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  • 1.
    Ackerley, R
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Badre, G
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Positive Effects of a Weighted Blanket on Insomnia2015In: Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders, ISSN 2379-0822, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common occurrence and can have a negative impact on physiological, psychological and social well-being. There is a need for simple, effective solutions to increase sleep quality. It has been suggested that weighted blankets and vests can provide a beneficial calming effect, especially in clinical disorders. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of a chain weighted blanket on insomnia, using objective and subjective measures. Objectively, we found that sleep bout time increased, as well as a decrease in movements of the participants, during weighted blanket use. Subjectively, the participants liked sleeping with the blanket, found it easier to settle down to sleep and had an improved sleep, where they felt more refreshed in the morning. Overall, we found that when the participants used the weighted blanket, they had a calmer night’s sleep. A weighted blanket may aid in reducing insomnia through altered tactile inputs, thus may provide an innovative, non-pharmacological approach and complementary tool to improve sleep quality.

  • 2.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1368-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbachs alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 3.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Om vikten av att bli berörd som behandlare": Metodforum - En arena för reflekterande över den vardagliga praktiken2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats är en praxisnära fenomenologisk studie genomförd på en mindre skol- och behandlingsverksamhet i Täby, som heter Svalnäs. På Svalnäs samlas personalen en gång per vecka i något de kallar metodforum. I detta forum delas och reflekteras det kring erfarenheter från den dagliga praktiken som på olika sätt berört personalen. Metodforum är ett svårfångat och komplext fenomen och därmed också svårt att beskriva. Denna uppsats är ett försök att beskriva metoden från insidan, via deltagarnas upplevelser av metoden.I uppsatsen presenteras Svalnäs och den värdegrund och kultur ur vilken metodforum uppkommit. Studien bygger i huvudsak på intervjuer med samtliga (9) behandlare i verksamheten. Frågeställningarna i uppsatsen rör deltagarnas beskrivning av metoden, deras upplevelser kring vad i metoden som är verksamt samt metodens eventuella nytta eller användbarhet. En deskriptiv fenomenologisk metod har använts och resultatet redovisas i en illustrativ beskrivning av fenomenets meningsbärande innebörder samt i en sammanfattande generell struktur. I diskussionen reflekteras det över metodforum i relation till presenterad teori och metodens generella användbarhet.

  • 6.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopeders bedömarreliabilitet vid perceptuell röstanalys av utvalda röstexempel: en början till ett referensröstmaterial2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interrater and intrarater reliability are of great importance in the selection of reference voice examples. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability of experienced speech and language pathologists’ evaluations of selected voice samples. The aim is to begin a collection of male and female reference voice examples which represent different voice quality parameters according to the Stockholm Voice Evaluation Approach (SVEA). The specific questions are: How well do speech and language pathologists agree when rating voices along different voice quality parameters? Are any of the voice quality parameters in the speech samples prominent enough to be qualified as reference voice examples? The authors selected 15 voice samples out of a database consisting of 65 voice samples. The voices were evaluated by seven experienced speech and language pathologists using the SVEA protocol. The results were statistically analyzed to study interrater reliability. In order to investigate intrarater reliability a second evaluation session was carried out in which the speech and language pathologists evaluated three voice samples randomly selected from the 15 samples used in the first evaluation session. The results showed a wide range in the raters’ evaluations, which had an impact on the correlations. However, a closer look at separate parameters indicated considerably higher similarity in the ratings. Based on these results three reference voice examples were selected. Even though high correlation values were found in several of the other twelve voice samples, the ratings in these were not high enough to qualify them as reference voice examples in this study. Nevertheless, these voices can still be used to exemplify various degrees of deviation. The conclusions are that there is a great variation regarding reliability between and within raters and also regarding how the different speech and language pathologists rate the voices. The authors also conclude that the search for clear reference voice examples is highly motivated and ought to be continued, preferably with the method used in this study. 

  • 7.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Narrativ förmåga vid afasi: analys av strategier vid gemensamt berättande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aphasia is a linguistic impairment which affects communication and may have an impact on a person’s narrative ability. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the narrative ability in aphasia by narrative interviews with people with aphasia and their partners. The interviews were scrutinised for strategies used in joint narration involving couples where one of the spouses has aphasia. The definition of strategies was methods to cope with communicative difficulties often due to aphasia. Strategies were also studied in an assessment of independent narration. The specific questions were: Which strategies do couples, consisting of one person with aphasia and their partner, use in joint narration? Which strategies does the person with aphasia use in independent narration? Are there any differences in the use of strategies in joint narration compared to independent narration? Five couples were recruited from conversational groups for people with aphasia in the south of Sweden. The couples were asked questions which were meant to encourage joint narration and the interviews were filmed. In addition to the interview, the narrative ability of the individuals with aphasia was assessed with the Swedish aphasia test A-ning. The interviews and the assessments were transcribed according to principles from conversation analysis. The result showed a variation regarding type of strategies occurring in the couples’ narrations and the frequency of these strategies. In joint narration, repetition was the strategy most commonly used by individuals with aphasia, followed by self-initiated self-repair, word search and gestures. The partners also used repetition to a high extent as well as appendor production. The conclusion of this study is that the narrative ability of the persons with aphasia in independent narration to some extent corresponded with their ability in joint narration. However, there were great differences between how the individuals with aphasia and their partners used strategies to cope with difficulties in joint narration.

  • 8.
    Azios, Jamie H.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Bellon-Harn, Monica
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Dockens, Ashley L.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia2019In: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Method: Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Result: Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Conclusion: Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  • 9.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granese, Angela
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Towards an evidence-base for /r/ therapy in English.2013In: Journal of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, ISSN 0791-5985, Vol. 20, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Müller, NicoleLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.Nelson, Ryan L.University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders.

    The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the concept of qualitative research and its application to communication disorders, and describes the main qualitative research approaches. The contributions are forward-looking rather than merely giving an overview of their topic. The second part illustrates these approaches through a series of case studies of different communication disorders using qualitative methods of research.

    This Handbook is an essential resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners, in communication disorders and related fields.

