.5 Mean logMar BCVA preoperatively and at the last follow-up were 2.07 +/- 0.6 and 0.79 +/- 0.99, respectively. ConclusionsIn spite of good anatomical and functional results, this study showed higher rate of endophthalmitis than the latest reports suggesting that small-gauge vitrectomy has reached the safety level of standard 20-gauge vitrectomy when infectious endophthalmitis is concerned.

  • 25.
    Piotr Czajka, Marcin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Frajdenberg, Agata
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Comparison of 1.8-mm incision versus 2.75-mm incision cataract surgery in combined phacoemulsification and 23-gauge vitrectomy2016In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 507-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo compare 1.8mm micro-incision and 2.75mm standard incision in coaxial cataract surgery combined with 23-Gauge (23G) vitrectomy with respect to intraoperative and postoperative complications and outcomes. MethodsIn this prospective study 30 eyes of 30 patients planned for combined phacoemulsification and 23G vitrectomy were enrolled, and randomized to undergo either Standard 2.75mm Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS, 15 eyes) or Coaxial 1.8mm Micro-Incision Cataract Surgery (C-MICS, 15 eyes) followed by vitrectomy. Inclusion criteria were cataract and macular disorders including macular hole, epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction. Data were collected at preoperative evaluation and 1 and 12months or more after surgery. ResultsIncision leakage occurred in two eyes (7%: one per group), retinal break in nine (30%: four in C-MICS, five in SICS). Fibrin in anterior chamber (AC) occurred day 1 in three eyes (10%: two C- and one SICS). Posterior capsule opacification developed in 22 eyes (78%: 13 MICS, nine SICS, p=0.1). A myopic shift of -0.630.7 was noted (-0.59 +/- 0.8 MICS, -0.68 +/- 0.6 SICS, p=0.74). Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was significantly smaller in C-MICS group (KP, -0.019 +/- 0.095 versus -0.141 +/- 0.219, p=0.0038) at 1month but not at final follow-up (KP, 0.0005 +/- 0.16 in C-MICS versus -0.057 +/- 0.12, p=0.3 ConclusionsBoth techniques were equally safe with respect to intraoperative and postoperative findings. Coaxial micro-incision cataract surgery (C-MICS) was associated with less surgically-induced astigmatism (SIA) 1month after surgery but differences were not statistically significant at final follow-up indicating a faster refractive recovery with C-MICS than with SICS.

  • 26.
    Ruhi Soylu, Abdullah
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Yavas, Gorkem
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Ergin, Bora
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Keceli, Sumru
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Effect of touch coordinate display as a form of augmented, concurrent visual feedback on the accuracy of single-handed typing via smartphone virtual keyboards2017In: Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, ISSN 1300-0632, E-ISSN 1303-6203, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 1724-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the effect of an easily perceived real-time visual feedback method on touchscreen typing accuracy. Thirty subjects were asked to hold a smartphone with a capacitive touchscreen in one hand and enter a text using the thumb of the same hand via a custom designed virtual keyboard. There were two types of text entry sessions: with or without visual feedback. The visual feedback consisted of a full-screen crosshair, representing the accurate coordinate of touch in real time. In each session, touch-down time on the virtual keyboard and touch coordinates were recorded for every touch action. Two types of typing errors were defined: 1) centering error (CE), which was calculated as the mm distance between the coordinate of the touch and the center of the key, and 2) incorrect entry (IE), which was the number of missed keys. Student t-tests and Wilcoxon tests were used for mean and mean-rank comparisons of CE and IE, respectively. The results showed that visual feedback decreased CE (mean SD) significantly from 1.34 +/- 0.38 mm to 0.85 +/- 0.24 mm (P amp;lt; 0.0005), and decreased IE (median and range, # of incorrect entries) significantly from 5.50 and 32.00 to 1.00 and 7.00 (P amp;lt; 0.005). In conclusion, the accurate, easily perceived, and 2D real-time feedback decreases touch-typing error rates markedly and therefore can be of practical importance for increasing the productivity of smartphone users.

