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  • 1.
    Aarts, B.
    et al.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Kokshoorn, B.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Mc Kenna, L.G.
    Forensic Science Ireland, DNA department, Dublin, Ireland.
    Drotz, W.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    van Oorschot, R.A.
    Office of the Chief Forensic Scientist, Victoria Police Forensic Services Department, Macleod- Victoria, Australia.
    Kloosterman, A.D.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    DNActivity: International cooperation in activity level interpretation of forensic DNA evidence.2015In: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015., 2015, p. 555-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions posed to expert witnesses by the legal community and the courts are expanding to include not just those relating to source level (i.e. ‘who is the donor of the trace?’) but also those relating to activitity level (i.e. ‘how did the DNA get there?’). The answers to these questions are usually formulated as the probability of the evidence under alternative scenarios. As activity level questions are part of investigative and legal considerations it is of paramount importance that expert witnesses are provided with knowledge and tools to address these questions.

    To answer such questions within a probabilistic framework, empirical data is needed to estimate probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA as well as background levels of DNA on everyday objects. There is a paucity of empirical data on these topics, but the number of studies is increasing both through in-house experiments and experimental data published in international scientific journals.

    Laboratories that conduct such studies all use different experimental setups, trace recovery strategies and techniques and DNA analysis systems and equipment. It is essential for the forensic genetics community in general to establish whether the data generated by different labs are in concordance, and can therefore be readily used by the forensic community.

    Moreover, if existing data and data generated from future experiments are made available to the (forensic) community, knowledge is needed on the key factors that underlie potential interlaboratory variation.

    The aims and objectives of this ENFSI Monopoly 2013 project are to conduct a study of methodologies and data from different laboratories and to assess the comparability of the scientific data on transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA. This comparison will allow us to identify key factors that underlie potential variation. This information will be used to setup guidelines to enable sharing and database-storage of relevant scientific

    data. This will improve the ability of forensic scientists and other professionals of the Criminal Justice System to give evidence-based answers to questions that relate to the activity level of the crime under investigation.

  • 2.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The housing situation of older people – Issues of investigations2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 51-51Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The housing situation of older people has been on the Swedish political agenda for some time. An increasing ageing population implies a demand for housing in correspodence to their needs. Assisted living facilities decreased with 30 000 places between 2002 and 2016, as a result, the majority of older people age in a dwelling in the ordinary housing market. In 2008 and 2015 respectively two government investigations on older people’s housing were presented. The investigations focused on the need for housing to bridge the gap between ordinary housing and assisted living facilities and issues of affordability and social community but also the lack of accessible housing in particular geographic areas. This paper aims to investigate the origins of the two investigations and relate them to changes in the housing market affecting older people, arguing that the strong emphasis on ageing in place has shifted the responsibility of having a good place to live from general welfare to older individuals themselves.

  • 3.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    I takt med framtiden: Utveckling av ett nytt interprofessionellt curriculum vid Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälso- och sjukvårdsutbildningarnas ansvar att utbilda professionella som kan samarbetaoch förstå varandras kompetens, för att utföra och utveckla patientsäker vård, betonas alltmer i den globala debatten om framtidens hälso- och sjukvård. Modern professionsutbildning inom hälso- och sjukvården måste idag därför innehålla moment av god kvalitet där studenter lär med, av och om varandra för att utveckla interprofessionell kompetens. Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping är pionjär, både nationellt och internationellt, när det gäller interprofessionellt lärande tack vare satsningen på integrerade utbildningsmoment som funnits med sedan från starten 1986. Den här rapporten är en sammanställning av den interna process som har genomförts för att initiera ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt med avsikt att revidera och utveckla dessa gemensamma utbildningsmoment inriktade mot interprofessionellt lärande. Texten är upplagd kronologiskt och inleds med det direktiv som fakultetsledningen gav för att en utvald grupp lärare skulle kunna utarbeta ett förslag på hur de interprofessionella lärandemomenten vid Hälsouniversitetet skulle kunna förbättras. Härefter följer den rapport som utredningsgruppen lämnade, och som sedan skickades på remiss till olika intressenter. Rapporten följs av en sammanställning och bearbetning av de inkomna remissvaren och till sist följer fakultetsstyrelsens beslut om hur curriculum för interprofessionell utbildning inom Hälsouniversitetet ska utvecklas eller förändras. Det är vår förhoppning att dokumentationen av processen för att förnya fakultetens interprofessionella utbildning ska ge inspiration för fortsatt förändrings- och utvecklingsarbete både inom och utom Linköpings universitet.

  • 4.
    Ackerley, R
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Badre, G
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Positive Effects of a Weighted Blanket on Insomnia2015In: Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders, ISSN 2379-0822, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common occurrence and can have a negative impact on physiological, psychological and social well-being. There is a need for simple, effective solutions to increase sleep quality. It has been suggested that weighted blankets and vests can provide a beneficial calming effect, especially in clinical disorders. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of a chain weighted blanket on insomnia, using objective and subjective measures. Objectively, we found that sleep bout time increased, as well as a decrease in movements of the participants, during weighted blanket use. Subjectively, the participants liked sleeping with the blanket, found it easier to settle down to sleep and had an improved sleep, where they felt more refreshed in the morning. Overall, we found that when the participants used the weighted blanket, they had a calmer night’s sleep. A weighted blanket may aid in reducing insomnia through altered tactile inputs, thus may provide an innovative, non-pharmacological approach and complementary tool to improve sleep quality.

  • 5.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1368-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbachs alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 6.
    Ahlner, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anita
    Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving2016In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 265, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. These individuals had subsequently died from a fatal drug poisoning or some other cause of death, such as trauma. Results: Of the 3943 repeat offenders 1807 (46%) died from a fatal drug overdose and 2136 (54%) died from other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The repeat offenders were predominantly male (90% vs 10%) and mean age of drug poisoning deaths was 5 y younger (mean 35 y) than other causes of death (mean 40 y). Significantly more repeat offenders (46%) died from drug overdose compared with all other forensic autopsies (14%) (p amp;lt; 0.001). Four or more drugs were identified in femoral blood in 44% of deaths from poisoning (drug overdose) compared with 18% of deaths by other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The manner of death was considered accidental in 54% of deaths among repeat offenders compared with 28% for other suspicious deaths (p amp;lt; 0.001). The psychoactive substances most commonly identified in autopsy blood from repeat offenders were ethanol, morphine (from heroin), diazepam, amphetamines, cannabis, and various opioids. Conclusions: This study shows that people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving are more likely to die by accidentally overdosing with drugs. Lives might be saved if repeat offenders were sentenced to treatment and rehabilitation for their drug abuse problem instead of conventional penalties for drug-related crimes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Ajanovic, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Korjenic, Dalida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Utarbetning av språkpillerböcker skrivna på bosniska/kroatiska/serbiska för barn med BKS som modersmål: En kontrastiv grammatisk analys2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Språkpiller” har utformats genom ett samarbete mellan logopeder och biblioteken i Östergötland. Projektet syftar till att stimulera språket hos barn med språkstörning och fungerar i första hand som ett komplement till logopedisk behandling (Linköpings kommun, 2012).

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka om bilderböcker skrivna på bosniska/kroatiska/serbiska (BKS) tränar samma grammatiska struktur som motsvarande bilderböcker på svenska gör. Syftet är även att granska huruvida böckerna i föreliggande studie går att rekommendera som träningsmaterial för barn med språkliga svårigheter.

    En kontrastiv analys mellan BKS och svenska har genomförts av totalt tre bilderböcker. Böckerna i studien innehåller skillnader mellan BKS och svenska inom de flesta grammatiska kategorier och stämmer väl överrens med vad som beskrivits i litteraturen. Det föreliggande materialet antas därför kunna användas som träningsmaterial till vissa grammatiska strukturer.

  • 8.
    Albinsson, L.
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, J.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mixed DNA profiles from single-donors2015In: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, p. 538-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosaicism and chimerism in individuals can complicate the interpretation and even lead to misinterpretation of DNA profiles in forensic casework. If a person has different DNA profiles in different tissue types, i.e. a true chimaera, wrongful exclusions can be made. Additionally, mixed chimaeras can have DNA profiles that may be mistaken for mixtures. We have set-up automatic DNA databasing processes to handle atypical single-donor DNA profiles, i.e. profiles having one or several “extra” alleles.

