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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Prosodiska aspekter av nonordsproduktion hos barn med cochleaimplantat och barn med språkstörning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prosodi kan sammanfattas som talets rytmiska, dynamiska och melodiska aspekter. Utan prosodi skulle talet förefalla monotont och kommunikationen kunna kompliceras. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka prosodiska aspekter av nonordsproduktion hos barn med cochleaimplantat och barn med språkstörning. Tidigare studier av prosodi hos nämnda grupper har inte i detalj beskrivit vilka typer av fel som förekommer varför detta var intressant att undersöka.

    Föreliggande studie baseras på redan insamlat material av nonordsrepetition av sammanlagt 41 barn vilka deltagit i tidigare studier. Av dessa var 27 stycken barn med språkstörning i åldrarna 4:6-7:6 år och fjorton var barn med CI i åldrarna 3:0-13:4. Det inspelade materialet transkriberades och felanalyserades gruppvis och medelvärden för grupperna räknades ut.

    Barnen med CI uppvisade större prosodiska problem vid nonordsrepetition än barnen med språkstörning. Såväl barnen med språkstörning som barnen med CI uppvisade svårigheter med stavelseproduktion, betoningsplacering, ordaccent och vokalkvantitet. Dock gjorde barnen med CI generellt större antal fel samt fler olika typer av fel jämfört med barnen med språkstörning. Alla barnen med CI gjorde någon typ av prosodiskt fel medan 11 av 27 de barnen med språkstörning producerade korrekt prosodi på samtliga nonord. Barn som hade en högre ålder vid implantation uppvisade större prosodiska svårigheter än barn som implanterats vid en lägre ålder

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Äldreriktat tal på boenden för äldre: Förekomst och karaktäristik2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldreriktat tal avser kommunikationsanpassningar gentemot äldre liknande de som görs till små barn. Anpassningarna sker inom flera språkliga domäner och är en del av äldres kommunikativa miljö. Ämnet är relativt outforskat och få eller inga studier har gjorts i Sverige. Föreliggande studies syfte var att undersöka eventuell förekomst av äldreriktat tal, samt beskriva dess karakteristika då personal på olika typer av boenden för äldre samtalar med en äldre.

    Deltagare är fem personer som arbetar på olika former av boenden för äldre. Samtal mellan personal och äldre samt samtal mellan personal och en kollega spelades in och grovtranskriberades. Inspelningarna klipptes till filer utifrån varje analys syfte. Arbetet antog en datadriven ansats och data studerades utifrån tidigare forskning kring äldreriktat och barnriktat tal.

    I föreliggande studie påvisades att deltagande personal på boende för äldre, i varierande grad, anpassade sin kommunikation inom flera språkliga domäner. Anpassningarna förekom huvudsakligen inom den prosodiska domänen men förekom i viss utsträckning även inom den grammatiska. Anpassningar inom den pragmatiska domänen påvisades till viss del medan anpassningar inom den semantiska domänen ej förekom. Tendenser till talanpassningar förekom hos majoriteten av deltagarna. Följande tillägg av delaspekter till äldreriktat tal föreslås; upprepat användande av namn, mindre samtidigt tal och färre tvekfenomen.

  • 3.
    Alfandari, Defne
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vriend, Chris
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Neurosci, Netherlands.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Versfeld, Niek J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kramer, Sophia E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Brain Volume Differences Associated With Hearing Impairment in Adults2018Inngår i: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 22, artikkel-id 2331216518763689Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared TI-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis. HI adults were individually matched with NH adults based on age and educational level. Gray and white matter brain volumes were compared between the groups by region-of-interest analyses in structures associated with speech processing, and by whole-brain analyses. The results suggest increased gray matter volume in the right angular gyrus and decreased white matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus in HI listeners as compared with NH ones. In the HI group, there was a significant correlation between hearing acuity and cluster volume of the gray matter cluster in the right angular gyrus. This correlation supports the link between partial hearing loss and altered brain volume. The alterations in volume may reflect the operation of compensatory mechanisms that are related to decoding meaning from degraded auditory input.

  • 4.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Normering av Rösthandikappindex och Halsskalan för personer över 65 år i Sverige.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The population over 65 years of age is increasing and health in elderly has been a subject of research for decades but voice function and vocal health has not been prioritized. The purpose of this study is to obtain reference value for the Swedish version of Voice Handicap Index (RHI) and the Throat Scale among people over 65 years of age and assess voice function and vocal health for this age group. The questions were as followed:

    1) What is the reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age? 2) What is the reference value of the Throat Scale for people over 65 years of age? 3) Is there a correlation between a self-rated VA-scale on the perceived degree of voice problems, and the self-rated RHI-/Throat Scale result? 4) Does age, gender or previous profession matter for the self-perceived voice?

    In total 100 individuals participated in the study, 50 women and 50 men, between 65 and 92 years old. The reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age was 13,4 points and the reference value for the Throat Scale was 7,7 points. Both reference values are higher than reference values for younger people. The reference value of RHI is mainly described from the high points of the participants over 85 years of age. There was a correlation between the results of the RHI/the Throat Scale and the VA-scale concerning the perceived degree of voice problems, p < .01. Age is a significant factor for self-perceived voice problems. The older the subject, the higher points scored, both on the RHI, p < .05 and the Throat Scale. The results of the Throat Scale, however, were not significant. Even though most of the participants were active the reference value of RHI and the Throat Scale was higher than the reference value for younger people. The conclusion is that the voice changes in elderly affect voice experience.

  • 5.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Ordförråd på modersmål hos barn i förskoleklass i Sverige: en jämförelse mellan tvåspråkiga och enspråkiga barn2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället kommer vi ofta i kontakt med tvåspråkighet, så även på logopedmottagningar runt om i landet. Det kan vara svårt att genomföra språkbedömningar på barn med flera modersmål eller annat modersmål än svenska. Syftet med uppsatsen var att översätta benämningstestet "Ordracet" till arabiska och sedan använda det för att testa aktivt ordförråd. Passivt ordförråd testades med Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III. Fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde testades med ordflödestestet FAS. Frågeställningarna var: Hur skiljer sig de två ordförråden hos simultant tvåspråkiga barn från ordförrådet hos enspråkiga barn? Hur skiljer sig det svenska ordförrådet från det arabiska ordförrådet inom gruppen tvåspråkiga barn? Hur ser sambandet mellan fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde och ordförråd ut? De tvåspråkiga barnen hade lägre resultat på arabiska än vad de enspråkiga barnen hade på svenska, både vad gäller förståelse och produktion. På svenska presterade de tvåspråkiga barnen praktiskt taget lika högt som de enspråkiga, de var alltså bättre på svenska än på arabiska. Det fanns en stor skillnad mellan grupperna på delen fonologi svenska, där de tvåspråkiga barnen fick signifikant högre resultat än de enspråkiga barnen.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Englund, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med cochleaimplantat2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a hearing device that makes it possible for individuals who are deaf or has a severe hearing impairment to receive auditory information and develop spoken language. The pragmatic ability may be affected. In short, pragmatics may be described as the study of language use in social contexts. Pragmatic ability can be seen as the result of the individual‟s behavior as well as the underlying causes.

    The aim of the present study was to describe the pragmatic ability in children with CI. An approach inspired by Conversation Analysis (CA) was used in order to highlight the various phenomena that occurred in the interaction.

    Seven children with CI participated in the study, five girls and two boys. Each conversation consisted of either a child with CI interacting with a peer, or a child with CI interacting with a parent or a teacher. A total of 14 conversations were analyzed and phenomena relevant to the study were examined. To gather further information regarding the children‟s communicative behavior, Children’s Communication Checklist was filled in by parents and teachers.

