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  • 1.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal obesity (Class I-III), gestational weight gain and maternal leptin levels during and after pregnancy: a prospective cohort study2016In: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 3, no 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Maternal obesity is accompanied by maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. The risks seem to increase with degree of obesity. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in the development of obesity related complications. Whether maternal leptin levels differ between obese and morbidly obese women, during and after pregnancy, have to our knowledge not been previously described. Neither has the association between maternal leptin levels and gestational weight gain in obese women. The aim was to evaluate if maternal plasma leptin levels were associated with different degrees of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain.

    Methods

    Prospective cohort study including women categorized as obesity class I-III (n = 343) and divided into three gestational weight gain groups (n = 304). Maternal plasma leptin was measured at gestational week 15, 29 and 10 weeks postpartum. Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from early pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was calculated using maternal weight in delivery week minus early pregnancy weight. The mean value and confidence interval of plasma-leptin were analysed with a two-way ANOVA model. Interaction effect between BMI and gestational weight gain group was tested with a two-way ANOVA model.

    Results

    The mean maternal leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with obesity class III compared to women in obesity class I, at all times when plasma leptin were measured. The mean leptin concentrations were also significantly higher in women with obesity class II compared to women in obesity class I, except in gestational week 29. There was no difference in mean levels of plasma leptin between the gestational weight gain groups. No significant interaction between BMI and gestational weight gain group was found.

    Conclusions

    Plasma leptin levels during and after pregnancy were associated with obesity class but not with degree of gestational weight gain. These results are in concordance with epidemiological findings where the risk of obstetric complications increases with increased maternal obesity class. The effect on obstetric outcome by degree of gestational weight gain is less pronounced than the adverse effects associated with maternal obesity.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, Par
    Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden.
    Directly measured free 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels show no evidence of vitamin D deficiency in young Swedish women with anorexia nervosa2018In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by low fat mass complicated by osteoporosis. The role of circulating vitamin D in the development of bone loss in AN is unclear. Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods In female AN patients (n = 20), and healthy female controls (n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. In patients with AN bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with DEXA. Results There were no differences between patients and controls in total or free S-25(OH)D levels (80 +/- 31 vs 72 +/- 18 nmol/L, and 6.5 +/- 2.5 vs 5.6 +/- 1.8 pg/ml, respectively), and no association to BMD was found. In the entire group of patients and controls, both vitamin D parameters correlated with BMI, leptin, and PTH. Conclusions The current study did not demonstrate a vitamin D deficiency in patients with AN and our data does not support vitamin D deficiency as a contributing factor to bone loss in AN. Instead, we observed a trend toward higher vitamin D levels in AN subjects compared to controls. Measurement of free vitamin D levels did not contribute to additional information.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ingela
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Von, Siv-Ping
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, Par
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Erythrocyte fatty acid composition does not influence levels of free, bioavailable, and total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2017In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL and LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, ISSN 0036-5513, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 +/- 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n=78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n=64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated. Analysis of ery-FA composition was by gas chromatography (n=56 of 78). A strong correlation between total 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D was seen (r=.66, pamp;lt;.001), and between total-25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=.68, pamp;lt;.001). No correlations between 25(OH)D fractions and specific fatty acids were found, and in particular, no associations with mono- and poly-unsaturated FA compositions. All 25(OH)D fractions were correlated with leptin (total 25(OH)D (r=-.33, pamp;lt;.003); bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=-.47, pamp;lt;.001); free 25(OH)D (r=-.44, pamp;lt;.001). Associations were found between PTH and total 25(OH)D (r=-.35, p=.002) and weaker between bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=-.35, p=.040) and free 25(OH)D (r=-.28, p=.079). All fractions of 25(OH)D appear to correlate in a similar way to PTH, BMI and body fat (leptin). No association was found between ery-FA composition and free/bioavailable 25(OH)D. It is unlikely that FAs are a strong uncoupling factor of DBP-bound 25(OH)D.