    Studying all reference samples analysed at NFC from 2006 until spring 2014, 2‰ of the samples showed atypical DNA profiles. To be able to set routines for handling these DNA profiles, each one was manually searched in CODIS with adjusted settings, to evaluate the frequency of false-positive hits. To tag these profiles in LIMS a new result status was implemented. Additionally, all such DNA profiles must be confirmed by analysing at least two discrete samples. In LIMS, the results are manually recorded to compose of all alleles from the samples from a suspect, i.e. containing most possible genetic information. LIMS automatically categorises the atypical DNA profiles with a special CODIS index, called “Multi-allelic offender”. The first time an atypical profile is searched, the matches are manually investigated. If a match is false, its disposition will be set to “no match” to prevent this from occurring in future searches. Automatic searches will then be performed in every day routine with moderate stringency, allowing the atypical DNA profile to match either a genotype or a mixture. If the match is true, a match-report will be created and sent to the police from the LIMS.

     

  • 9.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Om vikten av att bli berörd som behandlare": Metodforum - En arena för reflekterande över den vardagliga praktiken2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats är en praxisnära fenomenologisk studie genomförd på en mindre skol- och behandlingsverksamhet i Täby, som heter Svalnäs. På Svalnäs samlas personalen en gång per vecka i något de kallar metodforum. I detta forum delas och reflekteras det kring erfarenheter från den dagliga praktiken som på olika sätt berört personalen. Metodforum är ett svårfångat och komplext fenomen och därmed också svårt att beskriva. Denna uppsats är ett försök att beskriva metoden från insidan, via deltagarnas upplevelser av metoden.I uppsatsen presenteras Svalnäs och den värdegrund och kultur ur vilken metodforum uppkommit. Studien bygger i huvudsak på intervjuer med samtliga (9) behandlare i verksamheten. Frågeställningarna i uppsatsen rör deltagarnas beskrivning av metoden, deras upplevelser kring vad i metoden som är verksamt samt metodens eventuella nytta eller användbarhet. En deskriptiv fenomenologisk metod har använts och resultatet redovisas i en illustrativ beskrivning av fenomenets meningsbärande innebörder samt i en sammanfattande generell struktur. I diskussionen reflekteras det över metodforum i relation till presenterad teori och metodens generella användbarhet.

  • 12.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Dealing with Digits: Arithmetic, Memory and Phonology in Deaf Signers2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deafness has been associated with poor abilities to deal with digits in the context of arithmetic and memory, and language modality-specific differences in the phonological similarity of digits have been shown to influence short-term memory (STM). Therefore, the overall aim of the present thesis was to find out whether language modality-specific differences in phonological processing between sign and speech can explain why deaf signers perform at lower levels than hearing peers when dealing with digits. To explore this aim, the role of phonological processing in digit-based arithmetic and memory tasks was investigated, using both behavioural and neuroimaging methods, in adult deaf signers and hearing non-signers, carefully matched on age, sex, education and non-verbal intelligence. To make task demands as equal as possible for both groups, and to control for material effects, arithmetic, phonological processing, STM and working memory (WM) were all assessed using the same presentation and response mode for both groups. The results suggested that in digit-based STM, phonological similarity of manual numerals causes deaf signers to perform more poorly than hearing non-signers. However, for  digit-based WM there was no difference between the groups, possibly due to differences in allocation of resources during WM. This indicates that similar WM for the two groups can be generalized from lexical items to digits. Further, we found that in the present work deaf signers performed better than expected and on a par with hearing peers on all arithmetic tasks, except for multiplication, possibly because the groups studied here were very carefully matched. However, the neural networks recruited for arithmetic and phonology differed between groups. During multiplication tasks, deaf signers showed an increased  reliance on cortex of the right parietal lobe complemented by the left inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, hearing non-signers relied on cortex of the left frontal and parietal lobes during multiplication. This suggests that while hearing non-signers recruit phonology-dependent arithmetic fact retrieval processes for multiplication, deaf signers recruit non-verbal magnitude manipulation processes. For phonology, the hearing non-signers engaged left lateralized frontal and parietal areas within the classical perisylvian language network. In deaf signers, however, phonological processing was limited to cortex of the left occipital lobe, suggesting that sign-based phonological processing does not necessarily activate the classical language network. In conclusion, the findings of the present thesis suggest that language modality-specific differences between sign and speech in different ways can explain why deaf signers perform at lower levels than hearing non-signers on tasks that include dealing with digits.

    List of papers
    1. Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 942Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Similar working memory (WM) for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM) is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

    Keywords
    deaf signers, working memory, short term memory, phonological similarity, Cross-cultural
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102262 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00942 (DOI)000331572800002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 20051353Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0846Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P2008-0481:1-E
    Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Deaf signers use phonology to do arithmetic
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deaf signers use phonology to do arithmetic
    2014 (English)In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 32, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf students generally lag several years behind hearing peers in arithmetic, but little is known about the mechanisms behind this. In the present study we investigated how phonological skills interact with arithmetic. Eighteen deaf signers and eighteen hearing non-signers took part in an experiment that manipulated arithmetic and phonological knowledge in the language modalities of sign and speech. Independent tests of alphabetical and native language phonological skills were also administered. There was no difference in performance between groups on subtraction, but hearing non-signers performed better than deaf signers on multiplication. For the deaf signers but not the hearing non-signers, multiplicative reasoning was associated with both alphabetical and phonological skills. This indicates that deaf signing adults rely on language processes to solve multiplication tasks, possibly because automatization of multiplication is less well established in deaf adults.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Deaf signers; Arithmetic; Phonology
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108812 (URN)10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.015 (DOI)000336820400028 ()
    Available from: 2014-07-07 Created: 2014-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    3. Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network
    2015 (English)In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 143, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Phonology; Arithmetic; Brain imaging; Perisylvian language network
    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117794 (URN)10.1016/j.bandl.2015.02.004 (DOI)000352659600010 ()25797099 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2005-1353].

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Phonological but not arithmetic processing engages left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

    Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Deaf signers use magnitude manipulatioin strategies for mulitplication: fMRI evidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deaf signers use magnitude manipulatioin strategies for mulitplication: fMRI evidence
    Show others...
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that the lag reported in mathematics for deaf signers derives from difficulties related to the verbal system of number processing as described in the triple code model. For hearing individuals the verbal system has been shown to be recruited for both arithmetic and language tasks. In the present study we investigate for the first time neuronal representations of arithmetic in deaf signers. We examine if the neural network supporting arithmetic and language, including the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) bilaterally, the left angular gyrus (AG), pars opercularis (POPE) and pars triangularis (PTRI) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), is differently recruited for deaf and hearing individuals. Imaging data were collected from 16 deaf signers and 16 well-matched hearing nonsigners, using the same stimulus material for all tasks, but with different cues. During multiplication, deaf signers recruited rHIPS more than hearing non-signers, suggesting greater involvement of magnitude manipulation processes related to the quantity system, whereas there was no evidence that the verbal system was recruited. Further, there was no support for the notion of a common representation of phonology for sign and speech as previously suggested.

    Keywords
    Arithmetic; phonology; fMRI; deaf; sign language; magnitude manipulation
    National Category
    Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111560 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-10-24 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL), Linköping, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Swedish PerspectiveThe Forensic Use of Bioinformation: Ethical Issues: Nuffield Council on Bioethics2008In: BioSocieties, ISSN 1745-8552, E-ISSN 1745-8560, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 88-92Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nuffield Report is well-written, clear, extensive and up to date, and it covers most of the major ethical issues in the field of forensic DNA analysis and database searching. The ethical analysis is thorough and based on solid theoretical ground.

  • 14.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Widén, Christina
    Biology Unit, Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC), Link€oping, Sweden.
    Swedish Legislation Regarding Forensic DNA Elimination Databases2016In: Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal , ISSN 1940-9044, Vol. 7, no 1-2, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence contaminated with DNA from staff, police, and other individuals can have a dramaticimpact on an investigation and can mislead police inquiries. Forensic DNA elimination databases(EDB) are used to minimize the risks associated with DNA contamination. Central issues withmaintaining such databases include the basis for sample collection, sample, and profile integrity, aswell as retention times, database access, and procedures when a database match occurs. Followingyears of discussion, debate, and the use of an “in house” EDB at the Swedish National ForensicCentre (NFC), these issues have now been resolved by passing legislation on DNA EDB. According tothe legislation, sampling for EDB purposes is mandatory for certain forensic professionals, as well asfor other individuals who need access to the premises handling DNA evidence. In the event of adatabase match, the match can only be reviewed and evaluated for quality purposes and the nameof the donor cannot be disclosed to the crime inquiry. Thus, as a consequence, if a contaminationevent is not the probable cause the legal limitation opens for impunity for individuals included inthe database.KEYWORDSContamination; DNA;elimination database;forensic science; legislationIntroduction

