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  • 1.
    Aarts, B.
    et al.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Kokshoorn, B.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Mc Kenna, L.G.
    Forensic Science Ireland, DNA department, Dublin, Ireland.
    Drotz, W.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    van Oorschot, R.A.
    Office of the Chief Forensic Scientist, Victoria Police Forensic Services Department, Macleod- Victoria, Australia.
    Kloosterman, A.D.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    DNActivity: International cooperation in activity level interpretation of forensic DNA evidence.2015Ingår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015., 2015, s. 555-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions posed to expert witnesses by the legal community and the courts are expanding to include not just those relating to source level (i.e. ‘who is the donor of the trace?’) but also those relating to activitity level (i.e. ‘how did the DNA get there?’). The answers to these questions are usually formulated as the probability of the evidence under alternative scenarios. As activity level questions are part of investigative and legal considerations it is of paramount importance that expert witnesses are provided with knowledge and tools to address these questions.

    To answer such questions within a probabilistic framework, empirical data is needed to estimate probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA as well as background levels of DNA on everyday objects. There is a paucity of empirical data on these topics, but the number of studies is increasing both through in-house experiments and experimental data published in international scientific journals.

    Laboratories that conduct such studies all use different experimental setups, trace recovery strategies and techniques and DNA analysis systems and equipment. It is essential for the forensic genetics community in general to establish whether the data generated by different labs are in concordance, and can therefore be readily used by the forensic community.

    Moreover, if existing data and data generated from future experiments are made available to the (forensic) community, knowledge is needed on the key factors that underlie potential interlaboratory variation.

    The aims and objectives of this ENFSI Monopoly 2013 project are to conduct a study of methodologies and data from different laboratories and to assess the comparability of the scientific data on transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA. This comparison will allow us to identify key factors that underlie potential variation. This information will be used to setup guidelines to enable sharing and database-storage of relevant scientific

    data. This will improve the ability of forensic scientists and other professionals of the Criminal Justice System to give evidence-based answers to questions that relate to the activity level of the crime under investigation.

  • 2.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The housing situation of older people – Issues of investigations2017Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2017, s. 51-51Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The housing situation of older people has been on the Swedish political agenda for some time. An increasing ageing population implies a demand for housing in correspodence to their needs. Assisted living facilities decreased with 30 000 places between 2002 and 2016, as a result, the majority of older people age in a dwelling in the ordinary housing market. In 2008 and 2015 respectively two government investigations on older people’s housing were presented. The investigations focused on the need for housing to bridge the gap between ordinary housing and assisted living facilities and issues of affordability and social community but also the lack of accessible housing in particular geographic areas. This paper aims to investigate the origins of the two investigations and relate them to changes in the housing market affecting older people, arguing that the strong emphasis on ageing in place has shifted the responsibility of having a good place to live from general welfare to older individuals themselves.

  • 3.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    I takt med framtiden: Utveckling av ett nytt interprofessionellt curriculum vid Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälso- och sjukvårdsutbildningarnas ansvar att utbilda professionella som kan samarbetaoch förstå varandras kompetens, för att utföra och utveckla patientsäker vård, betonas alltmer i den globala debatten om framtidens hälso- och sjukvård. Modern professionsutbildning inom hälso- och sjukvården måste idag därför innehålla moment av god kvalitet där studenter lär med, av och om varandra för att utveckla interprofessionell kompetens. Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping är pionjär, både nationellt och internationellt, när det gäller interprofessionellt lärande tack vare satsningen på integrerade utbildningsmoment som funnits med sedan från starten 1986. Den här rapporten är en sammanställning av den interna process som har genomförts för att initiera ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt med avsikt att revidera och utveckla dessa gemensamma utbildningsmoment inriktade mot interprofessionellt lärande. Texten är upplagd kronologiskt och inleds med det direktiv som fakultetsledningen gav för att en utvald grupp lärare skulle kunna utarbeta ett förslag på hur de interprofessionella lärandemomenten vid Hälsouniversitetet skulle kunna förbättras. Härefter följer den rapport som utredningsgruppen lämnade, och som sedan skickades på remiss till olika intressenter. Rapporten följs av en sammanställning och bearbetning av de inkomna remissvaren och till sist följer fakultetsstyrelsens beslut om hur curriculum för interprofessionell utbildning inom Hälsouniversitetet ska utvecklas eller förändras. Det är vår förhoppning att dokumentationen av processen för att förnya fakultetens interprofessionella utbildning ska ge inspiration för fortsatt förändrings- och utvecklingsarbete både inom och utom Linköpings universitet.

  • 4.
    Ackerley, R
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Badre, G
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Positive Effects of a Weighted Blanket on Insomnia2015Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders, ISSN 2379-0822, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common occurrence and can have a negative impact on physiological, psychological and social well-being. There is a need for simple, effective solutions to increase sleep quality. It has been suggested that weighted blankets and vests can provide a beneficial calming effect, especially in clinical disorders. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of a chain weighted blanket on insomnia, using objective and subjective measures. Objectively, we found that sleep bout time increased, as well as a decrease in movements of the participants, during weighted blanket use. Subjectively, the participants liked sleeping with the blanket, found it easier to settle down to sleep and had an improved sleep, where they felt more refreshed in the morning. Overall, we found that when the participants used the weighted blanket, they had a calmer night’s sleep. A weighted blanket may aid in reducing insomnia through altered tactile inputs, thus may provide an innovative, non-pharmacological approach and complementary tool to improve sleep quality.

  • 5.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 1368-1380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbachs alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 6.
    Ahlner, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anita
    Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving2016Ingår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 265, s. 138-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. These individuals had subsequently died from a fatal drug poisoning or some other cause of death, such as trauma. Results: Of the 3943 repeat offenders 1807 (46%) died from a fatal drug overdose and 2136 (54%) died from other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The repeat offenders were predominantly male (90% vs 10%) and mean age of drug poisoning deaths was 5 y younger (mean 35 y) than other causes of death (mean 40 y). Significantly more repeat offenders (46%) died from drug overdose compared with all other forensic autopsies (14%) (p amp;lt; 0.001). Four or more drugs were identified in femoral blood in 44% of deaths from poisoning (drug overdose) compared with 18% of deaths by other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The manner of death was considered accidental in 54% of deaths among repeat offenders compared with 28% for other suspicious deaths (p amp;lt; 0.001). The psychoactive substances most commonly identified in autopsy blood from repeat offenders were ethanol, morphine (from heroin), diazepam, amphetamines, cannabis, and various opioids. Conclusions: This study shows that people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving are more likely to die by accidentally overdosing with drugs. Lives might be saved if repeat offenders were sentenced to treatment and rehabilitation for their drug abuse problem instead of conventional penalties for drug-related crimes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Ajanovic, Dina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Korjenic, Dalida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Utarbetning av språkpillerböcker skrivna på bosniska/kroatiska/serbiska för barn med BKS som modersmål: En kontrastiv grammatisk analys2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Språkpiller” har utformats genom ett samarbete mellan logopeder och biblioteken i Östergötland. Projektet syftar till att stimulera språket hos barn med språkstörning och fungerar i första hand som ett komplement till logopedisk behandling (Linköpings kommun, 2012).

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka om bilderböcker skrivna på bosniska/kroatiska/serbiska (BKS) tränar samma grammatiska struktur som motsvarande bilderböcker på svenska gör. Syftet är även att granska huruvida böckerna i föreliggande studie går att rekommendera som träningsmaterial för barn med språkliga svårigheter.

    En kontrastiv analys mellan BKS och svenska har genomförts av totalt tre bilderböcker. Böckerna i studien innehåller skillnader mellan BKS och svenska inom de flesta grammatiska kategorier och stämmer väl överrens med vad som beskrivits i litteraturen. Det föreliggande materialet antas därför kunna användas som träningsmaterial till vissa grammatiska strukturer.

  • 8.
    Albinsson, L.
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, J.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mixed DNA profiles from single-donors2015Ingår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, s. 538-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosaicism and chimerism in individuals can complicate the interpretation and even lead to misinterpretation of DNA profiles in forensic casework. If a person has different DNA profiles in different tissue types, i.e. a true chimaera, wrongful exclusions can be made. Additionally, mixed chimaeras can have DNA profiles that may be mistaken for mixtures. We have set-up automatic DNA databasing processes to handle atypical single-donor DNA profiles, i.e. profiles having one or several “extra” alleles.