  • 4.
    Chung, Rosanna
    et al.
    Heart Research Institute, Australia.
    Wang, Zeneng
    Cleveland Clin, OH 44106 USA.
    Bursill, Christina A.
    South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Wu, Ben J.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Bailee, Philip J.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Rye, Kerry-Anne
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Effect of long-term dietary sphingomyelin supplementation on atherosclerosis in mice2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the circulation correlate positively with atherosclerosis burden. SM is a ubiquitous component of human diets, but it is unclear if dietary SM increases circulating SM levels. Dietary choline increases atherosclerosis by raising circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels in mice and humans. As SM has a choline head group, we ask in this study if dietary SM accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development by increasing circulating SM and TMAO levels. Three studies were performed: (Study 1) C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a high fat diet with or without SM supplementation for 4 weeks prior to quantification of serum TMAO and SM levels; (Study 2) atherosclerosis was studied in apoE(-/-) mice after 16 weeks of a high fat diet without or with SM supplementation and (Study 3) apoE(-/-) mice were maintained on a chow diet for 19 weeks without or with SM supplementation and antibiotic treatment prior to quantification of atherosclerotic lesions and serum TMAO and SM levels. SM consumption did not increase circulating SM levels or atherosclerosis in high fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice. Serum TMAO levels in C57BL/6 mice were low and had no effect atherosclerosis lesion development. Dietary SM supplementation significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch of chow-fed apoE(-/-) mice. This study establishes that dietary SM does not affect circulating SM levels or increase atherosclerosis in high fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice, but it is anti-atherogenic in chow-fed apoE(-/-) mice.

  • 5.
    Delisle Nyström, Christine
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sandin, Sven
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Icahn School Medical Mt Sinai, NY 10029 USA; Icahn School Medical Mt Sinai, NY 10029 USA.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI USA.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Löf, Marie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschool-aged children: the MINISTOP randomized controlled trial2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1327-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditional obesity prevention programs are time-and cost-intensive. Mobile phone technology has been successful in changing behaviors and managing weight; however, to our knowledge, its potential in young children has yet to be examined. Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) obesity prevention program on body fat, dietary habits, and physical activity in healthy Swedish children aged 4.5 y. Design: From 2014 to 2015, 315 children were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Parents in the intervention group received a 6-mo mHealth program. The primary outcome was fat mass index (FMI), whereas the secondary outcomes were intakes of fruits, vegetables, candy, and sweetened beverages and time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Composite scores for the primary and secondary outcomes were computed. Results: No statistically significant intervention effect was observed for FMI between the intervention and control group (mean +/- SD: -0.23 +/- 0.56 compared with -0.20 +/- 0.49 kg/m(2)). However, the intervention group increased their mean composite score from baseline to follow-up, whereas the control group did not (+ 0.36 +/- 1.47 compared with -0.06 +/- 1.33 units; P = 0.021). This improvement was more pronounced among the children with an FMI above the median (4.11 kg/m(2)) (P = 0.019). The odds of increasing the composite score for the 6 dietary and physical activity behaviors were 99% higher for the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.008). Conclusions: This mHealth obesity prevention study in preschool-aged children found no difference between the intervention and control group for FMI. However, the intervention group showed a considerably higher postintervention composite score (a secondary outcome) than the control group, especially in children with a higher FMI. Further studies targeting specific obesity classes within preschool-aged children are warranted.

  • 6.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Energy requirements during pregnancy: old questions and new findings2004In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 933-934p. 933-934Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olausson, Hanna
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Maternal body composition in relation to infant growth and fatness2008In: International Journal of Body Composition Research, ISSN 1479-456X, Vol. 6, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Janerot Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    MET-values of standardised activities in relation to body fat: studies in pregnant and non-pregnant women2018In: Nutrition & Metabolism, ISSN 1743-7075, E-ISSN 1743-7075, Vol. 15, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity is associated with health in women. Published MET-values (MET: metabolic equivalent of task) may assess physical activity and energy expenditure but tend to be too low for subjects with a high total body fat (TBF) content and therefore inappropriate for many contemporary women. The MET-value for an activity is the energy expenditure of a subject performing this activity divided by his/her resting energy expenditure, often assumed to be 4.2 kJ/kg/h. Relationships between TBF and MET have been little studied although overweight and obesity is common in women. Available data indicate that MET-values decrease during pregnancy but more studies in pregnant contemporary women are needed. Subjects and methods: Using indirect calorimetry we measured energy expenditure and assessed MET-values in women, 22 non-pregnant (BMI: 18-34) and 22 in gestational week 32 (non-pregnant BMI: 18-32) when resting, sitting, cycling (30 and 60 watts), walking (3.2 and 5.6 km/h) and running (8 km/h). Relationships between TBF and MET-values were investigated and used to predict modified MET-values. The potential of such values to improve calculations of total energy expenditure of women was investigated. Results: The resting energy expenditure was below 4.2 kJ/kg/h in both groups of women. Women in gestational week 32 had a higher resting energy metabolism (p amp;lt; 0.001) and 7-15% lower MET-values (p amp;lt; 0.05) than non-pregnant women. MET-values of all activities were correlated with TBF (p amp;lt; 0.05) in non-pregnant women and modified MET-values improved estimates of total energy expenditure in such women. In pregnant women, correlations (p amp;lt;= 0.03) between TBF and MET were found for running (8 km/h) and for walking at 5.6 km/h. Conclusions: Our results are relevant when attempts are made to modify the MET-system in contemporary pregnant and non-pregnant women. MET-values were decreased in gestational week 32, mainly due to an increased resting energy metabolism and studies describing how body composition affects the one MET-value (i.e. the resting energy metabolism in kJ/kg/h) during pregnancy are warranted. Studies of how pregnancy and TBF affect MET-values of high intensity activities are also needed. Corrections based on TBF may have a potential to improve the MET-system in non-pregnant women.