  • 15.
    Antelius, Eleonor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kiwi, Mahin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden2015In: Care Management Journals, ISSN 1521-0987, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 79-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In quite a short amount of time, Sweden has gone from being a relatively homogeneous society to a multicultural one, with a rapid expansion of immigrants having culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds growing old in Sweden. This is particularly interesting in relation to studying age-related dementia diseases. Research shows that not only do CALD persons with dementia diseases tend to mix languages, have difficulties with separation of languages, or revert to speaking only their native tongue as the disease progresses, but they also show tendencies to experience that they live in the cultural environment in which they were brought up, rather than in the current Swedish one. In this article, we explore findings in relation to one such CALD group in Sweden, Iranians. The article is empirically driven and based on data gathered in 2 separate settings with specific ethnocultural profiles, offering dementia care with Middle Eastern, Arab, and/or Persian profile. Observations were carried out in combination with semistructured in-depth interviews (n = 66). By using a combination of content and ethnographic analysis, 4 main findings related to ethnocultural dementia care were elucidated. These include (a) a wider recognition of people from different CALD backgrounds possibly having different perceptions of what dementia is, (b) a possibility that such ascribed meaning of dementia has a bearing on health maintenance and health-seeking behavior as well as the inclination to use formal services or not, (c) choosing to use formal service in the forms of ethnoculturally profiled dementia care facility seems to relate to being able to “live up to ideals of Iranian culture,” and (d) “culture,” however ambiguous and hotly debated a concept it is, appears to be a relevant aspect of people's lives, an aspect that is both acquired as well as ascribed to oneself and to others. As such, we argue that culture needs to be further addressed in relation to dementia care in multicultural societies because ascribing culture boxes people in as well as out. In addition, ethnocultural contextualization of dementia care needs to be understood in relation to this because it affects the care provided.

  • 16.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopeders bedömarreliabilitet vid perceptuell röstanalys av utvalda röstexempel: en början till ett referensröstmaterial2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interrater and intrarater reliability are of great importance in the selection of reference voice examples. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability of experienced speech and language pathologists’ evaluations of selected voice samples. The aim is to begin a collection of male and female reference voice examples which represent different voice quality parameters according to the Stockholm Voice Evaluation Approach (SVEA). The specific questions are: How well do speech and language pathologists agree when rating voices along different voice quality parameters? Are any of the voice quality parameters in the speech samples prominent enough to be qualified as reference voice examples? The authors selected 15 voice samples out of a database consisting of 65 voice samples. The voices were evaluated by seven experienced speech and language pathologists using the SVEA protocol. The results were statistically analyzed to study interrater reliability. In order to investigate intrarater reliability a second evaluation session was carried out in which the speech and language pathologists evaluated three voice samples randomly selected from the 15 samples used in the first evaluation session. The results showed a wide range in the raters’ evaluations, which had an impact on the correlations. However, a closer look at separate parameters indicated considerably higher similarity in the ratings. Based on these results three reference voice examples were selected. Even though high correlation values were found in several of the other twelve voice samples, the ratings in these were not high enough to qualify them as reference voice examples in this study. Nevertheless, these voices can still be used to exemplify various degrees of deviation. The conclusions are that there is a great variation regarding reliability between and within raters and also regarding how the different speech and language pathologists rate the voices. The authors also conclude that the search for clear reference voice examples is highly motivated and ought to be continued, preferably with the method used in this study. 

  • 17.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Narrativ förmåga vid afasi: analys av strategier vid gemensamt berättande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aphasia is a linguistic impairment which affects communication and may have an impact on a person’s narrative ability. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the narrative ability in aphasia by narrative interviews with people with aphasia and their partners. The interviews were scrutinised for strategies used in joint narration involving couples where one of the spouses has aphasia. The definition of strategies was methods to cope with communicative difficulties often due to aphasia. Strategies were also studied in an assessment of independent narration. The specific questions were: Which strategies do couples, consisting of one person with aphasia and their partner, use in joint narration? Which strategies does the person with aphasia use in independent narration? Are there any differences in the use of strategies in joint narration compared to independent narration? Five couples were recruited from conversational groups for people with aphasia in the south of Sweden. The couples were asked questions which were meant to encourage joint narration and the interviews were filmed. In addition to the interview, the narrative ability of the individuals with aphasia was assessed with the Swedish aphasia test A-ning. The interviews and the assessments were transcribed according to principles from conversation analysis. The result showed a variation regarding type of strategies occurring in the couples’ narrations and the frequency of these strategies. In joint narration, repetition was the strategy most commonly used by individuals with aphasia, followed by self-initiated self-repair, word search and gestures. The partners also used repetition to a high extent as well as appendor production. The conclusion of this study is that the narrative ability of the persons with aphasia in independent narration to some extent corresponded with their ability in joint narration. However, there were great differences between how the individuals with aphasia and their partners used strategies to cope with difficulties in joint narration.

  • 18.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granese, Angela
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Towards an evidence-base for /r/ therapy in English.2013In: Journal of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, ISSN 0791-5985, Vol. 20, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Müller, NicoleLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.Nelson, Ryan L.University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders.

    The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the concept of qualitative research and its application to communication disorders, and describes the main qualitative research approaches. The contributions are forward-looking rather than merely giving an overview of their topic. The second part illustrates these approaches through a series of case studies of different communication disorders using qualitative methods of research.

    This Handbook is an essential resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners, in communication disorders and related fields.

  • 20.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutter, Ben
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Kroll, Tobias
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Interactional phonetics: background and examples.2014In: Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders / [ed] Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller, and Ryan L. Nelson, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ballantyne, Kaye N.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands Victoria Police Forens Serv Department, Australia .
    Ralf, Arwin
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Aboukhalid, Rachid
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Achakzai, Niaz M.
    University of Punjab, Pakistan .
    Anjos, Maria J.
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Ayub, Qasim
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    Balazic, Joze
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Ballantyne, Jack
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    J. Ballard, David
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Berger, Burkhard
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria .
    Bobillo, Cecilia
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    Bouabdellah, Mehdi
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Burri, Helen
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Capal, Tomas
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Caratti, Stefano
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Cardenas, Jorge
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Cartault, Francois
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    F. Carvalho, Elizeu
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Carvalho, Monica
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Cheng, Baowen
    Yunnan Prov Department Public Secur, Peoples R China .
    D. Coble, Michael
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Comas, David
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Corach, Daniel
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    E. DAmato, Maria
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    Davison, Sean
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    de Knijff, Peter
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Corazon A. De Ungria, Maria
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Decorte, Ronny
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Dobosz, Tadeusz
    Wroclaw Medical University, Poland .
    M. Dupuy, Berit
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Elmrghni, Samir
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    Gliwinski, Mateusz
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    C. Gomes, Sara
    University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Grol, Laurens
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Haas, Cordula
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Hanson, Erin
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    Henke, Juergen
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Henke, Lotte
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Herrera-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Poder Judicial, Costa Rica .
    R. Hill, Carolyn
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Honda, Katsuya
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    Immel, Uta-Dorothee
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    Inokuchi, Shota
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    A. Jobling, Mark
    University of Leicester, England .
    Kaddura, Mahmoud
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    S. Kim, Jong
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    H. Kim, Soon
    National Forens Serv, South Korea .
    Kim, Wook
    Dankook University, South Korea .
    E. King, Turi
    University of Leicester, England .
    Klausriegler, Eva
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Kling, Daniel
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Kovacevic, Lejla
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Kovatsi, Leda
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Krajewski, Pawel
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    Kravchenko, Sergey
    NASU, Ukraine .
    H. D. Larmuseau, Maarten
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Young Lee, Eun
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Lessig, Ruediger
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    A. Livshits, Ludmila
    NASU, Ukraine .
    Marjanovic, Damir
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Minarik, Marek
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Mizuno, Natsuko
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    Moreira, Helena
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Morling, Niels
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Mukherjee, Meeta
    Govt India, India .
    Munier, Patrick
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    Nagaraju, Javaregowda
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Neuhuber, Franz
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Nie, Shengjie
    Kunming Medical University, Peoples R China .
    Nilasitsataporn, Premlaphat
    Royal Thai Police, Thailand .
    Nishi, Takeki
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    H. Oh, Hye
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    Olofsson, Jill
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Onofri, Valerio
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    U. Palo, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Pamjav, Horolma
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Parson, Walther
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria Penn State University, PA 16802 USA .
    Petlach, Michal
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Phillips, Christopher
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Ploski, Rafal
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    P. R. Prasad, Samayamantri
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Primorac, Dragan
    Penn State University, PA 16802 USA University of New Haven, CT USA University of Split, Croatia University of Osijek, Croatia .
    A. Purnomo, Gludhug
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Purps, Josephine
    Charite, Germany .
    Rangel-Villalobos, Hector
    University of Guadalajara CUCienega UdeG, Mexico .
    Rebala, Krzysztof
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba
    Mahidol University, Thailand .
    Rey Gonzalez, Danel
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Robino, Carlo
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Roewer, Lutz
    Charite, Germany .
    Rosa, Alexandra
    University of Madeira, Portugal University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Sajantila, Antti
    University of Helsinki, Finland University of N Texas, TX USA .
    Sala, Andrea
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    M. Salvador, Jazelyn
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Sanz, Paula
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Schmitt, Cornelia
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    K. Sharma, Anil
    Govt India, India .
    A. Silva, Dayse
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Shin, Kyoung-Jin
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Sijen, Titia
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Sirker, Miriam
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    Sivakova, Daniela
    Comenius University, Slovakia .
    Skaro, Vedrana
    Genos Ltd, Croatia .
    Solano-Matamoros, Carlos
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica .
    Souto, Luis
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Stenzl, Vlastimil
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Sudoyo, Herawati
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Syndercombe-Court, Denise
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Tagliabracci, Adriano
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    Taylor, Duncan
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia Flinders University of S Australia, Australia .
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden .
    S. Tsybovsky, Iosif
    State Comm Forens Expertises, Byelarus .
    Tyler-Smith, Chris
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    J. van der Gaag, Kristiaan
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Vanek, Daniel
    Forens DNA Serv, Czech Republic Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic .
    Volgyi, Antonia
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Ward, Denise
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia .
    Willemse, Patricia
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    P. H. Yap, Eric
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Y. Y. Yong, Rita
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Zupanic Pajnic, Irena
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Kayser, Manfred
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats2014In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1021-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.