    Studying all reference samples analysed at NFC from 2006 until spring 2014, 2‰ of the samples showed atypical DNA profiles. To be able to set routines for handling these DNA profiles, each one was manually searched in CODIS with adjusted settings, to evaluate the frequency of false-positive hits. To tag these profiles in LIMS a new result status was implemented. Additionally, all such DNA profiles must be confirmed by analysing at least two discrete samples. In LIMS, the results are manually recorded to compose of all alleles from the samples from a suspect, i.e. containing most possible genetic information. LIMS automatically categorises the atypical DNA profiles with a special CODIS index, called “Multi-allelic offender”. The first time an atypical profile is searched, the matches are manually investigated. If a match is false, its disposition will be set to “no match” to prevent this from occurring in future searches. Automatic searches will then be performed in every day routine with moderate stringency, allowing the atypical DNA profile to match either a genotype or a mixture. If the match is true, a match-report will be created and sent to the police from the LIMS.

     

  • 9.
    Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Access to and Use of the Internet among Adolscents and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Everyday Settings.2018Ingår i: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, ISSN 1366-8250, E-ISSN 1469-9532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim is to explore and describe access to the internet and how it is used among adolescents and young adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities in their everyday settings. Method: Data were collected through observations of and interviews with 15 participants with intellectual disabilities, aged 13-25, on access and use of the internet in school or work and at home or in their free time. A qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Main findings were categorised into: Access to the internet in different settings, Challenges when using the internet and Strategies to handle the digital environment and take part in internet activities.Conclusions: This study revealed that participants had access to internet connections and to a high number of internet-enabled devices. Participants use the internet through strategies when doing internet activities, for example using pictures and reducing the number of internet-enabled devices used in their everyday settings.

  • 10.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, s. 31-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Patterns of changing residential preferences during late adulthood2019Ingår i: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 39, nr 8, s. 1752-1781, artikel-id PII S0144686X18000259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research on residential mobility has demonstrated a tendency for the young old of the 55+ population to prefer peripheral locations, whereas older age groups choose central locations. Here, we present survey results indicating that such late-adulthood differences in preferences are supported by age-related shifts corresponding to differences in housing preferences expressed by individuals in peripheral as well as central locations in Sweden. A sample of 2,400 individuals aged 55 years and over was asked to select the seven most important characteristics of a dwelling from a list of 21 alternatives (Survey of Housing Intentions among the ELDerly in Sweden (SHIELD), 2013). The preferences expressed were used as dependent variables in logistic regressions to determine to what extent the housing preferences of older people are linked to age, gender, socio-economic status and type of geographical area. The results demonstrated a close link between neighbourhood characteristics and housing preferences. Owning the dwelling, having a garden and access to nature were stressed as important by individuals living in non-metropolitan middle-class areas and in suburban elite areas. The youngest cohort expressed similar preferences. Older age groups instead stressed the importance of an elevator, single-storey housing and a good design for independent living; preferences that have similarities to those expressed by individuals living in large cities and smaller urban centres where such housing is more readily available.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013Ingår i: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 155-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    "Om vikten av att bli berörd som behandlare": Metodforum - En arena för reflekterande över den vardagliga praktiken2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats är en praxisnära fenomenologisk studie genomförd på en mindre skol- och behandlingsverksamhet i Täby, som heter Svalnäs. På Svalnäs samlas personalen en gång per vecka i något de kallar metodforum. I detta forum delas och reflekteras det kring erfarenheter från den dagliga praktiken som på olika sätt berört personalen. Metodforum är ett svårfångat och komplext fenomen och därmed också svårt att beskriva. Denna uppsats är ett försök att beskriva metoden från insidan, via deltagarnas upplevelser av metoden.I uppsatsen presenteras Svalnäs och den värdegrund och kultur ur vilken metodforum uppkommit. Studien bygger i huvudsak på intervjuer med samtliga (9) behandlare i verksamheten. Frågeställningarna i uppsatsen rör deltagarnas beskrivning av metoden, deras upplevelser kring vad i metoden som är verksamt samt metodens eventuella nytta eller användbarhet. En deskriptiv fenomenologisk metod har använts och resultatet redovisas i en illustrativ beskrivning av fenomenets meningsbärande innebörder samt i en sammanfattande generell struktur. I diskussionen reflekteras det över metodforum i relation till presenterad teori och metodens generella användbarhet.

  • 14.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Dealing with Digits: Arithmetic, Memory and Phonology in Deaf Signers2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dövhet har kopplats till bristande förmåga att hantera siffror inom områdena aritmetik och minne. Särskilt har språkmodalitetsspecifika skillnader i fonologisk likhet för siffror visat sig påverka korttidsminnet. Det övergripande syftet med den här avhandlingen var därför att undersöka om språkmodalitetsspecifika skillnader i fonologisk bearbetning mellan teckenoch talspråk kan förklara varför döva presterar sämre än hörande på sifferuppgifter. För att utforska det området undersöktes fonologisk bearbetning i sifferbaserade minnesuppgifter och aritmetik med hjälp av både beteendevetenskapliga metoder och hjärnavbildning hos grupper av teckenspråkiga döva och talspråkiga hörande som matchats noggrant på ålder, kön, utbildning och icke-verbal intelligens. För att testförhållandena skulle bli så likartade som möjligt för de båda grupperna, och för att förebygga materialeffekter, användes samma presentations- och svarssätt för båda grupperna. Resultaten visade att vid sifferbaserat korttidsminne påverkas de dövas prestation av de tecknade siffrornas fonologiska likhet. Däremot fanns det ingen skillnad mellan grupperna gällande sifferbaserat arbetsminne, vilket kan bero på att de båda grupperna fördelar sina kognitiva resurser på olika sätt. Dessutom fann vi att den grupp teckenspråkiga döva som deltog i studien presterade bättre på aritmetik än vad tidigare forskning visat och de skiljde sig bara från hörande på multiplikationsuppgifter, vilket kan bero på att grupperna var så noggrant matchade. Däremot fanns det skillnader mellan grupperna i vilka neurobiologiska nätverk som aktiverades vid aritmetik och fonologi. Vid multiplikationsuppgifter aktiverades cortex i höger parietallob och vänster frontallob för de teckenspråkiga döva, medan cortex i vänster frontal- och parietallob aktiverades för de talspråkiga hörande. Detta indikerar att de talspråkiga hörande förlitar sig på fonologiberoende minnesstrategier medan de teckenspråkiga döva förlitar sig på ickeverbal magnitudmanipulering och artikulatoriska processer. Under den fonologiska uppgiften aktiverade de talspråkiga hörande vänsterlateraliserade frontala och parietala områden inom det klassiska språknätverket. För de teckenspråkiga döva var fonologibearbetningen begränsad till cortex i vänster occipitallob, vilket tyder på att teckenspråksbaserad fonologi inte behöver aktivera det klassiska språknätverket. Sammanfattningsvis visar fynden i den här avhandlingen att språkmodalitetsspecifika skillnader mellan tecken- och talspråk på olika sätt kan förklara varför döva presterar sämre än hörande på vissa sifferbaserade uppgifter.