  • 9.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovationen som tog skruv2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, no 20–21, p. 985-987Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läkaren och professorn emeritus Per-Ingvar Brånemark avled 20 december 2014. Han etablerade området osseointegration, strukturell förbindelse mellan levande ben och ytan av ett artificiellt material, som i dag utnyttjas för allt från höftleder och fästelement för silikonproteser till hörapparater. 2011 fick Brånemark priset European Inventor Award i kategorin Lifetime achievement av det europeiska patentverket. Men processen från uppfinning till berömmelse var tidvis turbulent – både i medicinskt och ekonomiskt perspektiv.

  • 10.
    Gietzen, Dorothy W.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Lindström, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Sharp, James W.
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Teh, Pok Swee
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; 2833 Marconi Ave, CA USA.
    Donovan, Michael J.
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; 2420 Tabor Dr, MD USA.
    Indispensable Amino Acid-Deficient Diets Induce Seizures in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rodents, Demonstrating a Role for Amino Acid Balance in Dietary Treatments for Epilepsy2018In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for amp;gt;= 7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli. Microchip analysis of rat APCs was also used to determine if changes in transcripts for structures relevant to seizurogenesis are affected by a ThrDev diet. Glutamate release was measured in microdialysis samples from APCs during the first meal after 7 d on a CD or a ThrDev diet. Results: Adult rats showed increased susceptibility to seizures in both chemical (58%) and electroshock (doubled) testing after 7 d on a ThrDev diet compared with CD (each trial, P amp;lt;= 0.05). Seizure-prone Mongolian gerbils had fewer seizures after receiving a KD, but exacerbated seizures (68%) after 1 meal of KD minus Thr (KD-T compared with CD, P amp;lt; 0.05). In kindled rats fed KD-T, both counts (19%) and severities (77%) of seizures were significantly elevated (KD-T compared with CD, P amp;lt; 0.05). Gene transcript changes were consistent with enhanced seizure susceptibility (7-21 net-fold increases, P = 0.045-0.001) and glutamate release into the APC was increased acutely (4-fold at 20 min, 2.6-fold at 60 min, P amp;lt; 0.05) after 7 d on a ThrDev diet. Conclusion: Seizure severity in rats and gerbils was reduced after KDs and exacerbated by ThrDev, both in KD- and CD-fed animals, consistent with the mechanistic studies. We suggest that a complete protein profile in KDs may improve IAA balance in the APC, thereby lowering the risk of seizures.