    The children who participated in the study constitute a heterogeneous group and there was no clear pattern when it comes to hearing-impairment and pragmatic ability. The result showed that children with CI used both specific and non-specific requests for clarification. It seems as if intelligibility on the sentence level may reflect how efficient the interaction turns out, as the children with high intelligibility were the ones who managed to solve misunderstandings the best in the conversations. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that the adult participants used a higher rate of specific requests for clarification in contrast to children with CI.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Resultat av oralmotorisk och fonologisk testning: En jämförelsestudie mellan taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal är det akustiska resultatet av rörelser i talapparaten med avsikt att förmedla ett språkligt budskap (Kent, 2000). Oralmotorisk funktion är en grundläggande förutsättning för talkommunikation (Sjögreen & Lohmander, 2008). Om tal- eller oralmotoriska problem uppstår kan en tal- eller oralmotorisk diagnos ställs utifrån en utredning över dessa funktioner (McAllister, 2008). Nordiskt Orofacialt Test – Screening (NOT-S) är ett screeningmaterial som testar den oro-faciala funktionen (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjögreen & Åsten, 2007). Materialet består av en intervju- och en undersökningsdel som är uppdelade i sex domäner vardera. En av domänerna i undersökningsdelen är tal och består av tre uppgifter A. Talar inte, B. Räkna högt till tio och C. Säg ”pataka pataka pataka”. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka om den information som erhålls i prövning med taldelen i NOT-S överensstämmer med den information som en bedömning med ett fonologiskt test ger. I studien analyserades inspelningar av 61 ljudfiler där barn i åldern 6:0-8:0 år testas med taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet. Resultatet av fonemtestet transkriberades fonetiskt och utifrån dessa beräknades Percentage of Phonemes Correct. Ett gränsvärde sattes upp för att avgöra vilka som befann sig inom normalvariationen. Dessa resultat jämfördes sedan med barnens resultat på taldelen i NOT-S. Det visade sig att åtta (13,1 %) barn hamnade under gränsvärdet för normalvariation på fonemtestet vilket står i kontrast till 22 (36 %) barn som bedömdes som avvikande på NOT-S taldel enligt de fastställda kriterierna för testet. De båda delarna i NOT-S taldel fångade tillsammans upp 100 % av de som identifierades som avvikande i fonemtestet. Därutöver fångade NOT-S upp 23 % (14 barn) som inte bedömdes som avvikande i fonemtestet. Vid beräkning av taldelen i NOT-S utan den diadochokinetiska uppgiften fångades 62,5 % upp av dem som identifierades av fonemtestet. Alla de barn som fick felfria resultat på fonemtestet fick även det på NOT-S taldel. Utifrån dessa resultat bedöms NOT-S taldel och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet inte fullt ut ge samma information om barns talavvikelser. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Ringbert, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med hörselnedsättning: En samtalsanalytisk studie om begäran om förtydligande2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Different abilities are of importance to pragmatics, there among hearing. Hearing impairment can affect language development and also pragmatic ability. The aim of the present paper was to study the pragmatic ability in terms of request for clarification in children with Hearing Impairment (HI) in conversation with children with no known hearing impairment, henceforth normally hearing (NH). The present study also describes requests for clarification sequentially in detail, and also highlights points where there may be observable differences between children with and without hearing impairment. Eight conversational pairs consisting of one child with HI and one NH child were studied. Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC) was filled out by the parents and teachers of the children with HI in order to complement the description of the pragmatic ability in children with HI. Conversation Analysis was used in order to make the study of interaction as open-minded as possible. The conversation extracts were grouped according to task or non-task oriented interaction based on the activities that occurred.

    The results of the present study showed that the children with HI and NH both used non-specific and specific requests for clarification, and that these types of requests were used in both task and non-task oriented interaction. Children with HI used the non-specific request "sorry?" to greater extent in the extracts than children with NH did. In general, no differences in occurrence of specific requests were seen between children with HI and children with NH. As regards to what happened before and after requests for clarifications, no distinct differences could be established between children with HI and children with NH. In conclusion, it is not certain if and how a hearing impairment have affected the pragmatic ability, although tendencies in the conversation extracts indicated that hearing impairment sometimes affected the interaction.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Carlsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Utveckling av kognitiva färdigheter och läsförmåga hos barn med mild och måttlig hörselnedsättning i ett ettårsperspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to process and to remember information is a basic condition for language ability and for coming reading ability. Reading ability is strongly connected to phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary knowledge and working memory capacity. In what way hearing impairment in children affects development of cognitive skills and later on reading ability is an area that has attracted minor attention for research.

    The aim with this study was to investigate changes in cognitive skills and reading ability in children with mild or moderate hearing impairment after one year of progress and furthermore if any connections between any increases of the abilities were to be found. Comparisons were made with results from age adequate normal hearing children. Moreover prosodic ability on word-level was tested this year. Eleven Swedish children aged 7:6-10:10 years participated in this study. To illustrate progress of the abilities mentioned the SIPS computer test battery and furthermore some manually given tests for reading and prosodic abilities were used.

    The results show a developmental trend for the children with hearing impairment on tests of working memory and reading comprehension. The least degree of development was found in the area of phonological skills. The children with hearing impairment showed in general the same capacity as normal hearing children on tests for the different abilities. In the area of working memory the children with hearing impairment had significant lower results on half of the tests than age adequate normal hearing children. Several strong connections were present for children with hearing impairment this year than last year, in-between cognitive skills and reading ability. Correlation appeared between age for insertion of hearing aid and test for decoding ability. Results on tests for prosodic ability reached ceiling effect.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Buhr, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Normering av test av intraoral stereognosi och tvåpunktsdiskrimination: Hos barn i åldrarna 5;6 - 7;0 år2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The oral sensory ability in children can be assessed through test of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Currently, these two tests are not frequently used in clinical settings, and normative data are not always available. The aim of this study was to establish normative data for these two tests in children aged 5;6 to 7;0 years. Further, intention was to compare the results with respect to age and gender. In total 103 children participated, 49 boys and 54 girls. The participants were divided into three age-groups. The results regarding intraoral stereognosis showed significant differences between genders, where boys performed poorer than girls. Differences between two of the three age-groups could also be established. The results show that an improvement can be expected in children six years and older.

    Regarding two-point discrimination 73 of the 103 children performed perfectly. The remaining children’s scores were also consistently high. No differences between gender and age were found.

    There was no correlation between the test results of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Therefore it would be necessary to perform both these tests in assessment, since they probably examine two separate aspects of the oral sensory ability.

     

  • 11.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Normering av Nordiskt Orofacialt Test- Screening (NOT-S) för barn 6:0- 8:0 år.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Andning, sväljning, tuggning, mimik och artikulation är delar av orofacial funktion (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjogreen, & Asten, 2007). Oralmotoriken är viktig för talproduktion och födointag (Lundeborg Hammarström, 2010). Nordiskt Orofacialt Test- Screening (NOT-S) är ett screeningtest som används för att bedöma avvikande orofacial funktion (Bakke et al., 2007). Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur barn med typisk utveckling mellan 6:0- 8:0 år presterar på NOT-S, samt om det föreligger någon ålder- eller könsskillnad i utförandet av uppgifterna. I studien deltog 80 barn och deras föräldrar. Barnen var uppdelade i två åldersgrupper, varav 30 stycken sexåringar och 50 stycken sjuåringar. Testningen genomfördes i skolmiljö och föräldraintervjuer gjordes via telefon. Resultatet visade att barn i åldrarna 6:0- 8:0 år fick en totalpoäng på 1,44 ± 1,16 på NOT-S. Sexåringarna i studien fick en totalpoäng på 1,63 ± 1,16 och sjuåringarna fick en totalpoäng på 1,32 ± 1,15. Det fanns inga signifikanta ålders- eller könskillnader förutom på intervjudelen där en könskillnad mellan sjuåringar uppmättes. De sjuåriga pojkarna hade mer orofaciala problem än flickorna på intervjudelen. Resultaten kan användas som normvärden vid klinisk användning av NOT-S på studerade åldersgrupper.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 13.
    Andersson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan.
    Thuresson Muhrman, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan.
    Arbetsminne och receptivt lexikon hos barn med cochleaimplantat: en undersökning med SIPS och PPVT2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Cochleaimplantat (CI) är en av de största medicinska innovationer som gjorts under de senaste 20 åren. Med hjälp av ett sådant kan barn med grav hörselnedsättning eller dövhet få möjlighet att höra och utveckla ett talat språk. Många barn med CI uppnår dock inte den förväntade språknivån. Orsakerna till detta är ännu inte fullt förstådda och vidare forskning är därför nödvändig. I föreliggande studie deltog 9 barn i åldrarna 6;7 – 12;4 år med CI. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka kognitiv och språklig förmåga med fokus på arbetsminne och receptivt lexikon hos barn med CI. I detta syfte användes utvalda delar ur det datorbaserade testbatteriet SIPS (Sound Information Processing System) samt PPVT (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). Testresultaten analyserades på grupp- och individnivå. Dessutom jämfördes testresultaten med resultat från en kontrollgrupp normalhörande barn.

    Barnen med CI presterade lägre än kontrollgruppen på gruppnivå. Enskilda individer presterade dock i nivå med barnen i kontrollgruppen vilket innebär att det är möjligt för barn med CI att uppnå goda resultat på de undersökta aspekterna. Resultaten i studien indikerar också att sen implantation inte alltid behöver vara ett hinder för god språklig utveckling. Samband mellan arbetsminne och lexikon påvisades hos barnen med CI samt hos kontrollgruppen. Inget samband kunde påvisas mellan undersökta bakgrundsvariabler och testresultat.

  • 14.
    Arehart, Kathryn H.
    et al.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Evanston, Communication Sciences and Disorders.
    Kates, James M.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre,Denmark.
    Pedersen, Michael Syskind
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Relationship between distortion, hearing loss and working memory for digital noise reduction2015Inngår i: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 505-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study considered speech modified by additive babble combined with noise-suppression processing. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of the signal modifications, individual peripheral hearing loss, and individual cognitive capacity on speech intelligibility and speech quality.

