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  • 1.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 2.
    Ahrland, Åsa
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olausson, Inger
    Institutionen för ekonomi, avdelningen för agrarhistoria, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    The horticultural industry: a green-fingered trade in urban, modern, and global society2011In: Agriculture and forestry in Sweden since 1900: geographical and historical studies / [ed] Hans Antonsson & Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2011, p. 158-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahrland, Åsa
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala.
    Olausson, Inger
    Institutionen för ekonomi, avdelningen för agrarhistoria, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala.
    Trädgårdsnäringen: det urbana, moderna och globala samhällets gröna hantverk2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: studier av de areella näringarnas geografi och histori / [ed] Hans Antonson & Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2011, p. 151-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

    List of papers
    1. Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biopolymer hybrid electrodes for scalable electricity storage
    2016 (English)In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 174-185Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Powering the future, while maintaining a cleaner environment and a strong socioeconomic growth, is going to be one of the biggest challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century. The first step in overcoming the challenge for a sustainable future is to use energy more efficiently so that the demand for fossil fuels can be reduced drastically. The second step is a transition from the use of fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this sense, organic electrode materials are becoming increasingly attractive compared to inorganic electrode materials which have reached a plateau regarding performance and have severe drawbacks in terms of cost, safety and environmental friendliness. Using organic composites based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, and abundant, cheap and naturally occurring biopolymers rich in quinones, such as lignin, has recently emerged as an interesting alternative. These materials, which exhibit electronic and ionic conductivity, provide challenging opportunities in the development of new charge storage materials. This review presents an overview of recent developments in organic biopolymer composite electrodes as renewable electroactive materials towards sustainable, cheap and scalable energy storage devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128741 (URN)10.1039/c5mh00261c (DOI)000375296600002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30
    2. Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 24, p. 12927-12937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2015
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120069 (URN)10.1039/c5ta00788g (DOI)000356022800044 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1838-1847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable organic electrode materials for energy storage applications is an urgent task. We present a promising candidate based on the use of lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. This polymer is combined with a conducting polymer, where lignin as a polyanion can behave both as a dopant and surfactant. The synthesis of PEDOT/Lig biocomposites by both oxidative chemical and electrochemical polymerization of EDOT in the presence of lignin sulfonate is presented. The characterization of PEDOT/Lig was performed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. PEDOT doped with lignin doubles the specific capacitance (170.4 F g(-1)) compared to reference PEDOT electrodes (80.4 F g(-1)). The enhanced energy storage performance is a consequence of the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin, which give rise to faradaic reactions. Furthermore PEDOT/Lig is a highly stable biocomposite, retaining about 83% of its electroactivity after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. These results illustrate that the redox doping strategy is a facile and straightforward approach to improve the electroactive performance of PEDOT.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2016
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125323 (URN)10.1039/c5ta10096h (DOI)000368839200035 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Power Papers project from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Marie Curie network Renaissance (NA); European Research Council by Starting Grant Innovative Polymers for Energy Storage (iPes) [306250]; Basque Government

    Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
  • 5.
    Akanda, Nesar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the plasma membrane induce apoptosis2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is essential for proper development and functioning of the body systems. During development, apoptosis plays a central role to sculpt the embryo, and in adults, to maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating redundant, damaged or effete cells. Therefore, a tight regulation of this process is essential. Cell shrinkage associated efflux of K+ and Cl through plasma membrane ion channels is an early event of apoptosis. However, little is known about these fluxes. The aim of this thesis was to investigate ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons undergoing apoptosis. We studied differentiated (the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22, the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC, and rat primary hippocampal neurons) and undifferentiated (rat primary cortical neural stem cells cNSCs) cells with the patch-clamp technique. All cell types displayed a low electrical activity under control conditions. However, during apoptosis in differentiated neurons, we found an activation of a voltage-dependent anion channel. The conductance of the channel is 400 pS, the voltage dependence of the opening is bell shaped with respect to membrane voltage with a maximum open probability at 0 mV, and the Cl to cation selectivity is >5:1. These biophysical properties remind about the voltage-dependent anion channel normally found in the outer mitochondrial membrane (VDACmt). Hence, we call our apoptosis-inducing plasma membrane channel VDACpl. The molecular identity of the channel was corroborated with the specific labelling of different anti-VDAC antibodies. Block of this channel either with antibodies or with sucrose prevented apoptosis, suggesting a critical role for VDACpl in the apoptotic process. VDACpl is a NADH (-ferricyanide) reductase in control cells. We found that the enzymatic activity is altered while the VDACpl channel is activated during apoptosis. Surprisingly, in cNSCs we did not find any activation of VDACpl, no VDACpl-specific labelling, no enzymatic activity, and no prevention of apoptosis with VDACpl-blocking strategies. Instead, we found an activation of a voltage-independent 37 pS ion channel, and that the Cl channel blocker DIDS prevented apoptosis in cNSCs. Our finding that activation of VDACpl is critical for apoptosis in differentiated neurons hopefully can lead to new strategies in the treatment of several diseases related to apoptosis.

    List of papers
    1. Opening of plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) precedes caspase activation in neuronal apoptosis induced by toxic stimuli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opening of plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) precedes caspase activation in neuronal apoptosis induced by toxic stimuli
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Cell Death and Differentiation, ISSN 1350-9047, E-ISSN 1476-5403, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1134-1140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptotic cell death is an essential process in the development of the central nervous system and in the pathogenesis of its degenerative diseases. Efflux of K+ and Cl- ions leads to the shrinkage of the apoptotic cell and facilitates the activation of caspases. Here, we present electrophysiological and immunocytochemical evidences for the activation of a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the plasma membrane of neurons undergoing apoptosis. Anti-VDAC antibodies blocked the channel and inhibited the apoptotic process. In nonapoptotic cells, plasma membrane VDAC1 protein can function as a NADH (-ferricyanide) reductase. Opening of VDAC channels in apoptotic cells was associated with an increase in this activity, which was partly blocked by VDAC antibodies. Hence, it appears that there might be a dual role for this protein in the plasma membrane: (1) maintenance of redox homeostasis in normal cells and (2) promotion of anion efflux in apoptotic cells.