  • 11.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Granada, Spain.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Research Fdn, WI 54449 USA.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 473-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height(2) (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 +/- 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized beta = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (beta = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (beta = -0.21, p amp;lt; 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (beta = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (beta = 0.39, p amp;lt; 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (beta = 0.22, p amp;lt; 0.001) and motor fitness (beta = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  • 12.
    Hornell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berg, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Akesson, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lachat, Carl
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Hawwash, Dana
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Byrnes, Graham
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    De Keyzer, Willem
    University of Coll Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Camp, John
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Cade, Janet E.
    University of Leeds, England.
    Greenwood, Darren C.
    University of Leeds, England.
    Slimani, Nadia
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    Cevallos, Myriam
    University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Egger, Matthias
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Perspective: An Extension of the STROBE Statement for Observational Studies in Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): Explanation and Elaboration2017In: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, ISSN 2161-8313, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 652-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional epidemiology is an inherently complex and multifaceted research area. Dietary intake is a complex exposure and is challenging to describe and assess, and links between diet, health, and disease are difficult to ascertain. Consequently, adequate reporting is necessary to facilitate comprehension, interpretation, and generalizability of results and conclusions. The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is an international and collaborative initiative aiming to enhance the quality of reporting of observational studies. We previously presented a checklist of 24 reporting recommendations for the field of nutritional epidemiology, called "the STROBE-nut." The STROBE-nut is an extension of the general STROBE statement, intended to complement the STROBE recommendations to improve and standardize the reporting in nutritional epidemiology. The aim of the present article is to explain the rationale for, and elaborate on, the STROBE-nut recommendations to enhance the clarity and to facilitate the understanding of the guidelines. Examples from the published literature are used as illustrations, and references are provided for further reading.

  • 13.
    Johnson-Henry, Kathene C.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    You Wu, Richard
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada; University of Toronto, Canada.
    Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis2016In: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, ISSN 2161-8313, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 928-937Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mothers milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain-and compound specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations.

  • 14.
    Lachat, Carl
    et al.
    University of Ghent, Belgium; Institute Trop Med, Belgium.
    Hawwash, Dana
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Ocke, Marga C.
    National Institute Public Health and Environm, Netherlands.
    Berg, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hornell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    University of Ghent, Belgium; Institute Trop Med, Belgium.
    Byrnes, Graham
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    De Keyzer, Willem
    University of Coll Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Camp, John
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Cade, Janet E.
    University of Leeds, England.
    Slimani, Nadia
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    Cevallos, Myriam
    University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Egger, Matthias
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agency Research Canc, France.
    Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement2016In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 13, no 6, p. e1002036-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  • 15.
    Nyström, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Äta bör man… Kost, sömn och motions inverkan på elevers vakenhet i skolan2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöker jag om kost, sömn och motion påverkar elevers vakenhet i skolan.

    Litteraturgenomgången behandlar aktuella rön kring näringslära, sömn, motion, riktlinjer för skolmat och skolfrukostförsök. Även Linköpings kommuns roll i skolmatfrågan behandlas. I en enkätundersökning bland 35 sjätteklassare kartläggs deras mat, sömn och motionsvanor under fyra dagar. Resultatet behandlas i en enkätanalys, där det framgår att kost och motion kan påverka elevernas vakenhet i skolan.

    Resultatet är inte tydligt och tröttheten kan bero på andra orsaker än de som undersökts. I diskussionen ges förslag som skulle kunna förbättra elevernas skolsituation

  • 16.
    Parekh, Niyati
    et al.
    NYU, NY USA.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Nyström, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Marshfield Clin Hlth Syst, WI USA.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Associations of Parental Self-Efficacy With Diet, Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Swedish Preschoolers: Results From the MINISTOP Trial2018In: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. High parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been associated with healthy diets and higher levels of physical activity (PA) in children; however, data on PSE in relation to body weight and body composition are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of PSE with measures of diet, PA, body composition, and physical fitness in early childhood. Method. We used baseline data from the MINISTOP trial in healthy Swedish children (n = 301; 4.5 +/- 0.15 years). PSE was assessed using a questionnaire, dietary data were collected using a mobile technology-assisted methodology, and PA was obtained (sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous) by accelerometry. Body composition was measured using the pediatric option for BodPod and cardiorespiratory fitness by the 20 m shuttle run. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate cross-sectional associations of the outcomes in relation to total PSE and scores computed for the individual PSE factors: (1) diet, (2) limit setting of unhealthful behaviors, and (3) PA. Results. Higher scores of total PSE and the diet factor were associated with higher fruit intake ( = 0.82 g/point and 1.99 g/point; p = .014 and .009, respectively) and lower consumption of unhealthy snacks ( = -0.42 g/point and -0.89 g/point; p = .012 and .020, respectively) after adjustment for parental body mass index and education, respondent, and childs sex and age. No associations were observed between PSE and PA, body composition, or cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions. Our study noted that PSE should be considered in conjunction with other strategies for a sustainable impact on childhood obesity.