    Design: The participant group consisted of 31 individuals with moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging in age from 51 to 89 years (mean = 69.6 years). Speech intelligibility and speech quality were measured using low-context sentences presented in babble at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-suppression strategy with systematic manipulations of two parameters (error rate and attenuation values). The cumulative effects of signal modification produced by babble and signal processing were quantified using an envelope-distortion metric. Working memory capacity was assessed with a reading span test. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of signal processing parameters on perceptual scores. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the role of degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity in individual listener response to the processed noisy speech. The model also considered improvements in envelope fidelity caused by the binary mask and the degradations to envelope caused by error and noise.

    Results: The participants showed significant benefits in terms of intelligibility scores and quality ratings for noisy speech processed by the ideal binary mask noise-suppression strategy. This benefit was observed across a range of signal-to-noise ratios and persisted when up to a 30% error rate was introduced into the processing. Average intelligibility scores and average quality ratings were well predicted by an objective metric of envelope fidelity. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity were significant factors in explaining individual listener’s intelligibility scores for binary mask processing applied to speech in babble. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity did not predict listeners’ quality ratings.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that envelope fidelity is a primary factor in determining the combined effects of noise and binary mask processing for intelligibility and quality of speech presented in babble noise. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity are significant factors in explaining variability in listeners’ speech intelligibility scores but not in quality ratings.

  • 15.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gatehouse, Stuart
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Kiessling, Jürgen
    Department of Audiology Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen, Germany.
    Naylor, Graham
    Oticon Research Centre, Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Verschuure, Hans
    Audiological Centre Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Holland.
    Wouters, Jan
    ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences K. U. Leuven, Belgium.
    The design of a project to assess bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid fitting2008Inngår i: Trends in Amplification, ISSN 1084-7138, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 137-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. © 2008 Sage Publications.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson Schloenzig, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Crona, Maja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    I havet av siffror och bokstäver: En studie om matematik- och lässvårigheter hos barn i andra klass2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is not uncommon for math difficulties and reading difficulties to occur simultaneously. Despite this, math and reading difficulties are thought to have different cognitive profiles where math difficulties are linked to number sense; an innate ability to understand, approximate and manipulate both quantities and numerical information, whereas reading difficulties are linked to phonological ability; an innate ability to understand, create representations of and manipulate phonological information. A possible link between the difficulties is that phonological abilities also could affect mathematical ability. Support for this comes from studies where comorbid math and reading difficulties are associated with more severe difficulties in arithmetic ability compared to those with isolated math difficulties. The purpose of this study is to examine whether isolated math difficulties, isolated reading difficulties and comorbid math and reading difficulties can be linked to deficits in number sense, phonological ability or both of these, and whether comorbid math and reading difficulties differ in performance in mathematical tasks compared to isolated math difficulties for children in second grade. The study was carried out by testing 161 second grade children in arithmetic performance, reading performance, number sense and phonological ability. Based on performance in arithmetic and reading participants were divided into four groups: math difficulties (MD), reading difficulties (LD), comorbid math and reading difficulties (MD/LD) and control group. Statistical comparisons between groups were calculated by use of ANCOVAs, with non-verbal intelligence as covariate, and by independent t-test. Results gave partial support for the proposed core deficits for math and reading difficulties respectively, mainly concerning math difficulties and number sense deficits. The MD group performed significantly poorer in the non-symbolic number sense test.The group LD did not perform significantly poorer in respect to any task. The group MD/LD performed significantly poorer regarding subtraction, symbolic number sense tests and phonological awareness. Based on these results it can be discussed whether a link between number sense deficits and phonological awareness deficits may cause difficulty with learning and manipulating symbolic digit number.

  • 17.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants2015Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 77-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Study sample: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  • 18.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hur hör barn med bilaterala cochlea-implantat jämfört med normalhörande?2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Asplund, Emilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Val med föremål och bilder hos barn i Tanzania med cerebral pares: En interventionsstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that children with multiple disabilities have been able to learn to make choices. Practising choice making is a good way to introduce an intervention using Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). Choice making with objects should then be trainded before choice making with pictures. The present study is a single subject experimental design and was accomplished at a center for children with disabilities in Tanzania during 12 weeks. The primary purpose was to examine if the number of choices made by two boys with cerebral palsy increased after communicationintervention with objects and pictures. The participants were trained to make choices over two intervention phases and the staff were given lectures on two occasions and through tuitions. The number of choices made by the participants as well as the choices offered by the staff, were measured continuously at predetermined activities. The results show that the number of choices with objects and pictures increased in both participants. It was also observed that the interaction between the children and the staff increased. Aspects that are discussed are whether the staff’s ability to offer choices affects the result and that the factors which separate what a “none-choice” is could be defined more clearly.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wallner, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Stamningsbehandling enligt Lidcombeprogrammet: En långtidsuppföljning av svensktalande förskolebarn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study the long-term effects of stuttering treatment according to the Lidcombe Program in Sweden and to answer questions whether underlying factors may have affected the treatment results. Participants were seven children, one girl and six boys aged 7:10-14:2, who all completed Stage 1 of the program approximately 2-7 years ago.The children were video recorded during a conversation with one of the authors and while reading aloud. Before the recording, their parents estimated the level of stuttering according to a Severity Range (SR) Scale. The evaluations were used as reference for determining whether the recordings were representative for the children´s current speech fluency. Proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) were calculated from the video recorded material and compared with the proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) at the time when the first stage of the program was initiated.The results showed that the Lidcombe Program had a significant (z=-2.37, p=0.02) long term effect on stuttering treatment for the participants in this study. The effect size was calculated to 1.05, which indicates a large effect. No correlation between underlying factors and treatment results could be established at group level. However, the results showed differences among the participants and underlying factors as age at stuttering onset and age when treatment was introduced may have affected the treatment results.This is one of the very first long term follow-ups on Swedish preschool children that have been treated according to the Lidcombe Program and the authors hope to see further research.

  • 21.
    Baguley, David
    et al.
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    McFerran, Don
    Consultant Otolaryngologist, Colchester, Essex, UK.
    McKenna, Laurence
    Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, UK.
    Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary approach2013 (oppl. 2)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approachprovides a broad account of tinnitus and hyperacusis, detailing the latest research and developments in clinical management, incorporating insights from audiology, otology, psychology, psychiatry and auditory neuroscience. It promotes a collaborative approach to treatment that will benefit patients and clinicians alike.

    The 2nd edition has been thoroughly updated and revised in line with the very latest developments in the field. The book contains 40% new material including two brand new chapters on neurophysiological models of tinnitus and emerging treatments; and the addition of a glossary as well as appendices detailing treatment protocols for use in an audiology and psychology context respectively.

  • 22.
    Bakke, Merete
    et al.
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    Jönköping.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Sjogreen, L.
    Göteborg University.
    Asten, P.
    Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital.
    Development and evaluation of a comprehensive screening for orofacial dysfunction.2007Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 75-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to develop a comprehensive screening instrument for evaluation of orofacial dysfunction that was easy to perform for different health professionals without special equipment. The Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening (NOT-S), consisting of a structured interview and clinical examination, was developed with a picture manual illustrating the different tasks in the examination. It was first tested in a Swedish version, and later translated to other Nordic languages, and to English.

             The interview reflected six domains, (I) Sensory function, (II) Breathing, (III) Habits, (IV) Chewing and swallowing, (V) Drooling, and (VI) Dryness of the mouth, and the examination included six domains representing (1) The face at rest, and tasks regarding (2) Nose breathing, (3) Facial expression, (4) Masticatory muscle and jaw function, (5) Oral motor function, and (6) Speech. One or more “yes” for impairment in a domain resulted in one point (maximum NOT-S score 12 points).

             The mean NOT-S score (±SD) in 120 patients (3-86 yr), referred to five centers for specialized dental care or speech and language pathology in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, was 4.1±2.6, and 0.4±0.6 in 60 control subjects (3-78 yr). The screening was easy to administer and the time spent 5-13 min. The scores from the clinic-referred sample differed significantly from the controls, and the sensitivity of the screening was 0.96 and specificity 0.63. Repeated evaluations of videotapes of 20 patients by 3 examiners, speech-language pathologists and dentists, with at least two-week intervals, showed inter- and intraexaminer agreement on the points given in the domains at respectively 83% and 92-95% which increased after recalibration to 85% and 95-99%. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement on the NOT-S scores were 0.42-0.44 (i.e. fair), and the method error was 5.3%. To conclude, NOT-S gave a reliable and valid screening for orofacial dysfunction.