    Keywords
    VDAC, voltage-dependent anion channel; STS, staurosporine; PS, phosphatidylserine
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14278 (URN)10.1038/sj.cdd.4401646 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-25
    2. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the plasma membrane play a critical role in apoptosis in differentiated hippocampal neurons but not in neural stem cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in the plasma membrane play a critical role in apoptosis in differentiated hippocampal neurons but not in neural stem cells
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Cell Cycle, ISSN 1538-4101, E-ISSN 1551-4005, Vol. 7, no 20, p. 3225-3234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a large variety of cellular processes including differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. Several miRNAs display defective expression patterns in human tumors with the consequent alteration of target oncogene or tumor suppressor genes. Many of these miRNAs modulate the major proliferation pathways through direct interaction with critical regulators such as RAS, PI3K/PTEN or ABL, as well as members of the retinoblastoma pathway, Cyclin-CDK complexes or cell cycle inhibitors of the INK4 or Cip/Kip families. A complex interplay between miRNAs and MYC or E2F family members also exists to modulate cell cycle-dependent transcription during normal or tumoral proliferation. The ability of miRNAs to modulate these proliferation pathways may have relevant implications not only in physiological or developmental processes but also in tumor progression or cancer therapy.

    Keywords
    patch clamp, single-channel recordings, apoptosis, VDAC, hippocampal neurons, neural stem cells, sodium channels
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47952 (URN)10.4161/cc.7.20.6831 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2018-01-25
    3. Biophysical properties of the apoptosis-inducing plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biophysical properties of the apoptosis-inducing plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channel
    2006 (English)In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 4405-4417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ion channels in the plasma membrane play critical roles in apoptosis. In a recent study we found that a voltage-dependent anion channel in the plasma membrane (VDACpl) of neuronal hippocampal cell line (HT22) cells was activated during apoptosis and that channel block prevented apoptosis. Whether or not VDACpl is identical to the mitochondrial VDACmt has been debated. Here, we biophysically characterize the apoptosis-inducing VDACpl and compare it with other reports of VDACpls and VDACmt. Excised membrane patches of apoptotic HT22 cells were studied with the patch-clamp technique. VDACpl has a large main-conductance state (400 pS) and occasionally subconductance states of µ28 pS and 220 pS. The small subconductance state is associated with long-lived inactivated states, and the large subconductance state is associated with excision of the membrane patch and subsequent activation of the channel. The open-probability curve is bell shaped with its peak around 0mV and is blocked by 30µM Gd3+. The gating can be described by a symmetrical seven-state model with one open state and six closed or inactivated states. These channel properties are similar to those of VDACmt and other VDACpls and are discussed in relation to apoptosis.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14280 (URN)10.1529/biophysj.105.080028 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-25
    4. Sucrose reduces the current through plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACpl) mainly by reducing the open probability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sucrose reduces the current through plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACpl) mainly by reducing the open probability
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14281 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 6.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 7.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 8.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing the Contribution of Organic Agriculture: PovertyReduction and Employment Creation in Selected Value Chains2016In: Vulnerability of Agricultural Production Networks and Global Food Value Chainsdue to Natural Disasters: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, Anbumozhi Venkatachalam, Vienna: TU Wien , 2016, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture (OA) is increasingly viewed as an economic opportunity for farmers allover the world. This paper addresses the effects of OA in terms of income, vulnerability andpoverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. It is based on a literature reviewwith emphasis on two value chains: cotton and coffee, which both involve smallholders indeveloping regions, and growing organic markets, but differ in terms of value chain structuresand geographical patterns.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Engelska: Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Adjuvant and Down-Staging Treatment with Imatinib in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: GISTs are gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumours that express the type III receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. The KIT proto-oncogene encodes the receptor KIT. Most GISTs have gain-of-function mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA gene. The tyrosine kinase is therefore continuously activated leading to ligand-independent dimerization. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec®) is considered to be the first-line palliative treatment. The activated form of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is inhibited by imatinib. The aim of the study was to compare the survival of patients treated with either adjuvant or down-staging imatinib with historic controls treated with radical surgery (R0) only.

    Methods: A historic control group was chosen from a population-based series from western Sweden (population 1.6 million) that matched the adjuvant (n=23) and down-staging (n=7) groups respectively. Mutation analysis was performed in all cases with bidirectional direct sequencing. The recurrence-free survival was calculated.

    Results: There was only one recurrence (4 %) in the adjuvant group, and no recurrences in the down-staging study group, compared to 32/48 patients (67 %) in the control group. Tumour size decreased in diameter from 20 cm to 11 cm with down-staging treatment.

    Conclusion: Adjuvant imatinib improves recurrence-free survival in R0 resected patients. Down-staging treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with large tumours or metastases. The importance of mutation analysis was established.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jafet
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Land Cover Change in the Okavango River Basin: Historical changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango river flows from southern Angola, through the Kavango region of Namibia and into the Okavango Delta in Botswana. The recent peace in Angola hopefully marks the end of the intense suffering that the peoples of the river basin have endured, and the beginning of sustainable decision-making in the area. Informed decision-making however requires knowledge; and there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge regarding basin-wide land cover (LC) changes, and their causes, during the Angolan civil war in the basin. Furthermore, there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge on how expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth along the Angola-Namibia border affects the water quality of the river.

    The aim of this study was therefore to develop a remote sensing method applicable to the basin (with scant ground-truth data availability) to carry out a systematic historic study of LC changes during the Angolan civil war, to apply the method to the basin, to relate these changes to major societal trends in the region, and to analyse potential impacts of expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth on the water quality of the river along the Angola-Namibia border.