  • 22.
    Barton, Jason J. S.
    et al.
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Hanif, Hashim M.
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Eklinder Bjornstrom, Laura
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hills, Charlotte
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    The word-length effect in reading: A review2014In: Cognitive Neuropsychology, ISSN 0264-3294, E-ISSN 1464-0627, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 378-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that visual processing of a word correlates with the number of its letters has an extensive history. In healthy subjects, a variety of methods, including perceptual thresholds, naming and lexical decision times, and ocular motor parameters, show modest effects that interact with high-order effects like frequency. Whether this indicates serial processing of letters under some conditions or indexes low-level visual factors related to word length is unclear. Word-length effects are larger in pure alexia, where they probably reflect a serial letter-by-letter strategy, due to failure of lexical whole-word processing and variable dysfunction in letter encoding. In pure alexia, the word-length effect is systematically related to mean naming latency, with the word-length effect becoming proportionally greater as naming latency becomes more delayed in severe cases. Other conditions may also generate enhanced word-length effects. This occurs in right hemianopia: Computer simulations suggest a criterion of 160 ms/letter to distinguish hemianopic dyslexia from pure alexia. Normal reading development is accompanied by a decrease in word-length effects, whereas persistently elevated word-length effects are characteristic of developmental dyslexia. Little is known about word-length effects in other reading disorders. We conclude that the word-length effect captures the efficiency of the perceptual reading process in development, normal reading, and a number of reading disorders, even if its mechanistic implications are not always clear.

  • 23.
    Beckman, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gesters påverkan på talflytet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Oflyt i tal är något som förekommer hos alla talande människor och likadant är det med gester. Det är dock inte självklart hur de är relaterar till varandra. Det finns få studier inom området och ännu färre med svensktalande försökspersoner. Denna studies syfte är att se hur gester påverkar talflytet hos personer med svenska som modersmål och om det finns någon skillnad rörande detta mellan olika kontexter.

    Studien genomfördes med åtta försökspersoner i åldrarna 20–30 år som har svenska som modersmål. Alla försökspersoner fick individuellt svara på fyra frågor varav två med spatialt innehåll och två med abstrakt innehåll. Under första halvan av testningen fick försökspersonerna använda gester och resterande tid fick de sitta på sina händer för att inte kunna använda gester.

    Resultatet visade att ikoniska gester användes oftare vid spatialt innehåll och metaforiska gester användes mer frekvent vid abstrakt innehåll, vilket var en signifikant skillnad. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad noterades mellan spatialt och abstrakt innehåll vid mätning av tallängd. Detta oberoende av fri respektive begränsad användning av gester.

    De få studier som gjorts på området ger ingen tydlig bild av hur tal och gester är relaterade till varandra. Denna studie understryker komplexiteten inom området tal och gester.

  • 24.
    Benschop, Corina C G
    et al.
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Connolly, Edward
    Forensic Science Ireland.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kokshoorn, Bas
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Results of an inter and intra laboratory exercise on the assessment of complex autosomal DNA profiles.2017In: Science & justice, ISSN 1355-0306, E-ISSN 1876-4452, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of complex DNA profiles may differ between laboratories and reporting officers, which can lead to discrepancies in the final reports. In this study, we assessed the intra and inter laboratory variation in DNA mixture interpretation for three European ISO17025-accredited laboratories. To this aim, 26 reporting officers analyzed five sets of DNA profiles. Three main aspects were considered: 1) whether the mixed DNA profiles met the criteria for comparison to a reference profile, 2) the actual result of the comparison between references and DNA profiling data and 3) whether the weight of the DNA evidence could be assessed. Similarity in answers depended mostly on the complexity of the tasks. This study showed less variation within laboratories than between laboratories which could be the result of differences between internal laboratory guidelines and methods and tools available. Results show the profile types for which the three laboratories report differently, which informs indirectly on the complexity threshold the laboratories employ. Largest differences between laboratories were caused by the methods available to assess the weight of the DNA evidence. This exercise aids in training forensic scientists, refining laboratory guidelines and explaining differences between laboratories in court. Undertaking more collaborative exercises in future may stimulate dialog and consensus regarding interpretation. For training purposes, DNA profiles of the mixed stains and questioned references are made available.

  • 25.
    Berner, Boel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effektivare vård på distans med multidisciplinära medicinska videokonferenser?2014In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användning av telemedicin förväntas möjliggöra access till expertråd oavsett var patienten eller läkaren befinner sig geografiskt. I artikeln analyseras, utifrån intervjuer med specialistläkare vid ett universitetssjukhus, hur en form av telemedicin, multidisciplinära videokonferenser mellan olika sjukhus, påverkar beslut och relationer i vården. Begrepp som ”artikuleringsarbete”, ”tyst integrering” och ”skript” används för att förstå beslutsfattandet på distans. Artikeln visar att effektivitet i vården kan tolkas på olika sätt, tar upp hur samarbete mellan specialområden uppfattas samt visar på ambivalenser vad gäller centralisering eller decentralisering av medicinsk kunskap mellan sjukhus med teknikens hjälp.

  • 26.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial2017In: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. Research Design: A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Study Sample: Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. Intervention: The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Data Collection and Analysis: Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap, insomnia, cognitive functioning, hyperacusis, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were used to investigate the effects of iCBT with audiological support. In addition, a weekly questionnaire was incorporated to monitor change in tinnitus distress while undertaking the intervention. Results: Feasibility was established using an audiologist to support this guided iCBT intervention, as a significant change postintervention was found for tinnitus severity, as measured by the TFI and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Screening version. The attrition rate was 22% and compliance was variable. Although these results were based on a small sample, they provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of delivering iCBT treatment for tinnitus symptoms with audiology support in the United Kingdom. Conclusions: An Internet-based intervention of tinnitus appears to be feasible in the United Kingdom when using audiological support. Randomized controlled trials to further investigate the effectiveness of iCBT for tinnitus in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 27.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts.

  • 28.
    Boiso, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dalin, Erik
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seidlitz, Heidi
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sidstedt, Maja
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trygg, Elias
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, Johannes
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    RapidHIT for the purpose of stain analyses – An interrupted implementation2017In: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, ISSN 1875-1768, E-ISSN 1875-175X, Vol. 6, no Supplement C, p. e589-e590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid DNA instruments have in recent years been developed, enabling analysis of forensic samples with a minimum of human intervention. Initially intended for fast handling of reference samples, such as samples from suspects in booking suites, attention shifted to include crime scene samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the RapidHIT System (IntegenX) is fit for crime scene samples. The first runs gave very poor results, which was found to be due to an incorrect firmware setting leading to no or just minute amounts of amplicons being injected for electrophoresis. After solving this problem, 28 full runs (seven samples each) applying NGM SElect Express were performed comprising various amounts of blood on cotton swabs. Six of the runs failed completely, four due to cartridge leakage and in two runs the PCR mix was not injected. For 155 samples with 1–5ÎŒL blood (volumes for which complete DNA profiles are expected), 119 samples (77%) gave complete DNA profiles. Among the most serious failures were incorrect allele calling and leakage of DNA extract or PCR product. Other general issues were failure to export results, anode motor breakdown and broken capillary array. Due to the encountered problems with software, hardware and cartridges, together with the low success rate, it was decided not to continue towards implementation of the RapidHIT System in casework.