  • 27.
    Samarawickrama, Chameen
    et al.
    Moorfields Eye Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England; UCL Inst Ophthalmol, England; Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Samanta, Ayan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; LV Prasad Eye Inst, India.
    Liszka, Aneta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Buznyk, Oleksiy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. NAMS Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. LV Prasad Eye Inst, India; Univ Montreal, Canada; Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Allan, Bruce
    Moorfields Eye Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England; UCL Inst Ophthalmol, England.
    Collagen-Based Fillers as Alternatives to Cyanoacrylate Glue for the Sealing of Large Corneal Perforations2018In: Cornea, ISSN 0277-3740, E-ISSN 1536-4798, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 609-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the use of collagen-based alternatives to cyanoacrylate glue for the sealing of acute corneal perforations. Methods: A collagen analog comprising a collagen-like peptide conjugated to polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) and its chemical crosslinker were tested for biocompatibility. These CLP-PEG hydrogels, which are designed to act as a framework for corneal tissue regeneration, were then tested as potential fillers in ex vivo human corneas with surgically created full-thickness perforations. Bursting pressures were measured in each of 3 methods (n = 10 for each condition) of applying a seal: 1) cyanoacrylate glue with a polyethylene patch applied ab externo (gold standard); 2) a 100-mu m thick collagen hydrogel patch applied ab interno, and 3) the same collagen hydrogel patch applied ab interno supplemented with CLP-PEG hydrogel molded in situ to fill the remaining corneal stromal defect. Results: Cyanoacrylate gluing achieved a mean bursting pressure of 325.9 mm Hg, significantly higher than the ab interno patch alone (46.3 mm Hg) and the ab interno patch with the CLP-PEG filler (86.6 mm Hg). All experimental perforations were sealed effectively using 100 mu m hydrogel sheets as an ab interno patch, whereas conventional ab externo patching with cyanoacrylate glue failed to provide a seal in 30% (3/10) cases. Conclusions: An ab interno patch system using CLP-PEG hydrogels designed to promote corneal tissue regeneration may be a viable alternative to conventional cyanoacrylate glue patching for the treatment of corneal perforation. Further experimentation and material refinement is required in advance of clinical trials.

  • 28.
    Tognon, M. S.
    et al.
    University of Padua, Italy .
    Fiscon, M.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy .
    Mirabelli, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Graziani, G.
    University of Padua, Italy .
    Peracchi, M.
    University of Padua, Italy .
    Sattin, A.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy .
    Marinello, S.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy .
    Vianello, F.
    University of Padua, Italy .
    Sgarabotto, D.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy .
    Tuberculosis of the eye in Italy: a forgotten extrapulmonary localization2014In: Infection. Zeitschrift für Klinik und Therapie der Infektionen, ISSN 0300-8126, E-ISSN 1439-0973, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 335-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Tuberculosis (TB) of the eye is a well-known extrapulmonary localization in high-incidence countries. Data on its relevance in developed countries are scanty. We aim to study the epidemiological and clinical pattern of ocular TB in a tertiary care institution of a western country. Methods From 2007 to 2010, consecutive patients with a diagnosis of isolated ocular TB or associated to extraocular TB were recruited. Patients with ophthalmological and clinical features of TB were treated with standard antitubercular therapy (ATT) and steroids in case of concomitant severe ocular inflammation. Results Seventeen cases of ocular and extraocular TB and 45 cases of isolated ocular TB were identified. The proportion of patients with ocular and extraocular TB in our local district was 8.1 %, with a proportion of 10.6 % for the isolated cases. In Cohort 1, only one patient was symptomatic for ocular impairment, and uveitis without inflammation was the most common presentation. On the contrary, in Cohort 2, all patients had visual impairment, mainly with bilateral involvement. 77.8 % of the patients showed an inflammatory pattern. ATT was administered for at least 9 months, in four cases with a short course of systemic corticosteroids. Eight cases in Cohort 2 showed recurrence after 1 year from diagnosis. Conclusions TB of the eye should not be forgotten, even in geographical areas not considered among endemic countries. Ocular evaluation is advisable in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, as early detection may allow ATT to preserve visual acuity.