    A range of remote sensing methods to study historic LC changes in the basin were tried and evaluated against reference data collected during a field visit in Namibia in October 2005. Eventually, two methods were selected and applied to pre-processed Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite image mosaics of 1973 and 2001 respectively: 1. a combined unsupervised classification and pattern-recognition change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed binary LC class change trajectory information and, 2. an NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed continuous information on degrees of change in vegetation vigour. In addition, available documents and people initiated in the basin conditions were consulted in the pursuit of discerning major societal trends that the basin had undergone during the Angolan civil war. Finally, concentrations of nutrients (total phosphorous & total nitrogen), bacteria (faecal coliforms & faecal streptococci), conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and Secchi depth were sampled at 11 locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities and an urban area during the aforementioned field visit.

    The nature, extent and geographical distribution of LC changes in the study area during the Angolan civil war were determined. The study area (150 922 km2) was the Angolan and Namibian parts of the basin. The results indicate that the vegetation vigour is dynamic and has decreased overall in the area, perhaps connected with precipitation differences between the years. However while the vigour decreased in the northwest, it increased in the northeast, and on more local scales the pattern was often more complex. With respect to migration out of Angola into Namibia, the LC changes followed expectations of more intense use in Namibia close to the border (0-5 km), but not at some distance (10-20 km), particularly east of Rundu. With respect to urbanisation, expectations of increased human impact locally were observed in e.g. Rundu, Menongue and Cuito Cuanavale. Road deterioration was also observed with Angolan urbanisation but some infrastructures appeared less damaged by the war. Some villages (e.g. Savitangaiala de Môma) seem to have been abandoned during the war so that the vegetation could regenerate, which was expected. But other villages (e.g. Techipeio) have not undergone the same vegetation regeneration suggesting they were not abandoned. The areal extent of large-scale agriculture increased 59% (26 km2) during the war, perhaps as a consequence of population growth. But the expansion was not nearly at par with the population growth of the Kavango region (320%), suggesting that a smaller proportion of the population relied on the large-scale agriculture for their subsistence in 2001 compared with 1973.

    No significant impacts were found from the large-scale agriculture and urbanisation on the water quality during the dry season of 2005. Total phosphorous concentrations (with range: 0.067-0.095 mg l-1) did vary significantly between locations (p=0.013) but locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities were not significantly different (p=0.5444). Neither did faecal coliforms (range: 23-63 counts per 100ml) nor faecal streptococci (range: 8-33 counts per 100ml) vary significantly between locations (p=0.332 and p=0.354 respectively). Thus the impact of Rundu and the extensive livestock farming along the border were not significant at this time. The Cuito river on the other hand significantly decreased both the conductivity (range: 27.2-49.7 μS cm-1, p<0.0001) and the total dissolved solid concentration (range: 12.7-23.4 mg l-1, p<0.0001) of the mainstream of the Okavango during the dry season.

    Land cover changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality were studied in this research effort. Many of the obtained results can be used directly or with further application as a knowledge base for sustainable decision-making and management in the basin. Wisely used by institutions charged with that objective, the information can contribute to sustainable development and the ending of suffering and poverty for the benefit of the peoples of the Okavango and beyond.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Eklund, Tommy
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Analysis and Actions for Robust ElectronicsProduction at Haldex Brake Products Ltd2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis report contains information about a project carried out at Haldex Brake Products that is situated in Redditch England. The Redditch site is part of the “Commercial Vehicle Systems” division within the Haldex group. Haldex Brake Products is designing and producing electronic anti lock brake systems. The latest product is called GEN2 and the project goal was to increase productivity and achieve more stability within the production processes of this product. The goal was achieved trough implementation suggestions affecting the three categories in overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Nine of the biggest implementations are presented in this report. Some of the suggestions are already implemented and some are under progress to be implemented. These implementations will result in an increase in productivity with additionally 953 products per week. The expected results are based on calculations on an average product. The report also contains suggestions for future actions to even more increase the efficiency of the production processes at Haldex Brake Products in Redditch.

  • 12.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 13.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, p. 474-483Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 14.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Seminal Influence on the Oviduct: Mating and/or semen components induce gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory functional sperm reservoir in poultry and pigs2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome of the seminal fluid (using 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry) including cytokine content (using Luminex and/or ELISA) of healthy, sexually mature and fertile boars and cocks. As well, gene expression changes (using cDNA microarray) in the oviductal sperm reservoirs of sexually-mature females, mated or artificially infused with homologous sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma were studied. Pigs were of commercial, fertility-selected modern breeds (Landrace), while chicken belonged to the ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF, low egg laying-capacity), a selected egg-layer White Leghorn (WL) and of their Advanced Intercross Line (AIL). Ejaculates were manually collected as single sample in cocks or as the sperm-rich fraction [SRF] and the post- SRF fraction in boars to harvest seminal fluid/plasma for proteome/cytokine and infusion-studies. Oviducts were retrieved for gene-expression analyses via microarray immediately post-mortem (chicken) or at surgery (pig), 24 h after mating or genital infusion. In pigs, the protein-rich seminal plasma showed the highest amounts of cytokines [interferon-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), macrophage derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), growth-regulated oncogene (GRO/CXCL1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1/ CCL2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-3) in the larger, protein-rich and sperm-poor post-SRF, indicating its main immune signalling influence. Chicken showed also a plethora of seminal fluid proteins with serum albumin and ovotransferrin being conserved through selection/evolution. However, they showed fewer cytokines than pigs, as the anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory TGF-β2 or the pro-inflammatory CXCL10. The RJF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lacked TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, suggesting selection for increased fertility could be associated with higher expression of immune-regulating peptides/proteins. The oviductal sperm reservoir reacted in vivo to semen exposure. In chicken, mating significantly changed the expression of immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory genes in AIL. Moreover, modern fertile pigs (Landrace) and chicken (WL), albeit being taxonomically distant, shared gene functions for preservation of viable sperm in the oviduct. Mating or SP/SF-infusion were able to change the expression of comparable genes involved in pH-regulation (SLC16A2, SLC4A9, SLC13A1, SLC35F1, ATP8B3, ATP13A3) or immune-modulation (IFIT5, IFI16, MMP27, ADAMTS3, MMP3, MMP12). The results of the thesis demonstrate that both mating and components of the sperm-free seminal fluid/plasma elicit gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory female sperm reservoir of chickens and pigs, some conserved over domestication and fertility-selection.

