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  • 1.
    Abioye, Ajibola I.
    et al.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Park, Sangshin
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Ripp, Kelsey
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA.
    McDonald, Emily A.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Kurtis, Jonathan D.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Wu, Hannah
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Pond-Tor, Sunthorn
    Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Sharma, Surendra
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Women and Infants Hosp Rhode Isl, RI 02908 USA.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Baltazar, Palmera
    Res Inst Trop Med, Philippines; Remedios Trinidad Romualdez Hosp, Philippines.
    Acosta, Luz P.
    Res Inst Trop Med, Philippines.
    Olveda, Remigio M.
    Res Inst Trop Med, Philippines.
    Tallo, Veronica
    Res Inst Trop Med, Philippines.
    Friedman, Jennifer F.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA; Rhode Isl Hosp, RI USA.
    Anemia of Inflammation during Human Pregnancy Does Not Affect Newborn Iron Endowment2018In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 427-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To our knowledge, no studies have addressed whether maternal anemia of inflammation (AI) affects newborn iron status, and few have addressed risk factors for specific etiologies of maternal anemia. Objectives: The study aims were to evaluate 1) the contribution of AI and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) to newborn iron endowment, 2) hepcidin as a biomarker to distinguish AI from IDA among pregnant women, and 3) risk factors for specific etiologies of maternal anemia. Methods: We measured hematologic biomarkers in maternal blood at 12 and 32 wk of gestation and in cord blood from a randomized trial of praziquantel in 358 pregnant women with Schistosoma japonicum in The Philippines. IDA was defined as anemia with serum ferritin amp;lt; 30 ng/mL and non-IDA (NIDA), largely due to AI, as anemia with ferritin amp;gt;= 30 ng/mL. We identified cutoffs for biomarkers to distinguish IDA from NIDA by using area under the curve (AUC) analyses and examined the impact of different causes of anemia on newborn iron status (primary outcome) by using multivariate regression modeling. Results: Of the 358 mothers, 38% (n = 136) had IDA and 9% (n = 32) had NIDA at 32 wk of gestation. At 32 wk of gestation, serum hepcidin performed better than soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) in identifying women with NIDA compared with the rest of the cohort (AUCs: 0.75 and 0.70, respectively) and in identifying women with NIDA among women with anemia (0.73 and 0.72, respectively). The cutoff that optimally distinguished women with NIDA from women with IDA in our cohort was 6.1 mu g/L. Maternal IDA, but not NIDA, was associated with significantly lower newborn ferritin (114.4 ng/mL compared with 148.4 mu g/L; P = 0.042). Conclusions: Hepcidin performed better than sTfR in identifying pregnant women with NIDA, but its cost may limit its use. Maternal IDA, but not NIDA, is associated with decreased newborn iron stores, emphasizing the need to identify this cause and provide iron therapy.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

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    River Nyando catchment 1
  • 3. Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Social Support for Exposed Children and Adolescents Who Experienced the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami - Associations with Psychological Health in Young Adulthood2019In: Journal of Health science and Education, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lack of social support is a risk factor for negative psychological outcomes post disaster. However, we do not know if this is the case after many years.

    Aim: The aim was to examine the association between remembered social support directly after the 2004 tsunami or social support eight years post disaster and psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-rated health, worry or anxiety and suicide ideation in 2012 for exposed children and adolescents.

    Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to young adults who experienced the tsunami when they were 10-15 years of age. The questionnaire included Crises Support Scale, General Health Questionnaire, Impact of Events Scale Revised and questions of Worry and Anxiety, Self-rated Health, and Suicidal ideation and questions specially made.

    Results: Low levels of perceived social support given in 2004 or 2012 were associated with higher levels of psychological distress, additional posttraumatic stress symptoms, low self-rated health, more worry or anxiety and more suicidal ideation in 2012.

    Conclusion: The results show that providing social support for children and adolescents who have experienced a disaster create better psychological health many years later

  • 4.
    Adini, B.
    et al.
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Bodas, M.
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Peleg, K.
    Tel Aviv University, Israel; Gertner Institute Health Policy and Epidemiol, Israel.
    Policies for managing emergency medical services in mass casualty incidents2017In: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1878-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diverse decision-making is needed in managing mass casualty incidents (MCIs), by emergency medical services (EMS). The aim of the study was to review consensus among international experts concerning policies of EMS management during MCIs. Methods: Applicability of 21 EMS policies was tested through a 2-cycle modified e-Delphi process, in which 38 multi-disciplinary experts from 10 countries participated. Threshold for approving proposed solutions was defined as consensus of amp;gt;80%. Policies that did not achieve the targeted consensus were reviewed to detect variability according to respondents origin country. Results: 16 policies were endorsed in the first cycle including collaboration between ambulance service providers; implementing a unified mode of operation; preparing criteria for ground versus aerial evacuation; and, developing support systems for caregivers exposed to violence. An additional policy which proposed that senior EMS officers should not necessarily act as on-site MCI commanders was endorsed in the second cycle. Demographic breakdown of views concerning non-consensual policies revealed differences according to countries of origin. Assigning ambulances to off-duty team members was highly endorsed by experts from Israel and South Africa and strongly rejected by European respondents. Avoiding entry to risk areas until declared safe was endorsed by European, Asian and Oceanic experts, but rejected by Israeli, South African and North American experts. Conclusions: Despite uniqueness of countries and EMS agencies, solutions to most dilemmas were applicable to all organizations, regardless of location or affiliation. Cultural diversity was found concerning readiness to implement military-civilian collaboration in MCIs and a rigid separation between work-leisure responsibilities. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Aerts, Marc
    et al.
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Minalu, Girma
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Bösner, Stefan
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Buntinx, Frank
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium; Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Burnand, Bernard
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland..
    Haasenritter, Jörg
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Herzig, Lilli
    Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Knottnerus, J André
    Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Renier, Walter
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Sox, Carol
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, USA..
    Sox, Harold
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH , USA; Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Washington, USA..
    Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Pooled individual patient data from five countries were used to derive a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease in primary care.2017In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 81, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with chest pain in primary care.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Meta-Analysis using 3,099 patients from five studies. To identify candidate predictors, we used random forest trees, multiple imputation of missing values, and logistic regression within individual studies. To generate a prediction rule on the pooled data, we applied a regression model that took account of the differing standard data sets collected by the five studies.

    RESULTS: The most parsimonious rule included six equally weighted predictors: age ≥55 (males) or ≥65 (females) (+1); attending physician suspected a serious diagnosis (+1); history of CAD (+1); pain brought on by exertion (+1); pain feels like "pressure" (+1); pain reproducible by palpation (-1). CAD was considered absent if the prediction score is <2. The area under the ROC curve was 0.84. We applied this rule to a study setting with a CAD prevalence of 13.2% using a prediction score cutoff of <2 (i.e., -1, 0, or +1). When the score was <2, the probability of CAD was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.1-3.9%); when the score was ≥ 2, it was 43.0% (95% CI: 35.8-50.4%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical prediction rules are a key strategy for individualizing care. Large data sets based on electronic health records from diverse sites create opportunities for improving their internal and external validity. Our patient-level meta-analysis from five primary care sites should improve external validity. Our strategy for addressing site-to-site systematic variation in missing data should improve internal validity. Using principles derived from decision theory, we also discuss the problem of setting the cutoff prediction score for taking action.

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  • 6.
    Af Sandeberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Children's and Women's Health, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Wenemark, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Bartholdson, Cecilia
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Children's and Women's Health, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lützén, Kim
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Pergert, Pernilla
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Children's and Women's Health, Karolinska University Hospital.
    To change or not to change - translating and culturally adapting the paediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R)2017In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric cancer care poses ethically difficult situations that can lead to value conflicts about what is best for the child, possibly resulting in moral distress. Research on moral distress is lacking in paediatric cancer care in Sweden and most questionnaires are developed in English. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R) is a questionnaire that measures moral distress in specific situations; respondents are asked to indicate both the frequency and the level of disturbance when the situation arises. The aims of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the questionnaire to the context of Swedish paediatric cancer care. In doing so we endeavoured to keep the content in the Swedish version as equivalent to the original as possible but to introduce modifications that improve the functional level and increase respondent satisfaction.

    METHODS: The procedure included linguistic translation and cultural adaptation of MDS-R's paediatric versions for Physicians, Nurses and Other Healthcare Providers to the context of Swedish paediatric cancer care. The process of adjustment included: preparation, translation procedure and respondent validation. The latter included focus group and cognitive interviews with healthcare professionals in paediatric cancer care.

    RESULTS: To achieve a Swedish version with a good functional level and high trustworthiness, some adjustments were made concerning design, language, cultural matters and content. Cognitive interviews revealed problems with stating the level of disturbance hypothetically and items with negations caused even more problems, after having stated that the situation never happens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Translation and cultural adaptation require the involvement of various types of specialist. It is difficult to combine the intention to keep the content as equivalent to the original as possible with the need for modifications that improve the functional level and increase respondent satisfaction. The translated and culturally adapted Swedish MDS-R seems to have equivalent content as well as improved functional level and respondent satisfaction. The adjustments were made to fit paediatric cancer care but it could be argued that the changes are relevant for most areas of paediatric care of seriously ill patients.

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    To change or not to change - translating and culturally adapting the paediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R)
  • 7.
    Ageberg, Eva
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bunke, Sofia
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Donaldson, Alex
    La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Planning injury prevention training for youth handball players: application of the generalisable six-step intervention development process2020In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Youth handball players are vulnerable to injuries. Because there is no available injury prevention training specifically developed for youth handball players targeting both upper and lower limbs or incorporating psychological aspects of injury, we undertook the Implementing injury Prevention training ROutines in TEams and Clubs in youth Team handball (I-PROTECT) project. We used an ecological participatory design incorporating the perspectives of multiple stakeholders (health beneficiaries, programme deliverers and policy makers). The aim of this paper was to describe the process of developing the I-PROTECT model, featuring injury prevention training and an accompanying implementation strategy. Design We used the generalisable six-step intervention development process, outlined to guide researchers when developing implementable, evidence-based sports injury prevention interventions, to develop the I-PROTECT model. The six-step process involves establishing a research-stakeholder collaborative partnership to (1) identify and synthesise research evidence and clinical experience; (2) consult with relevant experts; (3) engage end users to ensure their needs, capacity and values are considered; (4) test the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; (5) evaluate the intervention against theory; and (6) obtain feedback from early implementers. Two community handball clubs in southern Sweden, offering organised training for youth male and female players, and the district handball federation, participate in the intervention development. Drafts of the I-PROTECT model will be developed and revised with key stakeholder advice and input throughout all six steps. Conclusion The I-PROTECT model described will be an end user-driven intervention, including evidence-based, theory-informed and context-specific injury prevention training for youth handball, and an associated implementation strategy.

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  • 8.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barmark, Mimmi
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Mental health and academic performance: a study on selection and causation effects from childhood to early adulthood2021In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 857-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    An inverse relationship between mental health problems and academic achievement is a well-known phenomenon in the scientific literature. However, how and when this association develops is not fully understood and there is a lack of longitudinal, population-based studies on young children. Early intervention is important if associations are to be found already during childhood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of the association between mental health and academic performance during different developmental periods of childhood and adolescence.

    Methods

    Data from a longitudinal birth cohort study of 1700 children were used. Child mental health was assessed through mother’s reports at age 3, and self-reports at age 12 and 20. Academic performance was assessed through teacher reports on educational results at age 12 and final grades from compulsory school (age 15–16) and upper secondary school (age 18–19). The association between mental health and academic performance was assessed through regression models.

    Results

    The results indicate that social selection mechanisms are present in all three periods studied. Behavioral and emotional problems at age 3 were associated with performing below grade at age 12. Similarly, mental health problems at age 12 were associated with lack of complete final grades from compulsory school and non-eligibility to higher education. Academic performance at ages 15 and 19 did not increase the risk for mental health problems at age 20.

    Conclusion

    Mental health problems in early childhood and adolescence increase the risk for poor academic performance, indicating the need for awareness and treatment to provide fair opportunities to education.