  • 29.
    Bylund, Bengt
    et al.
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Wärngård, Olof
    Very low birth weight children at 9 years:  School performance and behaviour in relation to risk factors2000In: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the school performance and behavior of very low-birth-weight children in comparison with controls, and relate the findings to risk factors.

    Methods All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study; 81 % (n = 70) and 82% (n = 72), respectively, were re-examined at the age of 9 years regarding growth, neurological status, neurofunctional classification and academic achievement tests (Raven's matrices, mathematics, vocabulary, reading ability). The need for special education at school was assessed and four behavioral problem scores were also assessed (hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, social skills). Children with known handicaps were not re-examined.

    Results VLBW children were shorter and lighter than controls, and differed from them with regard to neurological functional classification. As a group, they produced poorer results in all academic achievement tests except vocabulary, and also in two out of four behavioral subscales (hyperactivity and fine motor skills). When the comparison was restricted to children with normal Raven scores, almost all the differences disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexic compared to NEW children.

  • 30.
    Bäck, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cider, Åsa
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mari
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kinesiophobia mediates the influences on attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease2016In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 571-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify predictors of attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to test the hypothesis that kinesiophobia mediates the influence on attendance at CR in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients: In total, 332 patients (75 women; mean age 65 +/- 9.1 years) with a diagnosis of CAD were recruited at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Methods: The patients were tested in terms of objective measurements, self-rated psychological measurements, and level of physical activity. A path model with direct and indirect effects via kinesiophobia was used to predict participation in CR. An exploratory selection of significant predictors was made. Results: A current incidence of coronary bypass grafting (p amp;lt; 0.001) and a diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (p = 0.004) increased the probability of attendance at CR, while kinesiophobia (p = 0.001) reduced attendance. As a mediator, kinesiophobia was influenced by four predictors and the following indirect effects were found. General health and muscle endurance increased the probability of attendance at CR, while self-rated anxiety and current incidence of heart failure had the opposite effect. Conclusions: This study suggests that kinesiophobia has an influence on and a mediating role in attendance at CR. The results need to be further investigated in relation to clinical practice.

  • 31.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Persson, Elisabeth B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Annelie Inghilesi
    Qual Stat AB, Sweden.
    Fischer, Marcelo Rivano
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Chronic pain patients can be classified into four groups: Clustering-based discriminant analysis of psychometric data from 4665 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre (a SQRP study)2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To subgroup chronic pain patients using psychometric data and regress the variables most responsible for subgroup discrimination. Design Cross-sectional, registry-based study. Setting and subjects Chronic pain patients assessed at a multidisciplinary pain centre between 2008 and 2015. Methods Data from the Swedish quality registry for pain rehabilitation (SQRP) were retrieved and analysed by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Results Four subgroups were identified. Group 1 was characterized by low "psychological strain", the best relative situation concerning pain characteristics (intensity and spreading), the lowest frequency of fibromyalgia, as well as by a slightly older age. Group 2 was characterized by high "psychological strain" and by the most negative situation with respect to pain characteristics (intensity and spreading). Group 3 was characterized by high "social distress", the longest pain durations, and a statistically higher frequency of females. The frequency of three neuropathic pain conditions was generally lower in this group. Group 4 was characterized by high psychological strain, low "social distress", and high pain intensity. Conclusions The identification of these four clusters of chronic pain patients could be useful for the development of personalized rehabilitation programs. For example, the identification of a subgroup characterized mainly by high perceived "social distress" raises the question of how to best design interventions for such patients. Differentiating between clinically important subgroups and comparing how these subgroups respond to interventions is arguably an important area for further research.

  • 32.
    Chang, You
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Finite Element Model of the Human Head for Simulation of Bone-conducted Sound2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction is usually understood as the hearing sensation based on the vibrations of the skull bone and surrounding tissues. The fact that vibration of the skull bones can result in a sound percept has been known for a long time. However, it is difficult to give a general definition of BC sound. Normally, BC sound is described as the sound energy transmitted through the body (comprising the solid and fluid parts) then the outer, middle and inner ear are involved and finally produce a perception of sound.

    Even if BC sound perception has been studied for more than a century, the whole pattern of BC sound transmission is still not complete. There are limitations for experimental investigation of BC sound, such as the complexity of experimental manipulations and individual differences between subjects resulting in difficult to interpret outcomes. One way to overcome some of those issues is the use of a simulation model for BC sound. However, until now, the published models are unable to provide a holistic response of BC sound in the human. Therefore, the primary aim of this thesis is to develop a finite element model that could simulate BC sound transmission in the human. Based on cryosectional images of a female, the LiUHead was developed as a FE model of the human head with the structure and material properties of real human. Most the structures and tissues which could contribute to the BC transmission were included in the LiUHead. The simulation results of the LiUHead agreed with experimental data obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans.

    After the development and validation of the LiUHead, the model was used to investigate BC sound.  Since BC sound is transmitted in and between the tissues, the power transmission of BC sound was investigated in the LiUHead in the frequency domain. When the stimulation was applied on the surface of the skull at the mastoid position, the results of the simulations show that, as the name suggest, the skull bone dominants the BC sound transmission. The soft tissues and cartilages are as the second most important media of the BC sound while the skull interior is the least important for the BC transmission. Moreover, according to the power flux in the skull, the BC vibrations are mainly concentrated at the skull base. Other important transmission pathways are located at the occipital bone at the posterior side of the head, but the power transmitted over the face, forehead and vertex is minor. There is power interaction between the skull bone and skull interior near the stimulation position but the transmission of sound power through the brain seem to be minimal. Since the power or energy is difficult to measure in an experimental setting, this investigation gave unique knowledge about BC sound transmission in the head and the interaction between the tissues.

    As a common application for BC sound, bone-conduction devices are used to stimulate the hearing and is a method for hearing loss rehabilitation. Nowadays many different kinds of BCDs are available. However, most studies failed to compare the different types of BCDs in the same conditions as well as between several BCDs as it is not possible to compare several BCDs within the same subject due to the implantation required for several BCDs. The model gives a unique opportunity to evaluate various BCDs in the same head. Eight different BCDs, including four kinds of skin-drive BCDs, three kinds of direct-drive BCDs, and one in-the-mouth device, were applied to the LiUHead and the simulation results were evaluated. The results proved that the direct-drive BCDs and the in-the-mouth device gave similar vibration responses at the cochlea. At low frequencies, the skin-drive BCDs had similar or even better cochlear responses than the direct-drive BCDs. However, the direct-drive BCDs gave stable responses at mid-frequencies and gave higher responses than the skin-drive BCDs at high frequencies. These results are beneficial evaluating and for designing and improving current BCDs.

    The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide a computational model for BC sound that can be used for evaluation of BC sound transmission. This was accomplished by the LiUHead that gave results comparable to experimental data and enabled investigations that cannot easily be conducted in experiments.

    List of papers
    1. A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    2014 (English)In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, no 519429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Youngs modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112658 (URN)10.1155/2014/519429 (DOI)000344143300001 ()25243148 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]

    Available from: 2014-12-05 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    2. The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    2016 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 1635-1651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploe) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission. The experimental data were obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans. The simulations showed multiple low-frequency resonances where the first was caused by rotation of the head and the second was close in frequency to average resonances obtained in cadaver heads. At higher frequencies, the simulation results of the impedance were within one standard deviation of the average experimental data. The acceleration response at the cochlear promontory was overall lower for the simulations compared with experiments but the overall tendencies were similar. Even if the current model cannot predict results in a specific individual, it can be used for understanding the characteristic of BC sound transmission in general. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACOUSTICAL SOC AMER AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133011 (URN)10.1121/1.4962443 (DOI)000386932500026 ()27914383 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]; Incheon Nation University (International Cooperative) Research Grant

    Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2018-03-20
  • 33.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ironi: Akustikens roll vid uppfattande av ironi och andra emotionella uttryck2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Have you ever experienced doubt in whether a person is being ironic? It is hard to identify irony, especially when you don't know the context. Acoustic features, such as pitch, intensity and duration, have in previous studies been detected to explain differences between emotions. Irony and sarcasm have been found to have a higher pitch, intensity and longer duration than other emotions. In this study 20 people listened to 26 samples, from the test material made by Peder Palmér from the Institution of Behavioral science and Teaching in the University of  Linköping, and were asked to determine which emotion that was used in each sample. Irony, sarcasm, anger, happiness and seriousness were portrayed emotions in the audio files. The results showed that the emotion happiness was the easiest and women were better able to determine this emotion. Acoustic differences were analyzed in Praat, the acoustic parameters used were based on previous surveys. Lower pitch, intensity and a longer duration were found to be characteristic for irony and sarcasm in this research. The outcome does not correlate with several of previous studies, probably because previous studies are not made in Swedish but one survey in German shows similar results. Another acoustic feature that was found in our survey is that the penultimate word has longer duration in irony and sarcasm than in other expressions.