  • 11.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutter, Ben
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Kroll, Tobias
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Interactional phonetics: background and examples.2014In: Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders / [ed] Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller, and Ryan L. Nelson, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Beckman, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gesters påverkan på talflytet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Oflyt i tal är något som förekommer hos alla talande människor och likadant är det med gester. Det är dock inte självklart hur de är relaterar till varandra. Det finns få studier inom området och ännu färre med svensktalande försökspersoner. Denna studies syfte är att se hur gester påverkar talflytet hos personer med svenska som modersmål och om det finns någon skillnad rörande detta mellan olika kontexter.

    Studien genomfördes med åtta försökspersoner i åldrarna 20–30 år som har svenska som modersmål. Alla försökspersoner fick individuellt svara på fyra frågor varav två med spatialt innehåll och två med abstrakt innehåll. Under första halvan av testningen fick försökspersonerna använda gester och resterande tid fick de sitta på sina händer för att inte kunna använda gester.

    Resultatet visade att ikoniska gester användes oftare vid spatialt innehåll och metaforiska gester användes mer frekvent vid abstrakt innehåll, vilket var en signifikant skillnad. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad noterades mellan spatialt och abstrakt innehåll vid mätning av tallängd. Detta oberoende av fri respektive begränsad användning av gester.

    De få studier som gjorts på området ger ingen tydlig bild av hur tal och gester är relaterade till varandra. Denna studie understryker komplexiteten inom området tal och gester.

  • 13.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial2017In: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. Research Design: A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Study Sample: Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. Intervention: The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Data Collection and Analysis: Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap, insomnia, cognitive functioning, hyperacusis, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were used to investigate the effects of iCBT with audiological support. In addition, a weekly questionnaire was incorporated to monitor change in tinnitus distress while undertaking the intervention. Results: Feasibility was established using an audiologist to support this guided iCBT intervention, as a significant change postintervention was found for tinnitus severity, as measured by the TFI and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Screening version. The attrition rate was 22% and compliance was variable. Although these results were based on a small sample, they provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of delivering iCBT treatment for tinnitus symptoms with audiology support in the United Kingdom. Conclusions: An Internet-based intervention of tinnitus appears to be feasible in the United Kingdom when using audiological support. Randomized controlled trials to further investigate the effectiveness of iCBT for tinnitus in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 14.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Effectiveness of Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Face-to-Face Clinical Care for Treatment of Tinnitus A Randomized Clinical Trial2018In: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 2168-6181, E-ISSN 2168-619X, Vol. 144, no 12, p. 1126-1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Accessible clinical care is not always available to individuals with distressing tinnitus. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has the potential to increase access to evidence-based services that manage tinnitus. Research comparing the effectiveness of this internet-based intervention with face-to-face care is required. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention is at least as effective as established individualized face-to-face clinical care in reducing tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related difficulties. DESIGN, SETTING. AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, multicenter, 2-arm parallel group, non-inferiority trial with 2-month follow-up was performed between October 4, 2016, and July 14, 2017. Invited to participate were 374 adults based in the United Kingdom who had been referred to their local tinnitus clinics because of bothersome tinnitus. The experimental group received the internet-based intervention online, and the active control group underwent the usual face-to-face tinnitus care at 1 of 3 UK-based National Health Service hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either intervention using variable permuted block sizes of 4 and 6. Of 92 participants who were randomized (46 each in the experimental and control groups), 88 participants completed the assessment immediately after intervention and 74 participants completed the follow-up assessment. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either 8 weeks of guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy or a mean of 2 to 3 individualized face-to-face appointments in a tinnitus clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress (assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index). Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS Of 92 patients overall, 55 (60%) were men with a mean (SD) age of 52.96 (12.07) years and mean (SD) tinnitus duration of 6.54 (9.25) years. The between-group difference in the Tinnitus Functional Index scores after intervention were 5.18 (95% CI, -4.17 to 14.53) at the initial assessment and 5.52 (95% CI, -4.60 to 15.61) at follow-up; both differences were within the non-inferiority margin of 13 points for the lower 95% CI. For the secondary outcomes, only outcomes for insomnia fell outside the non-inferiority margin, both after intervention and at follow-up, favoring internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first trial, to our knowledge, to compare an internet-based intervention with standard individualized face-to-face care for tinnitus. It revealed that both interventions are equally effective for reducing tinnitus distress and most tinnitus-related difficulties.

  • 15.
    Bojcic, Irma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Tiderman, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad – en intervjustudie med specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When healthcare's clinical work is based on evidence patient safety increases, healthcare becomes more cost-effective, treatment outcomes and patients' quality of life improves. Today's healthcare is characterized by high work rate and high workload, which complicates the implementation of evidence. Nurse specialists are considered to be those who can take responsibility for developing evidence-based nursing. Aim: The purpose was to describe nurse specialists’ experiences of implementing evidence based nursing in medical care. Design: Qualitative interview study with inductive and descriptive approach was performed. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Medical nurse specialists. The result was analyzed according to Krippendorffs´ content analysis. Results: Medical nurse specialists’ experiences of implementation of evidence based nursing in medical care is described by four categories: Expectations, Attitude and engagement, Implementation, a process and Safe and secure nursing. Conclusion: Medical nurse specialists are expected to have a higher competence for implementing evidence based nursing, they can take responsibility for actuating an implementation forward, but support from employees and organization is needed. When evidence based nursing is implemented, patient safety and safety for nurses in their profession increases, provided that the implementation process is given time and resources and is relevant to the healthcare context.

  • 16.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Benefits of Gaze-Based Assistive Technology in Daily Activities for Children with Disabilities2017In: HARNESSING THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE LIVES, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 242, p. 1082-1088Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports research findings on how gaze-based assistive technology contributed to performance of daily activities for a group of children with severe physical impairments and without speech.

  • 17.
    Briere, John
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.
    Svedin, Carl Göran (Translator, Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    TSCYC, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children: Manual, Svensk version2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSCYC är ett frågeformulär som används för att mäta ett brett spektrum av akuta eller kroniska posttraumatiska symptom hos barn som har upplevt traumatiska händelser såsom övergrepp eller misshandel eller har bevittnat våld i hemmet eller i sin närmiljö. Den svenska versionen av TSCYC har översatts av docent Doris Nilsson och professor Carl-Göran Svedin som även har översatt, normerat och standardiserat den svenska versionen av traumainstrumentet TSCC för äldre barn och ungdomar.

    Den svenska standardiseringen och normeringen av TSCYC har gjorts i en grupp om 629 barn ur normalpopulation och en klinisk grupp om 59 barn i åldrarna 3–11 år. Normerna är uppdelade utifrån ålder och kön.