  • 23.
    Barrner, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Evers, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Kommunikation hos respiratorvårdade patienter: Upplevelser hos patient och vårdpersonal samt analys av samtal med och utan röstgenerator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    

    Studies have shown that patients receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU), who are entirely dependent on the nursing staff, often experience frustration due to a temporary loss of the voice source. Limited communication is an important factor contributing to patient discomfort. Nursing staff also report communication as frustrating and difficult.

    The aim of the present study is to introduce a neck-type electrolarynx as a communication aid in an ICU, to study the nursing staff experiences of communication with tracheotomized patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and to examine the patient´s experiences regarding communicative abilities. Communication between a ventilator treated, tracheotomized patient and members of the nursing staff was recorded and analyzed according to principles of Conversation Analysis (CA).

    The results show that several members of the nursing staff experience difficulties communicating with tracheotomized patients receiving mechanical ventilation. A majority believe that the conditions for communication could be improved. The results of CA also indicate that an electrolarynx may be an effective and appropriate communication aid for ventilator treated, tracheostomized patients. Further research is needed to broaden the knowledge of the electrolarynx as a communication aid for these patients.

    Keywords: communication, mechanical ventilation, electrolarynx, patient experience, nursing staff experience, Conversation Analysis (CA).

  • 24.
    Bech Christensen, Christian
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Hietkamp, Renskje K.
    Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Harte, James M.
    DGS Diagnost AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Res Ctr, Denmark.
    Kidmose, Preben
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Toward EEG-Assisted Hearing Aids: Objective Threshold Estimation Based on Ear-EEG in Subjects With Sensorineural Hearing Loss2018Inngår i: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 22, artikkel-id 2331216518816203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrophysiological feedback on activity in the auditory pathway may potentially advance the next generation of hearing aids. Conventional electroencephalographic (EEG) systems are, however, impractical during daily life and incompatible with hearing aids. Ear-EEG is a method in which the EEG is recorded from electrodes embedded in a hearing aid like earpiece. The method therefore provides an unobtrusive way of measuring neural activity suitable for use in everyday life. This study aimed to determine whether ear-EEG could be used to estimate hearing thresholds in subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. Specifically, ear-EEG was used to determine physiological thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz using auditory steady-state response measurements. To evaluate ear-EEG in relation to current methods, thresholds were estimated from a concurrently recorded conventional scalp EEG. The threshold detection rate for ear-EEG was 20% lower than the detection rate for scalp EEG. Thresholds estimated using in-ear referenced ear-EEG were found to be elevated at an average of 5.9, 2.3, 5.6, and 1.5 dB relative to scalp thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively. No differences were found in the variance of means between in-ear ear-EEG and scalp EEG. In-ear ear-EEG, auditory steady-state response thresholds were found at 12.1 to 14.4 dB sensation level with an intersubject variation comparable to that of behavioral thresholds. Collectively, it is concluded that although further refinement of the method is needed to optimize the threshold detection rate, ear-EEG is a feasible method for hearing threshold level estimation in subjects with sensorineural hearing impairment.

  • 25.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Utvärdering utav effekten av obturatbehandling vid restspalt/fistel hos barn med total läpp-, käk- och gomspalt2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    On children born with a complete cleft lip and palate (CLP) the repair of the alveolar ridge doesn´t take place before the children are about ten years old. This results in that they have a residual cleft in the alveolar ridge during their early childhood. This residual cleft, and the oronasal fistulas that may appear after the repair of the hard palate, can result in a negative influence on the speech of the children. Thereby it may be necessary with cover for examplewith a palatal plate or an obturator. At the Department of Orthodontics, at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, some of the children with CLP undergo treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation in order to cover fistulas or residual clefts. The aim of this study was to evaluate which effect this treatment has on the speech of the children. Outcome measures used were speech and caregivers opinion of the treatment. Potential relevant background factors as fistula size and timing of the treatment were investigated. This study included medical records, recordings of the speech of the children and dental study models of the maxilla from eleven children which had received treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation. The parents of the children answered a parental report. In the perceptual evaluations of the speech recordings the results indicated that the articulation was improved after treatment in 81.8 % of the children and that the most common types of articulation errors before and after the orthodontic treatment were weak pressure consonants and retraction of dental plosives. It also appeared to be a connection between the age at which the children first had their obturator and how the speech was influenced. Regarding the parents ten of a total of eleven parents reported an improvement of their children´s speech- and/or eating ability and all of the parents would choose to let their children undergo the treatment again if they had the opportunity to choose. Conclusions drawn from this study is that treatment with sustained palatal fistula obturation is an applicable method for children with fistulas/residual clefts since most treated children´s speech benefitted from it.

  • 26.
    Bergman, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Levander, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Återanvändning som kommunikativ resurs: En samtalsanalytisk studie av kommunikation med PECS hos en pojke med diagnosen autism2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Communicative recycling, to repeat utterances uttered by oneself or others, is a common phenomenon in all societies and languages. The talk of persons with autism often features recycling. The aim of this study was to identify different forms of recycling in communication involving a boy with autism and to describe its functions. Communication between the boy with autism, who used Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to communicate, and his parents and teachers was videotaped. The conversations took place in familiar settings, in the boy’s home and at his pre-school. The theoretical approach in the present study was Conversation Analysis (CA). The results provide further support for other studies in that recycling is an important interactional resource for children with limited linguistic capacities. The boy recycled the conversational frames taught in PECS and accommodated these to fit the context. The use of frames also enabled him to communicate with sentences. The transcribed examples exhibited diect as well as delayed recycling of other persons utterances made by the boy. The communicative recycling found in this study fulfilled all parts of the five-folded definition of functions presented by Tannen (1987): facilitating production and comprehension, creating a sense of connection, being a communicative resource enabling interaction and creating coherence as interpersonal involvement. The communicative recycling enabled the boy and his conversational partners to share communicative conventions. The use of recycling in conversations by people with autism may be a step towards a more generative use of language.

  • 27.
    Bernstein, Joshua G. W.
    et al.
    Walter Reed National Mil Medical Centre, MD 20889 USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Spectrotemporal Modulation Sensitivity as a Predictor of Speech-Reception Performance in Noise With Hearing Aids2016Inngår i: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, artikkel-id 2331216516670387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with individualized frequency-specific gain. SRTs were measured for 65-dB SPL sentences presented in speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble to an individually programmed master hearing aid, with the output of an ear-simulating coupler played through insert earphones. Modulation-depth detection thresholds were measured over headphones for STM (2cycles/octave density, 4-Hz rate) applied to an 85-dB SPL, 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. SRTs were correlated with both the high-frequency (2-6 kHz) pure-tone average (HFA; R-2 = .31) and STM sensitivity (R-2 = .28). Combined with the HFA, STM sensitivity significantly improved the SRT prediction (Delta R-2 = .13; total R-2 = .44). The remaining unaccounted variance might be attributable to variability in cognitive function and other dimensions of suprathreshold distortion. STM sensitivity was most critical in predicting SRTs for listenersamp;lt;65 years old or with HFA amp;lt;53 dB HL. Results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low-frequency carriers is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect dynamic spectra. STM detection is a fast test of suprathreshold auditory function for frequencies amp;lt;2 kHz that complements the HFA to predict variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 28.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Svemer, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Intervention med tecken som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation på en daglig verksamhet: Teckenanvändande av brukare med Downs syndrom och personal2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Manual signs are an augmentative and alternative communication mode which enables and facilitates communication for persons with impairments in speech, language and hearing. There are different ways of teaching signs to persons with intellectual disabilities. One of them is milieu teaching, which is a method where the teaching takes place in natural settings. This method has proven to give good results in generalization and maintenance. Teaching signs to staff in groups has been shown to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether sign intervention affected the number of signs and the number of different signs, used by two persons with Down’s syndrome and eleven staff on a day center. The study was carried out as a single-subject design. A sign intervention was conducted at the day center with the two participants with Down’s syndrome. They were educated individually with a procedure inspired by milieu teaching. When the intervention with the two participants was terminated, the staff was educated in a group format. The number of signs and the number of different signs used by the two participants with Down’s syndrome and the staff were registered. The sign intervention with the two participants led to an increased use of signs for one of them and the sign intervention with the staff led to an increased use of signs for the staff together with one of the participants. The main reason for why the sign intervention was effective for one of the two participants with Down’s syndrome and for one group of staff, but not for the other participant or the other group of staff, seems to be that the participants use of signs had an impact on each other. One of the participants with Down’s syndrome and one group of staff seems to have had a positive impact on each others use of signs. The intervention also seems to have been too short and therefore has not given effect for all of the participants.

  • 29.
    Beukes, E. W.
    et al.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; Audiology India, Mysore, India; Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.
    Valien, T. E.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA.
    Baguley, D. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, The Ropewalk, Nottingham, UK; Otology and Hearing Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Allen, P. M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Positive experiences related to living with tinnitus: A cross-sectional survey2018Inngår i: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 489-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to gain insights related to positive experiences reported by adults with tinnitus living in the United Kingdom.

