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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Prosodiska aspekter av nonordsproduktion hos barn med cochleaimplantat och barn med språkstörning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody can be defined as the rythmic, dynamic and melodic aspects of speech. Without prosody, speech would sound monotonous and communication could be obstructed. The aim of the present study was to examine prosodic aspects of nonword repetition by children with cochlear implants and children with language impairment. Previous studies of prosody in these groups have not in detail described what kinds of errors that occur and therefore this is interesting to investigate.

    The present study is based on previously collected data of nonword repetition among a total of 41 children, all participating in previous studies. Of these children, 27 were children with language impairment aged between 4:6-7:6 years. Fourteen were children with CI aged between 3:0-13:4. The recorded data was transcribed and analyzed group wise and the mean value of the groups were calculated.

    Children with CI showed prosodic problems in nonword repetition to a greater extent than children with language impairment did. Both children with language impairment and children with CI had difficulties with number of syllables, stress, tonal word accent and quantity of vowel. However, the children with CI generally made errors to a greater extent as well as more types of errors, compared to the children with language impairment. All children with CI made some type of prosodic error whilst 11 out of 27 of the language impaired children produced all the words prosodically correct. Children who were implanted at an older age showed greater difficulties with prosody than children who were implanted at a younger age.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Äldreriktat tal på boenden för äldre: Förekomst och karaktäristik2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term elderspeak refers to the adjustments of communication towards elderly people which are similar to those made towards young children. The adjustments are made within several language domains, and are a part of the communicative environment of the elders. The subject is relatively uninvestigated, and few, if any, studies have been conducted on the subject in Sweden. Thus the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible occurrence of elderspeak, and to describe its characteristics.

    The present study is based upon five participants working at different forms of geriatric institutions. Conversations between a caregiver and a resident and conversations between a caregiver and a colleague were recorded and broadly transcribed. The recordings were cut into separate files according to the purpose of respective analysis. The study was carried out with a data-driven perspective and previously established aspects of elderspeak and child directed speech was searched for.

    The present study established that caregivers to a varying extent adjusted their communication within several language domains. The adjustments mainly took place within the prosodic domain but they also took place within the grammatical domain. Adjustments within the pragmatic domain were found to some extent, but no adjustments within the semantic domain were found. Tendencies to adjustments of the speech were present in the majority of the participants. The present study suggests the following additions to the aspects of the elderspeak phenomenon; frequent use of name, less hesitation phenomena and less frequent simultaneous speech. 

  • 3.
    Alfandari, Defne
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vriend, Chris
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Neurosci, Netherlands.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Versfeld, Niek J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Brain Volume Differences Associated With Hearing Impairment in Adults2018In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 22, article id 2331216518763689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared TI-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis. HI adults were individually matched with NH adults based on age and educational level. Gray and white matter brain volumes were compared between the groups by region-of-interest analyses in structures associated with speech processing, and by whole-brain analyses. The results suggest increased gray matter volume in the right angular gyrus and decreased white matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus in HI listeners as compared with NH ones. In the HI group, there was a significant correlation between hearing acuity and cluster volume of the gray matter cluster in the right angular gyrus. This correlation supports the link between partial hearing loss and altered brain volume. The alterations in volume may reflect the operation of compensatory mechanisms that are related to decoding meaning from degraded auditory input.

  • 4.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Normering av Rösthandikappindex och Halsskalan för personer över 65 år i Sverige.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population over 65 years of age is increasing and health in elderly has been a subject of research for decades but voice function and vocal health has not been prioritized. The purpose of this study is to obtain reference value for the Swedish version of Voice Handicap Index (RHI) and the Throat Scale among people over 65 years of age and assess voice function and vocal health for this age group. The questions were as followed:

    1) What is the reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age? 2) What is the reference value of the Throat Scale for people over 65 years of age? 3) Is there a correlation between a self-rated VA-scale on the perceived degree of voice problems, and the self-rated RHI-/Throat Scale result? 4) Does age, gender or previous profession matter for the self-perceived voice?

    In total 100 individuals participated in the study, 50 women and 50 men, between 65 and 92 years old. The reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age was 13,4 points and the reference value for the Throat Scale was 7,7 points. Both reference values are higher than reference values for younger people. The reference value of RHI is mainly described from the high points of the participants over 85 years of age. There was a correlation between the results of the RHI/the Throat Scale and the VA-scale concerning the perceived degree of voice problems, p < .01. Age is a significant factor for self-perceived voice problems. The older the subject, the higher points scored, both on the RHI, p < .05 and the Throat Scale. The results of the Throat Scale, however, were not significant. Even though most of the participants were active the reference value of RHI and the Throat Scale was higher than the reference value for younger people. The conclusion is that the voice changes in elderly affect voice experience.

  • 5.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Ordförråd på modersmål hos barn i förskoleklass i Sverige: en jämförelse mellan tvåspråkiga och enspråkiga barn2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället kommer vi ofta i kontakt med tvåspråkighet, så även på logopedmottagningar runt om i landet. Det kan vara svårt att genomföra språkbedömningar på barn med flera modersmål eller annat modersmål än svenska. Syftet med uppsatsen var att översätta benämningstestet "Ordracet" till arabiska och sedan använda det för att testa aktivt ordförråd. Passivt ordförråd testades med Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III. Fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde testades med ordflödestestet FAS. Frågeställningarna var: Hur skiljer sig de två ordförråden hos simultant tvåspråkiga barn från ordförrådet hos enspråkiga barn? Hur skiljer sig det svenska ordförrådet från det arabiska ordförrådet inom gruppen tvåspråkiga barn? Hur ser sambandet mellan fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde och ordförråd ut? De tvåspråkiga barnen hade lägre resultat på arabiska än vad de enspråkiga barnen hade på svenska, både vad gäller förståelse och produktion. På svenska presterade de tvåspråkiga barnen praktiskt taget lika högt som de enspråkiga, de var alltså bättre på svenska än på arabiska. Det fanns en stor skillnad mellan grupperna på delen fonologi svenska, där de tvåspråkiga barnen fick signifikant högre resultat än de enspråkiga barnen.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Englund, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med cochleaimplantat2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a hearing device that makes it possible for individuals who are deaf or has a severe hearing impairment to receive auditory information and develop spoken language. The pragmatic ability may be affected. In short, pragmatics may be described as the study of language use in social contexts. Pragmatic ability can be seen as the result of the individual‟s behavior as well as the underlying causes.

    The aim of the present study was to describe the pragmatic ability in children with CI. An approach inspired by Conversation Analysis (CA) was used in order to highlight the various phenomena that occurred in the interaction.

    Seven children with CI participated in the study, five girls and two boys. Each conversation consisted of either a child with CI interacting with a peer, or a child with CI interacting with a parent or a teacher. A total of 14 conversations were analyzed and phenomena relevant to the study were examined. To gather further information regarding the children‟s communicative behavior, Children’s Communication Checklist was filled in by parents and teachers.