    TSCYC-formuläret innehåller 90 frågor och handlar om olika typer av traumasymptom som barnet kan uppvisa. Frågorna besvaras av barnets förälder eller vårdnadshavare. TSCYC ger en detaljerad utvärdering av posttraumatiska symptom på åtta kliniska skalor. En summaskala ger värdefull information om akuta och kroniska symptom samt andra vanligt förekommande symptom hos traumatiserade barn. PTSD-diagnosbladet, som ingår i svarsblanketten, kan användas som stöd i evalueringen av möjlig PTSD-diagnos.

  • 18.
    Bylund, Bengt
    et al.
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Wärngård, Olof
    Very low birth weight children at 9 years:  School performance and behaviour in relation to risk factors2000In: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the school performance and behavior of very low-birth-weight children in comparison with controls, and relate the findings to risk factors.

    Methods All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study; 81 % (n = 70) and 82% (n = 72), respectively, were re-examined at the age of 9 years regarding growth, neurological status, neurofunctional classification and academic achievement tests (Raven's matrices, mathematics, vocabulary, reading ability). The need for special education at school was assessed and four behavioral problem scores were also assessed (hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, social skills). Children with known handicaps were not re-examined.

    Results VLBW children were shorter and lighter than controls, and differed from them with regard to neurological functional classification. As a group, they produced poorer results in all academic achievement tests except vocabulary, and also in two out of four behavioral subscales (hyperactivity and fine motor skills). When the comparison was restricted to children with normal Raven scores, almost all the differences disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexic compared to NEW children.

  • 19.
    Bäck, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cider, Åsa
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mari
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kinesiophobia mediates the influences on attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease2016In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 571-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify predictors of attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to test the hypothesis that kinesiophobia mediates the influence on attendance at CR in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients: In total, 332 patients (75 women; mean age 65 +/- 9.1 years) with a diagnosis of CAD were recruited at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Methods: The patients were tested in terms of objective measurements, self-rated psychological measurements, and level of physical activity. A path model with direct and indirect effects via kinesiophobia was used to predict participation in CR. An exploratory selection of significant predictors was made. Results: A current incidence of coronary bypass grafting (p amp;lt; 0.001) and a diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (p = 0.004) increased the probability of attendance at CR, while kinesiophobia (p = 0.001) reduced attendance. As a mediator, kinesiophobia was influenced by four predictors and the following indirect effects were found. General health and muscle endurance increased the probability of attendance at CR, while self-rated anxiety and current incidence of heart failure had the opposite effect. Conclusions: This study suggests that kinesiophobia has an influence on and a mediating role in attendance at CR. The results need to be further investigated in relation to clinical practice.

  • 20.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Persson, Elisabeth B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Annelie Inghilesi
    Qual Stat AB, Sweden.
    Fischer, Marcelo Rivano
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Chronic pain patients can be classified into four groups: Clustering-based discriminant analysis of psychometric data from 4665 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre (a SQRP study)2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To subgroup chronic pain patients using psychometric data and regress the variables most responsible for subgroup discrimination. Design Cross-sectional, registry-based study. Setting and subjects Chronic pain patients assessed at a multidisciplinary pain centre between 2008 and 2015. Methods Data from the Swedish quality registry for pain rehabilitation (SQRP) were retrieved and analysed by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Results Four subgroups were identified. Group 1 was characterized by low "psychological strain", the best relative situation concerning pain characteristics (intensity and spreading), the lowest frequency of fibromyalgia, as well as by a slightly older age. Group 2 was characterized by high "psychological strain" and by the most negative situation with respect to pain characteristics (intensity and spreading). Group 3 was characterized by high "social distress", the longest pain durations, and a statistically higher frequency of females. The frequency of three neuropathic pain conditions was generally lower in this group. Group 4 was characterized by high psychological strain, low "social distress", and high pain intensity. Conclusions The identification of these four clusters of chronic pain patients could be useful for the development of personalized rehabilitation programs. For example, the identification of a subgroup characterized mainly by high perceived "social distress" raises the question of how to best design interventions for such patients. Differentiating between clinically important subgroups and comparing how these subgroups respond to interventions is arguably an important area for further research.

  • 21.
    Code, Chris
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Ball, Martin
    University of Lousiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Tree, Jeremy
    University of Swansea.
    Dawe, Karen
    Bristol University.
    The effects of initiation, termination and inhibition impairments on speech rate in a case of progressive nonfluent aphasia with progressive apraxia of speech with frontotemporal degeneration2013In: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 602-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into nonfluent forms of primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech has highlighted the importance of speech rate as a diagnostic feature. We describe detailed investigation and comparison of speech rate (latencies and utterance length in single word/nonword production and speech rate in connected speech) on a range of experimental tasks in a man with progressive speech deterioration of 10 years duration from Pick's Disease. C.S. had a progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) together with progressive apraxia of speech (pAOS) with an absence of significant interlectual, phonological or semantic impairment. C.S. showed increased latencies but reduced word length compared to matched controls on single word and nonword repetition and reading, an absence of a syllabic length effect in either single word/nonword tasks or connected speech tasks. Further investigation suggested that underlying his speech production impairments were problems with speech initiation, termination and inhibition. Most impairments worsened with progression over a 12-month period. Results provide support for the view that progressive apraxia of speech presents differently to apraxia of speech following stroke and, especially at advanced stages, involves deterioration in more central and supportive cognitive processes.

  • 22.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Törnvall, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Education to Increase Skills in Research Methods among Clinicians in Health Care2017In: Journal of Health & Medical Informatics, ISSN 2157-7420, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of this study was to evaluate participants’ and managers’ experience of the design and content of an education programme. The Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework was applied to identify the steps of knowledge creation and action in the education programme.

    Methods

    Data were collected from 18 participants representing two groups: participants in the intervention and supervisors and managers. Two focus groups took place: two with participants in the intervention (4 and 3 in each) and one with eleven managers.

    Results

    All steps in the KTA framework were identified and discussed from several aspects. The importance of selecting projects that were relevant and added value in their clinics was mentioned by all participants. The participants also mentioned that after the education, they had further understanding and increased skills in how to be active and perform continuous improvement projects. The step in the KTA process regarding how to adapt knowledge to local context was not discussed explicitly by the participants or managers.