    Delarbeten
    1. Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, nr 942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Similar working memory (WM) for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM) is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

    Nyckelord
    deaf signers, working memory, short term memory, phonological similarity, Cross-cultural
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102262 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00942 (DOI)000331572800002 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, 20051353Forte, Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd, 2008-0846Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P2008-0481:1-E
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-04 Skapad: 2013-12-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Deaf signers use phonology to do arithmetic
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Deaf signers use phonology to do arithmetic
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 32, s. 246-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf students generally lag several years behind hearing peers in arithmetic, but little is known about the mechanisms behind this. In the present study we investigated how phonological skills interact with arithmetic. Eighteen deaf signers and eighteen hearing non-signers took part in an experiment that manipulated arithmetic and phonological knowledge in the language modalities of sign and speech. Independent tests of alphabetical and native language phonological skills were also administered. There was no difference in performance between groups on subtraction, but hearing non-signers performed better than deaf signers on multiplication. For the deaf signers but not the hearing non-signers, multiplicative reasoning was associated with both alphabetical and phonological skills. This indicates that deaf signing adults rely on language processes to solve multiplication tasks, possibly because automatization of multiplication is less well established in deaf adults.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Deaf signers; Arithmetic; Phonology
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108812 (URN)10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.015 (DOI)000336820400028 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-07 Skapad: 2014-07-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
    3. Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 143, s. 97-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Phonology; Arithmetic; Brain imaging; Perisylvian language network
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117794 (URN)10.1016/j.bandl.2015.02.004 (DOI)000352659600010 ()25797099 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2005-1353].

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Phonological but not arithmetic processing engages left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-11 Skapad: 2015-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Deaf signers use magnitude manipulatioin strategies for mulitplication: fMRI evidence
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Deaf signers use magnitude manipulatioin strategies for mulitplication: fMRI evidence
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that the lag reported in mathematics for deaf signers derives from difficulties related to the verbal system of number processing as described in the triple code model. For hearing individuals the verbal system has been shown to be recruited for both arithmetic and language tasks. In the present study we investigate for the first time neuronal representations of arithmetic in deaf signers. We examine if the neural network supporting arithmetic and language, including the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) bilaterally, the left angular gyrus (AG), pars opercularis (POPE) and pars triangularis (PTRI) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), is differently recruited for deaf and hearing individuals. Imaging data were collected from 16 deaf signers and 16 well-matched hearing nonsigners, using the same stimulus material for all tasks, but with different cues. During multiplication, deaf signers recruited rHIPS more than hearing non-signers, suggesting greater involvement of magnitude manipulation processes related to the quantity system, whereas there was no evidence that the verbal system was recruited. Further, there was no support for the notion of a common representation of phonology for sign and speech as previously suggested.

    Nyckelord
    Arithmetic; phonology; fMRI; deaf; sign language; magnitude manipulation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Hälsovetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111560 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-24 Skapad: 2014-10-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-04-07Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 15.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL), Linköping, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Birgitta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    A Swedish PerspectiveThe Forensic Use of Bioinformation: Ethical Issues: Nuffield Council on Bioethics2008Ingår i: BioSocieties, ISSN 1745-8552, E-ISSN 1745-8560, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 88-92Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nuffield Report is well-written, clear, extensive and up to date, and it covers most of the major ethical issues in the field of forensic DNA analysis and database searching. The ethical analysis is thorough and based on solid theoretical ground.

  • 16.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Widén, Christina
    Biology Unit, Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC), Link€oping, Sweden.
    Swedish Legislation Regarding Forensic DNA Elimination Databases2016Ingår i: Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal , ISSN 1940-9044, Vol. 7, nr 1-2, s. 20-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence contaminated with DNA from staff, police, and other individuals can have a dramaticimpact on an investigation and can mislead police inquiries. Forensic DNA elimination databases(EDB) are used to minimize the risks associated with DNA contamination. Central issues withmaintaining such databases include the basis for sample collection, sample, and profile integrity, aswell as retention times, database access, and procedures when a database match occurs. Followingyears of discussion, debate, and the use of an “in house” EDB at the Swedish National ForensicCentre (NFC), these issues have now been resolved by passing legislation on DNA EDB. According tothe legislation, sampling for EDB purposes is mandatory for certain forensic professionals, as well asfor other individuals who need access to the premises handling DNA evidence. In the event of adatabase match, the match can only be reviewed and evaluated for quality purposes and the nameof the donor cannot be disclosed to the crime inquiry. Thus, as a consequence, if a contaminationevent is not the probable cause the legal limitation opens for impunity for individuals included inthe database.KEYWORDSContamination; DNA;elimination database;forensic science; legislationIntroduction

  • 17.
    Antelius, Eleonor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kiwi, Mahin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden2015Ingår i: Care Management Journals, ISSN 1521-0987, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 79-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In quite a short amount of time, Sweden has gone from being a relatively homogeneous society to a multicultural one, with a rapid expansion of immigrants having culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds growing old in Sweden. This is particularly interesting in relation to studying age-related dementia diseases. Research shows that not only do CALD persons with dementia diseases tend to mix languages, have difficulties with separation of languages, or revert to speaking only their native tongue as the disease progresses, but they also show tendencies to experience that they live in the cultural environment in which they were brought up, rather than in the current Swedish one. In this article, we explore findings in relation to one such CALD group in Sweden, Iranians. The article is empirically driven and based on data gathered in 2 separate settings with specific ethnocultural profiles, offering dementia care with Middle Eastern, Arab, and/or Persian profile. Observations were carried out in combination with semistructured in-depth interviews (n = 66). By using a combination of content and ethnographic analysis, 4 main findings related to ethnocultural dementia care were elucidated. These include (a) a wider recognition of people from different CALD backgrounds possibly having different perceptions of what dementia is, (b) a possibility that such ascribed meaning of dementia has a bearing on health maintenance and health-seeking behavior as well as the inclination to use formal services or not, (c) choosing to use formal service in the forms of ethnoculturally profiled dementia care facility seems to relate to being able to “live up to ideals of Iranian culture,” and (d) “culture,” however ambiguous and hotly debated a concept it is, appears to be a relevant aspect of people's lives, an aspect that is both acquired as well as ascribed to oneself and to others. As such, we argue that culture needs to be further addressed in relation to dementia care in multicultural societies because ascribing culture boxes people in as well as out. In addition, ethnocultural contextualization of dementia care needs to be understood in relation to this because it affects the care provided.

  • 18.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Logopeders bedömarreliabilitet vid perceptuell röstanalys av utvalda röstexempel: en början till ett referensröstmaterial2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid användning av audio-perceptuell röstanalys för framtagning av referensröster är begreppet reliabilitet av central betydelse. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka reliabiliteten mellan erfarna röstlogopeders perceptuella röstanalys av ett antal utvalda röstexempel. Förhoppningen var att utifrån detta kunna sammanställa en början till ett referensröstmaterial bestående av manliga och kvinnliga referensröster representativa för olika parametrar i SVEA-protokollet. De specifika frågeställningarna var: Hur samstämmiga i perceptuell röstanalys är bedömarna kring de valda röstexemplens olika parametrar? Är någon eller några av de parametrar som bedömarna är överens om extra framträdande i någon röst så att denna röst kan användas som referensröst? Utifrån en databas med 65 röstinspelningar valdes 15 röstexempel ut av författarna att skattas av sju erfarna logopeder med SVEA-protokollet. En andra bedömningsomgång genomfördes med tre röstexempel slumpvis utvalda från de 15 röstexemplen i den första bedömningsomgången. Statistiska analyser av logopedernas inter- och intrabedömarreliabilitet gjordes både på alla röstexempel och på samtliga kvalitetsparametrar. Bedömarnas skattningar uppvisade mycket stor spridning i flera röstexempel, vilket inverkade på korrelationernas utfall och kan vid en första anblick ge ett missvisande resultat. En djupare analys av bedömarnas skattningar av enskilda röstparametrar visade på betydligt högre samstämmighet. Utifrån detta resultat tog författarna fram tre potentiella referensröster. Flera av de övriga 12 röstexemplen hade relativt hög interbedömarreliabilitet men då skattningsvärdena var så pass låga för dessa röster valdes de inte ut som referensröster. Trots låga skattningsvärden skulle dessa röstexempel kunna användas som referensröster för att exemplifiera lägre grader av avvikelser. Slutsatsen är att det finns skillnader i hur bedömarna skattat röstexemplen i denna studie och reliabiliteten mellan bedömarna skiftar. Författarna drar även slutsatsen att det är motiverat att fortsätta leta och analysera röstexempel för att få en heltäckande uppsättning referensröster. Metodvalet i denna studie anses vara en framkomlig väg för att fortsätta forma detta referensröstmaterial.