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  • 9.
    Agnew, Louise
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Johnston, Venerina
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Motala.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Malardalen University, Sweden; University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gun
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Queensland, Australia.
    FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC WHIPLASH-ASSOCIATED DISORDER GRADE II-III: A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R-2 = 0.65, p less than 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

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  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Hälso- och sjukvårdens stab.
    Elfström, Johan
    Region Östergötland, Hälso- och sjukvårdens stab.
    Borgstedt Risberg, Madeleine
    Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Övr Regionledningskontoret.
    Andersson, Christer
    Region Östergötland, Hälso- och sjukvårdens stab.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Hälso- och sjukvårdens stab.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Learning From Incident Reporting?: Analysis of Incidents Resulting in Patient Injuries in a Web-Based System in Swedish Health Care2020In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8417, E-ISSN 1549-8425, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 264-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Incident reporting (IR) systems have the potential to improve patient safety if they enable learningfrom the reported risks and incidents. The aim of this study was to investigate incidents registered in an IR system in a Swedish county council.

    Methods The study was conducted in the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden. Data were retrieved from the IR system, which included 4755 incidents occurring in somatic care that resulted in patient injuries from 2004 to 2012. One hundred correctly classified patient injuries were randomly sampled from 3 injury severity levels: injuries leading to deaths, permanent harm, and temporary harm. Three aspects were analyzed: handling of the incident, causes of the incident, and actions taken to prevent its recurrence.

    Results Of the 300 injuries, 79% were handled in the departments where they occurred. The department head decided what actions should be taken to prevent recurrence in response to 95% of the injuries. A total of 448 causes were identified for the injuries; problems associated with procedures, routines, and guidelines were most common. Decisions taken for 80% of the injuries could be classified using the IR system documentation and root cause analysis. The most commonly pursued type of action was change of work routine or guideline.

    Conclusions The handling, causes, and actions taken to prevent recurrence were similar for injuries of different severity levels. Various forms of feedback (information, education, and dialogue) were an integral aspect of the IR system. However, this feedback was primarily intradepartmental and did not yield much organizational learning.

  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Luppen kunskapscentrum.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kartläggning av barn i behov av stöd år 2002: Eksjö kommun2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport bygger på enkätsvar från olika myndigheter i Eksjö kommun som har rapporterat de barn/ungdomar i åldern 0-18 år som man i sin verksamhet kommer i kontakt med och som man känner oro för, p.g.a. en ogynnsam utveckling. Tjugo förutbestämda kriterier användes för att beskriva orsaken till myndighetens oro. Myndigheterna har också rapporterat om de insatser som görs redan idag samt om man bedömer att det kan bli aktuellt med ytterligare insatser nu eller i framtiden.

    Totalt inrapporterades 842 barn och ungdomar. Socialförvaltningen rapporterade 78 barn och ungdomar, Barnavårdscentralen 30 barn och skolan 689 barn och ungdomar. Av 45 enkätsvar framgår det inte vem som är rapportör. Vid bearbetningen av insamlat material har 10 enkätsvar uteslutits eftersom de inte var tillräckligt ifyllda. 103 enkätsvar uteslöt för att de flerrapporterade barn och/eller ungdomar och 17 enkätsvar uteslöts eftersom de rapporterade ungdomar som inte är skrivna i Eksjö kommun. Slutligen kom 712 barn och ungdomar att ingå i kartläggningen. Detta är drygt 18,8 % av alla aktuella barn och ungdomar. Av dessa är en klar majoritet pojkar (446 dvs. 62,6 %). För hela målgruppen främst tre huvudorsaker som ger anledning till oro hos berörda myndigheter. Det är;

    1. Föräldrarna brister i omsorgen, i stödet till den unge eller möjligheten att ge stimulans pågrund av sociala, mentala, fysiska eller psykiska handikapp och/eller missbruksproblem. För130 (av 712) barn och ungdomar anser man att det är huvudorsaken till oro.
    2. Barn/ungdomar som är introverta (tysta, blyga, nedstämda, mutister). För 69 av (712) barnoch ungdomar är det huvudorsaken till att man känner oro.
    3. Föräldrars separation eller ständiga konflikter påverkar den unge negativt. För 66 av (712)barn och ungdomar är det huvudorsaken till att man känner oro.

    Resultatredovisningen visar att skolan är den myndighet vars insatser dominerande är det också så att olika insatser inom skolan dominerar. Vanligast är undervisning i liten grupp och olika typer av specialundervisning. Olika typer av anpassad studiegång är också en vanlig insats att möta barn och ungdomar med olika svårigheter. Även olika psykosociala åtgärder förekommer också t.ex. stödsamtal med skolsköterska eller kurator. Vanligast av socialförvaltningens insatser är kontaktperson/familj.

    Berörda myndigheter uppmanas också att föreslå olika typer av nya insatser för de rapporterade barnen och ungdomarna. Även här dominerar olika typer av skolinriktade insatser. Vanliga förslag är undervisning i liten grupp och/eller olika typer av specialundervisning. När socialförvaltningen anses vara ansvarig myndigheter för önskade insatser föreslår rapporterande myndigheter allt från olika typer av familjestöd till direkta förslag till omhändertagande och placering på behandlingshem.

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    Kartläggning av barn i behov av stöd år 2002: Eksjö kommun
  • 12.
    Ahlvin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University. Region Östergötland, Public Dental Health Care.
    Warnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Regional Örebro County, Sweden.
    Bågesund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Public Dental Health Care.
    Ordell, Sven
    Region Östergötland, Public Dental Health Care.
    Self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds in a Swedish County - A comparative study between 2004 and 20112016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, Swedish dental professionals have collected clinical epidemiological data from the dental records. To supplement the epidemiology, Ostergotland County Council decided to examine patient perceptions of oral health: self-rated knowledge, self-perceived oral health, and opinions about oral health. The aim was to compare self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds to determine differences between genders, various municipalities and between 2004 and 2011. This study analysed the responses from two cross-sectional surveys of the entire population of 19-year-olds in Ostergotland County, Sweden, performed in 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,413 (53 %) (50 % men, 50 % women) 19-year-olds who responded to the questionnaire in 2004 and the 3,803 (67 %) (50 % men, 50 % women) in 2011, most 19-year-olds (88.1 % [2004] and 87.5 % [am]) reported satisfaction with their oral health. Around half of the respondents rated their knowledge on periodontitis as low. Boys rated their knowledge about avoiding periodontitis higher than girls (p&lt;0.05 in 2004 and p&lt;0.001 in 2011). In 2004, 84.7 % reported shooting pain. In 2011 that figure was 83.7 %. The respondents expressed some uncertainty about the benefits of fluoride toothpaste (7.5 % in 2004 and 9.3 % in 2011), especially the boys (10.3 % in 2004 and 10.5 % in 2011). Girls reported both a higher social impact and greater concern about aesthetics related to their oral health. They also reported headache (27.5 %) nearly twice as often as boys (14.2 %) (p&gt;0.001). Responses between the municipalities did not differ, with the exception of items regarding periodontitis. Thus, this study found indications that perceptions of oral health and knowledge in Ostergotland County complied with Swedish Dental Act. The study also found patient perceptions of oral health among 19-year-olds to be good.

  • 13. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Victimization, Prevalence, Health and Peritraumatic Reactions in Swedish Adolescents2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the knowledge of victimization in children and youth in Sweden. Victimization, prevalence, health and peritraumatic reactions were explored in a cross sectional, representative sample of 5,960 second grade high school students in Sweden. A computerized survey was developed and administered in class room setting.

    Lifetime victimization was found in 84.1% of the sample (m=83.0%, f=85.2%), and, in relation to the five domains, 66.4% had experienced conventional crime, 24% child maltreatment, 54.4% peer and sibling victimization, 21.8% sexual victimization, and 54% had experienced witness victimization. Females experienced significantly more child maltreatment, peer and sibling victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessed victimization, males more conventional crime (p<0.001). Using logistic regression risk factors for victimization were confirmed by a significant increase OR regarding gender, environment and lack of both parents.

    Symptoms (TSCC), were clearly associated with both victimizations per se and the number of victimizations. The results indicated a relatively linear increase in symptoms with an increase in number of events experienced. Mental health of the polyvictimized group was significantly worse than that of the non-polyvictimized group, with significantly elevated TSCC scores (t<0.001). Hierarchical regression analysis resulted in beta value reduction when polyvictimization was introduced supporting the independent effect on symptoms. Social anxiety was found in 10.2 % (n = 605) of the total group (n = 5,960). A significant gender difference emerged, with more females than males reporting social anxiety. Elevated PTSS was found in 14.8 % (n=883). Binary logistic regression revealed the highest OR for having had contact with child and adolescent psychiatry was found for the combined group with social anxiety and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 3.53–6.73, p<001). Significant associations were also found between use of child and adolescent psychiatry and female gender (OR = 2.05, 95 % CI = 1.70–2.45), Swedish birth origin (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI = 1.16–2.42) and living in a small municipality (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI = 1.02–1.73).

    Mediation models used peritraumatic reactions (PT): total, physiological arousal (PA), peritraumatic dissociation (PD), and intervention thoughts (IT) and JVQ and TSCC. Of the n=5,332 cases, a total of n=4,483 (84.1%) reported at least one victimizing event (m = 83.0%, f = 85.2%). Of these, 74.9% (n=3,360) also experienced a PT reaction of some kind. The effect mediated by PT tot was b= 0.479, BCa CI [0.342 – 0.640], representing a relatively small effect of 7.6%, κ2=0.076, 95% BCa CI [0.054- 0.101]. The mediating effect of JVQ on TSCC was mediated by PD more for males (b=0.394 BCa CI [0.170-0.636]) than for females (b=0.247, BCa CI [0.021-0.469]). The indirect effect of the JVQ on the TSCC tot mediated by the different PT reactions was significant for PD (b=0.355, BCa CI [0.199- 0.523]. In males a mediating effect of PD could be seen in the different models, while females had a more mixed result. IT did not show any indirect effect in males, but had a mixed effect for females.

    The empirical findings in this thesis lead to the conclusion that victimization is highly prevalent in children and youth and is related to health issues. The association of victimization on symptoms was mediated by peritraumatic reactions. Using a comprehensive instrument such as the JVQ provides the researcher or clinician the opportunity to acquire more complete measurement and also makes it possible to identify polyvictimization, a high-level category of events with severe impact on health.  

    List of papers
    1. The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the extent to which children are exposed to victimizing events is important to fully understand the effect of such exposure in shaping them as adults. The aim of this study was to use self-report by adolescents to measure the prevalence of victimizing events and of poly-victimization. A representative sample of 5,960 students (aged 17) from high schools in Sweden was given the self-administrated version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) along with questions concerning gender, birthplace, parents birthplace and employment, residence, educational program, and municipality size. The results show that 84.1% (83.0% young men and 85.2% young women) of the students had experienced victimization during their lifetime, and 10.3% were categorized as poly-victims (8.1% young men and 12.5% young women; OR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.35, 1.94]). Adolescents living with both parents were at lower risk of any form of victimization for both genders, while females were at higher risk of maltreatment, peer victimization, and, most significantly, sexual victimization. In conclusion, the vast majority of young people have been victimized during their lifetime. A greater awareness of the impact of these victimizing events on children and adolescents is important as a basis for providing a safer milieu and establishing better interventions, especially for those that have been victimized on multiple occasions. The high-exposure group was determined by using 10 events as a cutoff. Findings on this group corresponded with findings in other international studies regarding distribution, elevated risk for females, and the possibility of limiting the effects of victimization by modifying living conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2016
    Keywords
    JVQ; victim; youth; poly-victimization; sociodemographics
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124456 (URN)10.1177/0886260514556105 (DOI)000367838200004 ()25392393 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority in Sweden; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden

    Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2021-05-18
    2. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents
    2016 (English)In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Dovepress, 2016
    Keywords
    victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychiatry Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132626 (URN)10.2147/AHMT.S109587 (DOI)000382208500001 ()27616895 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2021-12-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings from studies on adults show similarities between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress in the form of recurrent memories and intrusive and distressing images of earlier aversive events. Further, treatment models for SAD in adults have been successfully developed by using transdiagnostic knowledge on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Studies on adolescents are though missing. The present study aimed at exploring the association between PTSS and SAD in Swedish adolescents. A second aim was to study mental health services utilization in relation to these conditions. A total of 5,960 high-school students participated and reported on SAD, life time victimization, PTSS and mental health service utilization. Socially anxious adolescents reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than adolescents not reporting SAD and this difference was seen in victimized as well as non-victimized subjects. Contact with a school counselor was the most common mental health service utilization in subjects with SAD and those with elevated PTSS. In the prediction of contact with a CAP-clinic, significant odds ratios were found for a condition of SAD and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 3.53–6.73) but not for SAD only. Screening of PTSS in adolescents with SAD is recommended. The service of school counselors is important in detecting and helping young people with SAD and elevated PTSS. Clinical studies on SAD and PTSS in adolescents could aid in modifying treatment models for SAD.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Social anxiety disorder, victimization, mental health service utilization, adolescents
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89939 (URN)10.1007/s00787-012-0336-z (DOI)000315736200005 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-11 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2021-05-18
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    Victimization, Prevalence, Health and Peritraumatic Reactions in Swedish Adolescents
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  • 14.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey2016In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the extent to which children are exposed to victimizing events is important to fully understand the effect of such exposure in shaping them as adults. The aim of this study was to use self-report by adolescents to measure the prevalence of victimizing events and of poly-victimization. A representative sample of 5,960 students (aged 17) from high schools in Sweden was given the self-administrated version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) along with questions concerning gender, birthplace, parents birthplace and employment, residence, educational program, and municipality size. The results show that 84.1% (83.0% young men and 85.2% young women) of the students had experienced victimization during their lifetime, and 10.3% were categorized as poly-victims (8.1% young men and 12.5% young women; OR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.35, 1.94]). Adolescents living with both parents were at lower risk of any form of victimization for both genders, while females were at higher risk of maltreatment, peer victimization, and, most significantly, sexual victimization. In conclusion, the vast majority of young people have been victimized during their lifetime. A greater awareness of the impact of these victimizing events on children and adolescents is important as a basis for providing a safer milieu and establishing better interventions, especially for those that have been victimized on multiple occasions. The high-exposure group was determined by using 10 events as a cutoff. Findings on this group corresponded with findings in other international studies regarding distribution, elevated risk for females, and the possibility of limiting the effects of victimization by modifying living conditions.