    The children who participated in the study constitute a heterogeneous group and there was no clear pattern when it comes to hearing-impairment and pragmatic ability. The result showed that children with CI used both specific and non-specific requests for clarification. It seems as if intelligibility on the sentence level may reflect how efficient the interaction turns out, as the children with high intelligibility were the ones who managed to solve misunderstandings the best in the conversations. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that the adult participants used a higher rate of specific requests for clarification in contrast to children with CI.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Resultat av oralmotorisk och fonologisk testning: En jämförelsestudie mellan taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal är det akustiska resultatet av rörelser i talapparaten med avsikt att förmedla ett språkligt budskap (Kent, 2000). Oralmotorisk funktion är en grundläggande förutsättning för talkommunikation (Sjögreen & Lohmander, 2008). Om tal- eller oralmotoriska problem uppstår kan en tal- eller oralmotorisk diagnos ställs utifrån en utredning över dessa funktioner (McAllister, 2008). Nordiskt Orofacialt Test – Screening (NOT-S) är ett screeningmaterial som testar den oro-faciala funktionen (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjögreen & Åsten, 2007). Materialet består av en intervju- och en undersökningsdel som är uppdelade i sex domäner vardera. En av domänerna i undersökningsdelen är tal och består av tre uppgifter A. Talar inte, B. Räkna högt till tio och C. Säg ”pataka pataka pataka”. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka om den information som erhålls i prövning med taldelen i NOT-S överensstämmer med den information som en bedömning med ett fonologiskt test ger. I studien analyserades inspelningar av 61 ljudfiler där barn i åldern 6:0-8:0 år testas med taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet. Resultatet av fonemtestet transkriberades fonetiskt och utifrån dessa beräknades Percentage of Phonemes Correct. Ett gränsvärde sattes upp för att avgöra vilka som befann sig inom normalvariationen. Dessa resultat jämfördes sedan med barnens resultat på taldelen i NOT-S. Det visade sig att åtta (13,1 %) barn hamnade under gränsvärdet för normalvariation på fonemtestet vilket står i kontrast till 22 (36 %) barn som bedömdes som avvikande på NOT-S taldel enligt de fastställda kriterierna för testet. De båda delarna i NOT-S taldel fångade tillsammans upp 100 % av de som identifierades som avvikande i fonemtestet. Därutöver fångade NOT-S upp 23 % (14 barn) som inte bedömdes som avvikande i fonemtestet. Vid beräkning av taldelen i NOT-S utan den diadochokinetiska uppgiften fångades 62,5 % upp av dem som identifierades av fonemtestet. Alla de barn som fick felfria resultat på fonemtestet fick även det på NOT-S taldel. Utifrån dessa resultat bedöms NOT-S taldel och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet inte fullt ut ge samma information om barns talavvikelser. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Ringbert, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med hörselnedsättning: En samtalsanalytisk studie om begäran om förtydligande2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different abilities are of importance to pragmatics, there among hearing. Hearing impairment can affect language development and also pragmatic ability. The aim of the present paper was to study the pragmatic ability in terms of request for clarification in children with Hearing Impairment (HI) in conversation with children with no known hearing impairment, henceforth normally hearing (NH). The present study also describes requests for clarification sequentially in detail, and also highlights points where there may be observable differences between children with and without hearing impairment. Eight conversational pairs consisting of one child with HI and one NH child were studied. Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC) was filled out by the parents and teachers of the children with HI in order to complement the description of the pragmatic ability in children with HI. Conversation Analysis was used in order to make the study of interaction as open-minded as possible. The conversation extracts were grouped according to task or non-task oriented interaction based on the activities that occurred.

    The results of the present study showed that the children with HI and NH both used non-specific and specific requests for clarification, and that these types of requests were used in both task and non-task oriented interaction. Children with HI used the non-specific request "sorry?" to greater extent in the extracts than children with NH did. In general, no differences in occurrence of specific requests were seen between children with HI and children with NH. As regards to what happened before and after requests for clarifications, no distinct differences could be established between children with HI and children with NH. In conclusion, it is not certain if and how a hearing impairment have affected the pragmatic ability, although tendencies in the conversation extracts indicated that hearing impairment sometimes affected the interaction.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Carlsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Utveckling av kognitiva färdigheter och läsförmåga hos barn med mild och måttlig hörselnedsättning i ett ettårsperspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to process and to remember information is a basic condition for language ability and for coming reading ability. Reading ability is strongly connected to phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary knowledge and working memory capacity. In what way hearing impairment in children affects development of cognitive skills and later on reading ability is an area that has attracted minor attention for research.

    The aim with this study was to investigate changes in cognitive skills and reading ability in children with mild or moderate hearing impairment after one year of progress and furthermore if any connections between any increases of the abilities were to be found. Comparisons were made with results from age adequate normal hearing children. Moreover prosodic ability on word-level was tested this year. Eleven Swedish children aged 7:6-10:10 years participated in this study. To illustrate progress of the abilities mentioned the SIPS computer test battery and furthermore some manually given tests for reading and prosodic abilities were used.

    The results show a developmental trend for the children with hearing impairment on tests of working memory and reading comprehension. The least degree of development was found in the area of phonological skills. The children with hearing impairment showed in general the same capacity as normal hearing children on tests for the different abilities. In the area of working memory the children with hearing impairment had significant lower results on half of the tests than age adequate normal hearing children. Several strong connections were present for children with hearing impairment this year than last year, in-between cognitive skills and reading ability. Correlation appeared between age for insertion of hearing aid and test for decoding ability. Results on tests for prosodic ability reached ceiling effect.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Buhr, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Normering av test av intraoral stereognosi och tvåpunktsdiskrimination: Hos barn i åldrarna 5;6 - 7;0 år2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The oral sensory ability in children can be assessed through test of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Currently, these two tests are not frequently used in clinical settings, and normative data are not always available. The aim of this study was to establish normative data for these two tests in children aged 5;6 to 7;0 years. Further, intention was to compare the results with respect to age and gender. In total 103 children participated, 49 boys and 54 girls. The participants were divided into three age-groups. The results regarding intraoral stereognosis showed significant differences between genders, where boys performed poorer than girls. Differences between two of the three age-groups could also be established. The results show that an improvement can be expected in children six years and older.

    Regarding two-point discrimination 73 of the 103 children performed perfectly. The remaining children’s scores were also consistently high. No differences between gender and age were found.

    There was no correlation between the test results of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Therefore it would be necessary to perform both these tests in assessment, since they probably examine two separate aspects of the oral sensory ability.

     

  • 11.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Normering av Nordiskt Orofacialt Test- Screening (NOT-S) för barn 6:0- 8:0 år.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breathing, swallowing, chewing, facial expressions and articulation are aspects of orofacial function (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjogreen, & Asten, 2007). Oral motor function is important for speech production as well as eating

    (Lundeborg Hammarström, 2010). The Nordic Orofacial Test –Screening (NOT-S) is a screening instrument for orofacial dysfunction (Bakke et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to collect data about how typically developed children aged 6:0-8:0 years perform on NOT-S, and also to examine if there were any age or gender differences in the results. A total of 80 children and their caretakers participated in the study. There were 30 children aged six and 50 aged seven. The children were tested in their schools and their parents were interviewed by telephone. The results showed that children aged 6:0- 8:0 years had a mean score of 1,44 ± 1,16 on NOT-S. For children at age six the mean score was 1,63 ± 1,16 and for the children at age seven, the mean score was 1,32 ± 1,15. No significant age or gender differences were found in the results except in the interview section, where a significant gender difference between children at age seven was measured. Boys had more orofacial problems than girls. Results may be used as norm data when using the NOT-S in clinical practice.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 13.
    Andersson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Thuresson Muhrman, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Arbetsminne och receptivt lexikon hos barn med cochleaimplantat: en undersökning med SIPS och PPVT2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cochlear implants (CI) are one of the most important medical innovations in the last 20 years. A CI can enable hearing and spoken language in children with severe hearing impairment or deafness. However, many children with CIs do not reach the expected level of language. The reasons for this are not yet fully understood and further research is therefore necessary. In the present study 9 children, 6;7-12;4 years old with CIs participated. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive and language abilities with focus on working memory and receptive lexicon in children with CI. For this purpose selected parts of the computer based test battery SIPS (Sound Information Processing System) and PPVT (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) were used. The test results were analysed on group level and on individual level. In addition the results were compared to results from a control group of children with normal hearing.

    The children with CIs achieved lower results than the control group did, measured on a group level. A few individuals though performed at the same level as the children in the control group which implies that it is possible for children with CIs to reach good results on the examined aspects. The results of this study also indicate that late implantation is not necessarily an obstacle for good language development. Correlations between working memory and lexicon were found both in the children with CIs and in the control group. No correlation between the investigated demographic factors and test results was found.