    Design

    A cross‐sectional survey design was used in a sample of adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet‐based intervention for tinnitus.

    Setting

    The study was UK wide and data collection was online.

    Participants

    Participants consisted of 240 adults (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years and average tinnitus duration of 11.52 years (SD: 11.88).

    Main outcome measures

    Tinnitus severity was measured by means of the Tinnitus Functional Index. To evaluate the secondary effects of tinnitus, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults‐Screening Version and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaires were administered. Positive experiences related to tinnitus were explored using an open‐ended question format.

    Results

    Around a third of participants (32.5%) reported positive experiences associated with tinnitus. The number of positive responses ranged from one to eight responses per participant, although there were fewer participants with more than one positive response. The predominant themes concerned for (i) coping; (ii) personal development; (iii) support, and to a lesser extent (iv) outlook. Younger participants, those with a lower hearing disability and those with fewer cognitive failures were more likely to report positive experiences associated with having tinnitus.

    Conclusions

    This study has identified that personal development and a positive outlook are possible despite experiencing tinnitus. Ways to facilitate positive experiences related to tinnitus should be promoted, as these may reduce the negative consequences associated with tinnitus. The most prevalent positive theme was the ability to cope with tinnitus. Positive experiences were also drawn from having clinical and other support networks. This highlights the importance of providing tinnitus interventions that can assist people in coping with tinnitus, particularly to those less likely to relate tinnitus to any positive experiences. Those most likely to be helped include those who are older with greater cognitive difficulties and a greater hearing disability.

  • 30.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Manipal Univ, India; Audiol India, India.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Interventions for Adults With Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Vestibular Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2019Inngår i: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 2331216519851749Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions have been developed to improve access to audiovestibular health care. This review aimed to identify outcomes of Internet interventions for adults with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vestibular disorders. Electronic databases and manual searches were performed to identify studies meeting eligibility for inclusion. Fifteen studies (1,811 participants) met the inclusion criteria, with nine studies targeting tinnitus distress, five considering hearing loss, and one for vestibular difficulties. Only the tinnitus and hearing loss Internet intervention studies were eligible for data synthesis. Internet-based interventions for hearing loss were diverse. Overall, they showed no significant effects, although a statistically significant moderate effect (d = 0.59) was found after removing the study with the highest risk of bias (as a result of high attrition). Most Internet-based interventions for tinnitus provided cognitive behavioural therapy. They yielded statistically significant mean effect sizes for reducing tinnitus distress compared with both inactive (d = 0.59) and active controls (d = 0.32). Significant effects were also present for the secondary outcomes of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and quality of life (combined effect d = 0.28). Only Internet-based interventions for tinnitus evaluated the 1-year postintervention effects indicated that results were maintained long term (d = 0.45). Scientific study quality was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and found to vary from very low to moderate. This review indicates the potential of Internet interventions for tinnitus to provide evidence-based accessible care. There is a need for additional high-quality evidence before conclusive results can be established regarding the effects of audiovestibular Internet interventions.

  • 31.
    Bjuggren, Maja
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nordenberger, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Läs- och skrivinlärning via dator hos elever i årskurs 12011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den formella läs- och skrivundervisningen i Sverige inleds i årskurs 1. Hur läs- och skrivundervisning bedrivs kan skilja sig åt mellan olika klasser. Trageton (2005) har utvecklat en läs- och skrivinlärningsmetod där inlärningen sker via dator.

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka och utvärdera hur ett antal läs-, skriv- och språkförmågor påverkas av Tragetons läs- och skrivinlärningsmetod via dator jämfört med traditionell läs- och skrivinlärning.

    I studien deltog totalt 26 elever i årskurs 1 på en skola i Östergötland. Datorklassen utgjordes av 13 elever i en klass med läs- och skrivinlärning via dator. Kontrollgruppen utgjordes av 13 elever i en klass med traditionellt läs- och skrivinlärningssätt. Grupperna testades med ett flertal läs-, skriv- och språktest på hösten och våren.

    Resultaten visade att datorklassen hade fler antal deltagare som kvalificerade sig för testning av läsning på samtliga nivåer. Resultaten på skrivtest visade att kontrollgruppen hade bättre läsbarhet av handstil medan datorklassen var bättre på skriftligt berättande på dator.

    Resultaten indikerar att båda inlärningssätten har effekt på läs- och skrivinlärningen hos elever i årskurs 1 och att vart och ett av inlärningssätten stärker olika förmågor inom läsning och skrivning.

  • 32.
    Bjuggren, Maja
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Hadvall, Emmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Nordenberger, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Perception och produktion av intonation och rytm hos barn med flerspråkig bakgrund: Testning med ITAP2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prosodi varierar mellan olika språk och innefattar det talade språkets rytm, melodi och dynamik. Flerspråkighet blir allt vanligare i det svenska samhället, vilket gör det viktigt att studera flerspråkighet ur ett logopediskt perspektiv. ITAP är ett icke-språkligt prosodiskt test som prövar perceptions- och produktionsförmåga av intonation och rytm. Testet har hittills testats på en grupp enspråkiga svensktalande barn med typisk språkutveckling.

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att testa produktion och perception av intonation och rytm hos flerspråkiga barn, med hjälp av ITAP, samt att jämföra resultaten med en enspråkig svensktalande grupp.

    I studien deltog totalt tio barn. Fem barn med svenska och somaliska som språk, samt fem barn med svenska och arabiska som språk. Deltagarna var mellan 4;7 och 9;1 år gamla.

    Resultaten visar att det inte finns några signifikanta skillnader i den totala prestationen mellan den arabiska och den somaliska språkgruppen. Det framkom inte heller några signifikanta skillnader mellan de båda flerspråkiga grupperna jämfört med den svenska kontrollgruppen. Signifikanta skillnader framkom vid jämförelse av perception och produktion inom de båda flerspråkiga grupperna.

    Studien ger ökad kunskap om prosodisk förmåga hos flerspråkiga barn i Sverige, samt om ITAP:s kliniska användbarhet.

  • 33.
    Björhn, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Frederiksen, Fanny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Perception och produktion av svenskt uttal hos andraspråksinlärare.: En studie kring hur utländsk brytning uppfattas av vuxna som läser svenska som andraspråk.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det förekommer mycket forskning kring brytning hos andraspråksinlärare. Många studier använder sig av modersmålstalare som har skattat brytning hos andraspråksinlärare på en Likert-skala (Jesney, 2004). Ett mål med föreliggande studie var att bidra till en ökad insikt om och hur personer med svenska som andraspråk uppfattar utländsk brytning i svenska på samma sätt som en modersmålstalare gör och om det fanns något samband mellan förmågan att uppfatta brytning och förmågan att utrycka sig på svenska.  Djupare analyser gjordes av perception och produktion hos andraspråksinlärare. Designen på studien bestod av tre grupper och omfattade 42 deltagare som representerade 15 språk . Två av grupperna innehöll andraspråksinlärare och den tredje gruppen bestod av modersmålstalare. Samtliga andraspråksinlärare studerade eller hade studerat svenska som andraspråk vid ett universitet eller SFI. Alla deltagare med svenska som andra språk spelades in, när de uttalade ett antal meningar samt beskrev två bilder. Andraspråksinlärarna i den första gruppen och modersmålstalarna i den tredje gruppen fick sedan skatta brytning utifrån det inspelade materialet. Skattningarna utfördes på en 8-gradig Likert-skala där 1 stod för ”ingen brytning” och 8 för ”mycket stark brytning”. Det utfördes även en intervju för att kartlägga olika språkliga och sociala bakgrundsfaktorer hos andraspråksinlärarna i den första gruppen. Under intervjun fick andraspråksinlärarna även göra en självskattning av sin egen brytning.

    Resultaten visade att andraspråksinlärarna skattade både sin egen och andra andraspråksinlärares brytning högre än modersmålstalarna. Det fanns även tendenser till samband mellan brytningsgrad i det egna uttalet och likhet i skattning av brytning jämfört med modersmålstalare. Resultaten visade också att andraspråksinlärarna och modersmålstalarna i viss mån uppfattade olika fenomen i svenska språket som brytning. Det märktes tydligast då accenter förekom i meningarna vilket andraspråksinlärarna tycktes vara känsliga för i skattning av brytning. Slutsatsen av föreliggande studie är att olika faktorer i svenska språket ger upphov till grad av uppfattad brytning och att andraspråksinlärare och modersmålstalare delvis uppfattar brytning på olika sätt.