  • 15.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Alawa, Jude
    et al.
    Stanford Univ Sch Med, CA 94305 USA.
    Muhammad, Muzzammil
    Yale Univ Sch Med, CT 06510 USA.
    Kazemitabar, Maryam
    Yale Univ Sch Publ Hlth, CT 06510 USA.
    Bromberg, Daniel J.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Yale Univ Sch Publ Hlth, CT 06510 USA.
    Khoshnood, Kaveh
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Ghandour, Lilian
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Medication for opioid use disorder in the Arab World: A systematic review2022In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 102, article id 103617Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a global public health concern. The standard of care for OUD involves treatment using medications such as buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone. No known review exists to assess the contextual factors associated with medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in the Arab World. This systematic review serves as an implementation science study to address this research gap and improve the uptake of MOUD in the Arab World.Methods: Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, and a citation analysis, were used to identify peer-reviewed articles with original data on MOUD in the Arab World. Quality assessment was conducted using the CASP appraisal tools, and main findings were extracted and coded according to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Results: 652 research articles were identified, and 10 met inclusion criteria for final review. Four studies considered health-systems aspects of MOUD administration, such as cost-effectiveness, the motivations for and impact of national MOUD policies, the types of social, political, and scientific advocacy that led to the adoption of MOUD in Arab countries, and the challenges limiting its wide-scale adoption in the Arab World. Six papers considered MOUD at individual and group patient levels by evaluating patient quality of life, addiction severity, patient satisfaction, and patient perspectives on opioid agonist therapy.Conclusion: Despite financial and geographic barriers that limit access to MOUD in the Arab World, this review found MOUD to be cost-effective and associated with positive health outcomes for OUD patients in the Arab World. MOUD can be successfully established and scaled to the national level in the Arab context, and strong coalitions of health practitioners can lobby to establish MOUD programs in Arab countries. Still, the relative novelty of MOUD in this context precludes an abundance of research to address its long-term delivery in the Arab World.

  • 17.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö, Sweden.
    Comparison of Stroke Mortality in Finnish-Born Migrants Living in Sweden 1970-1999 and in Swedish-Born Individuals2014In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A limited number of studies have been found on stroke mortality in migrants showing higher mortality for some groups. Influence of time of residence has been studied by a previous  research group. A previous study showed a significantly higher number of deaths in Diseases of the circulatory system in Finnish migrants compared to native Swedes. The aim was to test the hypothesis of a higher mortality in and a decrease in mortality over time in stroke among Finnish migrants in Sweden. The study was based on National Population registry data. The study population included 321,407 Swedish and 307,174 foreign born persons living in Sweden 1987-1999. Mean age was lower at time for death for Finnish migrants than native Swedes, men 5.1 years difference and women 2.3 years. The dissimilarity decreased over time. The risk of death by stroke was higher for migrants with short time of residence in Sweden than with long time (≤10 years, OR 1.61-1.36 vs ≥11 year, OR 1.18). Migrants with short time of residence in Sweden died 9.8-5.3 years earlier than native Swedes. The hypothesis was confirmed and an indication of adjustment to life in the new host country was found. International studies show similar results for other migrant groups but further studies are needed to verify if a similar pattern can be found in other migrant groups living in Sweden and to be able to generalise the findings.

  • 18.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Norway.
    Dietary Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q(10) Prevents Increase in Plasma D-Dimer While Lowering Cardiovascular Mortality in an Elderly Swedish Population2021In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low intake of selenium is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. This could be reduced by supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q(10). D-dimer, a fragment of fibrin mirroring fibrinolysis, is a biomarker of thromboembolism, increased inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and is associated with cardiovascular mortality in ischemic heart disease. The objective was to examine the impact of selenium and coenzyme Q(10) on the level of D-dimer, and its relationship to cardiovascular mortality. D-dimer was measured in 213 individuals at the start and after 48 months of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with selenium yeast (200 mu g/day) and coenzyme Q(10) (200 mg/day) (n = 106) or placebo (n = 107). The follow-up time was 4.9 years. All included individuals were low in selenium (mean 67 mu g/L, SD 16.8). The differences in D-dimer concentration were evaluated by the use of T-tests, repeated measures of variance and ANCOVA analyses. At the end, a significantly lower D-dimer concentration was observed in the active treatment group in comparison with those on placebo (p = 0.006). Although D-dimer values at baseline were weakly associated with high-sensitive CRP, while being more strongly associated with soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 and sP-selectin, controlling for these in the analysis there was an independent effect on D-dimer. In participants with a D-dimer level above median at baseline, the supplementation resulted in significantly lower cardiovascular mortality compared to those on placebo (p = 0.014). All results were validated with a persisting significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q(10) in a group of elderly low in selenium and coenzyme Q(10) prevented an increase in D-dimer and reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the placebo group. The obtained results also illustrate important associations between inflammation, endothelial function and cardiovascular risk.

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  • 19.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alexander, J.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Norway.
    Aaseth, J.
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway.
    Larsson, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Significant decrease of von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by providing supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 to an elderly population with a low selenium status2020In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 59, p. 3581-3590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are conditions which fuel atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease. We have previously reported reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality following supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 to 443 elderly individuals with low selenium status (mean 67 mu g/L) for 4 years. Here, we wanted to evaluate a possible association between the supplementation and the plasma concentrations of the von Willebrand factor (vWf), and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), as they, besides other functions, are also strongly associated with endothelial function. Methods In this sub-study, 308 individuals (active substance: 157, placebo: 151) were included. Blood samples were drawn after 6 and 36 months and vWf and PAI-1 were determined in plasma by ELISA. Changes in concentrations of the biomarkers were evaluated by the use of T tests, repeated measures of variance, and ANCOVA analyses. Results The active treatment group presented a lower level of vWf after 36 months compared with the placebo group (1.08 U/mL vs. 5.10 U/mL; p = 0.0007). The results were validated through the repeated measures of variance evaluation. The PAI-1 levels showed an equally significant decrease in the active group (26.2 ng/mL vs. 49.2 ng/mL; p = 0.0002) and were also validated through repeated measures of variance evaluation. Conclusion In this sub-study on elderly receiving selenium and coenzyme Q10, or placebo we found significantly lower levels of vWf and PAI-1 in the active treatment group as compared to the placebo group. We interpret this as a better endothelial function because of the intervention, which accords with a previous finding of reduced CV mortality.

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  • 20.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Johansson, Peter
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Björnstedt, Mikael
    Division of Pathology F42, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Post, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust and Hedmark University College, Norway.
    Relatively high mortality risk in elderly Swedish subjects with low selenium status2016In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives: 

    The daily dietary intake of selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is still low in Sweden in spite of decades of nutritional information campaigns and the effect of this on the public health is presently not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the serum Se levels in an elderly Swedish population and to analyze whether a low Se status had any influence on mortality.

    Subjects/Methods: 

    Six-hundred sixty-eight (n=668) elderly participants were invited from a municipality and evaluated in an observational study. Individuals were followed for 6.8 years and Se levels were re-evaluated in 98 individuals after 48 months. Clinical examination of all individuals included functional classification, echocardiography, electrocardiogram and serum Se measurement. All mortality was registered and endpoints of mortality were assessed by Kaplan–Meier plots, and Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors were calculated.

    Results: 

    The mean serum Se level of the study population (n=668) was 67.1 μg/l, corresponding to relatively low Se intake. After adjustment for male gender, smoking, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and impaired heart function, persons with serum Se in the lowest quartile had 43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–2.00) and 56% (95% CI: 1.03–2.36) increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. The result was not driven by inflammatory effects on Se concentration in serum.

    Conclusion: 

    The mean serum Se concentration in an elderly Swedish population was 67.1 μg/l, which is below the physiological saturation level for several selenoprotein enzymes. This result may suggest the value of modest Se supplementation in order to improve the health of the Swedish population.

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  • 21.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping.
    Svensson, Erland
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Sweden.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway; Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Norway.
    Improved cardiovascular health by supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10: applying structural equation modelling (SEM) to clinical outcomes and biomarkers to explore underlying mechanisms in a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention project in Sweden2022In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 3135-3148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Selenium and coenzyme Q10 have synergistic antioxidant functions. In a four-year supplemental trial in elderly Swedes with a low selenium status, we found improved cardiac function, less cardiac wall tension and reduced cardiovascular mortality up to 12 years of follow-up. Here we briefly review the main results, including those from studies on biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk that were subsequently conducted. In an effort, to explain underlying mechanisms, we conducted a structured analysis of the inter-relationship between biomarkers. Methods Selenium yeast (200 mu g/day) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/ day), or placebo was given to 443 elderly community-living persons, for 48 months. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the statistical inter-relationships between biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin-like growth factor 1, expression of microRNA, fibrosis, and endothelial dysfunction and their impact on the clinical effects. The main study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov at 30th of September 2011, and has the identifier NCT01443780. Results In addition to positive clinical effects, the intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 was also associated with favourable effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Using these results in the SEM model, we showed that the weights of the first-order factors inflammation and oxidative stress were high, together forming a second-order factor inflammation/oxidative stress influencing the factors, fibrosis (beta = 0.74; p &lt; 0.001) and myocardium (beta = 0.65; p &lt; 0.001). According to the model, the intervention impacted fibrosis and myocardium through these factors, resulting in improved cardiac function and reduced CV mortality. Conclusion Selenium reduced inflammation and oxidative stress. According to the SEM analysis, these effects reduced fibrosis and improved myocardial function pointing to the importance of supplementation in those low on selenium and coenzyme Q10.

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  • 22.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shamoun, Levar
    Jonkoping Cty, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wagsaeter, Dick
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Increased cardiovascular mortality in females with the a/a genotype of the SNPs rs1478604 and rs2228262 of thrombospondin-12020In: BMC Medical Genetics, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are still the major cause of death in the Western world, with different outcomes between the two genders. Efforts to identify those at risk are therefore given priority in the handling of health resources. Thrombospondins (TSP) are extracellular matrix proteins associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TSP-1 and plasma expression, and associations with mortality from a gender perspective.MethodsA population of 470 community-living persons were invited to participate. The participants were followed for 7.9years and underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling. SNP analyses of TSP-1 rs1478604 and rs2228262 using allelic discrimination and plasma measurement of TSP-1 using ELISA were performed,ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 135 (28.7%) all-cause and 83 (17.7%) cardiovascular deaths were registered.In the female population, the A/A genotype of rs2228262 and the T/T genotype of rs1478604 exhibited significantly more cardiovascular deaths compared with the A/G and G/G, or the T/C and C/C genotypes amalgamated (rs2228262: 13.7% vs 2.0%; Chi(2):5.29; P=0.02; rs1478604:17.7% vs 4.7%; Chi(2):9.50; P=0.002). Applied in a risk evaluation, the A/A, or T/T genotypes exhibited an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (rs2228262: HR: 7.1; 95%CI 1.11-45.8; P=0.04; rs1478604: HR: 3.18; 95%CI 1.35-7.50; p=0.008). No differences among the three genotypes could be seen in the male group.ConclusionIn this study the female group having the A/A genotype of rs2228262, or the T/T genotype of rs1478604 of TSP-1 exhibited higher cardiovascular mortality after a follow-up of almost 8 years. No corresponding genotype differences could be found in the male group. Genotype evaluations should be considered as one of the options to identify individuals at risk. However, this study should be regarded as hypothesis-generating, and more research in the field is needed.