  • 19.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Narrativ förmåga vid afasi: analys av strategier vid gemensamt berättande2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Afasi medför påverkan på kommunikationen då den språkliga förmågan är nedsatt, vilket i sin tur inverkar på narrationen. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka den narrativa förmågan hos personer med afasi genom narrativa intervjuer med personer med afasi och deras partners. Med intervjuerna som utgångspunkt studerades vilka strategier, det vill säga metoder att hantera problem som uppstår i kommunikationen oftast till följd av afasin, som används vid gemensamt berättande i par där en av personerna har afasi samt vilka strategier personen med afasi använder vid självständigt berättande i testsituation. Frågeställningarna var: Vilka strategier används vid gemensamt berättande i par där en av personerna har afasi? Vilka strategier använder personen med afasi vid självständigt berättande i testsituation? Finns det skillnader i det gemensamma och enskilda berättandet vad gäller användningen av strategier? Via samtalsgrupper i södra Sverige för personer med afasi rekryterades fem par till studien. Paren filmades i berättande intervjuer där de fick svara på frågor som uppmuntrade till gemensamt berättande. Utöver intervjun utfördes även en formell testning av personen med afasi med narrationsdelen i A-ning. Både intervjuerna och testningarna transkriberades enligt samtalsanalytiska principer. Resultatet visade att det rådde variation gällande typ av strategier och hur ofta de förekom i parens berättande. De vanligast förekommande strategierna hos personerna med afasi vid gemensamt berättande var repetition, egeninitierad självreparation, ordsökning och gester. Även partners till personerna med afasi använde sig mest av repetition, följt av utökad produktion. Slutsatsen är att personernas med afasi narrationsförmåga i det enskilda berättandet till viss del överensstämde med deras narrationsförmåga i det gemensamma berättandet, samt att det fanns stora skillnader mellan hur personerna med afasi och deras partners använde sig av strategier för att hantera de svårigheter som uppstår i berättandet.

  • 20.
    Azios, Jamie H.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Bellon-Harn, Monica
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Dockens, Ashley L.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia2019Ingår i: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 21, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Method: Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Result: Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Conclusion: Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  • 21.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Granese, Angela
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Towards an evidence-base for /r/ therapy in English.2013Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, ISSN 0791-5985, Vol. 20, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Müller, NicoleLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.Nelson, Ryan L.University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders.

    The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the concept of qualitative research and its application to communication disorders, and describes the main qualitative research approaches. The contributions are forward-looking rather than merely giving an overview of their topic. The second part illustrates these approaches through a series of case studies of different communication disorders using qualitative methods of research.

    This Handbook is an essential resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners, in communication disorders and related fields.

  • 23.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rutter, Ben
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Kroll, Tobias
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Interactional phonetics: background and examples.2014Ingår i: Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders / [ed] Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller, and Ryan L. Nelson, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, s. 311-328Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Ballantyne, Kaye N.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands Victoria Police Forens Serv Department, Australia .
    Ralf, Arwin
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Aboukhalid, Rachid
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Achakzai, Niaz M.
    University of Punjab, Pakistan .
    Anjos, Maria J.
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Ayub, Qasim
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    Balazic, Joze
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Ballantyne, Jack
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    J. Ballard, David
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Berger, Burkhard
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria .
    Bobillo, Cecilia
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    Bouabdellah, Mehdi
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Burri, Helen
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Capal, Tomas
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Caratti, Stefano
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Cardenas, Jorge
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Cartault, Francois
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    F. Carvalho, Elizeu
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Carvalho, Monica
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Cheng, Baowen
    Yunnan Prov Department Public Secur, Peoples R China .
    D. Coble, Michael
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Comas, David
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Corach, Daniel
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    E. DAmato, Maria
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    Davison, Sean
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    de Knijff, Peter
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Corazon A. De Ungria, Maria
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Decorte, Ronny
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Dobosz, Tadeusz
    Wroclaw Medical University, Poland .
    M. Dupuy, Berit
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Elmrghni, Samir
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    Gliwinski, Mateusz
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    C. Gomes, Sara
    University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Grol, Laurens
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Haas, Cordula
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Hanson, Erin
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    Henke, Juergen
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Henke, Lotte
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Herrera-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Poder Judicial, Costa Rica .
    R. Hill, Carolyn
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Honda, Katsuya
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    Immel, Uta-Dorothee
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    Inokuchi, Shota
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    A. Jobling, Mark
    University of Leicester, England .
    Kaddura, Mahmoud
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    S. Kim, Jong
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    H. Kim, Soon
    National Forens Serv, South Korea .
    Kim, Wook
    Dankook University, South Korea .
    E. King, Turi
    University of Leicester, England .
    Klausriegler, Eva
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Kling, Daniel
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Kovacevic, Lejla
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Kovatsi, Leda
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Krajewski, Pawel
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    Kravchenko, Sergey
    NASU, Ukraine .
    H. D. Larmuseau, Maarten
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Young Lee, Eun
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Lessig, Ruediger
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    A. Livshits, Ludmila
    NASU, Ukraine .
    Marjanovic, Damir
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Minarik, Marek
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Mizuno, Natsuko
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    Moreira, Helena
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Morling, Niels
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Mukherjee, Meeta
    Govt India, India .
    Munier, Patrick
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    Nagaraju, Javaregowda
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Neuhuber, Franz
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Nie, Shengjie
    Kunming Medical University, Peoples R China .
    Nilasitsataporn, Premlaphat
    Royal Thai Police, Thailand .
    Nishi, Takeki
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    H. Oh, Hye
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    Olofsson, Jill
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Onofri, Valerio
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    U. Palo, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Pamjav, Horolma
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Parson, Walther
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria Penn State University, PA 16802 USA .
    Petlach, Michal
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Phillips, Christopher
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Ploski, Rafal
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    P. R. Prasad, Samayamantri
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Primorac, Dragan
    Penn State University, PA 16802 USA University of New Haven, CT USA University of Split, Croatia University of Osijek, Croatia .
    A. Purnomo, Gludhug
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Purps, Josephine
    Charite, Germany .
    Rangel-Villalobos, Hector
    University of Guadalajara CUCienega UdeG, Mexico .
    Rebala, Krzysztof
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba
    Mahidol University, Thailand .
    Rey Gonzalez, Danel
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Robino, Carlo
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Roewer, Lutz
    Charite, Germany .
    Rosa, Alexandra
    University of Madeira, Portugal University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Sajantila, Antti
    University of Helsinki, Finland University of N Texas, TX USA .
    Sala, Andrea
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    M. Salvador, Jazelyn
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Sanz, Paula
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Schmitt, Cornelia
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    K. Sharma, Anil
    Govt India, India .
    A. Silva, Dayse
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Shin, Kyoung-Jin
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Sijen, Titia
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Sirker, Miriam
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    Sivakova, Daniela
    Comenius University, Slovakia .
    Skaro, Vedrana
    Genos Ltd, Croatia .
    Solano-Matamoros, Carlos
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica .
    Souto, Luis
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Stenzl, Vlastimil
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Sudoyo, Herawati
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Syndercombe-Court, Denise
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Tagliabracci, Adriano
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    Taylor, Duncan
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia Flinders University of S Australia, Australia .
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden .
    S. Tsybovsky, Iosif
    State Comm Forens Expertises, Byelarus .
    Tyler-Smith, Chris
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    J. van der Gaag, Kristiaan
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Vanek, Daniel
    Forens DNA Serv, Czech Republic Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic .
    Volgyi, Antonia
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Ward, Denise
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia .
    Willemse, Patricia
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    P. H. Yap, Eric
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Y. Y. Yong, Rita
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Zupanic Pajnic, Irena
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Kayser, Manfred
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats2014Ingår i: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 1021-1032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.

  • 25.
    Barr, Gordon A
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA / Department of Developmental Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA.
    Moriceau, Stephanie
    Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA / Emotional Brain Institute, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, USA / Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Shionoya, Kiseko
    Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.
    Muzny, Kyle
    Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.
    Gao, Puhong
    Department of Developmental Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA.
    Wang, Shaoning
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA / Department of Developmental Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA.
    Sullivan, Regina M
    Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA / Emotional Brain Institute, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, USA / Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Transitions in infant learning are modulated by dopamine in the amygdala2009Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 12, s. 1367-1369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral transitions characterize development. Young infant rats paradoxically prefer odors that are paired with shock, but older pups learn aversions. This transition is amygdala and corticosterone dependent. Using microarrays and microdialysis, we found downregulated dopaminergic presynaptic function in the amygdala with preference learning. Corticosterone-injected 8-d-old pups and untreated 12-d-old pups learned aversions and had dopaminergic upregulation in the amygdala. Dopamine injection into the amygdala changed preferences to aversions, whereas dopamine antagonism reinstated preference learning.