    List of papers
    1. The Seminal Plasma of the Boar is Rich in Cytokines, with Significant Individual and Intra-Ejaculate Variation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Seminal Plasma of the Boar is Rich in Cytokines, with Significant Individual and Intra-Ejaculate Variation
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    2015 (English)In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 523-532Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Problem The boar, as human, sequentially ejaculates sperm-rich and sperm-poor fractions. Seminal plasma (SP) spermadhesins (PSP-I/PSP-II) induce a primary endometrial inflammatory response in female sows, similar to that elicited by semen deposition in other species, including human. However, the SP is also known to mitigate such response, making it transient to allow for embryo entry to a cleansed endometrium. Although cytokine involvement has been claimed, the exploration of cytokines in different SP fractions is scarce. This study determines Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th3 cytokine profiles in specific ejaculate SP fractions from boars of proven fertility. Methods SP samples from the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) and the sperm-poor post-SRF fraction (post-SRF) of manually collected ejaculates from eight boars (four ejaculates per boar) were analysed by commercial multiplex bead assay kits (Milliplex MAP, Millipore, USA) for interferon-gamma, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, macrophage-derived chemokine, growth-regulated oncogene, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1, interleukins (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1-beta 3. Results Cytokine concentrations differed between the ejaculate fractions among boars, being highest in the post-SRF. Conclusion Boar SP is rich in Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th3 cytokines, with lowest concentrations in the sperm-peak-containing fraction, indicating its main immune influence might reside in the larger, protein-rich sperm-poor post-SRF.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015
    Keywords
    Ejaculate fractions; immunomodulatory molecules; pig; seminal plasma peptides
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124497 (URN)10.1111/aji.12432 (DOI)000367669300006 ()26412440 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|MINECO Madrid (Spain) [AGL2012-39903]; FEDER funds (EU); Formas (Stockholm, Sweden); MECD (Madrid, Spain); Seneca Foundation (Murcia, Spain)

    Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30
    2. Selection for higher fertility reflects in the seminal fluid proteome of modern domestic chicken
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection for higher fertility reflects in the seminal fluid proteome of modern domestic chicken
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    2017 (English)In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, ISSN 1744-117X, E-ISSN 1878-0407, Vol. 21, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The high egg-laying capacity of the modern domestic chicken (i.e. White Leghorn, WL) has arisen from the low egg-laying ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF) via continuous trait selection and breeding. To investigate whether this long-term selection impacted the seminal fluid (SF)-proteome, 2DE electrophoresis-based proteomic analyses and immunoassays were conducted to map SF-proteins/cytokines in RJF, WL and a 9th generation Advanced Intercross Line (AIL) of RJF/WL-L13, including individual SF (n = 4, from each RJF, WL and AIL groups) and pools of the SF from 15 males of each group, analyzed by 2DE to determine their degree of intra-group (AIL, WL, and RJF) variability using Principal Component Analysis (PCA); respectively an inter-breed comparative analysis of intergroup fold change of specific SF protein spots intensity between breeds. The PCA clearly highlighted a clear intra-group similarity among individual roosters as well as a clear inter-group variability (e.g. between RJF, WL and AIL) validating the use of pools to minimize confounding individual variation. Protein expression varied considerably for processes related to sperm motility, nutrition, transport and survival in the female, including signaling towards immunomodulation. The major conserved SF-proteins were serum albumin and ovotransferrin. Aspartate aminotransferase, annexin A5, arginosuccinate synthase, glutathione S-transferase 2 and l-lactate dehydrogenase-A were RJF-specific. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase appeared specific to the WL-SF while angiotensin-converting enzyme, γ-enolase, coagulation factor IX, fibrinogen α-chain, hemoglobin subunit α-D, lysozyme C, phosphoglycerate kinase, Src-substrate protein p85, tubulins and thioredoxin were AIL-specific. The RJF-SF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lower amounts of the anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, which had low levels- or lacked pro-inflammatory CXCL10 compared to RJF. The seminal fluid proteome differs between ancestor and modern chicken, with a clear enrichment of proteins and peptides related to immune-modulation for sperm survival in the female and fertility.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Rooster seminal fluid proteome, Cytokines, Egg-laying capacity, Red Junglefowl, White Leghorn, Advanced intercross line, Chicken
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Genetics and Breeding
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132624 (URN)10.1016/j.cbd.2016.10.006 (DOI)000395224100004 ()27852008 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Research Council FORMAS, Stockholm, Sweden [221-2011-512]; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Madrid, Spain) [BFU2013-42833-P]

    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Mating induces the expression of immune- and pH-regulatory genes in the utero-vaginal junction containing mucosal sperm-storage tubuli of hens
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mating induces the expression of immune- and pH-regulatory genes in the utero-vaginal junction containing mucosal sperm-storage tubuli of hens
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Reproduction, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 473-483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The female chicken, as with other species with internal fertilization, can tolerate the presence of spermatozoa within specialized sperm-storage tubuli (SST) located in the mucosa of the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) for days or weeks, without eliciting an immune response. To determine if the oviduct alters its gene expression in response to sperm entry, segments from the oviduct (UVJ, uterus, isthmus, magnum and infundibulum) of mated and unmated (control) hens, derived from an advanced inter-cross line between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn, were explored 24 h after mating using cDNA microarray analysis. Mating shifted the expression of fifteen genes in the UVJ (53.33% immune-modulatory and 20.00% pH-regulatory) and seven genes in the uterus, none of the genes in the latter segment overlapping the former (with the differentially expressed genes themselves being less related to immune-modulatory function). The other oviductal segments did not show any significant changes. These findings suggest sperm deposition causes a shift in expression in the UVJ (containing mucosal SST) and the uterus for genes involved in immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory functions, both relevant for sperm survival in the hen's oviduct.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bioscientifica, 2015
    National Category
    Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122573 (URN)10.1530/REP-15-0253 (DOI)000365344400004 ()26370241 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Research Council FORMAS, Stockholm [221-2011-512]; FORMAS [221-2012-667]; VR [621-2011-4802]

    Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-02-20
  • 15.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sanz, Libia
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Pla, Davinia
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calvete, Juan J.
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Selection for higher fertility reflects in the seminal fluid proteome of modern domestic chicken2017In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, ISSN 1744-117X, E-ISSN 1878-0407, Vol. 21, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high egg-laying capacity of the modern domestic chicken (i.e. White Leghorn, WL) has arisen from the low egg-laying ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF) via continuous trait selection and breeding. To investigate whether this long-term selection impacted the seminal fluid (SF)-proteome, 2DE electrophoresis-based proteomic analyses and immunoassays were conducted to map SF-proteins/cytokines in RJF, WL and a 9th generation Advanced Intercross Line (AIL) of RJF/WL-L13, including individual SF (n = 4, from each RJF, WL and AIL groups) and pools of the SF from 15 males of each group, analyzed by 2DE to determine their degree of intra-group (AIL, WL, and RJF) variability using Principal Component Analysis (PCA); respectively an inter-breed comparative analysis of intergroup fold change of specific SF protein spots intensity between breeds. The PCA clearly highlighted a clear intra-group similarity among individual roosters as well as a clear inter-group variability (e.g. between RJF, WL and AIL) validating the use of pools to minimize confounding individual variation. Protein expression varied considerably for processes related to sperm motility, nutrition, transport and survival in the female, including signaling towards immunomodulation. The major conserved SF-proteins were serum albumin and ovotransferrin. Aspartate aminotransferase, annexin A5, arginosuccinate synthase, glutathione S-transferase 2 and l-lactate dehydrogenase-A were RJF-specific. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase appeared specific to the WL-SF while angiotensin-converting enzyme, γ-enolase, coagulation factor IX, fibrinogen α-chain, hemoglobin subunit α-D, lysozyme C, phosphoglycerate kinase, Src-substrate protein p85, tubulins and thioredoxin were AIL-specific. The RJF-SF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lower amounts of the anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, which had low levels- or lacked pro-inflammatory CXCL10 compared to RJF. The seminal fluid proteome differs between ancestor and modern chicken, with a clear enrichment of proteins and peptides related to immune-modulation for sperm survival in the female and fertility.

  • 16.
    Avall Lundqvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordström, L
    Sjövall, K
    Eneroth, P
    Evaluation of seven different tumour markers for the establishment of tumour marker panels in gynecologic malignancies.1989In: European journal of gynaecological oncology, ISSN 0392-2936, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 395-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven tumour markers, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), neopterin, C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and deoxythymidine kinase (TK) were analysed in sera from 104 women with benign and 61 women with malignant gynecologic diseases, in order to create tumour marker panels for various gynecologic malignancies, for monitoring and prediction of disease development. The incidence of elevated tumour marker levels, in cervical carcinoma was 78% when SCC, CA 125 and CEA were used. In ovarian carcinoma one of the markers CA 125, TPA and CEA was elevated in 91% and for endometrial carcinoma the best combination of markers was SCC, CA 125 and CEA (57%). No individual marker was superior to the above combinations. However, in patients with a fatal outcome of their malignant gynecologic disease (mean survival time from serum sampling was 16 months), the incidence of death was highest among those who had TPA elevated (91%) followed by neopterin (86%) and CRP (76%). Although intercurrent diseases affected tumour marker levels the markers picked up a majority of patients with a poor prognosis. This demonstrates the importance of interpreting tumour marker results against a background of detailed clinical information.

  • 17.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 18.
    Barazande, Saina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Om att berätta något: en undersökning av skapandeprocessen med berättelsen och jaget som utgångspunkt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is a search for a creative process that suits me. I gaze outwards to find new ways to do and provide more opportunities for me in my making and ultimately get closer to my own way of creating. Through interviews with active creative performers in various media, such as designers, a cartoonist, a musician and a poet I search for possible new methods and processes. Like the people I interview, I want to share stories, through my making, from my self and origin. I want to share stories to evoke thoughts, memories and reflection.

    My starting point is the methodology that Carl Malmsten Furniture Studies advocates. Through the interviews my process and methodology has evolved and I have explored new paths for my creativity. This has also resulted in two physical objects, a book of poetry and a storage. These two unitedly speaks my thoughts on the innermost room, which we all have within us.