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  • 23.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Slind Olsen, Renate
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Wågsäter, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    PDGF-D gene polymorphism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in elderly men2016In: BMC Medical Genetics, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 17, no 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) D has been reported to be active in fibroblasts, and in areas of myocardial infarction. In this longitudinal study we evaluated the association between PDGF-D polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality, and attempted to discover whether specific genotype differences regarding risk could be observed, and if gender differences could be seen. Methods: Four hundred seventy-six elderly community participants were included in this study. All participants underwent a clinical examination, echocardiography, and blood sampling including PDGF-D single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses of the rs974819 A/A, G/A and G/G SNP. The follow-up time was 6.7 years. Results: No specific genotype of rs974819 demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality in the total population, however, the male group with genotypes A/A and G/A demonstrated an increased risk that persisted in a multivariate evaluation where adjustments were made for well-known cardiovascular risk factors (2.7 fold compared with the G/G genotype). No corresponding finding was observed in the female group. Conclusion: We report here for the first time that the genotypes G/A or A/A of the SNP rs974819 near PDGF-D exhibited a 2.7 fold increased cardiovascular mortality risk in males. Corresponding increased risk could not be observed in either the total population and thus not in the female group. However, the sample size is was small and the results should be regarded as hypothesis-generating, and thus more research in the field is recommended.

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  • 24.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rydh, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjurulf, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiology of sickness absence in a Swedish county in 1985, 1986 and 1987: A three year longitudinal study with focus on gender, age and occupation1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to get a better epidemiological base for preventive intervention in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, a comprehensive study of sickness absence was done. During the years 1985, 1986 and 1987, all new periods of sick-leave exceeding seven days were registered with demographic variables. This information was related to data about the total population of Östergötland. Each year approx. 45,000 persons had approx. 61,000 sickness spells. These figures were stable over the years while the number of sick-leave days increased. Blue-collar occupations had the highest sick-leave rates and the female sick-leave rate was higher in general and much higher in most male-dominated occupations. The male rate was lower within female-dominated areas, except among secretaries and textile workers. Females in extremely male-dominated groups had the highest rates, while both male and female sick-leave rates were lower in more gender-integrated occupations.

  • 25.
    Alexandrou, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henstrom, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nystrom, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a Smartphone App (MINISTOP 2.0) integrated in primary child health care to promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors and prevent obesity in preschool-aged children: randomized controlled trial2023In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Childhood overweight and obesity is a public health priority. We have previously reported the efficacy of a parent-oriented mobile health (mHealth) app-based intervention (MINISTOP 1.0) which showed improvements in healthy lifestyle behaviors. However, the effectiveness of the MINISTOP app in real-world conditions needs to be established. Objective:To evaluate the real-world effectiveness of a 6-month mHealth intervention (MINISTOP 2.0 app) on childrens intake of fruits, vegetables, sweet and savory treats, sweet drinks, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time (primary outcomes), and on parental self-efficacy (PSE) for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors, and childrens body mass index (BMI) (secondary outcomes). Methods:A hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation design was utilized. For the effectiveness outcomes, a two-arm, individually randomized controlled trial was conducted. Parents (n = 552) of 2.5-to-3-year-old children were recruited from 19 child health care centers across Sweden, and, randomized to either a control (standard care) or intervention group (MINISTOP 2.0 app). The 2.0 version was adapted and translated into English, Somali and Arabic to increase reach. All recruitment and data collection were conducted by the nurses. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after six months, using standardized measures (BMI) and a questionnaire (health behaviors, PSE). Results:Among the participating parents (n = 552, age: 34.1 +/- 5.0 years), 79% were mothers and 62% had a university degree. Twenty-four percent (n = 132) of children had two foreign-born parents. At follow-up, parents in the intervention group reported lower intakes of sweet and savory treats (-6.97 g/day; p = 0.001), sweet drinks (-31.52 g/day; p &lt; 0.001), and screen time (-7.00 min/day; p = 0.012) in their children compared to the control group. The intervention group reported higher total PSE (0.91; p = 0.006), PSE for promoting healthy diet (0.34; p = 0.008) and PSE for promoting physical activity behaviors (0.31; p = 0.009) compared to controls. No statistically significant effect was observed for childrens BMI z-score. Overall, parents reported high satisfaction with the app, and 54% reported using the app at least once a week. Conclusion:Children in the intervention group had lower intakes of sweet and savory treats, sweet drinks, less screen time (primary outcomes) and their parents reported higher PSE for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors. Our results from this real-world effectiveness trial support the implementation of the MINISTOP 2.0 app within Swedish child health care.

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  • 26.
    Alffenaar, J. W. C.
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Westmead Hosp, Australia.
    Stocker, S. L.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; St Vincents Hosp, Australia; Univ NSW, Australia.
    Forsman, L. Davies
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Garcia-Prats, A.
    Stellenbosch Univ, South Africa; Univ Wisconsin, WI USA.
    Heysell, S. K.
    Univ Virginia, VA USA.
    Aarnoutse, R. E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Akkerman, O. W.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Aleksa, A.
    Grodno State Med Univ, BELARUS.
    van Altena, R.
    Asian Harm Reduct Network AHRN, Myanmar; Med Act Myanmar MAM, Myanmar.
    de Onata, W. Arrazola
    Belgian Sci Inst Publ Hlth, Belgium.
    Bhavani, P. K.
    Indian Council Med Res Natl Inst Res TB, India.
    Vant Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, N.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands; Metropolitan Publ Hlth Serv, Netherlands.
    Carvalho, A. C. C.
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil.
    Centis, R.
    Ist Ricovero & Cura Carattere Sci IRCCS, Italy.
    Chakaya, J. M.
    Kenyatta Univ, Kenya; Univ Liverpool Liverpool Sch Trop Med, England.
    Cirillo, D. M.
    IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Italy.
    Cho, J. G.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Westmead Hosp, Australia; Parramatta Chest Clin, Australia.
    Ambrosio, L. D.
    Publ Hlth Consulting Grp, Switzerland.
    Dalcolmo, M. P.
    Funda Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz, Brazil.
    Denti, P.
    Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dheda, K.
    Univ Cape Town, South Africa; Univ Cape Town Lung Inst, South Africa; South African MRC Ctr Study Antimicrobial Resista, South Africa; London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, England.
    Fox, G. J.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Woolcock Inst Med Res, Australia.
    Hesseling, A. C.
    Stellenbosch Univ, South Africa.
    Kim, H. Y.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Westmead Hosp, Australia.
    Koser, C. U.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Marais, B. J.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Childrens Hosp Westmead, Australia.
    Margineanu, I
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Martson, A. G.
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Torrico, M. Munoz
    Inst Nacl Enfermedades Resp, Mexico.
    Nataprawira, H. M.
    Univ Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
    Ong, C. W. M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore; Natl Univ Singapore Hosp, Singapore.
    Otto-Knapp, R.
    German Cent Comm TB DZK, Germany.
    Peloquin, C. A.
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Silva, D. R.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ruslami, R.
    Univ Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
    Santoso, P.
    Univ Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
    Savic, R. M.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, CA USA.
    Singla, R.
    Natl Inst TB & Resp Dis, India.
    Svensson, E. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen Med Ctr, Netherlands; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Skrahina, A.
    Republican Res & Pract Ctr Pulmonol & TB, BELARUS.
    van Soolingen, D.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Netherlands.
    Srivastava, S.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Tyler, TX USA.
    Tadolini, M.
    IRCCS Azienda Osped Univ Bologna, Italy; Alma Mater Studiorum Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Tiberi, S.
    Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Thomas, T. A.
    Univ Virginia, VA USA.
    Udwadia, Z. F.
    PD Hinduja Natl Hosp & Med Res Ctr, India.
    Vu, D. H.
    Hanoi Univ Pharm, Vietnam.
    Zhang, W.
    Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Mpagama, S. G.
    Kilimanjaro Christian Med Univ Coll, Tanzania; Kibongoto Infect Dis Hosp, Tanzania.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Migliori, G. B.
    Grodno State Med Univ, BELARUS.
    Clinical standards for the dosing and management of TB drugs2022In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 483-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Optimal drug dosing is important to ensure adequate response to treatment, prevent development of drug resistance and reduce drug toxicity. The aim of these clinical standards is to provide guidance on best practice for dosing and management of TB drugs.

    METHODS: A panel of 57 global experts in the fields of microbiology, pharmacology and TB care were identified; 51 participated in a Delphi process. A 5-point Likert scale was used to score draft standards. The final document represents the broad consensus and was approved by all participants.

    RESULTS: Six clinical standards were defined: Standard 1, defining the most appropriate initial dose for TB treatment; Standard 2, identifying patients who may be at risk of sub-optimal drug exposure; Standard 3, identifying patients at risk of developing drug-related toxicity and how best to manage this risk; Standard 4, identifying patients who can benefit from therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM); Standard 5, highlighting education and counselling that should be provided to people initiating TB treatment; and Standard 6, providing essential education for healthcare professionals. In addition, consensus research priorities were identified.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first consensus-based Clinical Standards for the dosing and management of TB drugs to guide clinicians and programme managers in planning and implementation of locally appropriate measures for optimal person-centred treatment to improve patient care.

  • 27.
    Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Internet opportunities and risks for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a comparative study of parents' perceptions.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 601-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In contemporary society internet and digital competencies are used to perform activities.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate opportunities and risks of internet use as perceived by the parents of adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) in comparison with a national reference group of parents of adolescents.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with group comparisons using a national survey. Analyses were carried out using Fisher's exact test and logistic regression to control for confounding factors.

    Results: A significantly higher proportion of parents of adolescents with ID perceive opportunities associated with internet use and playing games, and a lower proportion perceive risks with negative consequences, compared with the reference group. Significantly more parents of adolescents with ID perceive their adolescent never use smartphones and social media compared with the reference group. Fewer parents of adolescents with ID have concerns about online risks for their adolescents compared with the reference group.

    Conclusion and Significance: The results provide new knowledge for occupational therapists to support positive risk-taking in internet-use for adolescents with ID, in collaboration with their parents, to enable the development of digital competencies and digital participation in everyday life in a digitalised society.

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  • 28.
    Alfvén, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige; Sachsska barn- och ungdomssjukhuset, Sverige.
    Ekman, Anna-Theresia
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige; St Görans sjukhus, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Awil, Hana
    ST-läkare i allmänmedicin, Mora, Sverige.
    Holmer, Hampus
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sverige; Duke Global Health Institute, USA.
    Mia Ekström, Anna
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige; Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Sverige.
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Agardh, Anette
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Frielingsdorf Lundqvist, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Center for Refugee Medicine.
    Agenda 2030 och målen för en hållbar utveckling angår oss alla [The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development - an important opportunity to improve global health]2020In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 117Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its seventeen Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. It is a bold agenda for global social, environmental and economic development, with human health as a central theme. Even though substantial improvements in health have been achieved during the last decades, every year over 5 million children die, mostly from preventable causes, and 300 000 women die in conjunction with childbirth. Premature deaths from non-communicable diseases are increasing, and our ability to treat infections is under threat through widespread anti-microbial resistance. Climate change is recognized as the biggest threat to health in our time. When the world now starts to plan for how society and our health systems should be reorganized after the COVID-19 pandemic the 2030 Agenda could and should play a central role. In this context, Agenda 2030 provides an ambitious roadmap for development, with its emphasis on collaboration across borders and disciplines. The agenda is achievable but reaching its goals will require strong commitment at all levels and societal change on a large scale.