  • 34.
    Björhn, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Nordh, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    "Har han blå eller röda ögon?": En studie om referentiell kommunikation och ordförråd hos personer med utvecklingsstörning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett flertal studier har undersökt användandet av olika typer av efterfrågan om förtydligande i en referentiell kommunikationsuppgift. Bland annat har skillnader i kommunikationsstrategier mellan barn med cochleaimplantat och normalhörande barn påvisats. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka huruvida kommunikationsstrategier skiljer sig åt i en referentiell kommunikationsuppgift hos barn med lindrig till måttligutvecklingsstörning och en mentalt åldersmatchad kontrollgrupp. Vidare syfte var att undersöka hur barn med lindrig till måttlig utvecklingsstörning reagerar vid kommunikationssammanbrott, när personen inte har tillgång till en specifik referent. Studien har också undersökt vokabulär hos de båda grupperna och om detta har någon betydelse för vilka kommunikationsstrategier de väljer. I studien ingick två grupper. Den ena gruppen bestod av personer med utvecklingsstörning som har en kronologisk medelålder på 14:9 år, och kontrollgruppen bestod av barn utan utvecklingsstörning med en kronologisk medelålder på 7:8 år. Båda grupperna hade en mental medelålder på 8:6 år. Barnets kommunikativa strategier skattades av logopedstudenter i en referentiell kommunikationsuppgift och ordförrådsdelen i WISC-IV användes för att kunna jämföra ordförråd. Då idén till föreliggande studie föddes ur Ibertsson et al. studie från 2009 Deaf teenagers with cochlear implants in conversation with hearing peers har samma typer av efterfrågan om förtydligande använts som utgångspunkt i analys. Resultaten visade att personer med utvecklingsstörning kan skilja sig i användandet av olika typer av efterfrågningar från en mentalt åldersmatchad grupp. Vissa typer av efterfrågningar korrelerade signifikant med varandra i högre grad inom kontrollgruppen än inom målgruppen. Prestation på ordförrådstestet skiljde sig inte signifikant mellan grupperna. I jämförelse mellan medelpoäng på ordförrådstestet och typ av reaktion, som visar ordförrådets betydelse för hur personerna reagerar på den utbytta referenten, återfanns ett signifikant resultat i målgruppen.

  • 35.
    Björkheden, Tove
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Gudmundsson, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Nordlund, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Kännedom om och handhavande av Vocal Cord Dysfunction: bland logopeder och läkare i Sverige2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) is characterized by paradoxical vocal cord movement during inspiration or expiration, and generally affects adolescents and predominantly women. Previous studies have shown a large inconsistency concerning terminology, definitions, etiology, assessment, differential diagnosis, co-morbidity and treatment. The purpose of this study was to map knowledge on and management of VCD in Sweden. The study was conducted as a written survey addressed to speech-language pathologists and physicians, and attained an answer percentage of 79 percent. The results showed that several professions were involved in the management of these patients, but no clear pattern of referral could be observed. The majority of the respondents considered intense physical exertion and psychological stress as triggering factors for VCD. Despite this, referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist seldom occurred. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis regarding co-morbidity, and also the most frequent misdiagnosis. Respiratory exercises, relaxation and information about the diagnosis generally form the basis of VCD treatment. Physicians rated their knowledge on VCD greater compared to the speech-language pathologists. Several of the respondents stated that an increase in knowledge and awareness among nursing staff had contributed to an increase of patients with suspected or confirmed VCD. This study showed that there was no consensus regarding assessment, co-morbidity, misdiagnosis and treatment of VCD among speech-language pathologists and physicians in Sweden.

  • 36.
    Björklund, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Vårdnadshavare till barn med CI: Upplevelser av förväntningar, förändringar samt livskvalitet efter barns CI-operation2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Cochleaimplantat (CI) har använts i cirka 25 år för att återskapa hörsel hos barn och vuxna med medfödd eller förvärvad hörselskada/dövhet. Det finns fortfarande ett stort behov av kunskap om barn med CI och deras anhöriga. Syftet med studien var att undersöka upplevelser av förväntningar, förändringar samt livskvalitet hos vårdnadshavare till barn med CI sedan barnets CI-operation. Studien riktade sig till vårdnadshavare som hade barn med CI och var knutna till föräldraföreningen Barnplantorna vilket var 245 familjer. Antal inkomna enkäter var 153 stycken varav tre uteslöts. Undersökningsmaterialet utgjordes av en enkät vilken konstruerades avförfattarna. Studiens upplägg var både kvalitativ och kvantitativ. Resultaten visade att många domäner/aspekter inom livskvalitet förbättrades efter barnets operation. Vårdnadshavarna upplevde sig i genomsnitt gladare, tryggare, mindre oroliga, kände mindre sorg och isolering från sin omgivning, kunde delta i fler aktiviteter samt upplevde en förbättrad kommunikation. Bakgrundsfaktorer som påverkade livskvaliteten var främst kommunikationsform men även till viss del antal CI, ålder vid upptäckt av hörselskada samt ålder vid första CI. Majoriteten vårdnadshavare upplevde att deras förväntningar inför CI-operationen infriats. Slutsatser som drogs var att livskvaliteten hade förbättrats inom flera områden efter barnets CI-operation.Kommunikationsform var den faktor som hade störst betydelse för vårdnadshavarna på så vis att de vårdnadshavare vars barn kommunicerade med tal upplevde fler positiva aspekter av livskvalitet. Vårdnadshavarnas förväntningar på CI hade till stor del infriats och överträffats. CI innebar för en majoritet av vårdnadshavarna positiva förändringar inom områden som tillexempel kommunikation och socialt liv.

  • 37.
    Björndahl, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Johansson, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Röstbehandling: Utvärdering av två typer av röstbehandling genom två självskattningsinstrument2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom svensk logopedi används idag olika former av röstbehandling och en av dessa är resonansrörsmetoden, som är en relativt outforskad behandlingsmetod. Föreliggande studie syftar till att utifrån patienternas självskattning utvärdera två typer av röstbehandling; traditionell svensk röstbehandling och resonansrörsmetoden.

    Patienterna som ingick i studien var diagnostiserade med en funktionell eller funktionellt organisk röststörning och var över 18 år. Innan behandlingen påbörjades slumpades patienterna till endera behandlingsmetod, eller till en grupp som randomiserades efter åtta veckors väntetid. Totala antalet patienter var 19; elva i gruppen som har fått traditionell röstbehandling och åtta i gruppen som har genomgått resonansrörsmetoden. Nio av de 19 patienterna, har även genomgått ett uppföljningsbesök fyra månader efter avslutad behandling. Endast tre patienter ingick i den sent randomiserade gruppen. Utvärderingen av behandlingarna har skett genom användning av självskattningsinstrumenten RHI (Rösthandikappindex) och Swe-VAPP (Swedish Voice Activity and Participation Profile) som patienterna fyllt i före påbörjad behandling och efter avslutad behandling, samt vid uppföljningsbesöket (fyra månader efter avslutad behandling). Den sent randomiserade gruppen fyllde även i de båda självskattningsinstrumenten åtta veckor innan påbörjad behandling.

    Hela gruppen patienter förbättrades signifikant gällande totalpoäng på RHI och Swe-VAPP, samt uppdelat på de två behandlingsmetoderna. Det framkom vissa skillnader mellan patienternas självskattningar inom subkategorierna på de båda instrumenten, dock påvisar resultaten att ingen av behandlingarna hade bättre effekt än den andra. Patienterna i de båda behandlingsgrupperna upplevde en signifikant förbättring efter behandling, samt att förbättringen kvarstod fyra månader efter avslutad behandling, vilket indikerade på att behandlingarna gett effekt över tid.

  • 38.
    Björnestrand, Sophia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Kindstrand, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Kommunikativa resurser vid afasi: -En samtalsanalytisk studie av återkoppling, repetition och prosodi2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie undersöktes interaktionen mellan en person med afasi och hennes närstående. Syftet var att identifiera möjliga resurser som används av personen med afasi för att optimera delaktigheten i samtal, dels som aktiv lyssnare men också i situationer där missförstånd uppstår, samt se hur prosodi används som resurs i interaktionen. Datamaterialet som studerades var en två timmar lång videoinspelning i hemmet hos personen med afasi, där samtal med hennes man samt väninna förekom. Materialet analyserades enligt Conversation Analysis för att identifiera mönster i samtalen. Tre olika mönster identifierades och analyserades; återkopplingar för att visa aktivt lyssnarskap, och repetitioner som en begäran om bekräftelse av förståelse, samt begäran om förtydligande då något är otydligt eller felaktigt i föregående yttrande. Resultaten visade på kommunikativa resurser hos personen med afasi gällande att vara en aktiv lyssnare som stödjer talaren genom återkopplingssignaler, samt som en aktiv deltagare i samtalet genom att initiera reparationer för att samkonstruera förståelse.