    Discussion

    Education in research methods and performing improvement projects to develop the clinic creates a more positive attitude to working with continuous improvement. The participant’s self-esteem and knowledge increased regarding how to work with improvements. It is important to have the manager’s support to perform a project. Emphasis was on knowledge inquiry and synthesis and presenting the results with or without possible solutions. The participants and managers talked about barriers and knowledge use more generally and at an organizational level. This means that the participants did not gain the last bit of nowledge needed to put the action into practice. This implies that the problem regarding lack of implementation skills in health care might remain.

  • 23.
    Domeij, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Buller ur barns perspektiv: en kartläggning av hur barn upplever ljud- och kommunikationsmiljö på förskola2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that high levels of background noise are damaging on voice, hearing andlanguage learning skills but also affects other cognitive skills. High sound pressure can lead to ahyperfunctional and faulty voice use. This can cause chronic voice disorders. The voice organs inchildren may be particularly vulnerable since they are not yet fully developed. The noise level ishigh in many preschools and therefore both children and teachers are at risk for developing voicedisorders and hearing impairment.The study consists of sound pressure level measurements and focus group interviews of 16 fiveyear-old children in two different preschools. The purpose was to find out how five-year-oldchildren experience noise and communication in preschools and relate their opinions to themeasured sound pressure levels. The study is included in a bigger Nordic project.The result showed that the children seem to have some knowledge of the effects of noise onhearing but not at all of the effects on voice. The statements reflect that they seem to have someknowledge about negative effects of noise on communication. The children also express that theyprefer lower levels of background noise rather than high. The children expressed that they hadexperiences of occasionally having difficulties to communicate in their preschool due to highbackground noise. These statements are supported by the high levels of background noisemeasured in the study. Three themes and six categories were identified from the interviews, theywere: Own Experiences (Physical, Emotional), Environmental Factors (Spatial, Noise) andStrategies (Voice, Hearing).Sound pressure levels were measured in all rooms with and without the children and teacher’sattendance. With children and teachers present noise levels were ranging from 60 to 93 dB(A).The noise levels were frequently over 70 dB(A) and the highest noise value was 93 dB(A) in the playing room when free play occurred.

  • 24.
    Draycott, T.
    et al.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    van der Nelson, H.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    Montouchet, C.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Ruff, L.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Andersson, F.
    Linköping University. Ferring Pharmaceut AS, Denmark.
    Reduction in resource use with the misoprostol vaginal insert vs the dinoprostone vaginal insert for labour induction: a model-based analysis from a United Kingdom healthcare perspective2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 49-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In view of the increasing pressure on the UKs maternity units, new methods of labour induction are required to alleviate the burden on the National Health Service, while maintaining the quality of care for women during delivery. A model was developed to evaluate the resource use associated with misoprostol vaginal inserts (MVIs) and dinoprostone vaginal inserts (DVIs) for the induction of labour at term. Methods: The one-year Markov model estimated clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 1397 pregnant women (parous and nulliparous) induced with either MVI or DVI at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. Efficacy and safety data were based on published and unpublished results from a phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Resource use was modelled using data from labour induction during antenatal admission to patient discharge from Southmead Hospital. The models sensitivity to key parameters was explored in deterministic multi-way and scenario-based analyses. Results: Over one year, the model results indicated MVI use could lead to a reduction of 10,201 h (28.9 %) in the time to vaginal delivery, and an increase of 121 % and 52 % in the proportion of women achieving vaginal delivery at 12 and 24 h, respectively, compared with DVI use. Inducing women with the MVI could lead to a 25.2 % reduction in the number of midwife shifts spent managing labour induction and 451 fewer hospital bed days. These resource utilisation reductions may equate to a potential 27.4 % increase in birthing capacity at Southmead Hospital, when using the MVI instead of the DVI. Conclusions: Resource use, in addition to clinical considerations, should be considered when making decisions about labour induction methods. Our model analysis suggests the MVI is an effective method for labour induction, and could lead to a considerable reduction in resource use compared with the DVI, thereby alleviating the increasing burden of labour induction in UK hospitals.

  • 25.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dastmalchi, Maryam
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Experiencing virtual patients in clinical learning: a phenomenological study2011In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students experience as a point of departure. Thirty-one students used VPs as a mandatory part of an early clinical rotation in rheumatology. Using the qualitative approach of phenomenology, we interviewed these students and then analysed data regarding their experiences of VPs as a learning activity. The result shows that students perceived VP activities in relation to actual patients, the clinical context and other learning activities. The VPs represented typical clinical cases which encouraged clinical reasoning and allowed for decision making. The students experienced the activities as integrating biomedical knowledge and clinical experience, providing structure that prepared for the unstructured clinical environment and patient encounters under unstressful conditions. However, the VPs were experienced as lacking the emotional interactivity and complexity of actual patients. Theoretical frameworks of clinical reasoning and experiential learning are suggested as foundations for further educational integration of VPs in the clinical environment. VP activities during clinical rotations provide experiences of clinical reality and allow students to solve problems actively. These features are dependent on VP technology but are also contingent on the surrounding environment.

  • 26.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kommunikation vid demenssjukdom: En studie av samtalsstrategier och positionering i samtal mellan personer med demenssjukdom och vårdpersonal.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia may cause impairment of linguistic abilities, affecting both production and comprehension, which in turn affects communication (Mahendra & Hopper, 2012: Perkins, Whithworth & Lesser, 1998). The aim of the present study was to investigate and describe the communication strategies in everyday conversations between people with dementia and their interlocutors, and to describe the identified interaction phenomena based on a participatory perspective.

    The study was conducted at a home for people with dementia. Three people with known dementia and two health professionals participated in the study. Everyday interactions were filmed, and then transcribed and analyzed according conversation analytic principles. The transcribed data was also analyzed with ideas from positioning theory.

    The present study highlights the presence of trouble sources in communication between the person with dementia and carers and how these are handled by the participants in terms of strategies, competence and positioning. The study shows that all participants use communicative strategies when trouble sources occurs, but also that trouble sources in the conversation sometimes are ignored. How trouble sources are handled affects how participants acknowledge themselves and each other competence and how they position themselves and each other in the conversation. The study also demonstrates that Conversation Analysis can be an important tool to map strenghts and break downs in communication between people with dementia and key interlocutors. That knowledge could then form the basis for designing individual adaptations and strategies to facilitate communication. 