  • 26.
    Barton, Jason J. S.
    et al.
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Hanif, Hashim M.
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Eklinder Bjornstrom, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hills, Charlotte
    University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada University of British Columbia, Canada .
    The word-length effect in reading: A review2014Ingår i: Cognitive Neuropsychology, ISSN 0264-3294, E-ISSN 1464-0627, Vol. 31, nr 5-6, s. 378-412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that visual processing of a word correlates with the number of its letters has an extensive history. In healthy subjects, a variety of methods, including perceptual thresholds, naming and lexical decision times, and ocular motor parameters, show modest effects that interact with high-order effects like frequency. Whether this indicates serial processing of letters under some conditions or indexes low-level visual factors related to word length is unclear. Word-length effects are larger in pure alexia, where they probably reflect a serial letter-by-letter strategy, due to failure of lexical whole-word processing and variable dysfunction in letter encoding. In pure alexia, the word-length effect is systematically related to mean naming latency, with the word-length effect becoming proportionally greater as naming latency becomes more delayed in severe cases. Other conditions may also generate enhanced word-length effects. This occurs in right hemianopia: Computer simulations suggest a criterion of 160 ms/letter to distinguish hemianopic dyslexia from pure alexia. Normal reading development is accompanied by a decrease in word-length effects, whereas persistently elevated word-length effects are characteristic of developmental dyslexia. Little is known about word-length effects in other reading disorders. We conclude that the word-length effect captures the efficiency of the perceptual reading process in development, normal reading, and a number of reading disorders, even if its mechanistic implications are not always clear.

  • 27.
    Beck, Olof
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    First evaluation of the possibility of testing for drugged driving using exhaled breath sampling2019Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 238-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs causes an increased risk for accidents. In combating this, sobriety tests at the roadside are common practice in most countries. Sampling of blood and urine for forensic investigation cannot be done at the roadside and poses practical problems associated with costs and time. An alternative specimen for roadside testing is therefore warranted and the aerosol particles in exhaled breath are one such alternative.Methods: The present study investigated how the exhaled breath sample compared with the routine legal investigations of blood and urine collected from suspects of drugged driving at 2 locations in Sweden. Exhaled breath was collected using a simple filter collection device and analyzed with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry technique.Results: The total number of cases used for this investigation was 67. In 54 of these cases (81%) the results regarding a positive or negative drug test result agreed and in 13 they disagreed. Out of these, the report from the forensic investigation of blood/urine was negative in 21 cases. In 6 of these, analytical findings were made in exhaled breath and these cases were dominated by the detection of amphetamine. In 7 cases a positive drug test from the forensic investigation was not observed in the breath sample and these cases were dominated by detection of tetrahydrocannabinol in blood. In total, 45 samples were positive with breath testing and the number of positives with established forensic methods was 46.Conclusion: The promising results from this study provide support to exhaled breath as a viable specimen for testing of drugged driving. The rapid, easy, and convenient sampling procedure offers the possibility to collect a drug test specimen at the roadside. The analytical investigation must be done in a laboratory at present because of the need for a highly sensitive instrument, which is already in use in forensic laboratories. The analytical work is not more challenging than for blood or oral fluid and should not cause an increase in cost. However, more studies need to be done before exhaled breath drug testing can be applied routinely for drugged driving investigation.

  • 28.
    Beckman, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gesters påverkan på talflytet2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Oflyt i tal är något som förekommer hos alla talande människor och likadant är det med gester. Det är dock inte självklart hur de är relaterar till varandra. Det finns få studier inom området och ännu färre med svensktalande försökspersoner. Denna studies syfte är att se hur gester påverkar talflytet hos personer med svenska som modersmål och om det finns någon skillnad rörande detta mellan olika kontexter.

    Studien genomfördes med åtta försökspersoner i åldrarna 20–30 år som har svenska som modersmål. Alla försökspersoner fick individuellt svara på fyra frågor varav två med spatialt innehåll och två med abstrakt innehåll. Under första halvan av testningen fick försökspersonerna använda gester och resterande tid fick de sitta på sina händer för att inte kunna använda gester.

    Resultatet visade att ikoniska gester användes oftare vid spatialt innehåll och metaforiska gester användes mer frekvent vid abstrakt innehåll, vilket var en signifikant skillnad. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad noterades mellan spatialt och abstrakt innehåll vid mätning av tallängd. Detta oberoende av fri respektive begränsad användning av gester.

    De få studier som gjorts på området ger ingen tydlig bild av hur tal och gester är relaterade till varandra. Denna studie understryker komplexiteten inom området tal och gester.

  • 29.
    Benschop, Corina C G
    et al.
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Connolly, Edward
    Forensic Science Ireland.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kokshoorn, Bas
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Results of an inter and intra laboratory exercise on the assessment of complex autosomal DNA profiles.2017Ingår i: Science & justice, ISSN 1355-0306, E-ISSN 1876-4452, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 21-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of complex DNA profiles may differ between laboratories and reporting officers, which can lead to discrepancies in the final reports. In this study, we assessed the intra and inter laboratory variation in DNA mixture interpretation for three European ISO17025-accredited laboratories. To this aim, 26 reporting officers analyzed five sets of DNA profiles. Three main aspects were considered: 1) whether the mixed DNA profiles met the criteria for comparison to a reference profile, 2) the actual result of the comparison between references and DNA profiling data and 3) whether the weight of the DNA evidence could be assessed. Similarity in answers depended mostly on the complexity of the tasks. This study showed less variation within laboratories than between laboratories which could be the result of differences between internal laboratory guidelines and methods and tools available. Results show the profile types for which the three laboratories report differently, which informs indirectly on the complexity threshold the laboratories employ. Largest differences between laboratories were caused by the methods available to assess the weight of the DNA evidence. This exercise aids in training forensic scientists, refining laboratory guidelines and explaining differences between laboratories in court. Undertaking more collaborative exercises in future may stimulate dialog and consensus regarding interpretation. For training purposes, DNA profiles of the mixed stains and questioned references are made available.

  • 30.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Countertransference in Swedish psychotherapists: testing the factor structure of the Therapist Response Questionnaire2019Ingår i: RESEARCH IN PSYCHOTHERAPY-PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PROCESS AND OUTCOME, ISSN 2239-8031, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires need testing of reliability and factor structure before clinical use or research in new languages or cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ) in Sweden compared to corresponding factor analyses in USA and Italy. A national sample of psychotherapists (N=242) registered their countertransference with a single client using TRQ. The data were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test factor structures from previous studies, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The CFA did not verify the factor structure from the previous studies. The EFA extracted seven factors as the best solution: Helpless/Inadequate, Overwhelmed/Disorganized, Hostile/Angry, Parental/Protective, Disengaged, Special/Overinvolved, Sex-ualized. Analysis of convergent validity indicated that five of these could be considered equivalent to factors in the previous studies, and the remaining two were conceptually related to corresponding factors. Even though the factor structure was not confirmed by the CFA, the concordance was large, indicating a reliable self-report instrument with promising validity for measurement of complex aspects of countertransference. Common countertransference themes can inform psychotherapy supervision and education, give feedback to the therapist, and lay ground for a taxonomy for therapist reactions and feelings.

  • 31.
    Berner, Boel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effektivare vård på distans med multidisciplinära medicinska videokonferenser?2014Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 23-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användning av telemedicin förväntas möjliggöra access till expertråd oavsett var patienten eller läkaren befinner sig geografiskt. I artikeln analyseras, utifrån intervjuer med specialistläkare vid ett universitetssjukhus, hur en form av telemedicin, multidisciplinära videokonferenser mellan olika sjukhus, påverkar beslut och relationer i vården. Begrepp som ”artikuleringsarbete”, ”tyst integrering” och ”skript” används för att förstå beslutsfattandet på distans. Artikeln visar att effektivitet i vården kan tolkas på olika sätt, tar upp hur samarbete mellan specialområden uppfattas samt visar på ambivalenser vad gäller centralisering eller decentralisering av medicinsk kunskap mellan sjukhus med teknikens hjälp.