  • 34.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kognitiva förmågor som förklarar utveckling av läsförståelse från första till andra klass2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Letter knowledge, word decoding and phonological awareness including RAN (rapid automatized naming) are known to predict early reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of reading comprehension from first to second grade. Phonological awareness holds an important role in this study; different ways to measure this ability will be discussed.  In the study, 36 second graders participated and the following abilities were measured; phonological awareness, word decoding, reading comprehension and letter knowledge. Performances in first and second grade were compared. The results showed that reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Furthermore, significant correlations between reading comprehension, word decoding and phonological awareness were observed in second grade. Word decoding and phonological awareness together explains 58 % of the variance of reading comprehension in second grade. The test Phonological processing alone explains the biggest part of the variance in reading comprehension. The tests for phonological awareness show that RAN had a significant correlation with the rime test but not with the test Phonological processing. The correlation indicates that the tests measure different aspects of phonological skills. In conclusion reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Additionally, phonological processing seems to be a strong predictor for reading comprehension in second grade. 

  • 35.
    Classon, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Fallman, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, p. e0160742-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens.

  • 36.
    Code, Chris
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Ball, Martin
    University of Lousiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Tree, Jeremy
    University of Swansea.
    Dawe, Karen
    Bristol University.
    The effects of initiation, termination and inhibition impairments on speech rate in a case of progressive nonfluent aphasia with progressive apraxia of speech with frontotemporal degeneration2013In: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 602-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into nonfluent forms of primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech has highlighted the importance of speech rate as a diagnostic feature. We describe detailed investigation and comparison of speech rate (latencies and utterance length in single word/nonword production and speech rate in connected speech) on a range of experimental tasks in a man with progressive speech deterioration of 10 years duration from Pick's Disease. C.S. had a progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) together with progressive apraxia of speech (pAOS) with an absence of significant interlectual, phonological or semantic impairment. C.S. showed increased latencies but reduced word length compared to matched controls on single word and nonword repetition and reading, an absence of a syllabic length effect in either single word/nonword tasks or connected speech tasks. Further investigation suggested that underlying his speech production impairments were problems with speech initiation, termination and inhibition. Most impairments worsened with progression over a 12-month period. Results provide support for the view that progressive apraxia of speech presents differently to apraxia of speech following stroke and, especially at advanced stages, involves deterioration in more central and supportive cognitive processes.

  • 37.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: results of a 20-year national study2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The understanding of social phenomena is enhanced if individuals can be studied over longer periods. Regarding loneliness in old age, there is a general lack of longitudinal research. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between loneliness in old age and social engagement 20 years earlier, as stated by life course theory and the convoy model.

    METHOD: Data from the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002 and 2011 data collection waves) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey (1981 and 1991 data collection waves) were used. The sample included 823 individuals with an average age of 62.2 years at baseline and 82.4 years at follow-up.

    RESULTS: Each form of social engagement in old age was significantly associated with the same form of social engagement 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement were associated with loneliness in old age; as were more distant forms of social engagement, but only when they were considered solely in old age.

    CONCLUSION: Patterns of social engagement in old age were established at least 20 years earlier and close forms of social engagement are long-term predictors of loneliness, although current social engagement tended to be more influential on loneliness. The study underlines the importance of interventions targeted at close relationships that can provide social support in old age.

  • 38.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Kathleen, Pichora-Fuller
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology.
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early ageing and hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 39.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 40.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Törnvall, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Education to Increase Skills in Research Methods among Clinicians in Health Care2017In: Journal of Health & Medical Informatics, ISSN 2157-7420, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of this study was to evaluate participants’ and managers’ experience of the design and content of an education programme. The Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework was applied to identify the steps of knowledge creation and action in the education programme.

    Methods

    Data were collected from 18 participants representing two groups: participants in the intervention and supervisors and managers. Two focus groups took place: two with participants in the intervention (4 and 3 in each) and one with eleven managers.

    Results

    All steps in the KTA framework were identified and discussed from several aspects. The importance of selecting projects that were relevant and added value in their clinics was mentioned by all participants. The participants also mentioned that after the education, they had further understanding and increased skills in how to be active and perform continuous improvement projects. The step in the KTA process regarding how to adapt knowledge to local context was not discussed explicitly by the participants or managers.

    Discussion

    Education in research methods and performing improvement projects to develop the clinic creates a more positive attitude to working with continuous improvement. The participant’s self-esteem and knowledge increased regarding how to work with improvements. It is important to have the manager’s support to perform a project. Emphasis was on knowledge inquiry and synthesis and presenting the results with or without possible solutions. The participants and managers talked about barriers and knowledge use more generally and at an organizational level. This means that the participants did not gain the last bit of nowledge needed to put the action into practice. This implies that the problem regarding lack of implementation skills in health care might remain.

  • 41.
    Domeij, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Buller ur barns perspektiv: en kartläggning av hur barn upplever ljud- och kommunikationsmiljö på förskola2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that high levels of background noise are damaging on voice, hearing andlanguage learning skills but also affects other cognitive skills. High sound pressure can lead to ahyperfunctional and faulty voice use. This can cause chronic voice disorders. The voice organs inchildren may be particularly vulnerable since they are not yet fully developed. The noise level ishigh in many preschools and therefore both children and teachers are at risk for developing voicedisorders and hearing impairment.The study consists of sound pressure level measurements and focus group interviews of 16 fiveyear-old children in two different preschools. The purpose was to find out how five-year-oldchildren experience noise and communication in preschools and relate their opinions to themeasured sound pressure levels. The study is included in a bigger Nordic project.The result showed that the children seem to have some knowledge of the effects of noise onhearing but not at all of the effects on voice. The statements reflect that they seem to have someknowledge about negative effects of noise on communication. The children also express that theyprefer lower levels of background noise rather than high. The children expressed that they hadexperiences of occasionally having difficulties to communicate in their preschool due to highbackground noise. These statements are supported by the high levels of background noisemeasured in the study. Three themes and six categories were identified from the interviews, theywere: Own Experiences (Physical, Emotional), Environmental Factors (Spatial, Noise) andStrategies (Voice, Hearing).Sound pressure levels were measured in all rooms with and without the children and teacher’sattendance. With children and teachers present noise levels were ranging from 60 to 93 dB(A).The noise levels were frequently over 70 dB(A) and the highest noise value was 93 dB(A) in the playing room when free play occurred.

  • 42.
    Dragioti, Elena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Association of insomnia severity with well-being, quality of life and health care costs: A cross-sectional study in older adults with chronic pain (PainS65+)2018In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 414-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInsomnia is one of the most common complaints in chronic pain. This study aimed to evaluate the association of insomnia with well-being, quality of life and health care costs. MethodsThe sample included 2790 older individuals (median age=76; interquartile range [IQR]=70-82) with chronic pain. The participants completed a postal survey assessing basic demographic data, pain intensity and frequency, height, weight, comorbidities, general well-being, quality of life and the insomnia severity index (ISI). Data on health care costs were calculated as costs per year (Euro prices) and measured in terms of outpatient and inpatient care, pain drugs, total drugs and total health care costs. ResultsThe overall fraction of clinical insomnia was 24.6% (moderate clinical insomnia: 21.9% [95% CI: 18.8-23.3]; severe clinical insomnia: 2.7% [95% CI: 1.6-3.2]). Persons who reported clinical insomnia were more likely to experience pain more frequently with higher pain intensity compared to those reported no clinically significant insomnia. Mean total health care costs were Euro 8469 (95% CI: Euro4029-Euro14,271) for persons with severe insomnia compared with Euro 4345 (95% CI: Euro4033-Euro4694) for persons with no clinically significant insomnia. An association between severe insomnia, well-being, quality of life, outpatient care, total drugs costs and total health care costs remained after controlling for age, sex, pain intensity, frequency, body mass index and comorbidities using linear regression models. ConclusionsOur results determine an independent association of insomnia with low health-related quality of life and increased health care costs in older adults with chronic pain. SignificanceThe concurrence and the severity of insomnia among older adults with chronic pain were associated with decreased well-being and quality of life, and increased health care costs to society.