  • 29.
    Xeroudaki, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Germundsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    RGTA in corneal wound healing after transepithelial laser ablation in a rabbit model: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study2016In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 94, no 7, p. 685-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy of the agent RGTA for epithelial, stromal and nerve regeneration after laser-induced corneal wounding in rabbits. MethodsAfter excimer laser wounding of the anterior cornea in 25 New Zealand white rabbits, topical RGTA or placebo was applied in a randomized, masked manner. Fluorescein epithelial staining was performed on the first 5 postoperative days. In vivo confocal microscopy of corneal subbasal nerves and stroma was performed preoperatively and on week 2, 4, 8 and 16. At 16weeks, corneas were stained for beta-III tubulin expression. ResultsPostoperatively, all epithelia had closed by at least 90% after the third postoperative day. No significant difference in epithelial wound size was found between RGTA and placebo-treated groups, and RGTA did not hinder fluorescein binding. After epithelial wound closure, corneas remained transparent to 16weeks. By confocal microscopy, subclinical stromal haze was significantly deeper in placebo-treated eyes (mean depth 60m) relative to RGTA group (52m), p=0.02. Regenerating beta-III tubulin-positive subbasal nerves were observed in all corneas, but partial masking by haze rendered quantitative analysis unreliable. ConclusionsRGTA restored stromal microarchitecture and reduced subclinical haze relative to placebo. The mild epithelial wound quickly healed regardless of treatment suggesting an optimal natural healing process in freshly wounded healthy corneas, and indicating that RGTA may be more suitable for healing of chronic or more aggressive wounds. Limitations of the rabbit model for nerve quantification in the presence of haze should also be recognized.

  • 30.
    Yazdani, Mazyar
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Chen, Xiangjun
    Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway; Arendal Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway; Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Tashbayev, Behzod
    Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Utheim, Oygunn A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Raeder, Sten
    Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Stojanovic, Aleksandar
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Norway.
    Dartt, Darlene A.
    Harvard Med Sch, MA USA.
    Utheim, Tor P.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway; Arendal Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway; Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Tear Production Levels and Dry Eye Disease Severity in a Large Norwegian Cohort2018In: Current Eye Research, ISSN 0271-3683, E-ISSN 1460-2202, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1465-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine if the Schirmer I test (without anesthesia) cut-off value is a predictor of dry eye severity in a large Norwegian cohort of dry eye disease (DED) patients, which are grouped into six levels of tear production. Methods: Patients (n = 1090) with DED of different etiologies received an extensive dry eye work-up: osmolarity (Osm), tear meniscus height (TMH), tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular protection index (OPI), ocular surface staining (OSS), Schirmer I test (ST), meibum expressibility (ME), and meibum quality (MQ). Classification of dry eye severity level (DESL) and diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) were also included. The cohort was divided into six groups: below and above cut-off values of 5 (groups 1 and 2), 10 (groups 3 and 4), and 15 mm (groups 5 and 6) of ST. Mann-Whitney test and Chi-Square test were used for group comparison of parameters (p amp;lt;= 0.05). Results: The groups 1, 3, and 5 had values indicating more severe DED than the groups 2, 4, 6 with significant difference in DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH. Regardless of the choice of cut-off values, there was no statistically significant difference in ME, MQ, and MGD between groups below and above selected cut-off value. When gender difference was considered in each group, significant difference was only observed for DESL (groups 2, 4, and 5), TFBUT (groups 2, 4, and 5), OPI (groups 2 and 6), and ME (group1). Conclusions: Schirmer I is a robust discriminator for DESL, Osm, TFBUT, OPI, OSS, and TMH, but not for ME, MQ, and MGD. Patients with lower tear production levels presented with more severe DED at all three defined cut-off values. Interestingly, the differences in the mean values of DESL were minimal although statistically significant. Thus, the clinical value of different Schirmer levels appears to be limited.

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