  • 32.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial2017Ingår i: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 340-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. Research Design: A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Study Sample: Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. Intervention: The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Data Collection and Analysis: Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap, insomnia, cognitive functioning, hyperacusis, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were used to investigate the effects of iCBT with audiological support. In addition, a weekly questionnaire was incorporated to monitor change in tinnitus distress while undertaking the intervention. Results: Feasibility was established using an audiologist to support this guided iCBT intervention, as a significant change postintervention was found for tinnitus severity, as measured by the TFI and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Screening version. The attrition rate was 22% and compliance was variable. Although these results were based on a small sample, they provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of delivering iCBT treatment for tinnitus symptoms with audiology support in the United Kingdom. Conclusions: An Internet-based intervention of tinnitus appears to be feasible in the United Kingdom when using audiological support. Randomized controlled trials to further investigate the effectiveness of iCBT for tinnitus in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 33.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Effectiveness of Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Face-to-Face Clinical Care for Treatment of Tinnitus A Randomized Clinical Trial2018Ingår i: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 2168-6181, E-ISSN 2168-619X, Vol. 144, nr 12, s. 1126-1133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Accessible clinical care is not always available to individuals with distressing tinnitus. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has the potential to increase access to evidence-based services that manage tinnitus. Research comparing the effectiveness of this internet-based intervention with face-to-face care is required. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention is at least as effective as established individualized face-to-face clinical care in reducing tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related difficulties. DESIGN, SETTING. AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, multicenter, 2-arm parallel group, non-inferiority trial with 2-month follow-up was performed between October 4, 2016, and July 14, 2017. Invited to participate were 374 adults based in the United Kingdom who had been referred to their local tinnitus clinics because of bothersome tinnitus. The experimental group received the internet-based intervention online, and the active control group underwent the usual face-to-face tinnitus care at 1 of 3 UK-based National Health Service hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either intervention using variable permuted block sizes of 4 and 6. Of 92 participants who were randomized (46 each in the experimental and control groups), 88 participants completed the assessment immediately after intervention and 74 participants completed the follow-up assessment. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either 8 weeks of guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy or a mean of 2 to 3 individualized face-to-face appointments in a tinnitus clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress (assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index). Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS Of 92 patients overall, 55 (60%) were men with a mean (SD) age of 52.96 (12.07) years and mean (SD) tinnitus duration of 6.54 (9.25) years. The between-group difference in the Tinnitus Functional Index scores after intervention were 5.18 (95% CI, -4.17 to 14.53) at the initial assessment and 5.52 (95% CI, -4.60 to 15.61) at follow-up; both differences were within the non-inferiority margin of 13 points for the lower 95% CI. For the secondary outcomes, only outcomes for insomnia fell outside the non-inferiority margin, both after intervention and at follow-up, favoring internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first trial, to our knowledge, to compare an internet-based intervention with standard individualized face-to-face care for tinnitus. It revealed that both interventions are equally effective for reducing tinnitus distress and most tinnitus-related difficulties.

  • 34.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts.

  • 35.
    Boiso, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dalin, Erik
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seidlitz, Heidi
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sidstedt, Maja
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trygg, Elias
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, Johannes
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    RapidHIT for the purpose of stain analyses – An interrupted implementation2017Ingår i: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, ISSN 1875-1768, E-ISSN 1875-175X, Vol. 6, nr Supplement C, s. e589-e590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid DNA instruments have in recent years been developed, enabling analysis of forensic samples with a minimum of human intervention. Initially intended for fast handling of reference samples, such as samples from suspects in booking suites, attention shifted to include crime scene samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the RapidHIT System (IntegenX) is fit for crime scene samples. The first runs gave very poor results, which was found to be due to an incorrect firmware setting leading to no or just minute amounts of amplicons being injected for electrophoresis. After solving this problem, 28 full runs (seven samples each) applying NGM SElect Express were performed comprising various amounts of blood on cotton swabs. Six of the runs failed completely, four due to cartridge leakage and in two runs the PCR mix was not injected. For 155 samples with 1–5ÎŒL blood (volumes for which complete DNA profiles are expected), 119 samples (77%) gave complete DNA profiles. Among the most serious failures were incorrect allele calling and leakage of DNA extract or PCR product. Other general issues were failure to export results, anode motor breakdown and broken capillary array. Due to the encountered problems with software, hardware and cartridges, together with the low success rate, it was decided not to continue towards implementation of the RapidHIT System in casework.

  • 36.
    Bojcic, Irma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Tiderman, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad – en intervjustudie med specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När hälso- och sjukvårdens kliniska arbete baseras på evidens medför det att vården blir mer patientsäker, mer kostnadseffektiv, behandlingsresultaten förbättras och patienternas livskvalitet ökar. Dagens sjukvård präglas dock av högt arbetstempo och hög arbetsbelastning vilket försvårar implementering av evidens. Specialistsjuksköterskor anses vara de som kan ta utökat ansvar för att utveckla den evidensbaserade omvårdnaden. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva specialistsjuksköterskors erfarenheter av implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad inom medicinsk vård. Design: Kvalitativ intervjustudie med induktiv och deskriptiv ansats genomfördes. Metod: Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med åtta specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård om implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad utifrån specialistsjuksköterskans kompetens, ansvar, omgivning och möjligheter att öka implementering. Resultatet analyserades enligt Krippendorffs innehållsanalys. Resultat: Implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad inom medicinsk vård beskrivs genom fyra kategorier: Förväntningar, Attityd och engagemang, Implementering, en process samt Säker och trygg omvårdnad. Konklusion: Specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård förväntas ha kompetens för implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad, de kan ta ansvar för att driva en implementering framåt men då behövs stöd från medarbetare och organisation. När evidensbaserad omvårdnad implementeras inom medicinsk vård kan det leda till ökad patientsäkerhet och ökad trygghet för sjuksköterskor. En förutsättning är dock att implementeringsprocessen ges tid och resurser och att den är relevant för vårdkontexten.

  • 37.
    Bolic Baric, Vedrana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Andreassen, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Öhman, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Using an interactive digital calendar with mobile phone reminders by senior people - a focus group study2019Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, artikel-id 116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundNew technologies such as mobile/smartphones have the potential to help senior people perform everyday activities. However, senior people may find it difficult using mobile/smartphones, especially the digital calendar and short text message features. Therefore, senior people might need user-friendly, flexible, and interactive digital calendars that provide them with active reminders about their everyday activities. This study focuses on community dwelling seniors experiences learning and using RemindMe, an interactive digital calendar with active reminders, as part of customizing an intervention appropriate for senior people with cognitive impairments.MethodsFour focus groups were conducted with 20 community dwelling seniors (11 men and 9 women) who all had used RemindMe for six weeks. The focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis.ResultsFor participants in this study, using a calendar was an essential part of their everyday lives, but only a few had experiences using a digital calendar. Although the participants described RemindMe as easy to use, they had a difficult time incorporating RemindMe into their daily routines. In part, these difficulties were the result of the participants needing to change their mobile/smartphone routines. Some participants felt that using an interactive digital calendar was a sign of modernity allowing them to take part in the society at large, but others felt that their inability to use the technology was due to their age, dependence, and loss of function. Participants found that receiving active reminders through short text messages followed by actively acknowledging the reminder helped them perform more everyday life activities. This feature gave them a higher sense of independence and control.ConclusionsCommunity dwelling seniors found that RemindMe was easy to learn and to use, although they also found it challenging to integrate into their everyday lives. For senior people to make the effort to develop new routines for mobile/smartphone use, a prerequisite for using a digital calendar, they need to be motivated and believe that the technology will make their lives better.