  • 29.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Tsang, Hector W. H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, England.
    Haghayegh, Shahab
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, MA USA.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Taiwan; Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Taiwan; Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Sleep problems during COVID-19 pandemic and its association to psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis2021In: eClinicalMedicine, E-ISSN 2589-5370, Vol. 36, article id 100916Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emerging novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2020. The present systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with psychological distress. Methods: Five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, Pro Quest, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase) were searched. Observational studies including case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included if relevant data relationships were reported (i.e., sleep assessed utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or Insomnia Severity Index). All the studies were English, peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and February 2021. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020181644. Findings: 168 cross-sectional, four case-control, and five longitudinal design papers comprising 345270 participants from 39 countries were identified. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems were 31% among healthcare professionals, 18% among the general population, and 57% among COVID-19 patients (all p-values &lt; 0.05). Sleep problems were associated with depression among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fishers Z scores of -0.28, -0.30, and -0.36, respectively. Sleep problems were positively (and moderately) associated with anxiety among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fishers z scores of 0.55, 0.48, and 0.49, respectively. Interpretation: Sleep problems appear to have been common during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, sleep problems were found to be associated with higher levels of psychological distress. With the use of effective programs treating sleep problems, psychological distress may be reduced. Vice versa, the use of effective programs treating psychological distress, sleep problems may be reduced. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 30.
    Alonso, Juan-Manuel
    et al.
    Int Assoc Athlet Federat, Med & Antidoping Commiss, Monaco, Monaco; Qatar Orthoped & Sports Med Hosp, Sports Med Dept, Aspetar, Doha, Qatar.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Ronsen, Ola
    Int Assoc Athlet Federat, Med & Antidoping Commiss, Monaco, Monaco; Aker Solut, Lysaker, Norway.
    Kajenienne, Alma
    Int Assoc Athlet Federat, Med & Antidoping Commiss, Monaco, Monaco; Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Inst Sport, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Edouard, Pascal
    Univ Hosp St Etienne, Fac Med, Sports Med Unity, Dept Clin & Exercise Physiol, St Etienne, France; Univ Lyon, Exercise Physiol Lab, LPE EA 4338, St Etienne, France; French Athlet Federat, Med Commiss, Paris, France.
    Preparticipation injury complaint is a risk factor for injury: a prospective study of the Moscow 2013 IAAF Championships.2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 1118-U45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the health status of athletes before the start of an international athletics championship and to determine whether preparticipation risk factors predicted in-championship injuries.

    METHODS: At the beginning of the 2013 International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships, all registered athletes (n=1784) were invited to complete a preparticipation health questionnaire (PHQ) on health status during the month preceding the championships. New injuries that occurred at the championships were prospectively recorded.

    RESULTS: The PHQ was completed by 698 (39%) athletes; 204 (29.2%) reported an injury complaint during the month before the championships. The most common mode of onset of preparticipation injury complaints was gradual (43.6%). Forty-nine athletes in the study reported at least one injury during the championships. Athletes who reported a preparticipation injury complaint were at twofold increased risk for an in-championship injury (OR=2.09; 95% CI 1.16 to 3.77); p=0.014). Those who reported a preparticipation gradual-onset injury complaint were at an almost fourfold increased risk for an in-championship time-loss injury (OR=3.92; 95% CI 1.69 to 9.08); p=0.001). Importantly, the preparticipation injury complaint severity score was associated with the risk of sustaining an in-championship injury (OR=1.14; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22); p=0.001).

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: About one-third of the athletes participating in the study reported an injury complaint during the month before the championships, which represented a risk factor for sustaining an injury during the championship. This study emphasises the importance of the PHQ as a screening tool to identify athletes at risk of injuries before international championships.

  • 31.
    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jarl, Johan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Vastmanland Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Josenby, Annika Lundkvist
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Westbom, Lena
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Himmelmann, Kate
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stadskleiv, Kristine
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Ödman, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Antfolk, Christian
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Malesevic, Nebojsa
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jeglinsky, Ira
    Arcada Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Saha, Sanjib
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hagglund, Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Improving the Health of Individuals With Cerebral Palsy: Protocol for the Multidisciplinary Research Program MOVING ON WITH CP2019In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e13883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common early onset disabilities globally. The causative brain damage in CP is nonprogressive, yet secondary conditions develop and worsen over time. Individuals with CP in Sweden and most of the Nordic countries are systematically followed in the national registry and follow-up program entitled the Cerebral Palsy Follow-Up Program (CPUP). CPUP has improved certain aspects of health care for individuals with CP and strengthened collaboration among professionals. However, there are still issues to resolve regarding health care for this specific population.

    Objective: The overall objectives of the research program MOVING ON WITH CP are to (1) improve the health care processes and delivery models; (2) develop, implement, and evaluate real-life solutions for Swedish health care provision; and (3) evaluate existing health care and social insurance benefit programs and processes in the context of CP.

    Methods: MOVING ON WITH CP comprises 9 projects within 3 themes. Evaluation of Existing Health Care (Theme A) consists of registry studies where data from CPUP will be merged with national official health databases, complemented by survey and interview data. In Equality in Health Care and Social Insurance (Theme B), mixed methods studies and registry studies will be complemented with focus group interviews to inform the development of new processes to apply for benefits. In New Solutions and Processes in Health Care Provision (Theme C), an eHealth (electronic health) procedure will be developed and tested to facilitate access to specialized health care, and equipment that improves the assessment of movement activity in individuals with CP will be developed.

    Results: The individual projects are currently being planned and will begin shortly. Feedback from users has been integrated. Ethics board approvals have been obtained.

    Conclusions: In this 6-year multidisciplinary program, professionals from the fields of medicine, social sciences, health sciences, and engineering, in collaboration with individuals with CP and their families, will evaluate existing health care, create conditions for a more equal health care, and develop new technologies to improve the health care management of people with CP.

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  • 32.
    Altin, Carolina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvist Lindholm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wejdmark, Mats
    Nature School, Municipality of Nynäshamn, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lättman-Masch, Robert
    Nature School, Municipality of Nynäshamn, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Upgrading Preschool Environment in a Swedish Municipality: Evaluation of an Implementation Process2015In: Health Promotion Practice, ISSN 1524-8399, E-ISSN 1552-6372, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 583-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redesigning outdoor preschool environment may favorably affect multiple factors relevant to health and reach many children. Cross-sectional studies in various landscapes at different latitudes have explored the characteristics of preschool outdoor environment considering the play potential triggering combined physical activity and sun-protective behavior due to space, vegetation, and topography. Criteria were pinpointed to upgrade preschool outdoor environment for multiple health outcomes to be applied in local government in charge of public preschools. Purposeful land use policies and administrative management of outdoor land use may serve to monitor the quality of preschool outdoor environments (upgrading and planning). This study evaluates the process of implementing routines for upgrading outdoor preschool environments in a medium-sized municipality, Sweden, 2008-2011, using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recorded written material (logs and protocols) related to the project was processed using thematic analysis. Quantitative data (m2 flat/multileveled, overgrown/naked surface, and fraction of free visible sky) were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation (surface, topography, greenery integrated in play). The preschool outdoor environments were upgraded accordingly. The quality of implementation was assessed using the theory of policy streams approach. Though long-term impact remains to be confirmed the process seems to have changed work routines in the interior management for purposeful upgrading of preschool outdoor environments. The aptitude and applicability of inexpensive methods for assessing, selecting, and upgrading preschool land at various latitudes, climates, and outdoor play policies (including gender aspects and staff policies) should be further discussed, as well as the compilation of data for monitoring and evaluation.

  • 33.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fixartjänster i Sveriges kommuner: Kartläggning och samhällsekonomisk analys. Regeringsuppdrag2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with so called minor home help services. These services are primarily meant for older persons with the aim to prevent injuries caused by falling in domestic environments (ones home). The minor home help services are mostly provided by the municipalities in Sweden, although it is not mandatory to provide these services. The extent of the provision and use of minor home help services has previously not been studied on a national level. The aim of this study was to delineate the minor home help services run by the municipalities in Sweden and further to examine and estimate the societal costs and consequences of providing these services.

    Out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 191 (66 %) offer minor home help services to their citizens. The tasks carried out are primarily aimed at preventing falls from furniture such as step stools or ladders, removing items that may cause falls (cords, carpets etc.) and providing an overhaul of injury risks in the home. A few municipalities also offer outdoor services such as removing snow in wintertime. In the majority of the municipalities (58 %) the services are offered free of charge but the user has to pay for the materials, in 32 % the services are completely free of charge and in 9 % of the municipalities an amount is charged for the services. The minor home help services are organized in various ways in the municipalities: the services can be completely run by the municipality where the services are carried out by one or several employed persons, by persons with disabilities (involved in daily activity programmes in the municipality) or by persons involved in work programmes; or the minor home help services can be carried out by the community rescue service or companies paid by the municipality to offer these services to the citizens. There are also organizations with volunteers that carry out minor home help services, these are however not included in the main results since the focus in this report is on municipal minor home help services. Ninety nine municipalities do not offer minor home help services to their citizens. Reasons for this are e.g. economic restraints and low demand.

    Experienced gains with minor home help services from the perspectives of the municipalities are prevention of falls, facilitation of the possibility to remain living in one’s own home, contribution to social wellbeing and being able to offer meaningful work tasks for persons in work programmes or persons with disabilities. Problems that have been brought forward are low demand of the services, problems with providing the target group with information and difficulties to measure the effect on fall injuries.

    A socioeconomic model was constructed for the analysis of costs and consequences of fall injuries. The model includes the large cost items as well as outcomes such as mortality and loss of quality of life when affected by a fall injury. The total direct costs in Sweden for fall injuries has previously been calculated to approximately 5 billion SEK, which includes only the direct costs during the first year of the injury. A calculation exercise was performed and applied to a hypothetical municipality with 50 000 inhabitants. This calculation exercise shows that if only a small amount of falls that lead to serious injuries (fractures) can be prevented by minor home help services, then the costs saved are approximately equivalent to the mean budget of minor home help services with one employed person. Calculations using real data including both costs and effects need to be performed.

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  • 34.
    Amundsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Långtidscovid: symptomförlopp och mönster över tid: En explorativ analys av crowdsource-insamlat enkätdata2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two years after the first recorded outbreak of Covid-19 its long-term effects are still not completely understood. An unknown proportion of all covid patients go on to develop post-acute covid syndrome and suffer long-term symptoms and health effects long after the initial infection subsides. Project Crowdsourcing Långtidscovid-Sverige sent out in summer of 2021 an open online survey and gathered respondents through crowdsourcing to gather info about people in Sweden with prolonged health effects lasting at least three months after confirmed or suspected Covid-19 infection.

    In this thesis an explorative analysis of the aforementioned survey is conducted with its initial focus placed onthe progression of symptoms. Descriptive statistics are provided for the survey sample; hierarchical clusteringon principal components is performed; and association rule mining as well as sequence rule mining is used toextract frequently co-occurring symptoms.

    Women stand for 85.2% of all respondents, possibly indicating a skewed gender distribution in the sample. The average age of a respondent is 50 years old, but ranges between 18 and 80 years of age. The number of reported symptoms tend to diminish over time and symptoms within the 'air passages' category diminish on average quicker than other categories.

    Hierarchical clustering with Ward’s criterion revealed 4 clusters with an average silhouette coefficient of 0.246. The resulting clusters are not well-separated from each other and have some overlap in their bordering regions, and should therefore be interpreted with caution. Broadly speaking, individuals from cluster 1, 3 and 4 are distinguished primarily by their total number of symptoms reported, meanwhile cluster 2 is characterized by individuals that experience many symptoms early on and fewer symptoms later on.

    The most prevalent symptom over the entire period is fatigue (90.2%), closely followed by worsening symptomsafter physical activity (87.1%), problems with concentration (82.3%), headaches (79.5%), and brain fog (77.9%). There are several strong associations between various symptoms, especially for symptoms within the same category. Most symptoms have a sequential correlation with themselves and have an increased tendency to occur several times.

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  • 35. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersen, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. FoU Kronoberg, Region Kronoberg.
    Physical activity on prescription with access to counsellor support implemented in routine care: Healthcare and patient perspectives2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish PAP (physical activity on prescription) programme FaR®, introduced in 2001, has been adopted by all Swedish regions, which are responsible for provision of healthcare in Sweden. Several studies have shown positive outcomes of the Swedish PAP on patients’ physical activity and other health-related outcomes. There are no guidelines for best practises of the Swedish PAP, which has led to the development of different organizational structures for its delivery. This thesis project was developed with the ambition of providing knowledge for further development of PAP in clinical practise.