  • 27.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark..
    Predicting Speech-in-Noise Recognition from Performance on the Trail Making Test: Results from a Large-Scale Internet Study2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task.

    Design: Data were taken from a sample of 1509 listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old. Participants completed computerized versions of the TMT and an adaptive speech-in-noise recognition test. All testing was conducted via the internet.

    Results: The results indicate that better performance on both the simple and complex subtests of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. Thirty-eight percent of the participants had scores on the speech-in-noise test that indicated the presence of a hearing loss.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the TMT may be a useful tool in the assessment, and possibly the treatment, of speech-recognition difficulties. The results indicate that the relation between speech-in-noise recognition and TMT performance relates both to the capacity of the TMT to index processing speed and to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

  • 28.
    Emanuelsson Blanck, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nightingale2012In: Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Stockholm: Thales, 2012, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindquist, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bergmark, K.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation2018In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 27, no 1, article id e12736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n=29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the womens views (n=24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising.

  • 30.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bland lagar, jornalmallar och medicinska termer: En studie av barnlogopeders journalföring2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva journal utgör en stor del av logopeders administrativa arbete, och för att reglera och kvalitetssäkra journalers hantering och innehåll finns det lagar och föreskrifter som måste följas. Journalmallar utformas till viss del efter dessa lagar och föreskrifter, men varierar beroende på typ av verksamhet och journalsystem. Att effektivisera och standardisera journalföring är viktigt då journalen kan fungera som en kommunikationsväg för flera vårdgivare, samt som informationskälla för patient och anhöriga. Journalen bör därför vara enkel att följa och vara skriven med ett språk som i så stor grad som möjligt kan förstås av olika yrkesprofessioner inom vården. Att följa upp hur dessa mallar efterföljs, samt om förbättringar kan göras, är därför ett värdefullt arbete.

    Syftet med studien har varit att kartlägga hur sökorden i statusdelen används av fem yrkesverksamma barnlogopeder, och om de använde sökorden utifrån verksamhetens lokala mall. Ytterligare en aspekt författarna ansåg var av intresse att studera var språkbruk och förståelighet i journalerna, vilket gjordes i pilotform av författarna själva. Totalt analyserades 15 journaler.

    Resultatet i kartläggningen av användandet av sökord i journalernas statusdel visade bland annat att information fördes in under fel sökord i sju av de femton journalerna utifrån journalmallen. Författarna kom i studien bland annat fram till att mallen som journalen skrivs efter behöver vara väldefinierad och tydligt utformad för att minska tolkningsfriheten för att få så enhetliga, tydliga och lättförståeliga journaler som möjligt.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    En fokusgruppstudie om Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI): SFI-lärares syn på utbildningen och relaterade språkliga områden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI) ryms flera logopediskt intressanta områden. För att få en större inblick i SFI gjordes därför denna kvalitativa studie över lärares syn på undervisning inom SFI med hjälp av två fokusgruppintervjuer och grundad teori som forskningsansats. Denna studie har som huvudsyfte att spegla hur SFI-lärare ser på såväl sin egen undervisning som undervisning inom detta område i stort. Vidare frågar sig författarna hur lärare ser på de språkliga områdena: fonologi, grammatik, lexikon, pragmatik samt läs- och skrivförmåga. Uppsatsen genomsyras av tre huvudteman;

    samhälle, SFI-undervisning och individ, som uppstått under pågående studie. En fördjupad modell har dessutom gjorts över temat SFI-undervisning.. Det framkommer att SFI-undervisning är ett komplext område som både påverkar och påverkas av såväl individ som samhälle. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer att varje tema var för sig genomsyras av en central del; resurser, tid respektive individualisering. Samhället styr vilka resurser som finns att tillgå och hur SFI i stora drag organiseras. På SFI påverkar tidsaspekten till vilken grad undervisningen kan individualiseras för den enskilda eleven. Två områden som särskilt utmärker sig i intervjusamtal kring behov av resurser är uttalsvårigheter samt läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi.

    Slutligen beskrivs att det vore av intresse att utreda vilka personresurser som redan finns och vad de i nuläget arbetar med samt effekten av detta. Författarna föreslår därmed att vidare studier görs för att utröna om individualisering av undervisning kan underlättas med hjälp av ökade resurser eller samarbeten och i så fall hur dessa bör vara utformade. Vid en sådan studie skulle också frågan om logopeder är en yrkeskategori som skulle kunna komplettera eller utgöra en hjälp för SFI, kunna besvaras.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg?: En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies regarding phonological skills related to working memory in young children. There is also a lack of tests of working memory for children in the younger ages. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the relationship between visual working memory, phonological working memory and the ability to manage phonological representations, in three-year-olds. This was done by collecting comparison data of threeyear- old children’s results on the newly developed tablet-test ”KUBEN” (Cognitive development in young children), which measures the abilities visual and phonological working memory and phonological discrimination. In addition test for phonological production, also tested with tablet, and nonword repetition were used. A total of 91 Swedish three-year-old children with typical development participated in the study.