  • 14.
    Arehart, Kathryn H.
    et al.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Evanston, Communication Sciences and Disorders.
    Kates, James M.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre,Denmark.
    Pedersen, Michael Syskind
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Relationship between distortion, hearing loss and working memory for digital noise reduction2015In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 505-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study considered speech modified by additive babble combined with noise-suppression processing. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of the signal modifications, individual peripheral hearing loss, and individual cognitive capacity on speech intelligibility and speech quality.

    Design: The participant group consisted of 31 individuals with moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging in age from 51 to 89 years (mean = 69.6 years). Speech intelligibility and speech quality were measured using low-context sentences presented in babble at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-suppression strategy with systematic manipulations of two parameters (error rate and attenuation values). The cumulative effects of signal modification produced by babble and signal processing were quantified using an envelope-distortion metric. Working memory capacity was assessed with a reading span test. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of signal processing parameters on perceptual scores. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the role of degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity in individual listener response to the processed noisy speech. The model also considered improvements in envelope fidelity caused by the binary mask and the degradations to envelope caused by error and noise.

    Results: The participants showed significant benefits in terms of intelligibility scores and quality ratings for noisy speech processed by the ideal binary mask noise-suppression strategy. This benefit was observed across a range of signal-to-noise ratios and persisted when up to a 30% error rate was introduced into the processing. Average intelligibility scores and average quality ratings were well predicted by an objective metric of envelope fidelity. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity were significant factors in explaining individual listener’s intelligibility scores for binary mask processing applied to speech in babble. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity did not predict listeners’ quality ratings.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that envelope fidelity is a primary factor in determining the combined effects of noise and binary mask processing for intelligibility and quality of speech presented in babble noise. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity are significant factors in explaining variability in listeners’ speech intelligibility scores but not in quality ratings.

  • 15.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gatehouse, Stuart
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Kiessling, Jürgen
    Department of Audiology Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen, Germany.
    Naylor, Graham
    Oticon Research Centre, Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Verschuure, Hans
    Audiological Centre Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Holland.
    Wouters, Jan
    ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences K. U. Leuven, Belgium.
    The design of a project to assess bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid fitting2008In: Trends in Amplification, ISSN 1084-7138, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. © 2008 Sage Publications.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson Schloenzig, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Crona, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    I havet av siffror och bokstäver: En studie om matematik- och lässvårigheter hos barn i andra klass2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is not uncommon for math difficulties and reading difficulties to occur simultaneously. Despite this, math and reading difficulties are thought to have different cognitive profiles where math difficulties are linked to number sense; an innate ability to understand, approximate and manipulate both quantities and numerical information, whereas reading difficulties are linked to phonological ability; an innate ability to understand, create representations of and manipulate phonological information. A possible link between the difficulties is that phonological abilities also could affect mathematical ability. Support for this comes from studies where comorbid math and reading difficulties are associated with more severe difficulties in arithmetic ability compared to those with isolated math difficulties. The purpose of this study is to examine whether isolated math difficulties, isolated reading difficulties and comorbid math and reading difficulties can be linked to deficits in number sense, phonological ability or both of these, and whether comorbid math and reading difficulties differ in performance in mathematical tasks compared to isolated math difficulties for children in second grade. The study was carried out by testing 161 second grade children in arithmetic performance, reading performance, number sense and phonological ability. Based on performance in arithmetic and reading participants were divided into four groups: math difficulties (MD), reading difficulties (LD), comorbid math and reading difficulties (MD/LD) and control group. Statistical comparisons between groups were calculated by use of ANCOVAs, with non-verbal intelligence as covariate, and by independent t-test. Results gave partial support for the proposed core deficits for math and reading difficulties respectively, mainly concerning math difficulties and number sense deficits. The MD group performed significantly poorer in the non-symbolic number sense test.The group LD did not perform significantly poorer in respect to any task. The group MD/LD performed significantly poorer regarding subtraction, symbolic number sense tests and phonological awareness. Based on these results it can be discussed whether a link between number sense deficits and phonological awareness deficits may cause difficulty with learning and manipulating symbolic digit number.

  • 17.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Study sample: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  • 18.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hur hör barn med bilaterala cochlea-implantat jämfört med normalhörande?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Asplund, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Val med föremål och bilder hos barn i Tanzania med cerebral pares: En interventionsstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that children with multiple disabilities have been able to learn to make choices. Practising choice making is a good way to introduce an intervention using Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). Choice making with objects should then be trainded before choice making with pictures. The present study is a single subject experimental design and was accomplished at a center for children with disabilities in Tanzania during 12 weeks. The primary purpose was to examine if the number of choices made by two boys with cerebral palsy increased after communicationintervention with objects and pictures. The participants were trained to make choices over two intervention phases and the staff were given lectures on two occasions and through tuitions. The number of choices made by the participants as well as the choices offered by the staff, were measured continuously at predetermined activities. The results show that the number of choices with objects and pictures increased in both participants. It was also observed that the interaction between the children and the staff increased. Aspects that are discussed are whether the staff’s ability to offer choices affects the result and that the factors which separate what a “none-choice” is could be defined more clearly.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wallner, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stamningsbehandling enligt Lidcombeprogrammet: En långtidsuppföljning av svensktalande förskolebarn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study the long-term effects of stuttering treatment according to the Lidcombe Program in Sweden and to answer questions whether underlying factors may have affected the treatment results. Participants were seven children, one girl and six boys aged 7:10-14:2, who all completed Stage 1 of the program approximately 2-7 years ago.The children were video recorded during a conversation with one of the authors and while reading aloud. Before the recording, their parents estimated the level of stuttering according to a Severity Range (SR) Scale. The evaluations were used as reference for determining whether the recordings were representative for the children´s current speech fluency. Proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) were calculated from the video recorded material and compared with the proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) at the time when the first stage of the program was initiated.The results showed that the Lidcombe Program had a significant (z=-2.37, p=0.02) long term effect on stuttering treatment for the participants in this study. The effect size was calculated to 1.05, which indicates a large effect. No correlation between underlying factors and treatment results could be established at group level. However, the results showed differences among the participants and underlying factors as age at stuttering onset and age when treatment was introduced may have affected the treatment results.This is one of the very first long term follow-ups on Swedish preschool children that have been treated according to the Lidcombe Program and the authors hope to see further research.

  • 21.
    Baguley, David
    et al.
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McFerran, Don
    Consultant Otolaryngologist, Colchester, Essex, UK.
    McKenna, Laurence
    Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, UK.
    Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary approach2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approachprovides a broad account of tinnitus and hyperacusis, detailing the latest research and developments in clinical management, incorporating insights from audiology, otology, psychology, psychiatry and auditory neuroscience. It promotes a collaborative approach to treatment that will benefit patients and clinicians alike.

    The 2nd edition has been thoroughly updated and revised in line with the very latest developments in the field. The book contains 40% new material including two brand new chapters on neurophysiological models of tinnitus and emerging treatments; and the addition of a glossary as well as appendices detailing treatment protocols for use in an audiology and psychology context respectively.

  • 22.
    Bakke, Merete
    et al.
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    Jönköping.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Sjogreen, L.
    Göteborg University.
    Asten, P.
    Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital.
    Development and evaluation of a comprehensive screening for orofacial dysfunction.2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to develop a comprehensive screening instrument for evaluation of orofacial dysfunction that was easy to perform for different health professionals without special equipment. The Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening (NOT-S), consisting of a structured interview and clinical examination, was developed with a picture manual illustrating the different tasks in the examination. It was first tested in a Swedish version, and later translated to other Nordic languages, and to English.

             The interview reflected six domains, (I) Sensory function, (II) Breathing, (III) Habits, (IV) Chewing and swallowing, (V) Drooling, and (VI) Dryness of the mouth, and the examination included six domains representing (1) The face at rest, and tasks regarding (2) Nose breathing, (3) Facial expression, (4) Masticatory muscle and jaw function, (5) Oral motor function, and (6) Speech. One or more “yes” for impairment in a domain resulted in one point (maximum NOT-S score 12 points).