  • 39.
    Björnestrand, Sophia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Kindstrand, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Samtalsanalys som intervention med en ungdom som använder bliss2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     Conversation Analysis (CA) is a tool to facilitate analysis of everyday conversations. A small number of studies have used CA as an intervention for people with aphasia and have seen positive effects as an outcome of the intervention. The authors of the present study have not found any other studies where CA was used as an intervention in other target groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate if CA may be used in intervention with an adolescent who uses Bliss. The main participants in the present study, which the intervention was based upon, were a sixteen year old girl who communicates through Bliss, and her assistant. The participants were filmed in everyday situations. The video recordings were transcribed and primarily analysed according to CA principles by the authors. The authors of the present study observed both well functioning and not so well functioning communication patterns. The three interventions were based on video recordings, transcriptions and analyses. During the interventions, the authors of the study discussed patterns in communication with the participants. The participants were then given information about selected transcriptions, video recordings and analyses that the authors considered contained interesting patterns. Focus of each intervention was on turn-taking, repair, topic and non-verbal communication. The results of the intervention showed that certain communication patterns that the authors had previously regarded to be less functioning had subsequently improved in certain aspects. Comparisons made before and after the intervention showed that the girl had been given more emancipation to decide topic of conversation and take own initiative in the communication after the intervention. The results also showed that CA can be used to find new Bliss symbols that could be used in addition to the Swedish Bliss standard chart. In regard to turn-taking, repairs and non-verbal communication, similar patterns were observed prior to and after the intervention was carried out. 

  • 40.
    Blumenthal, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jacobsson, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Attityder hos förskolepersonal gentemot barn med avvikande tal2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett flertal studier har visat att personer med tal- och språkstörning tenderar att tillskrivas mindre fördelaktiga egenskaper än jämnåriga utan dessa svårigheter. Det finns ett behov av att undersöka skolpersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal. Än så länge har ingen sådan studie genomförts på barn i Sverige och då förskolepersonal utgör en del av små barns sociala omgivning förefaller deras attityder intressanta att undersöka. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka huruvida förskolepersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal skiljer sig från attityder hos personer som inte arbetar inom förskoleverksamhet.

    Ett egenskapsformulär med tolv Visuella Analogskalor (VAS) utformades där 24 egenskaper placerades vid ändpunkterna på skalorna. Spontantal spelades in från en pojke på 4;3 år med avvikande tal. Totalt fick 33 förskolepersonal och 31 personer i kontrollgruppen lyssna på inspelningen och skatta pojkens egenskaper. Svaren från formulären samlades in och analyserades.

    Resultatet visar att förskolepersonalen skattade pojken något högre än kontrollgruppen på elva av tolv VA-skalor men endast beträffande en skala var skillnaden statistiskt signifikant.

    På grund av brist på statistisk signifikans går det inte att dra några slutsatser huruvida förskolepersonals attityder gentemot barn med avvikande tal skiljer sig från attityderna hos personer som inte arbetar inom förskoleverksamhet.

  • 41.
    Borch Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Cognitive Hearing Aids? - Insights and Possibilities2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  • 42.
    Borch Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Vestergaard, Martin
    University of Cambridge, Centre for the Neural Basis of Hearing.
    Sundewall Thorén, Elisabet
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark,.
    Danish Reading Span data from 283 hearing-aid users, including a sub-group analysis of their relationship to speech-in-noise performance2016Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 254-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study provides descriptive statistics of the Danish reading span (RS) test for hearing-impaired adults. The combined effect of hearing loss, RS score, and age on speech-in-noise performance in different spatial settings was evaluated in a subset of participants. Design: Data from published and unpublished studies were re-analysed. Data regarding speech-in-noise performance with co-located or spatially separated sound sources were available for a subset of participants. Study sample: RS scores from 283 hearing-impaired participants were extracted from past studies, and 239 of these participants had completed a speech-in-noise test. Results: RS scores (mean = 41.91%, standard deviation = 11.29%) were related to age (p <0.01), but not pure-tone average (PTA) (p = 0.29). Speech-in-noise performance for co-located sound sources was related to PTA and RS score (both p < 0.01, adjusted R-squared = 0.226). Performance for spatially separated sounds was related to PTA (p < 0.01, adjusted R-squared = 0.10) but not RS score (p = 0.484). We found no differences between the standardized coefficients of the two regression models. Conclusions: The distribution of RS scores indicated a high test difficulty. We found that age should be controlled when RS scores are compared across populations. The experimental setup of the speech-in-noise test may influence the relationship between performance and RS score.

  • 43.
    Bylund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Eriksson, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Översättning och validering av pVHI: för barn 6 till 10 år2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Studies indicate that between 6-9% of all children has some type of voice problems. Voice problems in children may have different etiology and can affect all ages. In Sweden, there is a lack of a standardized questionnaire addressed to children with voice problems and their legal guardians. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) in Swedish children aged 6 to 10 years. The study was carried out through an internet-based assessment form for children referred to speech and language pathologist/ phoniatrican due to voice disorders in Sweden and a matched control group of children without voice problems. The experimental group consisted of 13 children with voice problems and the control group of 29 children. The questionnaire was filled out by the guardian in cooperation with the child. It contained 23 claims separated into three domains: functional, physical and emotional. The results of each child’s assessment were the total pVHI, with a maximum of 92 points. A comparison between results presented in the original pVHI showed great similarities regarding mean values within the three domains the total pVHI and the experimental group’s estimation of over- all voice problems on a VAS- scale. The internal validity of the translation was high with a Cronbach´s alpha at .95- .96 within the different domains. Significant differences were found between the experimental group and the control group in each domain. There was also a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group regarding total pVHI. The results indicate that the translation of pVHI is easy to fill out and close to the original. Also, it discriminates between children with and without voice disorders indicating good sensitivity and specificity, which is central in a broader use.

  • 44.
    Båsjö, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Widen, Stephen
    Audiological Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jutengren, Göran
    School of Health Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Division of Audiology , Sahlgrens' Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hearing thresholds, tinnitus, and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old children2016Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, nr 10, s. 587-596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Investigate hearing function and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old Swedish children. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry, and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). A questionnaire was used to evaluate headphone listening habits, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. Study sample: A total of 415 children aged nine years. Results: The prevalence of a hearing threshold20dB HL at one or several frequencies was 53%, and the hearing thresholds at 6 and 8kHz were higher than those at the low and mid frequencies. SOAEs were observed in 35% of the children, and the prevalence of tinnitus was 5.3%. No significant relationship between SOAE and tinnitus was found. Pure-tone audiometry showed poorer hearing thresholds in children with tinnitus and in children who regularly listened with headphones. Conclusion: The present study of hearing, listening habits, and tinnitus in nine-year old children is, to our knowledge, the largest study so far. The main findings were that hearing thresholds in the right ear were poorer in children who used headphones than in children not using them, which could be interpreted as headphone listening may have negative consequences to childrens hearing. Children with tinnitus showed poorer hearing thresholds compared to children without tinnitus.

  • 45.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluating the process of change: Studies on patient journey, hearing disability acceptance and stages-of-change2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Person with hearing impairment (PHI) and their Communication partners (CPs) have a range of experiences and milestones before, during and after their audiological assessment and/or rehabilitation sessions. The term ‘patient journey’ refers to understanding the experiences and the processes the patient goes through during the course of the disease and the treatment regime. The aims of the current thesis were: (1) to further develop patient journey models of individuals with gradual-onset hearing impairment and CPs by taking their views into consideration; (2) to develop the patient journey model for PHI of sudden-onset; (3) to develop a self-reported measure of hearing disability acceptance and to study its construct and concurrent validity; (4) to investigate the health behaviour change characteristics of people noticing hearing difficulties using the stages-of-change model. 

    Papers I (n=32) and III (n=9) were aimed at further developing the journey model of PHI and their CPs proposed by the Ida Institute. Both studies employed qualitative methods (i.e., focus groups and interviews for data collection and thematic analysis for data analysis), and defined the models based on the perspectives of PHI and CPs both of which had seven main phases. These data were compared with the professionals’ perspectives of the journey as reported in the Ida Institute model which had six main phases. Our studies highlight new phases (i.e., self-evaluation in PHI journey and adaptation in CP journey) and also various commonalities and differences in the perspectives expressed by professionals and patients.

    Paper II included a pilot study to explore the patient journey of sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment from both professionals (n=16) and patients (n=4) perspectives. Both identified all the six main phases, which include: awareness; movement; diagnostics; rehabilitation; self-evaluation; and resolution. The pre-awareness phase may hinder the realisation of hearing loss in persons with gradual onset hearing loss, whereas it is far more straightforward in persons with sudden-onset due to its nature of onset.

    Papers IV and V employed a cross-sectional design (n=90). Paper IV was aimed at developing a Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ), and to study its construct and concurrent validity. Results suggested that the HDAQ has a two factor structure which explains 75.7% of the variance and had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.86). Also, the scale had good concurrent validity in relation to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures. Paper V was aimed at understanding the stages-of-change in adults with hearing disability using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale.  As predicted a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages, supporting the stages-of-change model.