  • 43.
    Draycott, T.
    et al.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    van der Nelson, H.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    Montouchet, C.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Ruff, L.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Andersson, F.
    Linköping University. Ferring Pharmaceut AS, Denmark.
    Reduction in resource use with the misoprostol vaginal insert vs the dinoprostone vaginal insert for labour induction: a model-based analysis from a United Kingdom healthcare perspective2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 49-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In view of the increasing pressure on the UKs maternity units, new methods of labour induction are required to alleviate the burden on the National Health Service, while maintaining the quality of care for women during delivery. A model was developed to evaluate the resource use associated with misoprostol vaginal inserts (MVIs) and dinoprostone vaginal inserts (DVIs) for the induction of labour at term. Methods: The one-year Markov model estimated clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 1397 pregnant women (parous and nulliparous) induced with either MVI or DVI at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. Efficacy and safety data were based on published and unpublished results from a phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Resource use was modelled using data from labour induction during antenatal admission to patient discharge from Southmead Hospital. The models sensitivity to key parameters was explored in deterministic multi-way and scenario-based analyses. Results: Over one year, the model results indicated MVI use could lead to a reduction of 10,201 h (28.9 %) in the time to vaginal delivery, and an increase of 121 % and 52 % in the proportion of women achieving vaginal delivery at 12 and 24 h, respectively, compared with DVI use. Inducing women with the MVI could lead to a 25.2 % reduction in the number of midwife shifts spent managing labour induction and 451 fewer hospital bed days. These resource utilisation reductions may equate to a potential 27.4 % increase in birthing capacity at Southmead Hospital, when using the MVI instead of the DVI. Conclusions: Resource use, in addition to clinical considerations, should be considered when making decisions about labour induction methods. Our model analysis suggests the MVI is an effective method for labour induction, and could lead to a considerable reduction in resource use compared with the DVI, thereby alleviating the increasing burden of labour induction in UK hospitals.

  • 44.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Symptom burden among people with chronic disease2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Chronic diseases tend to increase with old age. Older people with chronic disease are commonly suffering from conditions which produce a multiplicity of symptoms and a decreased health-related quality of life. Nurses have a responsibility to prevent, ease or delay a negative outcome through symptom management, or assist in achieving an acceptable level of symptom relief.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to describe different aspects of symptom burden from the perspective of community-dwelling people with chronic disease.

    Methods: This thesis is based upon four papers that used both quantitative and qualitative data to describe different aspects of symptom burden, experienced by people with chronic diseases. Paper (I) is a cross-sectional study with 91 participants diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Papers (II and IV) are based upon secondary outcome data from a randomized controlled trial with 382 community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity. Paper (II) is a cross-sectional study and Paper (IV) has a descriptive and an explorative design reporting on the trajectory of symptom prevalence and symptom burden. Paper (III) is a qualitative study with participants from the AGe-FIT.

    Results: Among people diagnosed with COPD the most prevalent symptoms with the highest symptom burden scores were shortness of breath, dry mouth, cough, sleep problems, and lack of energy, with just a few differences between participants with moderate and severe airflow limitation (I). For older people with multimorbidity, pain was the symptom with the highest prevalence and burden. Other highly prevalent symptoms were lack of energy and a dry mouth. Poor vision, likelihood of depression, and diagnoses of the digestive system were independently related to the total symptom burden score (II). The symptoms experienced by the older people were persistent and the symptom burden remained high over time (IV). The experience of living with a high symptom burden was described as an endless struggle. The analysis revealed an overall theme, “To adjust and endure” and three sub-themes, “to feel inadequate and limited”, “to feel dependent”, and “to feel dejected” (III).

    Conclusions: The results of this thesis indicate the importance of early symptom identification. People with chronic diseases have an unmet need for optimized treatment that focuses on the total symptom burden, and not only disease specific symptoms. A large proportion of older people with multimorbidity suffer a high and persistent symptom burden, and the prevalence and trajectory of pain are high. Older people sometimes think their high age is the reason they experience a diversity of symptoms, and they do not always communicate these to their health-care provider.

    List of papers
    1. Symptom burden in stable COPD patients with moderate or severe airflow limitation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptom burden in stable COPD patients with moderate or severe airflow limitation
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To describe a multidimensional symptom profile in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and determine whether symptom experience differed between patients with moderate or severe airflow limitations.

    BACKGROUND:

    Patients with severe airflow limitation experience numerous symptoms, but little is known regarding patients with moderate airflow limitation.

    METHODS:

    A multidimensional symptom profile (Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale) was assessed in 42 outpatients with moderate and 49 with severe airflow limitations.

    RESULTS:

    The mean number of symptoms in the total sample was 7.9 (±4.3) with no difference between patients with moderate and severe airflow limitations. The most prevalent symptoms with the highest MSAS symptom burden scores were shortness of breath, dry mouth, cough, sleep problems, and lack of energy in both groups.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Patients with moderate or severe airflow limitations experience multiple symptoms with high severity and distress. An assessment of their multidimensional symptom profile might contribute to better symptom management.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Symptom assessment; Symptom experience; Respiratory nursing
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109384 (URN)10.1016/j.hrtlng.2014.04.004 (DOI)000338972500022 ()24856227 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study
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    2015 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, the population is ageing and lives with several chronic diseases for decades. A high symptom burden is associated with a high use of healthcare, admissions to nursing homes, and reduced quality of life. The aims of this study were to describe the multidimensional symptom profile and symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity, and to describe factors related to symptom burden. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 378 community-dwelling people greater than= 75 years, who had been hospitalized greater than= 3 times during the previous year, had greater than= 3 diagnoses in their medical records. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used to assess the prevalence, frequency, severity, distress and symptom burden of 31 symptoms. A multiple linear regression was performed to identify factors related to total symptom burden. Results: The mean number of symptoms per participant was 8.5 (4.6), and the mean total symptom burden score was 0.62 (0.41). Pain was the symptom with the highest prevalence, frequency, severity and distress. Half of the study group reported the prevalence of lack of energy and a dry mouth. Poor vision, likelihood of depression, and diagnoses of the digestive system were independently related to the total symptom burden score. Conclusion: The older community-dwelling people with multimorbidity in this study suffered from a high symptom burden with a high prevalence of pain. Persons with poor vision, likelihood of depression, and diseases of the digestive system are at risk of a higher total symptom burden and might need age-specific standardized guidelines for appropriate management.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2015
    Keywords
    Chronic disease; Older people; Symptom assessment
    National Category
    Sociology Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114010 (URN)10.1186/1471-2318-15-1 (DOI)000347569800001 ()25559550 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Faculty of Health sciences, Linkoping University; county council of Ostergotland; Signe and Olof Wallenius trust fund; Solstickan; Swedish Association of Geriatric Medicine; Mundipharma

    Available from: 2015-02-06 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. To adjust and endure: a qualitative study of symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>To adjust and endure: a qualitative study of symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 322-327Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Context Older people with multimorbidity are vulnerable and often suffer from conditions that produce a multiplicity of symptoms and a reduced health-related quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the experience of living with a high symptom burden from the perspective of older community-dwelling people with multi-morbidity.

    Method A qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews, including 20 community-dwelling older people with multi-morbidity and a high symptom burden. The participants were 79-€“89 years old with a mean of 12 symptoms per person. Data were analyzed using content analyses.

    Results The experience of living with a high symptom burden revealed the overall theme, “To adjust and endure” and three sub-themes. The first sub-theme was "To feel inadequate and limited". Participants reported that they no longer had the capacity or the ability to manage, and they felt limited and isolated from friends or family. The second sub-theme was "To feel dependent". This was a new and inconvenient experience; the burden they put on others caused a feeling of guilt. The final sub-theme was "To feel dejected". The strength to manage and control their conditions was gone; the only thing left to do was to sit or lie down and wait for it all to pass.

    Conclusion This study highlights the importance of a holistic approach when taking care of older people with multi-morbidity. This approach should employ a broad symptom assessment to reveal diseases and conditions that are possible to treat or improve.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Multimorbidity, Older people, Symptom burden, Content analysis
    National Category
    Nursing Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122740 (URN)10.1016/j.apnr.2015.03.008 (DOI)000366148700012 ()
    Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Symptom trajectory and symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity, secondary outcome from the RCT AGe-FIT study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptom trajectory and symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity, secondary outcome from the RCT AGe-FIT study
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2773-2783Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to follow the symptom trajectory of community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity and to explore the effect on symptom burden from an ambulatory geriatric care unit, based on comprehensive geriatric assessment.

    Background

    Older community-dwelling people with multimorbidity suffer from a high symptom burden with a wide range of co-occurring symptoms often resulting to decreased health-related quality of life. There is a need to move from a single-disease model and address the complexity of older people living with multimorbidity.

    Design

    Secondary outcome data from the randomized controlled Ambulatory Geriatric Assessment Frailty Intervention Trial (AGe-FIT).