             The mean NOT-S score (±SD) in 120 patients (3-86 yr), referred to five centers for specialized dental care or speech and language pathology in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, was 4.1±2.6, and 0.4±0.6 in 60 control subjects (3-78 yr). The screening was easy to administer and the time spent 5-13 min. The scores from the clinic-referred sample differed significantly from the controls, and the sensitivity of the screening was 0.96 and specificity 0.63. Repeated evaluations of videotapes of 20 patients by 3 examiners, speech-language pathologists and dentists, with at least two-week intervals, showed inter- and intraexaminer agreement on the points given in the domains at respectively 83% and 92-95% which increased after recalibration to 85% and 95-99%. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement on the NOT-S scores were 0.42-0.44 (i.e. fair), and the method error was 5.3%. To conclude, NOT-S gave a reliable and valid screening for orofacial dysfunction.

  • 23.
    Barrner, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Evers, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kommunikation hos respiratorvårdade patienter: Upplevelser hos patient och vårdpersonal samt analys av samtal med och utan röstgenerator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    

    Studies have shown that patients receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU), who are entirely dependent on the nursing staff, often experience frustration due to a temporary loss of the voice source. Limited communication is an important factor contributing to patient discomfort. Nursing staff also report communication as frustrating and difficult.

    The aim of the present study is to introduce a neck-type electrolarynx as a communication aid in an ICU, to study the nursing staff experiences of communication with tracheotomized patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and to examine the patient´s experiences regarding communicative abilities. Communication between a ventilator treated, tracheotomized patient and members of the nursing staff was recorded and analyzed according to principles of Conversation Analysis (CA).

    The results show that several members of the nursing staff experience difficulties communicating with tracheotomized patients receiving mechanical ventilation. A majority believe that the conditions for communication could be improved. The results of CA also indicate that an electrolarynx may be an effective and appropriate communication aid for ventilator treated, tracheostomized patients. Further research is needed to broaden the knowledge of the electrolarynx as a communication aid for these patients.

    Keywords: communication, mechanical ventilation, electrolarynx, patient experience, nursing staff experience, Conversation Analysis (CA).

  • 24.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Utvärdering utav effekten av obturatbehandling vid restspalt/fistel hos barn med total läpp-, käk- och gomspalt2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On children born with a complete cleft lip and palate (CLP) the repair of the alveolar ridge doesn´t take place before the children are about ten years old. This results in that they have a residual cleft in the alveolar ridge during their early childhood. This residual cleft, and the oronasal fistulas that may appear after the repair of the hard palate, can result in a negative influence on the speech of the children. Thereby it may be necessary with cover for examplewith a palatal plate or an obturator. At the Department of Orthodontics, at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, some of the children with CLP undergo treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation in order to cover fistulas or residual clefts. The aim of this study was to evaluate which effect this treatment has on the speech of the children. Outcome measures used were speech and caregivers opinion of the treatment. Potential relevant background factors as fistula size and timing of the treatment were investigated. This study included medical records, recordings of the speech of the children and dental study models of the maxilla from eleven children which had received treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation. The parents of the children answered a parental report. In the perceptual evaluations of the speech recordings the results indicated that the articulation was improved after treatment in 81.8 % of the children and that the most common types of articulation errors before and after the orthodontic treatment were weak pressure consonants and retraction of dental plosives. It also appeared to be a connection between the age at which the children first had their obturator and how the speech was influenced. Regarding the parents ten of a total of eleven parents reported an improvement of their children´s speech- and/or eating ability and all of the parents would choose to let their children undergo the treatment again if they had the opportunity to choose. Conclusions drawn from this study is that treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation is an applicable method for children with fistulas/residual clefts since most treated children´s speech benefitted from it.

  • 25.
    Bergman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Levander, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Återanvändning som kommunikativ resurs: En samtalsanalytisk studie av kommunikation med PECS hos en pojke med diagnosen autism2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communicative recycling, to repeat utterances uttered by oneself or others, is a common phenomenon in all societies and languages. The talk of persons with autism often features recycling. The aim of this study was to identify different forms of recycling in communication involving a boy with autism and to describe its functions. Communication between the boy with autism, who used Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to communicate, and his parents and teachers was videotaped. The conversations took place in familiar settings, in the boy’s home and at his pre-school. The theoretical approach in the present study was Conversation Analysis (CA). The results provide further support for other studies in that recycling is an important interactional resource for children with limited linguistic capacities. The boy recycled the conversational frames taught in PECS and accommodated these to fit the context. The use of frames also enabled him to communicate with sentences. The transcribed examples exhibited diect as well as delayed recycling of other persons utterances made by the boy. The communicative recycling found in this study fulfilled all parts of the five-folded definition of functions presented by Tannen (1987): facilitating production and comprehension, creating a sense of connection, being a communicative resource enabling interaction and creating coherence as interpersonal involvement. The communicative recycling enabled the boy and his conversational partners to share communicative conventions. The use of recycling in conversations by people with autism may be a step towards a more generative use of language.

  • 26.
    Bernstein, Joshua G. W.
    et al.
    Walter Reed National Mil Medical Centre, MD 20889 USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Spectrotemporal Modulation Sensitivity as a Predictor of Speech-Reception Performance in Noise With Hearing Aids2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, article id 2331216516670387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with individualized frequency-specific gain. SRTs were measured for 65-dB SPL sentences presented in speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble to an individually programmed master hearing aid, with the output of an ear-simulating coupler played through insert earphones. Modulation-depth detection thresholds were measured over headphones for STM (2cycles/octave density, 4-Hz rate) applied to an 85-dB SPL, 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. SRTs were correlated with both the high-frequency (2-6 kHz) pure-tone average (HFA; R-2 = .31) and STM sensitivity (R-2 = .28). Combined with the HFA, STM sensitivity significantly improved the SRT prediction (Delta R-2 = .13; total R-2 = .44). The remaining unaccounted variance might be attributable to variability in cognitive function and other dimensions of suprathreshold distortion. STM sensitivity was most critical in predicting SRTs for listenersamp;lt;65 years old or with HFA amp;lt;53 dB HL. Results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low-frequency carriers is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect dynamic spectra. STM detection is a fast test of suprathreshold auditory function for frequencies amp;lt;2 kHz that complements the HFA to predict variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 27.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Svemer, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Intervention med tecken som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation på en daglig verksamhet: Teckenanvändande av brukare med Downs syndrom och personal2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manual signs are an augmentative and alternative communication mode which enables and facilitates communication for persons with impairments in speech, language and hearing. There are different ways of teaching signs to persons with intellectual disabilities. One of them is milieu teaching, which is a method where the teaching takes place in natural settings. This method has proven to give good results in generalization and maintenance. Teaching signs to staff in groups has been shown to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether sign intervention affected the number of signs and the number of different signs, used by two persons with Down’s syndrome and eleven staff on a day center. The study was carried out as a single-subject design. A sign intervention was conducted at the day center with the two participants with Down’s syndrome. They were educated individually with a procedure inspired by milieu teaching. When the intervention with the two participants was terminated, the staff was educated in a group format. The number of signs and the number of different signs used by the two participants with Down’s syndrome and the staff were registered. The sign intervention with the two participants led to an increased use of signs for one of them and the sign intervention with the staff led to an increased use of signs for the staff together with one of the participants. The main reason for why the sign intervention was effective for one of the two participants with Down’s syndrome and for one group of staff, but not for the other participant or the other group of staff, seems to be that the participants use of signs had an impact on each other. One of the participants with Down’s syndrome and one group of staff seems to have had a positive impact on each others use of signs. The intervention also seems to have been too short and therefore has not given effect for all of the participants.