    Overall, the papers presented in this thesis may contribute to a better understanding of process of change through hearing impairment in PHI and their CPs. 

    Delarbeid
    1. The patient journey of adults with hearing impairment: the patients’ views
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The patient journey of adults with hearing impairment: the patients’ views
    2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Clinical Otolaryngology, ISSN 1749-4478, E-ISSN 1365-2273, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 227-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  The term ‘patient journey’ refers to the experiences and processes the patient goes through during the course of a disease and its treatment. The study explores the perspectives of adults with acquired hearing impairment and to further develop the patient journey template based on the Ida model. Design:  Qualitative approach using thematic analysis and process mapping. Setting:  Support groups of people with hearing impairment. Participants:  Thirty-two adults with acquired hearing impairment from two hearing impaired groups in Wales. All were hearing aid users. Main outcome measure:  Participants worked in small groups to describe their experiences through hearing loss. These data were used to develop a template of the patients’ perspective of the journey. This was then compared with the perspective of professionals, and a ‘patient journey template for adults with acquired hearing impairment’ was developed. Results:  This template identifies seven main phases as follows: (i) pre-awareness; (ii) awareness; (iii) movement; (iv) diagnostics; (v) rehabilitation; (vi) self-evaluation; and (vii) resolution. The study identified a number of new components. The self-evaluation component was not defined by professionals and reflects the need for patients to consider the costs, benefits and alternatives to the approach provided by audiologists. It is important for audiologists to be aware of this. Conclusion:  The study highlighted the differences and commonalities in perspectives of professionals and patients. Use of the patient journey can help clinicians to understand the unique experiences their patients go through help them to develop patient-centred treatment.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87637 (URN)10.1111/j.1749-4486.2011.02320.x (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-01-20 Laget: 2013-01-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-25
    2. The patient journey of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The patient journey of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, ISSN 0022-2151, E-ISSN 1748-5460, Vol. 126, nr 5, s. 475-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A previous study examined the patient journey of adults with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. This study examined the same for adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, and assessed differences. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy design: Data were collected from 16 audiologists, using the Ida Institute template, and from four adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented using a process mapping model. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: A patient journey template for sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment was developed based on the professionals and patients perspectives. The main difference between these two groups perspectives was seen in the self-evaluation phase: some stages within this phase were recognised by the patients but not by the professionals. The main difference between the current and the previous study was the absence of a pre-awareness phase in the journey described by patients with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, compared with that described by patients with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Patient journey templates could be useful counselling tools for ear and hearing healthcare specialists. However, such templates should be used only as a baseline; it is important to take a detailed case history to understand each patients unique experience, including the psychosocial impact of hearing impairment.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2012
    Emneord
    Hearing Impairment, Natural History, Prognosis, Rehabilitation, Patient journey, Sudden-onset hearing impairment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77869 (URN)10.1017/S0022215111003197 (DOI)000303893900008 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-05-31 Laget: 2012-05-31 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-25
    3. Communication partners’ journey through their partner’s hearing impairment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Communication partners’ journey through their partner’s hearing impairment
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Otolaryngology, ISSN 1687-9201, E-ISSN 1687-921X, Vol. 2013, nr 707910, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to further the Ida Institute model on communication partner’s (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Qualitative approach using thematic analysis and process mapping. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in the study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data were used to develop a CP journey template. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals’ perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs perspectives). Seven main phases were identified which include: (1) contemplation; (2) awareness; (3) persuasion; (4) validation; (5) rehabilitation; (6) adaptation; and (7) resolution. The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase ‘adaptation’ was identified from CPs’ reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013
    Emneord
    Patient journey, Communication partners, significant others, hearing impairment, hearing loss
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87633 (URN)10.1155/2013/707910 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-01-20 Laget: 2013-01-20 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-25
    4. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, nr e004066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities.

    Design Cross-sectional.

    Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK.

    Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and depression and a measure of stages of change.

    Results The HDAQ has a two-factor structure that explains 75.69% of its variance. The factors identified were activity engagement and avoidance and suppression. The scale showed a sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.86). The HDAQ also had acceptable concurrent validity with regard to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures.

    Conclusions Acceptance is likely an important aspect of coping with chronic health conditions. To our knowledge, no previously published and validated scale measures the acceptance of hearing disability; therefore, the HDAQ might be useful in future research. However, the role of acceptance in adjusting to hearing disability must be further investigated

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    BMJ Open, 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102999 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004066 (DOI)000337363700020 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-01-09 Laget: 2014-01-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-25
    5. Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate health behaviour change characteristics based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale.

    Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design.

    Study Sample: The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 pre-clinical participants completed URICA as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance and also provided some demographic details online.

    Results: As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. This was in contrast to a previous study, which included participants attending audiology clinic, where most participants (about 80%) were in the action stage (Laplante-Lévesque et al., 2013). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of readiness to change composite and committed action composite between the study samples in the current and the previous study.

    Conclusions: Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

    Emneord
    Hearing disability, hearing loss, stages of change, readiness for change, hearing helpseeking, audiological rehabilitation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95919 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-09 Laget: 2013-08-09 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-25bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 46.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Health behaviour change in hearing healthcare: A discussion paper2012Inngår i: Audiology Research, ISSN 2039-4330, E-ISSN 2039-4349, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 12-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health behavior change (HBC) refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i) hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii) hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL). In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  • 47.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stages of change in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aidsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate health behaviour change characteristics based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model in adults noticing hearing difficulties but not using hearing aids using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale.

    Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design.

    Study Sample: The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 pre-clinical participants completed URICA as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance and also provided some demographic details online.

    Results: As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. This was in contrast to a previous study, which included participants attending audiology clinic, where most participants (about 80%) were in the action stage (Laplante-Lévesque et al., 2013). In addition, statistically significant differences were observed in terms of readiness to change composite and committed action composite between the study samples in the current and the previous study.

    Conclusions: Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

  • 48.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Staphens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University, Wales.
    Models to represent communication partners within the social networks of people with hearing impairment2011Inngår i: Audiological Medicine, ISSN 1651-386X, E-ISSN 1651-3835, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 103-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: People with hearing impairment have relatively smaller social networks than their normally hearing peers, and may experience more feelings of loneliness. The effects on the person with hearing impairment (PHI) can also impact on their communication partners (CPs). This report discusses the currently available model representing the CPs within the social network context of the PHI and proposes a new model. Study design: The ‘Communication Rings’ proposed and developed by the Ida Institute is discussed. We believe that this model is too simple to represent the complexity and dynamic nature of the CP's role in the life of the PHI and highlights the need for a new model. Results: We suggest that the model ‘Communication World’ based on the analogy of the solar system, may help overcome some of the problems identified. Clinical examples of how to apply this model and its usefulness in rehabilitation are presented. Conclusions: The expanded model could provide novel information, and provision of a visual representation will help CPs understand the problems of the PHI.

  • 49.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University.
    Life consequences and positive experiences reported by communication partners of person with hearing impairment: A pilot study2013Inngår i: Speech, Language and Hearing, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to obtain insights into the life consequences and positive experiences reported by the communication partners (CPs) of person with hearing impairment (PHI). Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine CPs who were recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results identified a number of life consequences and positive experiences of CPs and PHIs as reported by the CPs. The main life consequences experienced by both CPs and PHIs were related to communication and psychological aspects. The main positive experiences for the CPs were related to personal development and improved relationships and for PHIs were related to the use of hearing loss for self-advantage. Surprisingly, most of the participants were able to identify at least one positive experience. The study also suggested that open-ended questionnaires were a good way to understand life consequences and positive experiences by CPs and such responses can be further elicited by providing some prompts through a semi-structured interview. The study method and results could be useful in involving CPs in audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions. These findings add to the growing literature that reported positive experiences canbe used during counseling sessions, to motivate the PHIs and their CPs and to boost their positive morale.

  • 50.
    C. Manchaiah, Vinaya K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stephens, Dafydd
    Cardiff University.
    Perspectives in defining ‘hearing loss’ and its consequences2013Inngår i: Hearing, Balance and CommunicationArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This discussion paper aims to highlight factors that may be important in defining hearing loss and its consequences and to present different perspectives based on various models of disability. Method: Relevant literature was reviewed to develop the discussion. Results: Hearing is a complex function that has both cognitive and emotional aspects. A person with hearing loss may have consequences in the physical, mental and social domains. Hearing loss in the context of clinical audiology is currently defined based on type of pathology and severity. However, evidence from both clinical findings and research suggest that this may not cover all the aspects of ‘hearing loss’ as a disability. Conclusion: Defining and describing hearing loss and its consequences with a holistic approach has some clinical value particularly in the context of audiological enablement/rehabilitation.

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