    Aim: The overall aim was to investigate and generate improved understanding of a structure for physical activity on prescription with access to physical activity counsellors, implemented in routine healthcare.

    Methods: To address the overall aim, four real-world studies with different design and analysis methods were carried out. The study population consisted of patients 18 years or older prescribed PAP in primary and secondary care in Region Kronoberg’s healthcare organization. Study I investigated characteristics of healthcare delivery of PAP over a four-year period, including all patients prescribed PAP in these years. Study II explored factors that influenced patient’s long-term engagement in physical activity after prescription. Study III investigated differences in physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at one-year follow-up between patients who used versus patients who did not use counsellor support after prescription. Study IV investigated factors associated with patients increase in physical activity at one-year follow-up. Data sources for the studies were electronic medical records (Studies I, II, III and IV), individual interviews (Study II) and a baseline and a follow-up questionnaire (Studies III and IV). Different statistical analyses were performed in Studies I, III and IV. Study II used qualitative content analysis based on an approach including both inductive and deductive analysis. The final study samples of PAP recipients were N = 4,879 (Study I), n = 13 (Study II), n = 400 (Study = III) and n = 355 (Study IV).

    Results: Study I: 4,879 PAP recipients were identified, one-third had used the offer of counsellor support. PAP recipients had a high frequency of diagnosis and healthcare consumption prior to PAP. Counsellor users had higher frequency of multiple diagnoses and healthcare visits than non-counsellor users. The main prescriber of PAP was physicians and the main prescribing setting was primary care. Study II: PAP recipients’ long-term engagement with physical activity was influenced by the determinants of capability, opportunity, and motivation. Receiving a prescription of physical activity, and professional counselling and follow up from a physical activity counsellor, and adaption of PAP to the individual’s capacity were important for patients change of physical activity. Study III: Counsellor users had better outcomes in both physical activity and HRQoL than non-users of this support. Study IV: Nearly half of the PAP recipients had increased physical activity one year after prescription. Increased physical activity was positively associated with lower baseline activity, counsellor use, and positive perception of given support after PAP.

    Conclusions: Patients who were prescribed PAP had a high frequency of diagnoses and high healthcare consumption in the year prior to the prescription. Due to the positive findings regarding patient outcomes on physical activity, and patient experiences of counsellor support, it could be suggested that individualized counselling and follow up by a physical activity counsellor is of importance for patients’ engagement in physical activity, especially for patients with lower baseline activity. Since increased activity was also seen among nonusers of counsellor support, a general recommendation for physical activity counsellor support for all PAP recipients could not be suggested.

    List of papers
    1. Physical Activity on Prescription with Counsellor Support: A 4-Year Registry-Based Study in Routine Health Care in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity on Prescription with Counsellor Support: A 4-Year Registry-Based Study in Routine Health Care in Sweden
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    2018 (English)In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 6, no 2, article id E34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public health gains from physical activity on prescription (PAP) depend on uptake in routine care. We performed an evaluation of the implementation, in a Swedish county council, of counsellors who give personalized support to PAP recipients aimed at facilitating PAP delivery. The aim was to compare characteristics between PAP recipients and the health care population as well as between PAP recipients who used and did not use counsellor support. We also investigated professional belonging and health care setting of health care professionals who prescribed PAP. 

    Methods: All patients’ ≥18 years who received PAP during 2009–2012 in primary and secondary care in the County Council of Kronoberg were included (n = 4879). Data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Main outcome measures were patient and professional characteristics. 

    Results: A third of the PAP recipients had diseases in ≥5 diagnostic groups and more than half had ≥11 office visits the year before receiving PAP. Counsellor support was used by one-third and PAP recipients who used counsellor support had more multiple diagnoses and office visits compared with non-users. Physicians issued 44% of prescriptions and primary care was the predominant setting. The amount of PAP did not change over time, but the proportion of physicians’ prescriptions decreased while the proportion of nurses’ prescriptions increased. 

    Conclusions: PAP recipients had high morbidity and were frequent health care attenders, indicating that PAP was predominantly used for secondary or tertiary prevention. PAP rates did not increase as intended after the implementation of counsellor support. View Full-Text

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2018
    Keywords
    counselling, implementation, physical activity prescription, primary care, secondary care
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154036 (URN)10.3390/healthcare6020034 (DOI)000436494800007 ()29659546 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2022-11-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Patients experiences of physical activity on prescription with access to counsellors in routine care: a qualitative study in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients experiences of physical activity on prescription with access to counsellors in routine care: a qualitative study in Sweden
    2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPhysical activity on prescription (PAP) has been implemented in several countries, including Sweden, to support patients who might benefit from increased physical activity. This study explores the experiences of recipients of PAP in routine health care in Sweden that offers the recipients support from physical activity counsellors. The aim was to explore influences on engagement in physical activity by PAP recipients from a long-term perspective.MethodsWe conducted individual semi-structured interviews using a topic guide with a purposively selected sample of 13 adult PAP recipients 1.5 to 2.5years after PAP. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through inductive and deductive content analysis. The questions were informed by Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B), which was also used as a framework to analyse the data by means of categorizing the factors (influences on the behaviour).ResultsTen factors (i.e. sub-categories) that influenced the participants engagement in physical activity were identified. PAP recipients capability to engage in physical activity was associated with adapting the PAP to the individuals physical capacity and taking into account the individuals previous experiences of physical activity. PAP recipients opportunity to engage in physical activity was related to receiving a prescription, receiving professional counselling and follow-up from a physical activity counsellor, collaboration between prescriber and counsellor, having access to appropriate activities, having a balanced life situation and having support from someone who encouraged continued physical activity. PAP recipients motivation to engage in physical activity was associated with the desire to improve his or her health condition and finding activities that encouraged continuation.ConclusionsPAP recipients engagement in physical activity was influenced by their capability, opportunity and motivation to undertake this behaviour. Numerous extraneous factors influence capability and motivation. Physical activity counsellors were found to be important for sustained activity because they use an individual approach to counselling and flexible follow-up adapted to each individuals need of support.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMC, 2019
    Keywords
    Qualitative research; Physical activity; Health care; Patients; Counselling
    National Category
    Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154997 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-6535-5 (DOI)000459398500001 ()30786907 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS); Linkoping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences

    Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2023-08-28
    3. Physical Activity on Prescription in Routine Health Care: 1-Year Follow-Up of Patients with and without Counsellor Support
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity on Prescription in Routine Health Care: 1-Year Follow-Up of Patients with and without Counsellor Support
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    2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 16, article id 5679Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of counsellor support in addition to physical activity on prescription (PAP) from health care professionals has rarely been evaluated. This observational follow-up study investigated differences in physical activity levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after PAP regarding patients use of counsellor support in addition to PAP in routine care. The study was conducted in a Swedish health care region in which all patients receiving PAP from health care professionals were offered counsellor support. Data were collected from medical records and questionnaires (baseline and follow-up). Of the 400 study participants, 37% used counsellor support. The group of counsellor users attained a higher level of physical activity one year after receiving PAP compared to the group of non-users (p&lt; 0.001). The level of physical activity was measured by a validated index (score 3-19) calculated from weekly everyday activity and exercise training. Comparison of the change in scores between baseline and follow-up showed a significant difference between the two groups, (p&lt; 0.001). The median difference in the PAP + C group was 2.0 (interquartile range, 7.0) and 0.0. among non-users (interquartile range, 4.0). Significant differences in HRQoL were due to positive improvements among counsellor users, with the main improvement in general health. The conclusion is that patients using counsellor support after receiving PAP from health care professionals had higher physical activity and better HRQoL one year after compared with patients who did not use this support.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2020
    Keywords
    physical activity on prescription; counsellor; counselling; health care; patients
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170008 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17165679 (DOI)000565054400001 ()32781558 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg [4896]

    Available from: 2020-09-26 Created: 2020-09-26 Last updated: 2022-11-15
    4. Factors associated with increased physical activity among patients prescribed physical activity in Swedish routine health care including an offer of counselor support: a 1-year follow-up
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with increased physical activity among patients prescribed physical activity in Swedish routine health care including an offer of counselor support: a 1-year follow-up
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background The study addresses knowledge gaps in research regarding influences of routine health care delivery of physical activity on prescription (PAP). The aim was to investigate if patient and health care characteristics are associated with increased physical activity 1 year after prescription among patients offered counselor support in addition to health care professionals prescription. The study was conducted in primary and secondary care in a Swedish health care region. Methods All PAP recipients during 1 year were invited (N = 1503) to participate in this observational prospective study. Data were collected from medical records and questionnaires (baseline and follow-up). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. The outcome variable was increased physical activity after 1 year. Study variables were patient and health care characteristics. Results Three hundred and fifty-five patients with complete follow-up data were included. The mean age was 62 years (SD = 14; range, 18-90) and 68% were females. Almost half (47%) had increased physical activity 1 year after PAP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that increased physical activity at follow-up was positively associated with lower baseline activity, counselor use, and positive perception of support. Counselor users with low baseline activity had higher odds ratio for increased physical activity at follow-up than non-users (OR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.2-23.5 vs. OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.5). Positive perception of support was associated with increased physical activity among counselor users but not among non-users. Conclusions An increase in physical activity after PAP was related to low baseline activity, positive perception of support, and use of counselor support after PAP. Qualified counseling support linked to PAP seems to be important for achieving increased physical activity among patients with lower baseline activity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMC, 2022
    Keywords
    Physical activity on prescription; Counseling; Health care characteristics; Patient characteristics; Predictors
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184131 (URN)10.1186/s12889-022-12940-4 (DOI)000769445200007 ()35292017 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg [4896]

    Available from: 2022-04-08 Created: 2022-04-08 Last updated: 2023-08-28
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  • 36.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept Res & Dev, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Dept Res & Dev, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Arestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Sect, Sweden.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Dept Res & Dev, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Factors associated with increased physical activity among patients prescribed physical activity in Swedish routine health care including an offer of counselor support: a 1-year follow-up2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The study addresses knowledge gaps in research regarding influences of routine health care delivery of physical activity on prescription (PAP). The aim was to investigate if patient and health care characteristics are associated with increased physical activity 1 year after prescription among patients offered counselor support in addition to health care professionals prescription. The study was conducted in primary and secondary care in a Swedish health care region. Methods All PAP recipients during 1 year were invited (N = 1503) to participate in this observational prospective study. Data were collected from medical records and questionnaires (baseline and follow-up). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. The outcome variable was increased physical activity after 1 year. Study variables were patient and health care characteristics. Results Three hundred and fifty-five patients with complete follow-up data were included. The mean age was 62 years (SD = 14; range, 18-90) and 68% were females. Almost half (47%) had increased physical activity 1 year after PAP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that increased physical activity at follow-up was positively associated with lower baseline activity, counselor use, and positive perception of support. Counselor users with low baseline activity had higher odds ratio for increased physical activity at follow-up than non-users (OR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.2-23.5 vs. OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.5). Positive perception of support was associated with increased physical activity among counselor users but not among non-users. Conclusions An increase in physical activity after PAP was related to low baseline activity, positive perception of support, and use of counselor support after PAP. Qualified counseling support linked to PAP seems to be important for achieving increased physical activity among patients with lower baseline activity.

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  • 37.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Reg Kronoberg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Arestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Sect, Sweden.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Reg Kronoberg, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity on Prescription in Routine Health Care: 1-Year Follow-Up of Patients with and without Counsellor Support2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 16, article id 5679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of counsellor support in addition to physical activity on prescription (PAP) from health care professionals has rarely been evaluated. This observational follow-up study investigated differences in physical activity levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after PAP regarding patients use of counsellor support in addition to PAP in routine care. The study was conducted in a Swedish health care region in which all patients receiving PAP from health care professionals were offered counsellor support. Data were collected from medical records and questionnaires (baseline and follow-up). Of the 400 study participants, 37% used counsellor support. The group of counsellor users attained a higher level of physical activity one year after receiving PAP compared to the group of non-users (p&lt; 0.001). The level of physical activity was measured by a validated index (score 3-19) calculated from weekly everyday activity and exercise training. Comparison of the change in scores between baseline and follow-up showed a significant difference between the two groups, (p&lt; 0.001). The median difference in the PAP + C group was 2.0 (interquartile range, 7.0) and 0.0. among non-users (interquartile range, 4.0). Significant differences in HRQoL were due to positive improvements among counsellor users, with the main improvement in general health. The conclusion is that patients using counsellor support after receiving PAP from health care professionals had higher physical activity and better HRQoL one year after compared with patients who did not use this support.