  • 19.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ceron, Jose J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Measurement of Activity and Concentration of Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in Seminal Plasma and Identification of PON-2 in the Sperm of Boar Ejaculates2015In: Molecular Reproduction and Development, ISSN 1040-452X, E-ISSN 1098-2795, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400 IU/ml, which represent individual variance. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration and enzymatic activity were negatively correlated (r=-0.763; Pless than0.01). The activity of seminal-plasma PON-1 negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (r=-0.726, Pless than0.05), but positively correlated with sperm concentration (r=0.654, Pless than0.05). Total seminal-plasma cholesterol concentration positively correlated with PON-1 activity (r=0.773; Pless than0.01), but negatively correlated with PON-1 concentration (r=-0.709; Pless than0.05). The presence of intracellular PON-2 was determined via immunocytochemistry in spermatozoa derived from artificial insemination. PON-2 localised to the post-acrosomal area of the sperm head and principal piece of the tail in membrane-intact spermatozoa. In summary, PON is present in boar semen, with PON-1 at low levels in seminal plasma and PON-2 within the spermatozoa. Further studies are needed to characterise the relationship between antioxidant PONs with sperm and other seminal-plasma parameters. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 58-65, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 20.
    Bednarska, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: in search of links2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic visceral pain disorder with female predominance, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits in the absence of an identifiable organic cause. This prevalent and debilitating disease, which accounts for a substantial economic and individual burden, lacks exact diagnostic tools and effective treatment, since its pathophysiology remains uncertain. The bidirectional and multilayered brain-gut axis is a well-established disease model, however, the interactions between central and peripheral mechanisms along the brain-gut axis remain incompletely understood. One of the welldescribed triggering factors, yet accounting for only a fraction of IBS prevalence, is bacterial gastroenteritis that affects mucosal barrier function. Altered gut microbiota composition as well as disturbed intestinal mucosal barrier function and its neuroimmune regulation have been reported in IBS, however, the impact of live bacteria, neither commensal nor pathogenic, on intestinal barrier has not been studied yet. Furthermore, abnormal central processing of visceral sensations and psychological factors such as maladaptive coping have previously been suggested as centrally-mediated pathophysiological mechanisms of importance in IBS. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated an imbalance in descending pain modulatory networks and alterations in brain regions associated with interoceptive awareness and pain processing and modulation, particularly in anterior insula (aINS), although biochemical changes putatively underlying these central alterations remain poorly understood. Most importantly, however, possible associations between these documented changes on central and peripheral levels, which may as complex interactions contribute to disease onset and chronification of symptoms, are widely unknown.

    This thesis aimed to investigate the peripheral and central mechanisms in women with IBS compared to female healthy controls (HC) and to explore possible mutual associations between these mechanisms.

    In Paper I, we studied paracellular permeability and passage of live bacteria, both commensal and pathogenic through colonic biopsies mounted in Ussing chambers. We explored the regulation of the mucosal barrier function by mast cells and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as well as a correlation between mucosal permeability and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms. We observed increased paracellular permeability and the passage of commensal and pathogenic live bacteria in patients with IBS compared with HC, which was diminished by blocking the VIP receptors as well as after stabilizing mast cells in both groups. Moreover, higher paracellular permeability was associated with less somatic and psychological symptoms in patients.

    In Paper II, we aimed to determine the association between colonic mucosa paracellular permeability and structural and resting state functional brain connectivity. We demonstrated different patterns of associations between mucosa permeability and functional and structural brain connectivity in IBS patients compared to HC. Specifically, lower paracellular permeability in IBS, similar to the levels detected in HC, was associated with more severe IBS symptoms and increased functional and structural connectivity between intrinsic brain resting state network and descending pain modulation brain regions. Our findings further suggested that this association between mucosa permeability and functional brain connectivity was mainly mediated by coping strategies.

    In Paper III, we investigated putative alterations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission of aINS, as the brain’s key node of the salience network crucially involved in cognitive control, in IBS patients relative to HC and addressed possible connections with both symptoms and psychological factors. We found decreased concentrations of the excitatory neurotransmitter Glx in bilateral aINS in IBS patients compared to HC, while inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA+ levels were comparable. Further, we demonstrated hemisphere-specific associations between abdominal pain, coping and aINS excitatory neurotransmitter concentration.

    In conclusion, this thesis broadens the knowledge on peripheral and central mechanisms in IBS and presents novel findings that bring together the ends of brain-gut axis. Our results depict association between mucosal permeability, IBS symptoms and functional and structural connectivity engaging brain regions involved in emotion and pain modulation as well as underlying neurotransmitter alterations.

    List of papers
    1. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Mast Cells Regulate Increased Passage of Colonic Bacteria in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Mast Cells Regulate Increased Passage of Colonic Bacteria in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 948-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND amp; AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and symptoms of IBS develop following gastroenteritis. We aimed to study the passage of live bacteria through the colonic epithelium, and determine the role of mast cells (MCs) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in barrier regulation in IBS and healthy individuals. METHODS: Colon biopsies from 32 women with IBS and 15 age-matched healthy women (controls) were mounted in Ussing chambers; we measured numbers of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli HS and Salmonella typhimurium that passed through from the mucosal side to the serosal side of the tissue. Some biopsies were exposed to agents that block the VIP receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) or MCs. Levels of VIP and tryptase were measured in plasma and biopsy lysates. Number of MCs and MCs that express VIP or VIP receptors were quantified by immunofluorescence. Biopsies from an additional 5 patients with IBS and 4 controls were mounted in chambers and Salmonella were added; we studied passage routes through the epithelium by transmission electron microscopy and expression of tight junctions by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: In colon biopsies from patients with IBS, larger numbers of E coli HS and S typhimurium passed through the epithelium than in biopsies from controls (P amp;lt;.0005). In transmission electron microscopy analyses, bacteria were found to cross the epithelium via only the transcellular route. Bacterial passage was reduced in biopsies from patients with IBS and controls after addition of antibodies against VPACs or ketotifen, which inhibits MCs. Plasma samples from patients with IBS had higher levels of VIP than plasma samples from controls. Biopsies from patients with IBS had higher levels of tryptase, larger numbers of MCs, and a higher percentage of MCs that express VPAC1 than biopsies from controls. In biopsies from patients with IBS, addition of Salmonella significantly reduced levels of occludin; subsequent addition of ketotifen significantly reversed this effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found that colonic epithelium tissues from patients with IBS have increased translocation of commensal and pathogenic live bacteria compared with controls. The mechanisms of increased translocation include MCs and VIP.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2017
    Keywords
    Intestinal Permeability; Bacteria; Ketotifen; Inflammation
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142158 (URN)10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.051 (DOI)000411835200024 ()28711627 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Stiftelsen Halsofonden, County Council of Ostergotland; Diarrheal Disease Research Centre, Linkoping University; AFA research foundation; Bengt-Ihre fonden, County Council of Ostergotland; Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdireccion General de Investigacion Sanitaria, Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad [FI12/00254]; NIH [R01 DK048351]; [CP10/00502]; [PI13/00935]; [MV16/00028]; [CIBEREHD CB06/04/0021]

    Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2019-11-11
    2. Interactions between gut permeability and brain structure and function in health and irritable bowel syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between gut permeability and brain structure and function in health and irritable bowel syndrome
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 21, article id 101602Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Different mechanisms of sensitization of visceral afferent pathways may contribute to the chronic visceral pain reports and associated brain changes that characterize IBS. They include increased gut permeability and gut associated immune system activation, and an imbalance in descending pain inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms. In order to study the involvement of these mechanisms, correlations between gut epithelial permeability and live bacterial passage, and structural and functional brain connectivity were measured in women with moderate-to-severe IBS and healthy women. The relationships between gut permeability and functional and anatomical connectivity were significantly altered in IBS compared with the healthy women. IBS participants with lower epithelial permeability reported increased IBS symptoms, which was associated with increased functional and structural connectivity in endogenous pain facilitation regions. The findings suggest that relationships between gut permeability and the brain are significantly altered in IBS and suggest the existence of IBS subtypes based on these interactions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Irritable bowel syndrome; Gut epithelial permeability; Resting state fMRI; Brain-gut interactions; Default mode network; Coping skills
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155612 (URN)10.1016/j.nicl.2018.11.012 (DOI)000460337700015 ()30472166 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056893948 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|AFA FOrskning [AFA140417]; County Council of Ostergotland [SLS-693541, SLS-503411]; Region Ostergotland [LIO-700871, LIO-606201, LIO-536281, LIO-514271]; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG IC 81/1-1]; Bengt-Ihre Fonden

    Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Reduced excitatory neurotransmitter levels in anterior insulae are associated with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced excitatory neurotransmitter levels in anterior insulae are associated with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 160, no 9, p. 2004-2012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a visceral pain condition with psychological comorbidity. Brain imaging studies in IBS demonstratealtered function in anterior insula (aINS), a key hub for integration of interoceptive, affective, and cognitive processes. However,alterations in aINS excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission as putative biochemical underpinnings of these functional changesremain elusive. Using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we compared women with IBS and healthy women (healthycontrols [HC]) with respect to aINS glutamate 1 glutamine (Glx) and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA1) concentrations and addressedpossible associations with symptoms. Thirty-nine women with IBS and 21 HC underwent quantitative magnetic resonancespectroscopy of bilateral aINS to assess Glx and GABA1 concentrations. Questionnaire data from all participants and prospectivesymptom-diary data from patients were obtained for regression analyses of neurotransmitter concentrations with IBS-related andpsychological parameters. Concentrations of Glx were lower in IBS compared with HC (left aINS P , 0.05, right aINS P , 0.001),whereas no group differences were detected for GABA1concentrations. Lower right-lateralized Glx concentrations in patients weresubstantially predicted by longer pain duration, while less frequent use of adaptive pain‐coping predicted lower Glx in left aINS. Ourfindings provide first evidence for reduced excitatory but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmitter levels in aINS in IBS. The results alsoindicate a functional lateralization of aINS with a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in perception of abdominal pain and ofthe left aINS in cognitive pain regulation. Our findings suggest that glutaminergic deficiency may play a role in pain processing in IBS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019
    Keywords
    Irritable bowel syndrome, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Insula, Visceral pain, Coping
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160012 (URN)10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001589 (DOI)31045748 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Bergqvist, AS
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Yokoo, M
    Tohoku University , Japan; .
    Bage, R
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Sato, E
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Detection of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 in the bovine oviductal epithelium2005In: Journal of reproduction and development, ISSN 0916-8818, E-ISSN 1348-4400, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan is involved in fundamental reproductive events such as sperm storage in the female reproductive tract, fertilization, and early embryo development, these functions are presumably mediated by its major cell surface receptor, CD44. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence and localization of CD44 in the bovine oviductal epithelium, using immunohistochemical and Western blot methods on tissue sections and epithelial cell extracts collected from the uterotubal junction (UTJ), isthmus, and ampulla of animals in the oestrus or luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. While positive immunolabelling for CD44 was found on the ad-luminal surface and supra-nuclear region of epithelial cells in all tubal segments investigated, in the UTJ, there were epithelial cells in which the entire cytoplasm positively stained. We found no differences in terms of CD44-positive staining between the different stages of the oestrous cycle. Presence of CD44 was detected by Western blotting in the tubal epithelium as a single band at 200 kDa. Although it appeared in all tubal segments, the expression of CD44 protein was more accentuated in the sperm reservoir (UTJ) than in the other segments. This is the first time CD44 has been detected in the epithelium of the tubal sperm reservoir in cattle, suggesting a pathway for the action of hyaluronan in this segment.

  • 22.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 23.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of value chains in volume-intensive market segments - exploiting economies of sclae, scope and integration2012In: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Forest Economics: Hyytiälä, Finland, 23–26 May 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Brolin Nord, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    En studie av skador hos stolar från renässansen 1560-tal till biedermeier 1850-tal.: Ett arbete om sambandet mellan konstruktion, material och skadebild.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the selection of six representative typical Swedish chairs from each era, I present manufacturing techniques and how the craftsmanship has affected the style of the chairs over time. My main source material is the objects themselves. I chose to analyze the constructions and what can distinguish them apart in techniques, material choices, aesthetics and design. The main part of my work has been to find out what are the most occurring damages and its causes. Most damages from renaissance to biedermeier can be linked to the mortise joint. Through interviews with experienced conservators and with my own experiences as a cabinet maker and conservator, I discuss the concept of the ultimate chair design in terms of stability. I have come to the conclusion that the most solid chair is the eight to twelve framed chairs from the Renaissance, but the chair must be adapted to the intended use.