    For especially visual working memory, there was a lack of material with which to compare, but the result showed that children performed as expected regarding all tested abilities. The abilities improved with increasing age. On the contrary, neither gender nor experience of using tablets, affected the results of the children’s performance. The result of this study further describes relations between the tested abilities. There were correlations between all the abilities in this study that measures phonological representations (phonological discrimination, nonword repetition and phonological production). However, these phonological abilities did not correlate with the test of phonological working memory, which is a less expected finding. A possible explanation may be that it is difficult to test phonological working memory separately in children as young as three years old. Neither was there a correlation between tests of phonological and visual working memory, which indicates that two different abilities of working memory were tested. This confirms the faction within research arguing that visual and phonological working memory are separated abilities, already in young children.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Wikstrom, Lotta
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden; Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Association of pain ratings with the prediction of early physical recovery after general and orthopaedic surgery-A quantitative study with repeated measures2017In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 2664-2675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare different levels of self-rated pain and determine if they predict anticipated early physical recovery in patients undergoing general and orthopaedic surgery. Background: Previous research has indicated that average self-rated pain reflects patients ability to recover the same day. However, there is a knowledge gap about the feasibility of using average pain ratings to predict patients physical recovery for the next day. Design: Descriptive, quantitative repeated measures. Methods: General and orthopaedic inpatients (n = 479) completed a questionnaire (October 2012-January 2015) about pain and recovery. Average pain intensity at rest and during activity was based on the Numeric Rating Scale and divided into three levels (0-3, 4-6, 7-10). Three out of five dimensions from the tool "Postoperative Recovery Profile" were used. Because few suffered severe pain, general and orthopaedic patients were analysed together. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis showed that average pain intensity postoperative day 1 significantly predicted the impact on recovery day 2, except nausea, gastrointestinal function and bladder function when pain at rest and also nausea, appetite changes, and bladder function when pain during activity. High pain ratings (NRS 7-10) demonstrated to be a better predictor for recovery compared with moderate ratings (NRS 4-6), day 2, as it significantly predicted more items in recovery. Conclusion: Pain intensity reflected general and orthopaedic patients physical recovery postoperative day 1 and predicted recovery for day 2. By monitoring patients pain and impact on recovery, patients need for support becomes visible which is valuable during hospital stays.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Moritz, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att förklara läsförståelse hos förstaklassare: En studie om vilka kognitiva förmågor som förklarar läsförståelse hos barn i årskurs ett2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness, decoding skills, letter knowledge and working memory capacity predict early reading skills. The aim of the present study was to examine how these different basic cognitive abilities together can explain reading comprehension in children during first year of school. Reading comprehension, decoding, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and working memory were studied in 36 children in first grade with normal hearing and had Swedish as their native language. The results show that decoding and phonological awareness together explain 62 % of the variance in reading comprehension among the participants. The conclusion from the present study is that decoding and phonological awareness predict reading comprehension during first grade.

  • 35.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bram, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University.
    Visual Acuity in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome: No Evidence for “Eagle-Eyed” Vision2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 812-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication.Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently,Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been thesubject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visualperception in ASC are not explained by this factor.Acontinued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in personswith ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 36.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Jönköping County, Rehabilitation Centre, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls2017In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

    Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.

    Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).

    Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.

  • 37.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry and Habilitation.
    The desired moral attitude of the physician: (I) Empathy2012In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired underlying attitude of physicians. In this article, one of them—empathy—is presented in an interpretation that is meant to depicture (together with the two additional concepts compassion and care) this attitude. Therefore empathy in the clinical context is defined as the adequate understanding of the inner processes of the patient concerning his health-related problems. Adequacy is scrutinized on behalf of the emotional and subjective involvement of he physician, and on the necessary dependence on medical—moral—goals. In the present interpretation, empathy alone is no guarantee of the right moral attitude, but a necessary instrumental skill in order to perceive and treat a patient as an individual person. The concepts of compassion and care that will be discussed in two forthcoming articles are necessary parts to describe the desired moral attitude of the physician more completely.

  • 38.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry and Habilitation.
    The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) Compassion2012In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 397-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude—compassion—is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient’s dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as “empathic compassion” can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of “care” that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral attitude of the physician more completely. The reconstruction of the desired professional attitude in terms of “empathic compassionate care” is certainly not the only possible description, but it is a detailed proposal in order to give an impulse for the discussion about the inner tacit values and the meaning of medicine and clinical healthcare professions.

  • 39.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry and Habilitation.
    The desired moral attitude of the physicians: (III) Care2013In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired moral attitude of physicians. In a series of three articles, three of the discussed concepts are presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In the second article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude—compassion—has been presented. Compassion as a professional attitude has been distinguished from a spontaneous feeling of compassion, and has been related to a general idea of man as vulnerable and solidary being. Thus, the dignity of the patient is safeguarded in spite of the asymmetry of compassion. In this article, the third concept of the triad—“care”—is presented. Care is conceived as an attitude as well as an activity which can be directed to different objects: if it is directed to another sentient being, it is regarded as intrinsically morally valuable; implying (1) the acceptance of being addressed, (2) a benevolent inclination to help and to foster, and (3) activity to realize this. There are different forms of benevolence that can underlie caring. With regard to the professional physician’s ethos, the attitude of empathic compassion as developed in the two previous articles is proposed to be the adequate underlying attitude of care which demands the right balance between closeness and professionalism and the right form of attention to the person of the patient. ‘Empathic compassionate care’ does not, however, describe the whole of the desired attitude of a physician, but focuses on the morally-emotive aspects. In order to get also the cognitive and practical aspects of biomedicine into the picture, ‘empathic compassionate care’ has to be combined with an attitude of responsibility that is more directed to decision-making and outcome than a caring attitude alone can be. The reconstruction of the desired professional attitude in terms of “empathic compassionate care” and “responsibility” is certainly not the only possible description, but it is a detailed proposal in order to give an impulse for the discussion about the inner tacit values and the meaning of medicine and clinical healthcare professions.

  • 40.
    Gjessing, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Torgé, Cristina Joy
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Improvement of quality and safety in health care as a new interprofessional learning module – evaluation from students2014In: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, ISSN 1178-2390, E-ISSN 1178-2390, no 7, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interprofessional teamwork is in many ways a norm in modern health care, and needs to be taught during professional education.

    Description: This study is an evaluation of a newly introduced and mandatory learning module where students from different health profession programs used Improvement of Quality and Safety as a way to develop interprofessional competence in a real-life setting. The intention of this learning module was to integrate interprofessional teamwork within the students' basic education, and to give students a basic knowledge about Improvement of Quality and Safety. This report focuses on evaluations from the participating students (n=222), mainly medical and nursing students.

    Materials and methods: To evaluate this new learning module, a questionnaire was developed and analyzed using a mixed methods design, integrating both qualitative and quantitative methods. The evaluation addressed learning concepts, learning objectives, and interprofessional and professional development.

    Results and conclusion: A majority of students responded positively to the learning module as a whole, but many were negative towards specific parts of the learning module and its implementation. Medical students and male students were less positive towards this learning module. Improvements and alterations were suggested. 

  • 41.
    Gryth, Dan
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rådestad, Monica
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nerf, Ola
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rüter, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Evaluation of medical command and control using performance indicators in a full-scale, major aircraft accident exercise.2010In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 118-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Large, functional, disaster exercises are expensive to plan and execute, and often are difficult to evaluate objectively. Command and control in disaster medicine organizations can benefit from objective results from disaster exercises to identify areas that must be improved.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to examine if it is possible to use performance indicators for documentation and evaluation of medical command and control in a full-scale major incident exercise at two levels: (1) local level (scene of the incident and hospital); and (2) strategic level of command and control. Staff procedure skills also were evaluated.