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  • 38.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity on Prescription with Counsellor Support: A 4-Year Registry-Based Study in Routine Health Care in Sweden2018In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 6, no 2, article id E34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public health gains from physical activity on prescription (PAP) depend on uptake in routine care. We performed an evaluation of the implementation, in a Swedish county council, of counsellors who give personalized support to PAP recipients aimed at facilitating PAP delivery. The aim was to compare characteristics between PAP recipients and the health care population as well as between PAP recipients who used and did not use counsellor support. We also investigated professional belonging and health care setting of health care professionals who prescribed PAP. 

    Methods: All patients’ ≥18 years who received PAP during 2009–2012 in primary and secondary care in the County Council of Kronoberg were included (n = 4879). Data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Main outcome measures were patient and professional characteristics. 

    Results: A third of the PAP recipients had diseases in ≥5 diagnostic groups and more than half had ≥11 office visits the year before receiving PAP. Counsellor support was used by one-third and PAP recipients who used counsellor support had more multiple diagnoses and office visits compared with non-users. Physicians issued 44% of prescriptions and primary care was the predominant setting. The amount of PAP did not change over time, but the proportion of physicians’ prescriptions decreased while the proportion of nurses’ prescriptions increased. 

    Conclusions: PAP recipients had high morbidity and were frequent health care attenders, indicating that PAP was predominantly used for secondary or tertiary prevention. PAP rates did not increase as intended after the implementation of counsellor support. View Full-Text

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  • 39.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Keurhorst, Myrna
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Saxion University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Laurant, Miranda
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    University of Teesside, England.
    Gual, Antoni
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

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  • 40.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Does the management of personal integrity information lead to differing participation rates and response patterns in mental health surveys with young adults?: A three-armed methodological experiment2021In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study evaluates whether initiation rates, completion rates, response patterns and prevalence of psychiatric conditions differ by level of personal integrity information given to prospective participants in an online mental health self-report survey. Methods A three-arm, parallel-group, single-blind experiment was conducted among students from two Swedish universities. Consenting participants following e-mail invitation answered the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-International College Student (WMH-ICS) mental health self-report survey, screening for eight psychiatric conditions. Random allocation meant consenting to respond (1) anonymously; (2) confidentially, or (3) confidentially, where the respondent also gave consent for collection of register data. Results No evidence was found for overall between-group differences with respect to (1) pressing a hyperlink to the survey in the invitation email; and (2) abandoning the questionnaire before completion. However, participation consent and self-reported depression were in the direction of higher levels for the anonymous group compared to the two confidential groups. Conclusions Consent to participate is marginally affected by different levels of personal integrity information. Current standard participant information procedures may not engage participants to read the information thoroughly, and online self-report mental health surveys may reduce stigma and thus be less subject to social desirability bias.

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  • 41.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Reg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engstrom, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Reg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts in association to self-reported symptoms, mental health and study capacity in Swedish university students2022In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion. Results Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with students self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity. To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.

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  • 42.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Molander, Olof
    Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Associations between compliance with covid-19 public health recommendations and perceived contagion in others: a self-report study in Swedish university students2021In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: During the COVID pandemic, government authorities worldwide have tried to limit the spread of the virus. Swedens distinctive feature was the use of voluntary public health recommendations. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on data collected in the spring of 2020, this study explored associations between compliance with recommendations and observed symptoms of contagion in others, using self-report data from university students. Results: Compliance with recommendations ranged between 69.7 and 95.7 percent. Observations of moderate symptoms of contagion in "Someone else I have had contact with" and "Another person"were markedly associated with reported self-quarantine, which is the most restrictive recommendation, complied with by 81.2% of participants. Uncertainty regarding the incidence and severity of contagion in cohabitants was markedly associated with the recommendation to avoid public transportation, a recommendation being followed by 69.7%. It is concluded that students largely followed the voluntary recommendations implemented in Sweden, suggesting that coercive measures were not necessary. Compliance with recommendations were associated with the symptoms students saw in others, and with the perceived risk of contagion in the students immediate vicinity. It is recommended that voluntary recommendations should stress personal relevance, and that close relatives are at risk.

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  • 43.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Co-morbidity and health care utilisation five years prior to diagnosis for depression: A register-based study in a Swedish population2011In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 552-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depressive disorders have been associated with a number of co-morbidities, and we   hypothesized that patients with a depression diagnosis would be heavy users of health   care services, not only when first evaluated for depression, but also for preceding   years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased health care utilisation   and co-morbidity could be seen during five years prior to an initial diagnosis of   depression.

    Methods

    We used a longitudinal register-based study design. The setting comprised the general   population in the county of Östergötland, south-east Sweden. All 2470 patients who   were 20 years or older in 2006 and who received a new diagnosis of depression (F32   according to ICD-10) in 2006, were selected and followed back to the year 2001, five   years before their depression diagnosis. A control group was randomly selected among   those who were aged 20 years or over in 2006 and who had received no depression diagnosis   during the period 2001-2006.

    Results

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status.

    Patients who received a diagnosis of depression used twice the amount of health care   (e.g. physician visits and hospital days) during the five year period prior to diagnosis   compared to the control group. A particularly strong increase in health care utilisation   was seen the last year before diagnosis. These findings were supported with a high   level of co-morbidity as for example musculoskeletal disorders during the whole five-year   period for patients with a depression diagnosis.

    Conclusions

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status. To find early signs   of depression in the clinical setting and to use a preventive strategy to handle these   patients is important.

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  • 44.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Dai Ydrefelt, Ying
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Marit
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Maria
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Mannila, Maria
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Persson, Margaretha
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Bolejko, Anetta
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Surveillance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules detected with CT in a Swedish population-based study (SCAPIS): psychosocial consequences and impact on health-related quality of life-a multicentre prospective cross-sectional study2021In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e048721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate whether surveillance of pulmonary nodules detected with low-dose CT (LDCT) impacted health-related quality of life and psychosocial consequences in the Swedish population-based study, Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Design A prospective cross-sectional study. Settings and participants This multicentre (five sites) observational study, which included a cohort from SCAPIS, consisted of 632 participants with indeterminate pulmonary nodules detected with LDCT. These participants continued surveillance for up to 36 months, during which lung cancer was not detected (surveillance group). Additionally, 972 participants with a negative pulmonary LDCT scan were included as a control group. Matching criteria were LDCT date (+/- 2 weeks), gender and site. Outcome measures All participants completed a health-related quality of life questionnaire (RAND-36) and the Consequences of Screening (COS) questionnaire, an average of 3 years after LDCT was conducted at entry into SCAPIS. Results Participants were 51-70 years old at study commencement. Overall, the two groups did not differ in demographic or psychosocial variables, smoking habits or pulmonary medical history. Individuals from countries other than Sweden and those with low socioeconomic status were less likely to participate (p&lt;0.001). No effects on health-related quality of life were observed via RAND-36. In COS, the surveillance group demonstrated a higher OR for anxiety about lung cancer (OR 3.96, 95% CI 2.35 to 6.66, p&lt;0.001), experiencing a sense of dejection (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72, p=0.015) and thoughts about existential values (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.60, p=0.018). Conclusions Lung surveillance with LDCT contributed to significant experiences of sense of dejection, anxiety about lung cancer and development of thoughts about existential values among participants in the surveillance group compared with the controls. The risk of side effects should be communicated for informed decision-making about (non-)attendance in lung cancer screening.

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  • 45.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    FoU Sodertorn, Sweden.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bulow, Per
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Denhov, Anne
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stefansson, Claes-Goran
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study of men and women diagnosed with psychosis: trajectories revealing interventions in a time-geographic framework2022In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 2423-2440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The living conditions for persons with severe mental illness have undergone substantial change in Sweden as well as in the rest of the Western world due to the downsizing of inpatient care and the development of community-based interventions. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the "trajectories of interventions" in this new, fragmented, institutional landscape. The aim of the study was to explore types of interventions and when they occur in a 10-year follow-up of 437 women and men diagnosed with psychosis for the first time. Based on registers and using a timegeographic visualization method, the results showed a great diversity of trajectories and differences between sexes. The aggregate picture revealed that over the 10-year period there were considerable periods with no interventions for both men and women. Furthermore, institutional interventions more commonly occurred among women but appeared for longer periods among men. Community-based interventions declined among women and increased among men during the period.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    FoU Sodertorn, Sweden.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Denhov, Anne
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Agder, Norway.
    Bulow, Per
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Forens Psychiat Reg Clin, Sweden.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A diversity of patterns: 10-year trajectories of men and women diagnosed with psychosis for the first time. A time-geographic approach2020In: Moravian Geographical Reports, ISSN 1210-8812, E-ISSN 2199-6202, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 283-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with severe mental illness face a different interventional landscape compared to some decades ago, when mental hospitals were dominant, in Sweden as well as in the rest of the Western world. The aim of the research reported in this article was to follow men and women diagnosed with psychosis for the first time over a 10-year period, and to explore what interventions they experienced. The interventions, here defined as "spheres", were either community-based or institutional. A third sphere represents no interventions. Based on data from registers and using a time-geographic approach, the individuals were visualised as 10-year trajectories where their transitions between the different spheres were highlighted. The results show a great diversity of trajectories. Two main categories were detected: two-spheres (community-based and no interventions) and three-spheres (adding institutional interventions). One third of the population experienced only community-based interventions, with a higher proportion of men than women. Consequently, more women had institutional experience. Two sub-categories reveal trajectories not being in the interventional sphere in a stepwise manner before the 10th year, and long-term trajectories with interventions in the 10th year. The most common pattern was long-term trajectories, embracing about half of the population, while one-fifth left the institutional sphere before the 5th year.

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  • 47. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson, Réka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gränsdragningar i Vårdens Vardag: Hanteringen av arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa i det svenska välfärdssystemet2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental ill health in working life is a major and growing problem in the welfare society. The problem is multifaceted and raises many questions about who is responsible, what kind of phenomenon it is and how it should be managed. This study examines how care professionals manage work-related mental ill health. Focusing on occupational healthcare and primary care, interest is directed towards how care professionals argue about workrelated mental illness, what dilemmas they face and the strategies they rely on in managing them. It also seeks to answer the question of responsibility regarding this complex problem, not least in the light of the privatization of occupational healthcare.

    The study uses a multidisciplinary perspective, combining concepts from technology and science studies (STS), sociology of professions and organizational theory in order to analyze various aspects of care management of work-related mental ill health. The empirical material is mainly based on interviews with physicians, psychotherapists, counsellors, occupational therapists, psychologists, rehabilitation coordinators and behavioral scientists, but also includes observations in primary care and occupational health care. The management of work-related mental ill health in everyday healthcare practice is characterized by the fact that the cause of the problem is complex, the division of responsibility unclear and that psychosocial causes of disease are controversial. The study discusses the challenges and possibilities of managing this complex problem in a broad sense. The analysis pays attention to the drawing of boundaries by the care professionals regarding both responsibility and the phenomenon of work-related mental illness. The concept of knowledge infrastructure is used to explain and understand the knowledge and material structures that the care professionals work within. The analysis shows that the care professionals have a pragmatic approach and use different strategies to create scope for dealing with work-related mental health.

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    Gränsdragningar i Vårdens Vardag: Hanteringen av arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa i det svenska välfärdssystemet
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  • 48. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andersson White, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Social Inequalities in Child Health: Type 1 Diabetes, Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Role of Self-control2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Commission on Health Inequality defined health inequality as systematic differences in health between groups in society with different social positions. All avoidable socioeconomic health inequalities are unfair, and as stated by WHO's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, we have a moral obligation to try to reduce them. "Putting these inequities right is a matter of social justice. Reducing health inequities is, for the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, an ethical imperative." This ethical imperative is especially apparent regarding the health of children and adolescents. Children’s right to the highest attainable standard of health is also enshrined in Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. To reach the goal of a reduction of health inequalities, research is necessary to describe the social gradients of health. Research is also needed to better understand why these gradients occur. A better understanding and knowledge about health inequalities can lead to policies that reduce these inequalities and ensure children’s right to health.

    This thesis investigates social inequality in child health using data from a Swedish population-based prospective birth cohort, the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort. Social inequality in obesity in the ABIS cohort is also compared with other birth cohorts participating in the Elucidating Pathways to Child Health Inequality (EPOCH) collaboration which includes cohorts from six high-income countries; Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada (one national and one cohort from Quebec), UK, Australia, and USA.