    Methods

    Symptom trajectory of 31 symptoms was assessed with the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Data from 247 participants were assessments at baseline, 12 and 24 months, 2011–2013. Participants in the intervention group received care from an ambulatory geriatric care unit based on comprehensive geriatric assessment in addition to usual care.

    Results

    Symptom prevalence and symptom burden were high and stayed high over time. Pain was the symptom with the highest prevalence and burden. Over the 2-year period 68–81% of the participants reported pain. Other highly prevalent and persistent symptoms were dry mouth, lack of energy and numbness/tingling in the hands/feet, affecting 38–59% of participants. No differences were found between the intervention and control group regarding prevalence, burden or trajectory of symptoms.

    Conclusions

    Older community-dwelling people with multimorbidity had a persistent high burden of symptoms. Receiving advanced interdisciplinary care at an ambulatory geriatric unit did not significantly reduce the prevalence or the burden of symptoms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2016
    Keywords
    Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01446757 Keywords Symptom management, Community Care, Older people, Quality of care
    National Category
    Nursing Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122741 (URN)10.1111/jan.13032 (DOI)000386079500019 ()27222059 (PubMedID)
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was named: Symptom trajectory and symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity, data from the RCT AGe-FIT study

    Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 45.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science.
    Theander, Kersti
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Anne
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Research and Education, Helsingborg Hospital, Sweden; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Departmentof Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm,Sweden .
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Symptom trajectory and symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity, secondary outcome from the RCT AGe-FIT study2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2773-2783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to follow the symptom trajectory of community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity and to explore the effect on symptom burden from an ambulatory geriatric care unit, based on comprehensive geriatric assessment.

    Background

    Older community-dwelling people with multimorbidity suffer from a high symptom burden with a wide range of co-occurring symptoms often resulting to decreased health-related quality of life. There is a need to move from a single-disease model and address the complexity of older people living with multimorbidity.

    Design

    Secondary outcome data from the randomized controlled Ambulatory Geriatric Assessment Frailty Intervention Trial (AGe-FIT).

    Methods

    Symptom trajectory of 31 symptoms was assessed with the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Data from 247 participants were assessments at baseline, 12 and 24 months, 2011–2013. Participants in the intervention group received care from an ambulatory geriatric care unit based on comprehensive geriatric assessment in addition to usual care.

    Results

    Symptom prevalence and symptom burden were high and stayed high over time. Pain was the symptom with the highest prevalence and burden. Over the 2-year period 68–81% of the participants reported pain. Other highly prevalent and persistent symptoms were dry mouth, lack of energy and numbness/tingling in the hands/feet, affecting 38–59% of participants. No differences were found between the intervention and control group regarding prevalence, burden or trajectory of symptoms.

    Conclusions

    Older community-dwelling people with multimorbidity had a persistent high burden of symptoms. Receiving advanced interdisciplinary care at an ambulatory geriatric unit did not significantly reduce the prevalence or the burden of symptoms.

  • 46.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Theander, Kersti
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Anne
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Iingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To adjust and endure: a qualitative study of symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity2015In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 322-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Older people with multimorbidity are vulnerable and often suffer from conditions that produce a multiplicity of symptoms and a reduced health-related quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the experience of living with a high symptom burden from the perspective of older community-dwelling people with multi-morbidity.

    Method A qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews, including 20 community-dwelling older people with multi-morbidity and a high symptom burden. The participants were 79-€“89 years old with a mean of 12 symptoms per person. Data were analyzed using content analyses.

    Results The experience of living with a high symptom burden revealed the overall theme, “To adjust and endure” and three sub-themes. The first sub-theme was "To feel inadequate and limited". Participants reported that they no longer had the capacity or the ability to manage, and they felt limited and isolated from friends or family. The second sub-theme was "To feel dependent". This was a new and inconvenient experience; the burden they put on others caused a feeling of guilt. The final sub-theme was "To feel dejected". The strength to manage and control their conditions was gone; the only thing left to do was to sit or lie down and wait for it all to pass.

    Conclusion This study highlights the importance of a holistic approach when taking care of older people with multi-morbidity. This approach should employ a broad symptom assessment to reveal diseases and conditions that are possible to treat or improve.

  • 47.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dastmalchi, Maryam
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Experiencing virtual patients in clinical learning: a phenomenological study2011In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students experience as a point of departure. Thirty-one students used VPs as a mandatory part of an early clinical rotation in rheumatology. Using the qualitative approach of phenomenology, we interviewed these students and then analysed data regarding their experiences of VPs as a learning activity. The result shows that students perceived VP activities in relation to actual patients, the clinical context and other learning activities. The VPs represented typical clinical cases which encouraged clinical reasoning and allowed for decision making. The students experienced the activities as integrating biomedical knowledge and clinical experience, providing structure that prepared for the unstructured clinical environment and patient encounters under unstressful conditions. However, the VPs were experienced as lacking the emotional interactivity and complexity of actual patients. Theoretical frameworks of clinical reasoning and experiential learning are suggested as foundations for further educational integration of VPs in the clinical environment. VP activities during clinical rotations provide experiences of clinical reality and allow students to solve problems actively. These features are dependent on VP technology but are also contingent on the surrounding environment.

  • 48.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, MonaInstitutionen för hälsovetenskaper, Arbetsterapi och aktivitetsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.Hensing, GunnelInstitutionen för medicin, Avd för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, Sahlgrenska akademien, Göteborgs universitet.
    Återgång i arbete: processer, bedömningar, åtgärder2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan och möjligheten att arbeta är viktig både för den enskilda 
individen och för samhället. När en person helt eller delvis förlorar sin arbetsförmåga på grund av ohälsa ska olika aktörer i välfärds­samhället möjliggöra återgång i arbete. Sjukskrivnings- och rehabiliteringsprocessen blir i en del fall komplex beroende på variationer i aktörernas perspektiv på arbetsförmåga, de bedömningsmetoder som används och vilka regelverk som är tillämpbara. Kunskapsbaserade åtgärder för att främja återgång i arbete involverar i allmänhet arbetsplatsen som en central 
aktör och arena för åtgärder, medan praktiken ofta är annorlunda. 
Boken belyser förut­sättningar för att implementera kunskapsbaserade utredningar och åtgärder i det svenska samhället, liksom komplexiteten 
i dessa processer.

    Boken vänder sig till personer som arbetar med bedömning av arbetsförmåga och med åtgärder för att främja återgång i arbete. Målgrupper är studerande och professionella som i sin yrkesutövning inom till exempel primärvården, företagshälsovården eller inom privata rehabiliterings­enheter arbetar med sjukskrivningsprocesser och arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering. Boken riktar sig också till arbetsgivare och arbetsledare som har ansvar för sjukskrivna medarbetares återgång i arbete.

  • 49.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kommunikation vid demenssjukdom: En studie av samtalsstrategier och positionering i samtal mellan personer med demenssjukdom och vårdpersonal.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia may cause impairment of linguistic abilities, affecting both production and comprehension, which in turn affects communication (Mahendra & Hopper, 2012: Perkins, Whithworth & Lesser, 1998). The aim of the present study was to investigate and describe the communication strategies in everyday conversations between people with dementia and their interlocutors, and to describe the identified interaction phenomena based on a participatory perspective.

    The study was conducted at a home for people with dementia. Three people with known dementia and two health professionals participated in the study. Everyday interactions were filmed, and then transcribed and analyzed according conversation analytic principles. The transcribed data was also analyzed with ideas from positioning theory.

    The present study highlights the presence of trouble sources in communication between the person with dementia and carers and how these are handled by the participants in terms of strategies, competence and positioning. The study shows that all participants use communicative strategies when trouble sources occurs, but also that trouble sources in the conversation sometimes are ignored. How trouble sources are handled affects how participants acknowledge themselves and each other competence and how they position themselves and each other in the conversation. The study also demonstrates that Conversation Analysis can be an important tool to map strenghts and break downs in communication between people with dementia and key interlocutors. That knowledge could then form the basis for designing individual adaptations and strategies to facilitate communication. 

  • 50.
    Ekström, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferm, Ulrika
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Digital communication support and Alzheimer’s disease2017In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 711-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is one of the areas where people with dementia and their caregivers experience most challenges. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of possibilities and pitfalls of using personalized communication applications installed on tablet computers to support communication for people with dementia and their conversational partners. The study is based on video recordings of a woman, 52 years old, with Alzheimer’s disease interacting with her husband in their home. The couple was recorded interacting with and without a tablet computer including a personalized communication application. The results from the present study reveal both significant possibilities and potential difficulties in introducing a digital communication device to people with dementia and their conversational partners. For the woman in the present study, the amount of interactive actions and the number of communicative actions seem to increase with the use of the communication application. The results also indicate that problems associated with dementia are foregrounded in interaction where the tablet computer is used.

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