    METHODS: Trained observers were placed in each of the three command and control locations. These observers recorded and scored the performance of command and control using templates of performance indicators. The observers scored the level of performance by awarding 2, 1, or 0 points according to the template and evaluated content and timing of decisions. Results from 11 performance indicators were recorded at each template and scores greater than 11 were considered as acceptable.

    RESULTS: Prehospital command and control had the lowest score. This also was expressed by problems at the scene of the incident. The scores in management and staff skills were at the strategic level 15 and 17, respectively; and at the hospital level, 17 and 21, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to use performance indicators in a full-scale, major incident exercise for evaluation of medical command and control. The results could be used to compare similar exercises and evaluate real incidents in the future.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Högland Hospital, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hospital Jönköping, Sweden.
    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for preschool childrena Swedish validation2016In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 567-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, 80-90% of children aged 1-5 years attend preschool, and that environment is well suited to identify behaviours that may be signs of mental health problems. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-known short and structured instrument measuring child behaviours that indicate mental health problems well suited for preschool use.Aim: To investigate whether SDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying behavioural problems in children aged 1-3 years and 4-5 years in a Swedish population, as rated by preschool teachers.Methods: Preschools situated in different sized municipalities in Sweden participated. The preschool teacher rated each individual child. Concurrent validity was tested using the Child-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) and Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for age groups, 1-3 years and 4-5 years.Results: The preschool teachers considered most of the SDQ items relevant and possible to rate. For the children aged 1-3 years, the subscales Hyperactivity (Cronbach alpha=0.84, split half=0.73) and Conduct (Cronbach alpha=0.76, split half=0.80) were considered to be valid. For the age group 4-5 years, the whole original SDQ scale, 4-factor solution was used and showed reasonable validity (Cronbach alpha=0.83, split half=0.87).Conclusion: SDQ can be used in a preschool setting by preschool teachers as a valid instrument for identifying externalizing behavioural problems (hyperactivity and conduct problems) in young children.Clinical implications: SDQ could be used to identify preschool children at high-risk for mental health problems later in life.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, E.
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Litström, Emma
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Drott, Jenny
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Reliability testing of oxaliplatin-associated neurotoxicity questionnaire (OANQ), a pilot study2016In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 747-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the Swedish version of the Oxaliplatin-Associated Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (OANQ) administrated throughout a self-reported mobile phone-based system, a pilot study.

    METHODS:

    Twenty-three patients from two university hospitals and two regional hospitals who had been treated with oxaliplatin were included through purposive sampling between autumn 2013 to autumn 2014. A test-retest was performed through a mobile phone-based system, with a recall period of 1 h to determine the reliability of the questionnaire.

    RESULTS:

    Internal consistency was strong for the three domains of the scale (α > 0.840). The statistical analyses for the test-retest indicated that the OANQ was stable. Intraclass correlation (ICC) for symptom items and effect on daily activities items showed an overall excellent reproducibility at 69 and 83 %, respectively. The weighted kappa for symptom items and daily activities items showed an overall almost perfect agreement at 59 and 52 %, respectively. A paired samples t test did not reveal any significant differences between the two measures.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The OANQ was tested and considered a reliable assessment for capturing the oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) in patients receiving oxaliplatin. However, further reliability testing of the OANQ is needed.

  • 44.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Björk Olafsdottir, Linda
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Thora Egilson, Snaefridur
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Agreements and disagreements between children and their parents in health-related assessments2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 1059-1072Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To systematically review research concerning parent-child agreement in health-related assessments to reveal overall agreement, directions of agreement, and the factors that affect agreement in ratings. Method: The Uni-Search and five additional databases were searched. Childrens health issues were grouped into psychosocial issues including autism and ADHD, and physical and performance issues including pain. Measures used for comparison were those addressing (a) psychosocial functioning, (b) physical and performance functioning, and (c) health-related quality of life. Results: Totally, 39 studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 44 analyses in all since four studies contained more than one analyses. Moderate child-parent agreement was demonstrated in 23 analyses and poor agreement in 20 analyses. Several analyses found more agreement on observable/external than on non-observable/internal domains. Overall, parents considered their children had more difficulties than did the children themselves, although there were indications that for children with physical performance issues, parents may underreport their childrens difficulties in emotional functioning and pain. There were no consistencies in differences between childrens and parents ratings on levels of agreement with respect to the childrens health issue, age or gender. Conclusions: Discrepancies between child and parent reports seem to reflect their different perspectives and not merely inaccuracy or bias. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION In general, parents consider their children to have more difficulties - or more extensive difficulties than the children themselves think they have. The perspectives of the child and his or her parents should be sought whenever possible since both constitute important information concerning the childs health and well-being. Children with physical and performance issues reported more difficulties than their parents concerning the childrens emotional functioning and pain. Clinicians should prioritize obtaining childrens views on subjective aspects such as emotional issues as well as on pain.

  • 45.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kommunikativa utmaningar och strategier vid utskrivningssamtal mellan läkare och patienter med afasi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utskrivningssamtalet är den sista kontakten mellan läkare och patient innan patienten åker hem ifrån avdelningen. Syftet med den föreliggande studien är att undersöka ifall det förligger kommunikativa utmaningar i ett utskrivningssamtal mellan en läkare och en patient med afasi.  Den konkreta frågeställningen för studien var hur de potentiella problem som uppkom i samtalet hanterades och vilket utrymme som skapades för patientens deltagande i samtalet samt hur samtalsdeltagarna använde sig av icke-verbal kommunikation för att uppnå förståelse. Den valda metoden för att undersöka detta var Conversation Analysis, CA.

    I studien deltog två läkare, två patienter med afasi, samt två närstående till patienterna. Patienterna som deltog hade mild till måttlig afasi, svenska som modersmål och var 50 år och 70 år gamla. Läkarna som deltog hade varit anställda på avdelningen och arbetat med patienter med afasi i 2.5 år respektive 3.5 år och hade svenska som andraspråk.