    In Paper 1 we show that health inequalities in overweight and obesity are detectable already at two years of age and that these inequalities increase during childhood. In adolescents, low socioeconomic status increases the risk of becoming overweight and the risk of components of the metabolic syndrome, including high blood pressure and dyslipidemia (low high-density cholesterol).

    The level of inequality in obesity in the Swedish ABIS cohort was lower than in the other participating countries in the EPOCH collaboration (Paper 2). Inequality was lower in absolute and relative terms when SES was measured by household income. Inequality was also lower in absolute, but not relative, terms when SES was measured by maternal education. This finding indicates that some of the policies implemented in Sweden may attenuate social inequalities in obesity in children. Examples of such policies with evidence for reducing social inequality in obesity implemented in Sweden include universal preschools and free school meals.

    This thesis also investigates health inequalities in autoimmune disease (Paper 3). In this study, we found that low socioeconomic status increased the risk of Type 1 Diabetes but not the other autoimmune diseases investigated. Path analysis indicated that part of the increased risk in children with low SES of Type 1 Diabetes might be mediated by a higher body mass index and an elevated risk of serious life events.

    In the final paper, this thesis tests the hypothesis that differences in maternal and child self-control mediate social inequalities in obesity. Two measures of self-control were used; for mothers, the self-control variable was based on behaviors related to self-control (smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the child’s first year of life, breastfeeding duration, and participating in the ABIS study with biological samples). For the children, the self-control variable was based on questionnaire data on the impulsivity subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that the two measures of self-control mediated 87.5 % of the increased risk of obesity at age 19 years in children with low maternal education and 93 % of the risk if maternal BMI was also included in the selfcontrol variable.

    In the discussion part of this thesis, the conclusions that can be deduced from understanding the mechanisms of social inequality in child health are discussed. A theory with a central role of self-control for health inequality predicts that social inequality will increase without interventions. In an environment with rising numbers of stimuli of the human reward system, stimuli that also have negative long-term consequences (socalled Limbic traps), child and adolescent health, in general, will decrease. Because of the mechanisms related to SES and self-control, children with low SES will be disproportionally affected. The result of this development will be increasing levels of social inequalities in child health.

    The discussion also includes implications for policies that may improve health and reduce inequalities. These policies should reduce the exposure of children and adolescents to harmful behaviors/limbic traps. Examples of policies that have this effect include universal preschools for all children, free healthy meals in preschools and schools, increased after-school activities for all children, and longer school days for adolescents with increased hours for physical activity, music, and art. Mobile phones and social media restrictions in schools and policies to reduce use at home should also be implemented. Finally, policies should be implemented to reduce residential and school segregation in the community.

    List of papers
    1. Inequalities in cardiovascular risks among Swedish adolescents (ABIS): a prospective cohort study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequalities in cardiovascular risks among Swedish adolescents (ABIS): a prospective cohort study
    2020 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e030613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate if socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of cardiovascular risk factors among Swedish adolescents. Identify the most important SES variable for the development of each cardiovascular risk factor. Investigate at what age SES inequality in overweight and obesity occurs. Design Longitudinal follow-up of a prospective birth cohort. Setting All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study includes data from children born between October 1997 and October 1999 in five counties of south east Sweden. Participants A regional ABIS-study subsample from three major cities of the region n=298 adolescents aged 16-18 years, and prospective data from the whole ABIS cohort for overweight and obesity status at the ages 2, 5, 8 and 12 years (n=2998-7925). Outcome measures Blood pressure above the hypertension limit, overweight/obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force definition, low high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or borderline-high low-density lipoproteins according to National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel on cholesterol levels in children. Results For three out of four cardiovascular risk outcomes (elevated blood pressure, low HDL and overweight/obesity), there were increased risk in one or more of the low SES groups (p&lt;0.05). The best predictor was parental occupational class (Swedish socioeconomic classification index) for elevated blood pressure (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve 0.623), maternal educational level for overweight (area under the ROC curve 0.641) and blue-collar city of residence for low HDL (area under the ROC curve 0.641). SES-related differences in overweight/obesity were found at age 2, 5 and 12 and for obesity at age 2, 5, 8 and 12 years (all p&lt;0.05). Conclusions Even in a welfare state like Sweden, SES inequalities in cardiovascular risks are evident already in childhood and adolescence. Intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular risk based on social inequality should start early in life.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165977 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030613 (DOI)000527786700022 ()32086351 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [K2005-72X-11242-11A, K2008-69X-20826-01-4]; Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden); JDRF Wallenberg Foundation [K 98-99D-12813-01A]; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS); Swedish Council for Working Life and Social ResearchSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council for Health Working Life & Welfare (Forte) [FAS2004-1775]; Ostgota Brandstodsbolag; Research and PhD studies Committee (FUN), Linkoping University, Sweden (LiU-)

    Available from: 2020-06-04 Created: 2020-06-04 Last updated: 2023-12-22
    2. Household income and maternal education in early childhood and risk of overweight and obesity in late childhood: Findings from seven birth cohort studies in six high-income countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household income and maternal education in early childhood and risk of overweight and obesity in late childhood: Findings from seven birth cohort studies in six high-income countries
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    2022 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 46, p. 1703-1711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives This study analysed the relationship between early childhood socioeconomic status (SES) measured by maternal education and household income and the subsequent development of childhood overweight and obesity. Subjects/methods Data from seven population-representative prospective child cohorts in six high-income countries: United Kingdom, Australia, the Netherlands, Canada (one national cohort and one from the province of Quebec), USA, Sweden. Children were included at birth or within the first 2 years of life. Pooled estimates relate to a total of N = 26,565 included children. Overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs and measured in late childhood (8-11 years). Risk ratios (RRs) and pooled risk estimates were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal age, ethnicity, child sex). Slope Indexes of Inequality (SII) were estimated to quantify absolute inequality for maternal education and household income. Results Prevalence ranged from 15.0% overweight and 2.4% obese in the Swedish cohort to 37.6% overweight and 15.8% obese in the US cohort. Overall, across cohorts, social gradients were observed for risk of obesity for both low maternal education (pooled RR: 2.99, 95% CI: 2.07, 4.31) and low household income (pooled RR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.30); between-cohort heterogeneity ranged from negligible to moderate (p: 0.300 to &lt; 0.001). The association between RRs of obesity by income was lowest in Sweden than in other cohorts. Conclusions There was a social gradient by maternal education on the risk of childhood obesity in all included cohorts. The SES associations measured by income were more heterogeneous and differed between Sweden versus the other national cohorts; these findings may be attributable to policy differences, including preschool policies, maternity leave, a ban on advertising to children, and universal free school meals.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Nature, 2022
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187410 (URN)10.1038/s41366-022-01171-7 (DOI)000823341900001 ()35821522 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Canadian Institutes of Health Research [OCO-79897, MOP-89886, MSH-95353, ROG-110537]; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Low maternal education increases the risk of Type 1 Diabetes, but not other autoimmune diseases: a mediating role of childhood BMI and exposure to serious life events
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low maternal education increases the risk of Type 1 Diabetes, but not other autoimmune diseases: a mediating role of childhood BMI and exposure to serious life events
    2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to investigate if socioeconomic status (SES), measured by maternal education and household income, influenced the risk of developing autoimmune disease (Type 1 Diabetes, Celiac disease, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Crohns disease, Ulcerative colitis, and autoimmune thyroid disease), or age at diagnosis, and to analyse pathways between SES and autoimmune disease. We used data from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study, a population-based prospective birth cohort, which included children born 1997-1999. Diagnoses of autoimmune disease was collected from the Swedish National Patient Register Dec 2020. In 16,365 individuals, low maternal education, but not household income, was associated with increased risk of Type 1 Diabetes; middle education RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.23; P 0.02, low education RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.04, 3.18; P 0.04. Maternal education and household income was not associated with any other autoimmune disease and did not influence the age at diagnosis. Part of the increased risk of Type 1 Diabetes by lower maternal education was mediated by the indirect pathway of higher BMI and higher risk of Serious Life Events (SLE) at 5 years of age. The risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes associated to low maternal education might be reduced by decreasing BMI and SLE during childhood.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2023
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195339 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-32869-x (DOI)000985906700031 ()37061552 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoeping University; County Council of Ostergot-land, Forskningsradet i Sydoestra Sverige, Vetenskapsradet [K2005-72X-11242-11A]; Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse [K 98-99D-12813-01A]; Forskningsradet foer Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap [FAS20041775]; Barndiabetesfonden; Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International; Ostgota Brandstodsbolag

    Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-12-22
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  • 49.
    Andersson White, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Abu Awad, Yara
    Concordia Univ, Canada.
    Gauvin, Lise
    Ctr Hosp Univ Montreal, Canada; Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Spencer, Nicholas James
    Univ Warwick, England.
    McGrath, Jennifer J.
    Concordia Univ, Canada.
    Clifford, Susan A.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Nikiema, Beatrice
    Univ Montreal, Canada; Cree Board Hlth & Social Serv James Bay, Canada.
    Yang-Huang, Junwen
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands; Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Markham, Wolfgang
    Univ Warwick, England.
    Mensah, Fiona K.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    van Grieken, Amy
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Raat, Hein
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Jaddoe, V. W. V.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands; Erasmus MC, Netherlands; Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Household income and maternal education in early childhood and risk of overweight and obesity in late childhood: Findings from seven birth cohort studies in six high-income countries2022In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 46, p. 1703-1711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives This study analysed the relationship between early childhood socioeconomic status (SES) measured by maternal education and household income and the subsequent development of childhood overweight and obesity. Subjects/methods Data from seven population-representative prospective child cohorts in six high-income countries: United Kingdom, Australia, the Netherlands, Canada (one national cohort and one from the province of Quebec), USA, Sweden. Children were included at birth or within the first 2 years of life. Pooled estimates relate to a total of N = 26,565 included children. Overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs and measured in late childhood (8-11 years). Risk ratios (RRs) and pooled risk estimates were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal age, ethnicity, child sex). Slope Indexes of Inequality (SII) were estimated to quantify absolute inequality for maternal education and household income. Results Prevalence ranged from 15.0% overweight and 2.4% obese in the Swedish cohort to 37.6% overweight and 15.8% obese in the US cohort. Overall, across cohorts, social gradients were observed for risk of obesity for both low maternal education (pooled RR: 2.99, 95% CI: 2.07, 4.31) and low household income (pooled RR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.30); between-cohort heterogeneity ranged from negligible to moderate (p: 0.300 to &lt; 0.001). The association between RRs of obesity by income was lowest in Sweden than in other cohorts. Conclusions There was a social gradient by maternal education on the risk of childhood obesity in all included cohorts. The SES associations measured by income were more heterogeneous and differed between Sweden versus the other national cohorts; these findings may be attributable to policy differences, including preschool policies, maternity leave, a ban on advertising to children, and universal free school meals.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Andreae, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Chung, Misook
    College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Lennie, Terry
    College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Depressive symptoms as a moderator and mediator of the relationship between physical activity, appetite and perceived health among patients with heart failure2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Depressive symptoms have been shown to directly influence perceived health among persons with heart failure (HF). Decreased physical activity and appetite may also be predictive of poor perceived health.The purposes of this study were to determine whether appetite and physical activity predicted perceived health, and to determine whether depressive symptoms mediated or moderated their relationship with perceived health.

    Methods: A total of 184 patients with mild to severe HF were included. Appetite, depressive symptoms and perceived health were measured by self-report questionnaires (Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire and EuroQol 5D index). Physical activity was measured by SenceWearTM for 6 days. A separate series of multiple linear regression analyses were run to determine whether depressive symptoms mediated or moderated the relationship between physical activity and perceived health, and between appetite and perceived health.

    Results: Higher physical activity predicted better perceived health (ß=0.202, p=.006) but the strength of the association decreased (ß=0.13, p=.048) when depressive symptoms were included in the model. There was a significant mediation effect for depressive symptoms on perceived health (sobel=2.03, p=.041) (Fig 1). Appetite was a significant predictor of perceived health. Examination of this association among those with and without depressive symptoms, however showed positive association between appetite and perceived health remained only for patients without depressive symptoms demonstrating a moderating effect (p<.001) (Fig 2).

    Conclusion: Identifying and treating depression simultaneously while addressing appetite and physical activity may be key to improving perceived health among persons with HF.

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