  • 38.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The Benefits of Gaze-Based Assistive Technology in Daily Activities for Children with Disabilities2017Ingår i: HARNESSING THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE LIVES, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 242, s. 1082-1088Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports research findings on how gaze-based assistive technology contributed to performance of daily activities for a group of children with severe physical impairments and without speech.

  • 39.
    Boud, David
    et al.
    Deakin University, Geelong, Australia / University of Technology, Sydney, Australia / Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kelly, Michelle
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    O’Keeffe, Dara
    Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
    Learning through observation2019Ingår i: Interprofessional Simulation in Health Care: Materiality, Embodiment, Interaction / [ed] Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Hans Rystedt, Li Felländer-Tsai & Sofia Nyström, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 115-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter has a particular focus on the observers’ role in simulation-based learning activities. Simulation-based learning is often organised so that participants rotates between active participation in the scenario and participation as observers. The research examples provided show that the conditions for learning are related to the locations where and the ways the observers are situated, and to how the instructions to the observers are formulated. Arguments are put forward that the observers’ role in simulation has unexploited potential for developing skills of noticing.

  • 40.
    Briere, John
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.
    Svedin, Carl Göran (Översättare, Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    TSCYC, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children: Manual, Svensk version2012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSCYC är ett frågeformulär som används för att mäta ett brett spektrum av akuta eller kroniska posttraumatiska symptom hos barn som har upplevt traumatiska händelser såsom övergrepp eller misshandel eller har bevittnat våld i hemmet eller i sin närmiljö. Den svenska versionen av TSCYC har översatts av docent Doris Nilsson och professor Carl-Göran Svedin som även har översatt, normerat och standardiserat den svenska versionen av traumainstrumentet TSCC för äldre barn och ungdomar.

    Den svenska standardiseringen och normeringen av TSCYC har gjorts i en grupp om 629 barn ur normalpopulation och en klinisk grupp om 59 barn i åldrarna 3–11 år. Normerna är uppdelade utifrån ålder och kön.

    TSCYC-formuläret innehåller 90 frågor och handlar om olika typer av traumasymptom som barnet kan uppvisa. Frågorna besvaras av barnets förälder eller vårdnadshavare. TSCYC ger en detaljerad utvärdering av posttraumatiska symptom på åtta kliniska skalor. En summaskala ger värdefull information om akuta och kroniska symptom samt andra vanligt förekommande symptom hos traumatiserade barn. PTSD-diagnosbladet, som ingår i svarsblanketten, kan användas som stöd i evalueringen av möjlig PTSD-diagnos.

  • 41.
    Bylund, Bengt
    et al.
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Wärngård, Olof
    Very low birth weight children at 9 years:  School performance and behaviour in relation to risk factors2000Ingår i: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 124-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the school performance and behavior of very low-birth-weight children in comparison with controls, and relate the findings to risk factors.

    Methods All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study; 81 % (n = 70) and 82% (n = 72), respectively, were re-examined at the age of 9 years regarding growth, neurological status, neurofunctional classification and academic achievement tests (Raven's matrices, mathematics, vocabulary, reading ability). The need for special education at school was assessed and four behavioral problem scores were also assessed (hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, social skills). Children with known handicaps were not re-examined.

    Results VLBW children were shorter and lighter than controls, and differed from them with regard to neurological functional classification. As a group, they produced poorer results in all academic achievement tests except vocabulary, and also in two out of four behavioral subscales (hyperactivity and fine motor skills). When the comparison was restricted to children with normal Raven scores, almost all the differences disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexic compared to NEW children.

  • 42.
    Bäck, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cider, Åsa
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mari
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kinesiophobia mediates the influences on attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease2016Ingår i: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 571-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify predictors of attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to test the hypothesis that kinesiophobia mediates the influence on attendance at CR in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients: In total, 332 patients (75 women; mean age 65 +/- 9.1 years) with a diagnosis of CAD were recruited at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Methods: The patients were tested in terms of objective measurements, self-rated psychological measurements, and level of physical activity. A path model with direct and indirect effects via kinesiophobia was used to predict participation in CR. An exploratory selection of significant predictors was made. Results: A current incidence of coronary bypass grafting (p amp;lt; 0.001) and a diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (p = 0.004) increased the probability of attendance at CR, while kinesiophobia (p = 0.001) reduced attendance. As a mediator, kinesiophobia was influenced by four predictors and the following indirect effects were found. General health and muscle endurance increased the probability of attendance at CR, while self-rated anxiety and current incidence of heart failure had the opposite effect. Conclusions: This study suggests that kinesiophobia has an influence on and a mediating role in attendance at CR. The results need to be further investigated in relation to clinical practice.

  • 43.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Persson, Elisabeth B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Annelie Inghilesi
    Qual Stat AB, Sweden.
    Fischer, Marcelo Rivano
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Chronic pain patients can be classified into four groups: Clustering-based discriminant analysis of psychometric data from 4665 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre (a SQRP study)2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikel-id e0192623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To subgroup chronic pain patients using psychometric data and regress the variables most responsible for subgroup discrimination. Design Cross-sectional, registry-based study. Setting and subjects Chronic pain patients assessed at a multidisciplinary pain centre between 2008 and 2015. Methods Data from the Swedish quality registry for pain rehabilitation (SQRP) were retrieved and analysed by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Results Four subgroups were identified. Group 1 was characterized by low "psychological strain", the best relative situation concerning pain characteristics (intensity and spreading), the lowest frequency of fibromyalgia, as well as by a slightly older age. Group 2 was characterized by high "psychological strain" and by the most negative situation with respect to pain characteristics (intensity and spreading). Group 3 was characterized by high "social distress", the longest pain durations, and a statistically higher frequency of females. The frequency of three neuropathic pain conditions was generally lower in this group. Group 4 was characterized by high psychological strain, low "social distress", and high pain intensity. Conclusions The identification of these four clusters of chronic pain patients could be useful for the development of personalized rehabilitation programs. For example, the identification of a subgroup characterized mainly by high perceived "social distress" raises the question of how to best design interventions for such patients. Differentiating between clinically important subgroups and comparing how these subgroups respond to interventions is arguably an important area for further research.

  • 44.
    Chang, You
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Logopedi, Audiologi och Otorhinolaryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    A Finite Element Model of the Human Head for Simulation of Bone-conducted Sound2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction is usually understood as the hearing sensation based on the vibrations of the skull bone and surrounding tissues. The fact that vibration of the skull bones can result in a sound percept has been known for a long time. However, it is difficult to give a general definition of BC sound. Normally, BC sound is described as the sound energy transmitted through the body (comprising the solid and fluid parts) then the outer, middle and inner ear are involved and finally produce a perception of sound.

    Even if BC sound perception has been studied for more than a century, the whole pattern of BC sound transmission is still not complete. There are limitations for experimental investigation of BC sound, such as the complexity of experimental manipulations and individual differences between subjects resulting in difficult to interpret outcomes. One way to overcome some of those issues is the use of a simulation model for BC sound. However, until now, the published models are unable to provide a holistic response of BC sound in the human. Therefore, the primary aim of this thesis is to develop a finite element model that could simulate BC sound transmission in the human. Based on cryosectional images of a female, the LiUHead was developed as a FE model of the human head with the structure and material properties of real human. Most the structures and tissues which could contribute to the BC transmission were included in the LiUHead. The simulation results of the LiUHead agreed with experimental data obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans.

    After the development and validation of the LiUHead, the model was used to investigate BC sound.  Since BC sound is transmitted in and between the tissues, the power transmission of BC sound was investigated in the LiUHead in the frequency domain. When the stimulation was applied on the surface of the skull at the mastoid position, the results of the simulations show that, as the name suggest, the skull bone dominants the BC sound transmission. The soft tissues and cartilages are as the second most important media of the BC sound while the skull interior is the least important for the BC transmission. Moreover, according to the power flux in the skull, the BC vibrations are mainly concentrated at the skull base. Other important transmission pathways are located at the occipital bone at the posterior side of the head, but the power transmitted over the face, forehead and vertex is minor. There is power interaction between the skull bone and skull interior near the stimulation position but the transmission of sound power through the brain seem to be minimal. Since the power or energy is difficult to measure in an experimental setting, this investigation gave unique knowledge about BC sound transmission in the head and the interaction between the tissues.