  • 28.
    Beukes, E. W.
    et al.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; Audiology India, Mysore, India; Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.
    Valien, T. E.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA.
    Baguley, D. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, The Ropewalk, Nottingham, UK; Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Allen, P. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Positive experiences related to living with tinnitus: A cross-sectional survey2018In: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 489-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to gain insights related to positive experiences reported by adults with tinnitus living in the United Kingdom.

    Design

    A cross‐sectional survey design was used in a sample of adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet‐based intervention for tinnitus.

    Setting

    The study was UK wide and data collection was online.

    Participants

    Participants consisted of 240 adults (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years and average tinnitus duration of 11.52 years (SD: 11.88).

    Main outcome measures

    Tinnitus severity was measured by means of the Tinnitus Functional Index. To evaluate the secondary effects of tinnitus, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults‐Screening Version and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaires were administered. Positive experiences related to tinnitus were explored using an open‐ended question format.

    Results

    Around a third of participants (32.5%) reported positive experiences associated with tinnitus. The number of positive responses ranged from one to eight responses per participant, although there were fewer participants with more than one positive response. The predominant themes concerned for (i) coping; (ii) personal development; (iii) support, and to a lesser extent (iv) outlook. Younger participants, those with a lower hearing disability and those with fewer cognitive failures were more likely to report positive experiences associated with having tinnitus.

    Conclusions

    This study has identified that personal development and a positive outlook are possible despite experiencing tinnitus. Ways to facilitate positive experiences related to tinnitus should be promoted, as these may reduce the negative consequences associated with tinnitus. The most prevalent positive theme was the ability to cope with tinnitus. Positive experiences were also drawn from having clinical and other support networks. This highlights the importance of providing tinnitus interventions that can assist people in coping with tinnitus, particularly to those less likely to relate tinnitus to any positive experiences. Those most likely to be helped include those who are older with greater cognitive difficulties and a greater hearing disability.

  • 29.
    Bjuggren, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenberger, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läs- och skrivinlärning via dator hos elever i årskurs 12011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Formal literacy education in Sweden begins in first grade. How reading and writing education is conducted may differ between classes. Trageton (2005) has developed a literacy learning method in which the computer plays a significant role.

    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate how a number of literacy and language abilities are affected by computer based literacy learning developed by Trageton, compared to traditional literacy learning.

    In the present study, 26 students in first grade from a school in Östergötland participated. The computer based group consisted of 13 students who attended a class in which computer based literacy learning was used. The control group consisted of 13 students who attended a class in which traditional literacy learning was used. A number of literacy and language tests were administrated in both fall and spring time.

    The results showed that more participants in the computer based group, than in the control group, qualified for reading tests at all levels. The results in the writing test showed that the control group performed better in handwriting while the computer based group performed better in written narratives on the computer.

    The results of the present study indicate that both literacy learning methods have an effect on reading and writing skills in students in first grade. The results also indicate that each of the learning methods improve various reading and writing skills.

  • 30.
    Bjuggren, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Hadvall, Emmy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Nordenberger, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Perception och produktion av intonation och rytm hos barn med flerspråkig bakgrund: Testning med ITAP2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Prosodi varierar mellan olika språk och innefattar det talade språkets rytm, melodi och dynamik. Flerspråkighet blir allt vanligare i det svenska samhället, vilket gör det viktigt att studera flerspråkighet ur ett logopediskt perspektiv. ITAP är ett icke-språkligt prosodiskt test som prövar perceptions- och produktionsförmåga av intonation och rytm. Testet har hittills testats på en grupp enspråkiga svensktalande barn med typisk språkutveckling.

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att testa produktion och perception av intonation och rytm hos flerspråkiga barn, med hjälp av ITAP, samt att jämföra resultaten med en enspråkig svensktalande grupp.

    I studien deltog totalt tio barn. Fem barn med svenska och somaliska som språk, samt fem barn med svenska och arabiska som språk. Deltagarna var mellan 4;7 och 9;1 år gamla.

    Resultaten visar att det inte finns några signifikanta skillnader i den totala prestationen mellan den arabiska och den somaliska språkgruppen. Det framkom inte heller några signifikanta skillnader mellan de båda flerspråkiga grupperna jämfört med den svenska kontrollgruppen. Signifikanta skillnader framkom vid jämförelse av perception och produktion inom de båda flerspråkiga grupperna.

    Studien ger ökad kunskap om prosodisk förmåga hos flerspråkiga barn i Sverige, samt om ITAP:s kliniska användbarhet.

  • 31.
    Björhn, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frederiksen, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perception och produktion av svenskt uttal hos andraspråksinlärare.: En studie kring hur utländsk brytning uppfattas av vuxna som läser svenska som andraspråk.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The results showed that the second language learners were more critical in their ratings of foreign accent of other second language learners than the native speakers. The results also indicated a correlation between native-like rating of foreign accent and the rating of one’s own perceived foreign accent among the second language learners.  Correlations between gender and native-like rating and correlation between friendship with native speakers and native-like rating showed no significant results. Second language learners and native speakers perceived different factors in Swedish as foreign accent. This was most distinct when word stress occurred in the sentences, which the second language learners appeared to be more sensitive to in perceived foreign accent rating than the native Swedish speakers. The conclusion of this study is that a variety of factors in Swedish affect perceived foreign accent and that second language learners and native speakers of Swedish to some extent perceive foreign accent in similar ways, and to some extent deviate from each other.

  • 32.
    Björhn, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Nordh, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    "Har han blå eller röda ögon?": En studie om referentiell kommunikation och ordförråd hos personer med utvecklingsstörning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated the use of different types of requests for clarification in a referential communication task. The purpose of this study was to examine whether communication strategies differs between children with developmental disabilities and mental age matched peers in a referential communication task, and how the children react to a communication breakdown. We tested vocabulary to see if vocabulary correlates with different types of requests for clarification. Our study included two groups. One group consisted of people with development disabilities with chronological mean age of 14:9 years. The other group consisted of mental age matched children with no development disabilities. The mental mean age of both groups was 8:6 years. The children’s communicative strategies were assessed in a referential communication task. The vocabulary was examined with the vocabulary subtest of WISC-IV. Our results indicate that children with mental disabilities differ from mental age matched peers in the use of types of requests for clarification in this study. Different types of requests correlates with each other in both groups. This indicates that the persons in the groups use different strategies in solving the task. The vocabulary was not different between the groups.

  • 33.
    Björkheden, Tove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Gudmundsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Nordlund, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kännedom om och handhavande av Vocal Cord Dysfunction: bland logopeder och läkare i Sverige2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) is characterized by paradoxical vocal cord movement during inspiration or expiration, and generally affects adolescents and predominantly women. Previous studies have shown a large inconsistency concerning terminology, definitions, etiology, assessment, differential diagnosis, co-morbidity and treatment. The purpose of this study was to map knowledge on and management of VCD in Sweden. The study was conducted as a written survey addressed to speech-language pathologists and physicians, and attained an answer percentage of 79 percent. The results showed that several professions were involved in the management of these patients, but no clear pattern of referral could be observed. The majority of the respondents considered intense physical exertion and psychological stress as triggering factors for VCD. Despite this, referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist seldom occurred. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis regarding co-morbidity, and also the most frequent misdiagnosis. Respiratory exercises, relaxation and information about the diagnosis generally form the basis of VCD treatment. Physicians rated their knowledge on VCD greater compared to the speech-language pathologists. Several of the respondents stated that an increase in knowledge and awareness among nursing staff had contributed to an increase of patients with suspected or confirmed VCD. This study showed that there was no consensus regarding assessment, co-morbidity, misdiagnosis and treatment of VCD among speech-language pathologists and physicians in Sweden.