    Resultatet av analysen var en identifiering av kommunikativa handlingar som ledde till sekvenser i samtalet som deltagarna orienterade mot som problematiska. Dessa var bland annat när läkaren inte följde upp på patientens förfrågan för mer information eller patient-initierade ämnen och inte redde ut missförstånd som uppkom. I resultatet identifierades även sekvenser där samtalsdeltagarna använde sin kommunikativa kompetens för att hantera kommunikativa utmaningar, samt sekvenser där samtalsdeltagarna använde sig av icke-verbal kommunikation för att underlätta den gemensamma förståelsen. Resultatet stämde överens med tidigare forskning om hur patienter med afasi och vårdpersonal organiserar interaktion i samtal.

  • 46.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Malin
    Specialpedagogiskt Centre, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient characteristics and intervention effect as measured by Voice Handicap Index2017In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze patients with a confirmed voice disorder in order to identify patterns regarding age, gender, and occupation compared to the general public. To explore effects of voice therapy according to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score pre- and post-therapy in relation to the number of sessions, age, and gender. Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a collaborative project between Linkoping University and hospitals in the south-east health care region in Sweden. Six voice clinics participated by asking their patients voluntarily to complete the Swedish version of the VHI at the beginning and end of therapy. Results and conclusions: The two most prevalent diagnoses were dysphonia (43%) and phonasthenia (25%). Among the working population, the three most common occupational fields were education, health care, and child-care. The majority of the patients were women (74.3%), and the mean age of all patients was 55 years. A significant improvement in VHI scores was found after therapy, with an average decrease of 19 median points in total score and a substantial effect size (0.55). The number of sessions did not significantly correlate with the mean VHI score difference but had a weak correlation to the start and end scores. Increasing age correlated with a higher median VHI score both at the start and end of therapy but did not affect the average decrease between the two measurements.

  • 47.
    Henriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Troedsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jag vet vad du tänker: Mentaliseringsförmågan hos typiskt utvecklade barn i 6-7års åldern2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of mind, or mentalization ability, is the ability to understand how another individual thinks, acts and feels. It is important to develop a mentalization ability in order to interact with other people and the surrounding social environment in a pragmatic way. There are several abilities that might play an important role in the developmental process of Theory of mind. It is still uncertain to which degree these abilities effect the mentalization ability. The purpose with this study was to investigate the mentalization ability and its relationship with other cognitive abilities in children aged 6-7 years. In this study, ten different tests were used to analyze which abilities correlated with Theory of mind. The abilities that were tested were visual- and auditory working memory, short-term memory, non-verbal intelligence and language understanding. The participating test group consisted of 25 typically developed children aged 6:0-8:0 with Swedish as mother tongue.

    The results from the tests showed that the mentalization ability correlated with nonverbal intelligence, short-term memory and language understanding. It appears that a certain level of working memory is important, but that an exceptionally good working memory will not improve the mentalization ability further. The result showed that no single ability were more important than the others for the mentalization ability.

  • 48.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University.
    Widen, Stephen
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    The impact of different background noises: Effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and selfrated disturbance in individuals with HI than low level noise.

    Purpose: To examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.

    Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise under four experimental conditions.

    Study Sample: Forty participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study .The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n =20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI and they were all frequent hearing aid users.

    Intervention: The current study was conducted by employing four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time (RT) and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within four weeks of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were employed in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between RT and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to  examine the possible correlation between the different variables.

    Results: No significant between or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrate that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e. traffic and daycare setting compared to the office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic setting compared to the office noise.

    Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in non-auditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher level of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects high level noise has on employees with HI. We therefore emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.

  • 49.
    Håkan, Hua
    et al.
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Björn, Johansson
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Radi, Jönsson
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lennart, Magnusson
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Cochlear Implant Combined with a Linear Frequency Transposing Hearing Aid2012In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 722-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with cochlear implants (CIs) are usually implanted unilaterally. To preserve binaural advantages, a noninvasive method involves maintaining the hearing aid (HA) on the contralateral ear; the choice of HA for this purpose is therefore crucial. In recent years, the use of frequency transposition has gained a renewed interest in clinical practice. This type of processing records information from the high-frequency region and conveys it to a low-frequency region where there is still some residual hearing. Purpose: To conduct an investigation and examine whether adults with unilateral CI derive benefits from a HA utilizing linear frequency transposition (LFT) on the contralateral ear. Research Design: A two-period, single-blind, repeated-measures crossover design was conducted to examine the combination of LFT in conjunction with a CI. Speech recognition tests were performed in quiet and in noise with LFT either activated or deactivated. The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to measure subjective benefit. Study Sample: The participants were nine frequent bimodal users, five males and four females, with a moderate to profound high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in the nonimplanted ear. Intervention: The current study was conducted using the Widex Mind440 power (m4-19) behind-the-ear HA. The participants acted as their own control in a total of seven conditions: (1) bimodal with own HA, (2) CI only, (3) own HA alone, (4) bimodal new HA LFT-off, (5) new HA LFT-off, (6) bimodal new HA LFT-on, and (7) new HA LFT-on. Data Collection and Analysis: Monosyllabic words in quiet and the Swedish version of Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were used as speech test materials. Stimuli were presented in sound field at a speech level of 65 dB sound pressure level (SPL) via a loudspeaker at a distance of 1 m from the participant in a sound-treated room. The SSQ was administered in each session evaluating the three bimodal conditions. SPSS software was used for statistical analyses. General linear model (GLM) analysis of variance for repeated measures was performed and followed with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc pairwise comparisons. Results: Participants performed better with CI only than with HA alone, and the bimodal conditions were superior to the CI alone. No significant differences (p > .05) were observed when comparing the LFT-on with LFT-off regardless of whether the use of CI was included in the different listening conditions in objective and subjective measurements. Conclusions: The results suggest an advantage for CI patients with a HA in the opposite ear, and that the LFT neither degraded nor enhanced speech performance in conjunction with a CI in quiet or in noise in comparison to when it was deactivated.

  • 50.
    Johannesson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Simulating the real - manual clinical skills training: Conditions and practices of learning through simulation2013In: Realising exemplary practice-based education / [ed] Joy Higgs, Rotterdam, Nederländerna: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 187-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For educators, scholars, practitioners and researchers this book offers an opportunity to explore and engage with practice-based education theories and concepts in real life teaching spaces. It is a place to see theory embodied and situated within PBE practices. It is also an opportunity to see how educators and scholars from other disciplines are applying theory to understand teaching and learning in their particular area. This volume provides an opportunity for readers to deepen their understanding of practice-based education and broaden and critically appraise their strategies for engaging

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