  • 17.
    Ravnskov, Uffe
    et al.
    Lund, Sverige.
    Arfors, Karl E.
    Eenfeldt, Andreas
    Karlstad, Sverige.
    Enkvist, Christer
    Trollhättan, Sverige.
    Hammarskjöld, Björn
    Mora, Sverige.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Tore
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Petersson, Göran
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Scherstén, Tore
    Sundberg, Ralf
    Malmö, Sverige.
    Werkö, Lars
    Vesti-Nielsen, J
    Karlshamn, Sverige.
    Livsmedelsverket bör omedelbart sluta med kostråd till allmänheten2009In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18. Ravnskov, Uffe
    et al.
    Arfors, Karl
    Eenfeldt, Andreas
    Enkvist, Christer
    Hammarskjöld, Björn
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Tore
    Petersson, Göran
    Scherstén, Tore
    Sundberg, Ralf
    Vesti-Nielsen, Jørgen
    Radikal förändring av WHO:s syn på fett2009In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Ravnskov, Uffe
    et al.
    Arfors, Karl
    Eenfeldt, Andreas
    Enkvist, Christer
    Hammarskjöld, Björn
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Tore
    Petersson, Göran
    Scherstén, Tore
    Sundberg, Ralf
    Vesti-Nielsen, Jørgen
    Werkö, Lars
    Var finns SLV:s expertis när den behövs bäst?2009In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 20. Scherstén, Tore
    et al.
    Arfors, Karl
    Eenfeldt, Andreas
    Karlstad, Sverige.
    Enkvist, Christer
    Trollhättan, Sverige.
    Hammarskjöld, Björn
    Mora, Sverige.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Tore
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Petersson, Göran
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Ravnskov, Uffe
    Lund, Sverige.
    Sundberg, Ralf
    Malmö, Sverige.
    Werkö, Lars
    Kostråden saknar vetenskaplig grund2009In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Sundberg, Ralf
    et al.
    Malmö, Sverige.
    Arfors, Karl E
    Pharmacia, Sverige.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Nielsen, Jörgen Vesti
    Karlshamn, Sverige.
    Scherstén, Tore
    Lågkolhydratkost vid diabetes och fetma är en fysiologisk och evidensbaserad metod: [Carbohydrate-restricted diet in diabetes and obesity is a physiological and evidence-based method]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 47, p. 3460-3463Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sundberg, Ralf
    et al.
    Malmö, Sverige.
    Arfors, Karl-E
    Pharmacia, Sverige.
    Dahlqvist, Annika
    Njurunda, Sverige.
    Enkvist, Christer
    Trollhättan, Sverige.
    Hammarskjöld, Björn
    Mora, Sverige.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Åsa
    Trollhättan, Sverige.
    Persson, Tore
    Stockholm, Sverige.
    Petersson, Göran
    Göteborg, Sverige.
    Vesti-Nielsen, Jørgen
    Karlshamn, Sverige.
    Varför förnekar "kostexperter" vetenskapen?: [Why do "diet experts" deny science?]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 37, p. 2495-2497Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 23.
    Sundberg, Ralf
    et al.
    Privatläkare, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fortfarande vilseledande om fett: [Still misleading about fat]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 24-25, p. 1818-1818Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 24.
    Sundberg, Ralf
    et al.
    Privatläkare, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vilseledande om fett – kritisk granskning av kostråd från expertgrupper: [Misleading about fat--critical scrutiny of dietary advice given by experts groups]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 20, p. 1480-1482Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tilltagande överviktsrelaterade ohälsan gör att kostråd som riktas till såväl diabetiker som övrig allmänhet måste vara grundade på sakkunskap och klinisk erfarenhet. Ändå är experter oense om vad sådana råd bör innehålla.

    Tre expertgruppers råd har granskats: European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association och Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004.

    I de mest centrala av dessa kostråd har vi funnit felcitat och vantolkningar, referenser som varnat för de råd expertgruppen framför, utelämnade referenser som motsäger rekommendationen och referens till kommersiellt färgad översiktsartikel i stället för till vetenskapliga originalarbeten.

    Frågan måste ställas om det inte behövs en mer skeptisk attityd till budskapen från expertgrupper.