  • 34.
    Björklund, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Vårdnadshavare till barn med CI: Upplevelser av förväntningar, förändringar samt livskvalitet efter barns CI-operation2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cochleaimplantat (CI) har använts i cirka 25 år för att återskapa hörsel hos barn och vuxna med medfödd eller förvärvad hörselskada/dövhet. Det finns fortfarande ett stort behov av kunskap om barn med CI och deras anhöriga. Syftet med studien var att undersöka upplevelser av förväntningar, förändringar samt livskvalitet hos vårdnadshavare till barn med CI sedan barnets CI-operation. Studien riktade sig till vårdnadshavare som hade barn med CI och var knutna till föräldraföreningen Barnplantorna vilket var 245 familjer. Antal inkomna enkäter var 153 stycken varav tre uteslöts. Undersökningsmaterialet utgjordes av en enkät vilken konstruerades avförfattarna. Studiens upplägg var både kvalitativ och kvantitativ. Resultaten visade att många domäner/aspekter inom livskvalitet förbättrades efter barnets operation. Vårdnadshavarna upplevde sig i genomsnitt gladare, tryggare, mindre oroliga, kände mindre sorg och isolering från sin omgivning, kunde delta i fler aktiviteter samt upplevde en förbättrad kommunikation. Bakgrundsfaktorer som påverkade livskvaliteten var främst kommunikationsform men även till viss del antal CI, ålder vid upptäckt av hörselskada samt ålder vid första CI. Majoriteten vårdnadshavare upplevde att deras förväntningar inför CI-operationen infriats. Slutsatser som drogs var att livskvaliteten hade förbättrats inom flera områden efter barnets CI-operation.Kommunikationsform var den faktor som hade störst betydelse för vårdnadshavarna på så vis att de vårdnadshavare vars barn kommunicerade med tal upplevde fler positiva aspekter av livskvalitet. Vårdnadshavarnas förväntningar på CI hade till stor del infriats och överträffats. CI innebar för en majoritet av vårdnadshavarna positiva förändringar inom områden som tillexempel kommunikation och socialt liv.

  • 35.
    Björndahl, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röstbehandling: Utvärdering av två typer av röstbehandling genom två självskattningsinstrument2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom svensk logopedi används idag olika former av röstbehandling och en av dessa är resonansrörsmetoden, som är en relativt outforskad behandlingsmetod. Föreliggande studie syftar till att utifrån patienternas självskattning utvärdera två typer av röstbehandling; traditionell svensk röstbehandling och resonansrörsmetoden.

    Patienterna som ingick i studien var diagnostiserade med en funktionell eller funktionellt organisk röststörning och var över 18 år. Innan behandlingen påbörjades slumpades patienterna till endera behandlingsmetod, eller till en grupp som randomiserades efter åtta veckors väntetid. Totala antalet patienter var 19; elva i gruppen som har fått traditionell röstbehandling och åtta i gruppen som har genomgått resonansrörsmetoden. Nio av de 19 patienterna, har även genomgått ett uppföljningsbesök fyra månader efter avslutad behandling. Endast tre patienter ingick i den sent randomiserade gruppen. Utvärderingen av behandlingarna har skett genom användning av självskattningsinstrumenten RHI (Rösthandikappindex) och Swe-VAPP (Swedish Voice Activity and Participation Profile) som patienterna fyllt i före påbörjad behandling och efter avslutad behandling, samt vid uppföljningsbesöket (fyra månader efter avslutad behandling). Den sent randomiserade gruppen fyllde även i de båda självskattningsinstrumenten åtta veckor innan påbörjad behandling.

    Hela gruppen patienter förbättrades signifikant gällande totalpoäng på RHI och Swe-VAPP, samt uppdelat på de två behandlingsmetoderna. Det framkom vissa skillnader mellan patienternas självskattningar inom subkategorierna på de båda instrumenten, dock påvisar resultaten att ingen av behandlingarna hade bättre effekt än den andra. Patienterna i de båda behandlingsgrupperna upplevde en signifikant förbättring efter behandling, samt att förbättringen kvarstod fyra månader efter avslutad behandling, vilket indikerade på att behandlingarna gett effekt över tid.

  • 36.
    Björnestrand, Sophia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kindstrand, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology .
    Kommunikativa resurser vid afasi: -En samtalsanalytisk studie av återkoppling, repetition och prosodi2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie undersöktes interaktionen mellan en person med afasi och hennes närstående. Syftet var att identifiera möjliga resurser som används av personen med afasi för att optimera delaktigheten i samtal, dels som aktiv lyssnare men också i situationer där missförstånd uppstår, samt se hur prosodi används som resurs i interaktionen. Datamaterialet som studerades var en två timmar lång videoinspelning i hemmet hos personen med afasi, där samtal med hennes man samt väninna förekom. Materialet analyserades enligt Conversation Analysis för att identifiera mönster i samtalen. Tre olika mönster identifierades och analyserades; återkopplingar för att visa aktivt lyssnarskap, och repetitioner som en begäran om bekräftelse av förståelse, samt begäran om förtydligande då något är otydligt eller felaktigt i föregående yttrande. Resultaten visade på kommunikativa resurser hos personen med afasi gällande att vara en aktiv lyssnare som stödjer talaren genom återkopplingssignaler, samt som en aktiv deltagare i samtalet genom att initiera reparationer för att samkonstruera förståelse.

  • 37.
    Björnestrand, Sophia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Kindstrand, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Samtalsanalys som intervention med en ungdom som använder bliss2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Conversation Analysis (CA) is a tool to facilitate analysis of everyday conversations. A small number of studies have used CA as an intervention for people with aphasia and have seen positive effects as an outcome of the intervention. The authors of the present study have not found any other studies where CA was used as an intervention in other target groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate if CA may be used in intervention with an adolescent who uses Bliss. The main participants in the present study, which the intervention was based upon, were a sixteen year old girl who communicates through Bliss, and her assistant. The participants were filmed in everyday situations. The video recordings were transcribed and primarily analysed according to CA principles by the authors. The authors of the present study observed both well functioning and not so well functioning communication patterns. The three interventions were based on video recordings, transcriptions and analyses. During the interventions, the authors of the study discussed patterns in communication with the participants. The participants were then given information about selected transcriptions, video recordings and analyses that the authors considered contained interesting patterns. Focus of each intervention was on turn-taking, repair, topic and non-verbal communication. The results of the intervention showed that certain communication patterns that the authors had previously regarded to be less functioning had subsequently improved in certain aspects. Comparisons made before and after the intervention showed that the girl had been given more emancipation to decide topic of conversation and take own initiative in the communication after the intervention. The results also showed that CA can be used to find new Bliss symbols that could be used in addition to the Swedish Bliss standard chart. In regard to turn-taking, repairs and non-verbal communication, similar patterns were observed prior to and after the intervention was carried out. 

  • 38.
    Blumenthal, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Attityder hos förskolepersonal gentemot barn med avvikande tal2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett flertal studier har visat att personer med tal- och språkstörning tenderar att tillskrivas mindre fördelaktiga egenskaper än jämnåriga utan dessa svårigheter. Det finns ett behov av att undersöka skolpersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal. Än så länge har ingen sådan studie genomförts på barn i Sverige och då förskolepersonal utgör en del av små barns sociala omgivning förefaller deras attityder intressanta att undersöka. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka huruvida förskolepersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal skiljer sig från attityder hos personer som inte arbetar inom förskoleverksamhet.

    Ett egenskapsformulär med tolv Visuella Analogskalor (VAS) utformades där 24 egenskaper placerades vid ändpunkterna på skalorna. Spontantal spelades in från en pojke på 4;3 år med avvikande tal. Totalt fick 33 förskolepersonal och 31 personer i kontrollgruppen lyssna på inspelningen och skatta pojkens egenskaper. Svaren från formulären samlades in och analyserades.

    Resultatet visar att förskolepersonalen skattade pojken något högre än kontrollgruppen på elva av tolv VA-skalor men endast beträffande en skala var skillnaden statistiskt signifikant.