    As a common application for BC sound, bone-conduction devices are used to stimulate the hearing and is a method for hearing loss rehabilitation. Nowadays many different kinds of BCDs are available. However, most studies failed to compare the different types of BCDs in the same conditions as well as between several BCDs as it is not possible to compare several BCDs within the same subject due to the implantation required for several BCDs. The model gives a unique opportunity to evaluate various BCDs in the same head. Eight different BCDs, including four kinds of skin-drive BCDs, three kinds of direct-drive BCDs, and one in-the-mouth device, were applied to the LiUHead and the simulation results were evaluated. The results proved that the direct-drive BCDs and the in-the-mouth device gave similar vibration responses at the cochlea. At low frequencies, the skin-drive BCDs had similar or even better cochlear responses than the direct-drive BCDs. However, the direct-drive BCDs gave stable responses at mid-frequencies and gave higher responses than the skin-drive BCDs at high frequencies. These results are beneficial evaluating and for designing and improving current BCDs.

    The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide a computational model for BC sound that can be used for evaluation of BC sound transmission. This was accomplished by the LiUHead that gave results comparable to experimental data and enabled investigations that cannot easily be conducted in experiments.

    Delarbeten
    1. A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, nr 519429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Youngs modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Klinisk medicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112658 (URN)10.1155/2014/519429 (DOI)000344143300001 ()25243148 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-05 Skapad: 2014-12-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-04-09
    2. The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, nr 3, s. 1635-1651Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploe) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission. The experimental data were obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans. The simulations showed multiple low-frequency resonances where the first was caused by rotation of the head and the second was close in frequency to average resonances obtained in cadaver heads. At higher frequencies, the simulation results of the impedance were within one standard deviation of the average experimental data. The acceleration response at the cochlear promontory was overall lower for the simulations compared with experiments but the overall tendencies were similar. Even if the current model cannot predict results in a specific individual, it can be used for understanding the characteristic of BC sound transmission in general. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ACOUSTICAL SOC AMER AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farkostteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133011 (URN)10.1121/1.4962443 (DOI)000386932500026 ()27914383 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]; Incheon Nation University (International Cooperative) Research Grant

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-08 Skapad: 2016-12-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-20
  • 45.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ironi: Akustikens roll vid uppfattande av ironi och andra emotionella uttryck2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Har du någon gång varit med om att du inte förstår att din samtalspartner är ironisk, eller att du själv blivit missförstådd av samma anledning? Ironi är svårt att uppfatta och om hänsyn inte tas till kontexten, vad särskiljer då ironi från andra emotionella uttryck? Akustiska ledtrådar, som grundtonsfrekvens, intensitet och duration, har tidigare kartlagts för att till viss del kunna förklara skillnaderna mellan olika emotionella uttryckssätt. Ironiska och sarkastiska yttranden har i tidigare studier visats ha högre grundtonsfrekvens, intensitet samt längre duration i jämförelse med andra emotionella uttryckssätt. I detta arbete har 20 deltagare fått bedöma olika emotionella uttryckssätt för 26 ljudfiler, från ett testmaterial skapad av Peder Palmér, Institutionen för Beteendevetenskap och Lärande vid Linköpings universitet. Emotionerna som gestaltades var ironi, sarkasm, ilska, glädje och allvarlighet. Resultatet visade att var lättast att bedöma emotionen glad och att kvinnor var statistiskt signifikant bättre än män på att bedöma emotionen. Akustiska skillnader undersöktes i programmet Praat, de valda parametrarna som undersöktes grundades på tidigare studier. Lägre grundtonsfrekvens, intensitet samt längre duration karaktäriserar ironiska och sarkastiska ljudfiler utifrån vår analys. Detta korrelerar inte med flertalet tidigare studier, troligtvis beror det på att tidigare studier gjorts på andra språk än det svenska, däremot visar en tysk studie liknande resultat. Ytterligare ett akustiskt kännetecken som uppmärksammades i vår studie var att det näst sista ordet i ironiska och sarkastiska yttranden tycks vara förlängda.

  • 46.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kognitiva förmågor som förklarar utveckling av läsförståelse från första till andra klass2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokstavskunskap, ordavkodningsförmåga och fonologisk medvetenhet inklusive RAN (rapid automatized naming, benämningshastighet) har i tidigare studier visats vara prediktorer för den tidiga läsförmågan. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att kartlägga vilka kognitiva förmågor som kunde predicera utveckling av läsförståelse. Stort fokus lades på fonologisk medvetenhet i föreliggande studie. Metoder att mäta fonologisk medvetenhet utvärderas och diskuteras. Deltagarnas resultat från första klass jämfördes med deras prestation i andra klass. Det deltog 36 barn i föreliggande studie och de förmågor som undersöktes var: fonologisk medvetenhet, ordavkodning, läsförståelse och bokstavskunskap. Resultatet visade att läsförståelse i första klass predicerade läsförståelse i andra klass. Signifikanta korrelationer mellan läsförståelse och ordavkodning samt fonologisk medvetenhet konstaterades i föreliggande studie. Ordavkodning och fonologisk medvetenhet förklarade 58 % av variansen av läsförståelse i årskurs två.  Testet Fonologisk bearbetning förklarade den största delen av variansen. Vid undersökning av tester som mäter fonologisk medvetenhet framkom det att testet för RAN visade ett signifikant samband med rimtestet men inte med testet Fonologisk bearbetning. Resultatet beror troligen på att testerna mäter olika delar av fonologisk förmåga. Slutsatsen är att läsförståelse vid årskurs ett predicerar läsförståelse i årskurs två samt att fonologisk bearbetning tycks vara en stark prediktor för läsförståelse i årskurs två. 

  • 47.
    Classon, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Fallman, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. e0160742-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens.

  • 48.
    Code, Chris
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Ball, Martin
    University of Lousiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Tree, Jeremy
    University of Swansea.
    Dawe, Karen
    Bristol University.
    The effects of initiation, termination and inhibition impairments on speech rate in a case of progressive nonfluent aphasia with progressive apraxia of speech with frontotemporal degeneration2013Ingår i: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 602-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into nonfluent forms of primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech has highlighted the importance of speech rate as a diagnostic feature. We describe detailed investigation and comparison of speech rate (latencies and utterance length in single word/nonword production and speech rate in connected speech) on a range of experimental tasks in a man with progressive speech deterioration of 10 years duration from Pick's Disease. C.S. had a progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) together with progressive apraxia of speech (pAOS) with an absence of significant interlectual, phonological or semantic impairment. C.S. showed increased latencies but reduced word length compared to matched controls on single word and nonword repetition and reading, an absence of a syllabic length effect in either single word/nonword tasks or connected speech tasks. Further investigation suggested that underlying his speech production impairments were problems with speech initiation, termination and inhibition. Most impairments worsened with progression over a 12-month period. Results provide support for the view that progressive apraxia of speech presents differently to apraxia of speech following stroke and, especially at advanced stages, involves deterioration in more central and supportive cognitive processes.

  • 49.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen Åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: results of a 20-year national study2018Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 190-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The understanding of social phenomena is enhanced if individuals can be studied over longer periods. Regarding loneliness in old age, there is a general lack of longitudinal research. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between loneliness in old age and social engagement 20 years earlier, as stated by life course theory and the convoy model.

    METHOD: Data from the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002 and 2011 data collection waves) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey (1981 and 1991 data collection waves) were used. The sample included 823 individuals with an average age of 62.2 years at baseline and 82.4 years at follow-up.

    RESULTS: Each form of social engagement in old age was significantly associated with the same form of social engagement 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement were associated with loneliness in old age; as were more distant forms of social engagement, but only when they were considered solely in old age.

    CONCLUSION: Patterns of social engagement in old age were established at least 20 years earlier and close forms of social engagement are long-term predictors of loneliness, although current social engagement tended to be more influential on loneliness. The study underlines the importance of interventions targeted at close relationships that can provide social support in old age.

  • 50.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Kathleen, Pichora-Fuller
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology.
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early ageing and hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

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