  • 25.
    Svedlund, Anna
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Tubic, Bojan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Swolin-Eide, Diana
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Vitamin D status in young Swedish women with anorexia nervosa during intensive weight gain therapy2017In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 2061-2067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with reduced bone mass and an increased fracture risk. The aim was to evaluate the vitamin D status and the association with body mass index (BMI), fat mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with severe AN during a prospective intervention study of intensive nutrition therapy. Methods This study comprised 25 Swedish female AN patients (20.1 +/- 2.3 years), who were treated as inpatients for 12 weeks with a high-energy diet. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH) D), calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at study start and after 12 weeks. Results Twenty-two patients completed the study. The mean weight gain was 9.9 kg and BMI (mean +/- SD) increased from 15.5 +/- 0.9 to 19.0 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2), P amp;lt; 0.0001. Fat mass increased from median 12 to 27 %. The median serum 25(OH) D level was 84 nmol/L at baseline, which decreased to 76 nmol/L, P amp;lt; 0.05. PTH increased from median 21.9 to 30.0 ng/L, P amp;lt; 0.0001. BMC increased during the study period, P amp;lt; 0.001. Conclusions Serum 25(OH) D levels were adequate both at study start and completion, however, nominally decreased after the 12-week nutritional intervention. PTH increased subsequently, which coincide with the decreased 25(OH) D levels. The reduction in 25(OH) D could be due to an increased storage of vitamin D related to the increase in fat mass since vitamin D is sequestered in adipose tissue.

  • 26.
    van Vliet, Jolanda S.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Balancing body perception during growth and development2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among children and adolescents, the drive to be slender and the fear of being fat is a growing public health concern. This trend stands in contrast to the increasing prevalence of overweight reported worldwide. Both feeling too fat and being overweight are associated with physical, psychological and social health-related issues from a shortand long-term perspective. The aim of this thesis is to study body perception in relation to actual body size and the bodily changes that occur naturally during puberty. Another objective is to identify risk factors for overweight, overweight perception and unhealthy eating habits in childhood and adolescence.

    This thesis describes the prevalence of 1) perception of overweight, 2) overweight/obesity and 3) unhealthy eating habits in Finland and Sweden. We compare our results with the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Behaviour in Schoolchildren (HBSC) survey in 2001/2002 and 2009/2010. Our cross-sectional studies were performed on a female cohort of 11-18 year old girls in Finland and a cohort of boys and girls 7-17 years in Sweden.

    In both Finland and Sweden, the prevalence of overweight increased over time, especially among boys. Also perception of overweight increased over time – not just among girls, but also among boys. We found social inequality in overweight, particularly in boys in relation to maternal socioeconomic status. No social inequality, but age and gender differences were found in relation to perception of overweight, where girls older than 13 years showed the highest prevalence. Body perception among girls agreed better with international reference values for waist circumference (WC) than for body mass index (BMI). Breast development and acne increased the risk for overweight perception, particularly among non-overweight girls. Perception of overweight was the strongest risk factor for dieting and skipping breakfast in both boys and girls. These behaviours were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls. Skipping breakfast was related to unbalanced food consumption patterns in both sexes, but in a gender-specific way.

    We have shown that body perception during growth and development relates to a complex age- and gender-specific balance between body size, stage and timing of pubertal maturation, eating habits as well as parental and peer influences. From a broader perspective, improving adequate body perception entails optimising this balance by influencing one or more of the individual, societal and environmental factors that determine health outcomes among children and adolescents, tracking into adulthood.

    List of papers
    1. Waist circumference in relation to body perception reported by Finnish adolescent girls and their mothers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waist circumference in relation to body perception reported by Finnish adolescent girls and their mothers
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 501-506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study how waist circumference (WC) relates to body perception in adolescent girls and to maternal perception of the girls body size.

    Methods: Three hundred and four girls, 11-18 years, were measured for height, weight and WC. 294 girls provided self-report data on weight, height and body image before anthropometric measurements. Paired data from 237 girls and mothers on perception of the girls body size were collected.

    Results: In girls, self-reported weight indicated awareness of actual body size. The girls body perception showed an overestimation of body size relative to international reference values for body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05), but not for WC. Girls body perception exceeded that of their mothers (p < 0.05). Maternal perception agreed better than the girls perception with international reference values for BMI (p < 0.05). No significant difference between mothers and girls were found concerning agreement of body perception with international reference values for WC.