    På grund av brist på statistisk signifikans går det inte att dra några slutsatser huruvida förskolepersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal skiljer sig från attityderna hos personer som inte arbetar inom förskoleverksamhet.

  • 39.
    Borch Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Cognitive Hearing Aids? - Insights and Possibilities2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  • 40.
    Borch Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Vestergaard, Martin
    University of Cambridge, Centre for the Neural Basis of Hearing.
    Sundewall Thorén, Elisabet
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Danish Reading Span data from 283 hearing-aid users, including a sub-group analysis of their relationship to speech-in-noise performance2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study provides descriptive statistics of the Danish reading span (RS) test for hearing-impaired adults. The combined effect of hearing loss, RS score, and age on speech-in-noise performance in different spatial settings was evaluated in a subset of participants. Design: Data from published and unpublished studies were re-analysed. Data regarding speech-in-noise performance with co-located or spatially separated sound sources were available for a subset of participants. Study sample: RS scores from 283 hearing-impaired participants were extracted from past studies, and 239 of these participants had completed a speech-in-noise test. Results: RS scores (mean = 41.91%, standard deviation = 11.29%) were related to age (p <0.01), but not pure-tone average (PTA) (p = 0.29). Speech-in-noise performance for co-located sound sources was related to PTA and RS score (both p < 0.01, adjusted R-squared = 0.226). Performance for spatially separated sounds was related to PTA (p < 0.01, adjusted R-squared = 0.10) but not RS score (p = 0.484). We found no differences between the standardized coefficients of the two regression models. Conclusions: The distribution of RS scores indicated a high test difficulty. We found that age should be controlled when RS scores are compared across populations. The experimental setup of the speech-in-noise test may influence the relationship between performance and RS score.

  • 41.
    Bylund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Eriksson, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Översättning och validering av pVHI: för barn 6 till 10 år2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies indicate that between 6-9% of all children has some type of voice problems. Voice problems in children may have different etiology and can affect all ages. In Sweden, there is a lack of a standardized questionnaire addressed to children with voice problems and their legal guardians. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) in Swedish children aged 6 to 10 years. The study was carried out through an internet-based assessment form for children referred to speech and language pathologist/ phoniatrican due to voice disorders in Sweden and a matched control group of children without voice problems. The experimental group consisted of 13 children with voice problems and the control group of 29 children. The questionnaire was filled out by the guardian in cooperation with the child. It contained 23 claims separated into three domains: functional, physical and emotional. The results of each child’s assessment were the total pVHI, with a maximum of 92 points. A comparison between results presented in the original pVHI showed great similarities regarding mean values within the three domains the total pVHI and the experimental group’s estimation of over- all voice problems on a VAS- scale. The internal validity of the translation was high with a Cronbach´s alpha at .95- .96 within the different domains. Significant differences were found between the experimental group and the control group in each domain. There was also a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group regarding total pVHI. The results indicate that the translation of pVHI is easy to fill out and close to the original. Also, it discriminates between children with and without voice disorders indicating good sensitivity and specificity, which is central in a broader use.

  • 42.
    Båsjö, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Widen, Stephen
    Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jutengren, Göran
    School of Health Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Division of Audiology , Sahlgrens' Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hearing thresholds, tinnitus, and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old children2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 587-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Investigate hearing function and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old Swedish children. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry, and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). A questionnaire was used to evaluate headphone listening habits, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. Study sample: A total of 415 children aged nine years. Results: The prevalence of a hearing threshold20dB HL at one or several frequencies was 53%, and the hearing thresholds at 6 and 8kHz were higher than those at the low and mid frequencies. SOAEs were observed in 35% of the children, and the prevalence of tinnitus was 5.3%. No significant relationship between SOAE and tinnitus was found. Pure-tone audiometry showed poorer hearing thresholds in children with tinnitus and in children who regularly listened with headphones. Conclusion: The present study of hearing, listening habits, and tinnitus in nine-year old children is, to our knowledge, the largest study so far. The main findings were that hearing thresholds in the right ear were poorer in children who used headphones than in children not using them, which could be interpreted as headphone listening may have negative consequences to childrens hearing. Children with tinnitus showed poorer hearing thresholds compared to children without tinnitus.

  • 43.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating the process of change: Studies on patient journey, hearing disability acceptance and stages-of-change2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Person with hearing impairment (PHI) and their Communication partners (CPs) have a range of experiences and milestones before, during and after their audiological assessment and/or rehabilitation sessions. The term ‘patient journey’ refers to understanding the experiences and the processes the patient goes through during the course of the disease and the treatment regime. The aims of the current thesis were: (1) to further develop patient journey models of individuals with gradual-onset hearing impairment and CPs by taking their views into consideration; (2) to develop the patient journey model for PHI of sudden-onset; (3) to develop a self-reported measure of hearing disability acceptance and to study its construct and concurrent validity; (4) to investigate the health behaviour change characteristics of people noticing hearing difficulties using the stages-of-change model. 

    Papers I (n=32) and III (n=9) were aimed at further developing the journey model of PHI and their CPs proposed by the Ida Institute. Both studies employed qualitative methods (i.e., focus groups and interviews for data collection and thematic analysis for data analysis), and defined the models based on the perspectives of PHI and CPs both of which had seven main phases. These data were compared with the professionals’ perspectives of the journey as reported in the Ida Institute model which had six main phases. Our studies highlight new phases (i.e., self-evaluation in PHI journey and adaptation in CP journey) and also various commonalities and differences in the perspectives expressed by professionals and patients.

    Paper II included a pilot study to explore the patient journey of sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment from both professionals (n=16) and patients (n=4) perspectives. Both identified all the six main phases, which include: awareness; movement; diagnostics; rehabilitation; self-evaluation; and resolution. The pre-awareness phase may hinder the realisation of hearing loss in persons with gradual onset hearing loss, whereas it is far more straightforward in persons with sudden-onset due to its nature of onset.

    Papers IV and V employed a cross-sectional design (n=90). Paper IV was aimed at developing a Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ), and to study its construct and concurrent validity. Results suggested that the HDAQ has a two factor structure which explains 75.7% of the variance and had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.86). Also, the scale had good concurrent validity in relation to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures. Paper V was aimed at understanding the stages-of-change in adults with hearing disability using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale.  As predicted a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages, supporting the stages-of-change model.

    Overall, the papers presented in this thesis may contribute to a better understanding of process of change through hearing impairment in PHI and their CPs. 

    List of papers
    1. The patient journey of adults with hearing impairment: the patients’ views
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The patient journey of adults with hearing impairment: the patients’ views
    2011 (English)In: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  The term ‘patient journey’ refers to the experiences and processes the patient goes through during the course of a disease and its treatment. The study explores the perspectives of adults with acquired hearing impairment and to further develop the patient journey template based on the Ida model. Design:  Qualitative approach using thematic analysis and process mapping. Setting:  Support groups of people with hearing impairment. Participants:  Thirty-two adults with acquired hearing impairment from two hearing impaired groups in Wales. All were hearing aid users. Main outcome measure:  Participants worked in small groups to describe their experiences through hearing loss. These data were used to develop a template of the patients’ perspective of the journey. This was then compared with the perspective of professionals, and a ‘patient journey template for adults with acquired hearing impairment’ was developed. Results:  This template identifies seven main phases as follows: (i) pre-awareness; (ii) awareness; (iii) movement; (iv) diagnostics; (v) rehabilitation; (vi) self-evaluation; and (vii) resolution. The study identified a number of new components. The self-evaluation component was not defined by professionals and reflects the need for patients to consider the costs, benefits and alternatives to the approach provided by audiologists. It is important for audiologists to be aware of this. Conclusion:  The study highlighted the differences and commonalities in perspectives of professionals and patients. Use of the patient journey can help clinicians to understand the unique experiences their patients go through help them to develop patient-centred treatment.

    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87637 (URN)10.1111/j.1749-4486.2011.02320.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-20 Created: 2013-01-20 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    2. The patient journey of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The patient journey of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, ISSN 0022-2151, E-ISSN 1748-5460, Vol. 126, no 5, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A previous study examined the patient journey of adults with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. This study examined the same for adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, and assessed differences. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy design: Data were collected from 16 audiologists, using the Ida Institute template, and from four adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented using a process mapping model. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: A patient journey template for sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment was developed based on the professionals and patients perspectives. The main difference between these two groups perspectives was seen in the self-evaluation phase: some stages within this phase were recognised by the patients but not by the professionals. The main difference between the current and the previous study was the absence of a pre-awareness phase in the journey described by patients with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, compared with that described by patients with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Patient journey templates could be useful counselling tools for ear and hearing healthcare specialists. However, such templates should be used only as a baseline; it is important to take a detailed case history to understand each patients unique experience, including the psychosocial impact of hearing impairment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2012
    Keywords
    Hearing Impairment, Natural History, Prognosis, Rehabilitation, Patient journey, Sudden-onset hearing impairment
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77869 (URN)10.1017/S0022215111003197 (DOI)000303893900008 ()
    Available from: 2012-05-31 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    3. Communication partners’ journey through their partner’s hearing impairment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication partners’ journey through their partner’s hearing impairment
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Otolaryngology, ISSN 1687-9201, E-ISSN 1687-921X, Vol. 2013, no 707910, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to further the Ida Institute model on communication partner’s (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Qualitative approach using thematic analysis and process mapping. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in the study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data were used to develop a CP journey template. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals’ perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs perspectives). Seven main phases were identified which include: (1) contemplation; (2) awareness; (3) persuasion; (4) validation; (5) rehabilitation; (6) adaptation; and (7) resolution. The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase ‘adaptation’ was identified from CPs’ reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013
    Keywords
    Patient journey, Communication partners, significant others, hearing impairment, hearing loss
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87633 (URN)10.1155/2013/707910 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-20 Created: 2013-01-20 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    4. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no e004066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities.

    Design Cross-sectional.

    Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK.

    Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and depression and a measure of stages of change.

    Results The HDAQ has a two-factor structure that explains 75.69% of its variance. The factors identified were activity engagement and avoidance and suppression. The scale showed a sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.86). The HDAQ also had acceptable concurrent validity with regard to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures.

    Conclusions Acceptance is likely an important aspect of coping with chronic health conditions. To our knowledge, no previously published and validated scale measures the acceptance of hearing disability; therefore, the HDAQ might be useful in future research. However, the role of acceptance in adjusting to hearing disability must be further investigated

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ Open, 2014
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102999 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004066 (DOI)000337363700020 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2018-04-25
    5. Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate health behaviour change characteristics based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale.

    Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design.

    Study Sample: The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 pre-clinical participants completed URICA as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance and also provided some demographic details online.

    Results: As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. This was in contrast to a previous study, which included participants attending audiology clinic, where most participants (about 80%) were in the action stage (Laplante-Lévesque et al., 2013). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of readiness to change composite and committed action composite between the study samples in the current and the previous study.

    Conclusions: Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

    Keywords
    Hearing disability, hearing loss, stages of change, readiness for change, hearing helpseeking, audiological rehabilitation
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95919 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-08-09 Created: 2013-08-09 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
  • 44.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Health behaviour change in hearing healthcare: A discussion paper2012In: Audiology Research, ISSN 2039-4330, E-ISSN 2039-4349, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health behavior change (HBC) refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i) hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii) hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL). In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  • 45.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aidsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate health behaviour change characteristics based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale.

    Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design.

    Study Sample: The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 pre-clinical participants completed URICA as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance and also provided some demographic details online.

    Results: As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. This was in contrast to a previous study, which included participants attending audiology clinic, where most participants (about 80%) were in the action stage (Laplante-Lévesque et al., 2013). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of readiness to change composite and committed action composite between the study samples in the current and the previous study.

    Conclusions: Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

  • 46.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Staphens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University, Wales.
    Models to represent communication partners within the social networks of people with hearing impairment2011In: Audiological Medicine, ISSN 1651-386X, E-ISSN 1651-3835, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: People with hearing impairment have relatively smaller social networks than their normally hearing peers, and may experience more feelings of loneliness. The effects on the person with hearing impairment (PHI) can also impact on their communication partners (CPs). This report discusses the currently available model representing the CPs within the social network context of the PHI and proposes a new model. Study design: The ‘Communication Rings’ proposed and developed by the Ida Institute is discussed. We believe that this model is too simple to represent the complexity and dynamic nature of the CP's role in the life of the PHI and highlights the need for a new model. Results: We suggest that the model ‘Communication World’ based on the analogy of the solar system, may help overcome some of the problems identified. Clinical examples of how to apply this model and its usefulness in rehabilitation are presented. Conclusions: The expanded model could provide novel information, and provision of a visual representation will help CPs understand the problems of the PHI.

  • 47.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University.
    Life consequences and positive experiences reported by communication partners of person with hearing impairment: A pilot study2013In: Speech, Language and Hearing, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to obtain insights into the life consequences and positive experiences reported by the communication partners (CPs) of person with hearing impairment (PHI). Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine CPs who were recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results identified a number of life consequences and positive experiences of CPs and PHIs as reported by the CPs. The main life consequences experienced by both CPs and PHIs were related to communication and psychological aspects. The main positive experiences for the CPs were related to personal development and improved relationships and for PHIs were related to the use of hearing loss for self-advantage. Surprisingly, most of the participants were able to identify at least one positive experience. The study also suggested that open-ended questionnaires were a good way to understand life consequences and positive experiences by CPs and such responses can be further elicited by providing some prompts through a semi-structured interview. The study method and results could be useful in involving CPs in audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions. These findings add to the growing literature that reported positive experiences canbe used during counseling sessions, to motivate the PHIs and their CPs and to boost their positive morale.

  • 48.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University.
    Perspectives in defining ‘hearing loss’ and its consequences2013In: Hearing, Balance and CommunicationArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This discussion paper aims to highlight factors that may be important in defining hearing loss and its consequences and to present different perspectives based on various models of disability. Method: Relevant literature was reviewed to develop the discussion. Results: Hearing is a complex function that has both cognitive and emotional aspects. A person with hearing loss may have consequences in the physical, mental and social domains. Hearing loss in the context of clinical audiology is currently defined based on type of pathology and severity. However, evidence from both clinical findings and research suggest that this may not cover all the aspects of ‘hearing loss’ as a disability. Conclusion: Defining and describing hearing loss and its consequences with a holistic approach has some clinical value particularly in the context of audiological enablement/rehabilitation.

  • 49.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University, Wales.
    The Patient journey: Living with acquired hearing impairment2011In: Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, Vol. 44, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Centre for Long Term and Chronic Conditions, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea , UK.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff , UK.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten , Denmark.
    Information about the prognosis given to sudden-sensorineural hearing loss patients: Implications to 'patient journey' process2012In: Audiological Medicine, ISSN 1651-386X, E-ISSN 1651-3835, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this short paper is to highlight the implications of information provision about prognosis given to sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) patients. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four SSNHL patients to develop the patient journey model that is published in our previous paper (12). In this study the implications from general, ethical and legal perspectives about the information provision were considered (i.e. discussion with experts and the use of relevant literature). Results: Three out of four patients interviewed reported that their doctors (both general practitioners and ENT specialists) gave false hopes about prognosis. From the preliminary data it appears that there is considerable variability in the views expressed by patients about preference in information provision. However, this issue needs consideration as the information provided by professionals may have a serious impact on service provision and outcome. Conclusions: It is our view that even though, in some instances, it may appear that false hope provides short-term psychological benefit to patients, providing full and honest information is necessary for general (i.e. to facilitate patient journey process), ethical and legal reasons.

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