    Conclusion: WC rather than BMI agrees with perception of body size, possibly due to its relation to abdominal fat at different ages. For effective prevention and treatment programmes for weight-related health problems among adolescent girls, we recommend measuring WC to diminish the discrepancy between measured and perceived body size.

    Keywords
    Adolescent girls, Body mass index, Body perception, Maternal perception, Waist circumference
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16890 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01112.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-22 Created: 2009-02-20 Last updated: 2016-01-12
    2. Overweight perception among adolescent girls in relation to appearance of female characteristics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overweight perception among adolescent girls in relation to appearance of female characteristics
    2014 (English)In: Paediatrics and Health, ISSN 2052-935X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight perception has been shown to be important for health related adolescent behavior, particularly in girls. Body perception may be affected by bodily changes, especially changes visible for others. Female pubertal development is characterized by many physical changes, such as accelerated growth and altered body fat distribution. This study examined the role of appearance of female characteristics in the risk for overweight perception among healthy adolescent girls.

    Methods: 220 girls, aged 11–16, provided self-reports on body perception and pubertal maturation before anthropometric measurements of height, weight, hip and waist circumference (WC). Logistic regression modeling was used to study the appearance of pubertal characteristics in relation to body perception.

    Results: Of the 76 girls (35%) perceiving themselves as overweight, only 14 and 36 girls were overweight according to body mass index and waist circumference respectively. Girls reporting breast development and acne (n=144) were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than girls who did not report this appearance (n=76). These findings persist after adjusting for overweight according to WC. Non-overweight (n=170) rather than overweight girls reporting characteristics (n=50) were at risk of perceiving themselves overweight.

    Conclusions: Girls may confuse natural changes occurring during adolescent development with being overweight. It is therefore important to improve the understanding about the physical changes that normally occur during puberty along with the girls' own perception of these bodily changes among girls themselves, their parents, at schools, and other healthcare services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Herbert Open Access Journals, 2014
    Keywords
    Adolescent girls, self-reports, body perception, female pubertal development, anthropometric measurements
    National Category
    Clinical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113130 (URN)10.7243/2052-935X-2-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2016-01-12
    3. Social inequality and age-specific gender differences in overweight and perception of overweight among Swedish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social inequality and age-specific gender differences in overweight and perception of overweight among Swedish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study
    2015 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight among children and adolescents related to social inequality, as well as age and gender differences, may contribute to poor self-image, thereby raising important public health concerns. This study explores social inequality in relation to overweight and perception of overweight among 263 boys and girls, age 7 to 17, in Vaxjo, Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained through a questionnaire and from physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference [WC]. To assess social, age and gender differences in relation to overweight, the independent sample t- and chi-square tests were used, while logistic regression modeling was used to study determinants for perception of overweight. Results: Social inequality and gender differences as they relate to high ISO-BMI [Body Mass Index for children] and WC were associated with low maternal socioeconomic status [SES] among boys less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 65] and with low paternal education level among boys = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 39] [p less than 0.05]. One suggested explanation for this finding is maternal impact on boys during childhood and the influence of the father as a role model for adolescent boys. The only association found among girls was between high ISO-BMI in girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 74] and low paternal occupational status. Concerning perception of overweight, age and gender differences were found, but social inequality was not the case. Among boys and girls less than 13 years, perception of overweight increased only when overweight was actually present according to BMI or WC [p less than 0.01]. Girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0] were more likely to unrealistically perceive themselves as overweight or "too fat," despite factual measurements to the contrary, than boys [p less than 0.05] and girls less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 83] [p less than 0.001]. Conclusions: The association between social inequality and overweight in adolescence in this study is age-and gender-specific. Gender differences, especially in perception of overweight, tend to increase with age, indicating that adolescence is a crucial period. When planning interventions to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, parental SES as well as age and gender-specific differences in social norms and perception of body weight status should be taken into account.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2015
    Keywords
    Social inequality; Overweight; Obesity; Perception of overweight; Childhood; Adolescence
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120339 (URN)10.1186/s12889-015-1985-x (DOI)000357559600001 ()26156095 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Erik Johan Ljungberg Educational Fund; County Council of Ostergotland; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden [FORSS-233111]

    Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys
    2016 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, article id 29530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence.

    Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC).

    Results: Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05).

    Conclusion: Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Co-Action Publishing, 2016
    Keywords
    Body image, overweight, adolescent behaviour, food habits, prevention
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123852 (URN)10.3402/fnr.v60.29530 (DOI)000370126700001 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Funding agencies:  Erik Johan Ljungberg Educational Fund; County Council of Ostergotland; Medical Research Council of south-east Sweden [FORSS-233111]

    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Vidlund, Mårten
    et al.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesia, University Hospital Örebro, Sweden.
    Holm, Jonas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Håkanson, Erik
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Friberg, Örjan
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesia, University Hospital Örebro, Sweden.
    Sunnermalm, Lena
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesia, University Hospital Örebro, Sweden.
    Vánky, Farkas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The S-100B substudy of the GLUTAMICS trial: Glutamate infusion not associated with sustained elevation of plasma S-100B after coronary surgery2010In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 358-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Concerns have been raised about potential neurological injury related to exogenous glutamate. In cardiac surgery glutamate has been administered as a putative cardioprotective agent by cardioplegia or intravenous infusion. In the GLUTAMICS trial, in addition to surveillance of clinical neurological injuries, a prespecified subgroup was analyzed with regard to postoperative S-100B levels to detect potential subclinical neurological injury related to glutamate infusion. Methods: Sixty-nine patients operated on for unstable coronary syndrome were randomized to intravenous infusion of glutamate (n = 35) or saline (n = 34) perioperatively. Plasma levels of S-100B were obtained on the third postoperative day. Results: S-100B in the glutamate group and the control group were 0.079 +/- 0.034 mu g/L and 0.090 +/- 0.042 mu g/L respectively (p = 0.245). There were no patients with stroke or mortality. Three patients in the control group and two in the glutamate group had postoperative confusion. These patients had significantly elevated S-100B compared with those without confusion (0.132 +/- 0.047 vs 0.081 +/- 0.036 mu g/L; p = 0.003). Overall, 21 patients had S-100B above reference level (greater than= 0.10 mu g/L) and these patients had significantly more calcifications in the ascending aorta on epiaortic scanning. Conclusions: Intravenous glutamate infusion during surgery for unstable coronary artery disease did not initiate a sustained elevation of plasma S-100B. Thus, no evidence for subclinical neurological injury related to glutamate infusion was found. In contrast, postoperative elevation of plasma S-100B was linked to calcification of the ascending aorta and postoperative confusion.

  • 28.
    Xu, Jie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Tommy
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Plaza, Merichel
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Spain; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hakansson, Asa
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Antonsson, Martin
    ProViva AB, Sweden.
    Ahren, Irini Lazou
    Probi AB, Sweden.
    Turner, Charlotta
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Spegel, Peter
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Granfeldt, Yvonne
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Probiotic fruit beverages with different polyphenol profiles attenuated early insulin response2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables may improve postprandial glucose and insulin levels and hence promote well-being. Previously it has been observed that consumption of bilberry decreases the postprandial insulin demand. The intention with the present study was to compare the impact of different supplements with various polyphenol profiles, on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy young adults. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, crossover study the postprandial glycemic and insulin responses were observed in eleven healthy adults after intake of five different beverages containing bilberry (European blueberry), blackcurrant, beetroot, mango and rose hip, respectively; all drinks were enriched with the same composition of fermented oatmeal and probiotics. The control was a glucose drink. The profile and content of the polyphenols in the different beverages were determined by HPLC-DAD analysis. The antioxidative capacity of the different beverages were measured by TEAC and DPPH assays. Results: Beverages containing bilberry, blackcurrant, mango or rose hip significantly attenuated the early postprandial insulin response (0-90 min), but showed no effect on glucose response. Drinks with bilberry or rose hip reduced the insulin response from the very early phase (0-30 min), and had significantly lower insulin index compared with the control. The efficiency of the bilberry and rose hip to decrease early postprandial insulin responses correlated with higher phenolic contents. Conclusions: Supplements with bilberry, blackcurrant, mango or rose hip in the tested probiotic and oatmeal enriched beverage attenuated early-phase insulin response, but had no effect on the postprandial glycemic response. The improved ability of bilberry and rose hip to lower the very early phase of insulin response seems to be due to a higher phenolic content.

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