  • 25.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden/Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU, England, UK .
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, 801 76 Ga¨vle, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the caseof Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedon vespiformis L. (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discoveredin 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sexpheromone attractant became available recently. This studydetails a national survey conducted using pheromones as asampling method for this species. Through pheromonetrapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reportedrecords for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformisis truly a rare species with a genuinely scattereddistribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyseswere conducted in order to test the relationship betweenhabitat quality and the number of individuals caught. InSweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oakhosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by theabundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. Wetherefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledgeon distribution may have led to the assumption that thisspecies is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part ofits range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar toS. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central andSouthern Europe. We conclude that pheromones canmassively enhance sampling potential for this and otherrare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-basedsurveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absencesacross a considerable part of a species national distributionrange, and thus for the first time provide a viable means ofsystematically assessing changes in distribution over timewith high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 26.
    Buseva, Teiksma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The vulnerability of Latvia’s agriculture: Farm level response to climatic and non-climatic stimuli2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture is a climate sensitive sector whether it changes moderately and slowly or radicallyand rapidly. Many studies that focus on the vulnerability of agriculture, use climate scenariosand crop models to assess the potential impacts. This study seeks to identify (1) farmers‘awareness and perceptions of climate variability and change; (2) the types of adjustments theyhave made in their farming practices in response to these changes (farm responses, adaptivestrategies); and (3) other external factors (government policies, social, technological andeconomic conditions) that have significant impact on the farming activities.The results indicate that climate change and variability already have and will have mostlynegative impacts on agriculture. Prolonged dry spells and heat in the summer, less summerrain combined with higher temperatures, more heavy rainfall, more forest or grass fires andextreme weather: drought, flood, storms have been identified as highest climatic burdens toagriculture. An advanced start of the growing season is the the only truly positive change forthe majority of farmers. Apart from that several non-climatic factors were identified assignificant, among them political: high level of bureaucracy, lack of public trust in socialinstitutions, political instability; economical: incentives, for example tax exemption orreduction, access to subsidies and funds, economic growth and development, long-lastingeconomic recession; technological and infrastructural: access to advanced technologies,infrastructure and settlement development and poor road and railroad system; and social:population migration within Europa, ageing of population and population decrease. Thesesocio-economic factors play significant roles in overcoming the risks and building adaptivecapacity. This study shows that a variety of strategies and methods have been applied toreduce the vulnerability. Most often it is a farm level managerial decision, like, adjustedtiming of farm operations, changed crop variety and types, reduced number of livestock,improved technological base or increased income by off farm jobs.Finally we can conclude that even though individual farms have capacity to reducevulnerability, one must not underestimate the role of government and industry to decrease thedamages, take advantage of opportunities or cope with consequences. Farmer decision tomake changes in farming activities is rarely based on one risk alone.

  • 27.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, F.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, V.
    Agenzia Regionale Sviluppo e Servizi in Agricoltura, Regione Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, L.
    Depto di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali, Univ of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, V.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population Dynamics and Temperature-Dependent Development of Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) to Aid Sustainable Pest Management Decisions2014In: Neotropical Entomology, ISSN 1519-566X, E-ISSN 1678-8052, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing worldwide trades progressively led to decreased impact of natural barriers on wild species movement. The exotic scale Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), recently reported on citrus in southern Italy, may represent a new threat to Mediterranean citriculture. We studied C. aonidum population dynamics under field conditions and documented its development under various temperatures. To enable describing temperature-dependent development through the use of linear and non-linear models, low temperature thresholds and thermal constants for each developmental stage were estimated. Chrysomphalus aonidum was able to perform four generations on green parts (leaves, sprouts) of citrus trees and three on fruits. In addition, an overall higher population density was observed on samples collected in the southern part of the tree canopy. Temperature had a significant effect on the developmental rate; female needed 625 degree days (DD) to complete its development, while male needed 833 DD. The low threshold temperatures, together with data from population dynamics, demonstrated that C. aonidum is able to overwinter as second instar and as an adult. The results obtained, validated by those collected in the field, revealed few differences between predicted and observed dates of first occurrence of each C. aonidum instar in citrus orchards. Data on C. aonidum phenology and the definition of the thermal parameters (lower and upper threshold temperatures, optimum temperature, and the thermal constant) by non-linear models could allow the estimation of the occurrence in the field of each life stage and would be helpful in developing effective integrated control strategies.

  • 28.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Zappala, L.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Laudani, F.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Palmeri, V.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Bees visiting flowers of Thymus longicaulis (Lamiaceae)2016In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 1182-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bee fauna foraging on Thymus longicaulis flowers. Samplings were conducted walking along a transect during the T. longicaulis blooming period (April-June). A total of 547 bee specimens, belonging to 40 different species, were recorded during the survey. Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris were the most abundant visitors that foraged on thyme. Pollen grains collected on the bodies of the bees suggest that these pollinators may play an important role in the pollination of this plant.

  • 29.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fontana, Anna
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Albanese, Giuliana R.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Acquisition and transmission of selected CTV isolates by Aphis gossypii2014In: JOURNAL OF ASIA-PACIFIC ENTOMOLOGY, ISSN 1226-8615, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 493-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a severe threat to the citrus industry. Disease symptoms and severity may vary depending on the CTV isolates. These are responsible for the decline of trees grafted on sour orange rootstock, or stem pitting on some citrus commercial cultivars regardless of rootstock. In the Calabria region (Italy), CTV was first reported on cultivars imported from other countries. However, recent observations suggested that natural spread of CTV was occurring and a study was needed to determine the epidemiological status and aphid transmission of CTV in Calabria. The role played by local A. gossypii in the spread of CIV was analyzed in the laboratory using various viral acquisition, inoculation periods with three different CTV isolates. Single aphid vectors acquired CTV after a minimum of 30 min acquisition access period (AAP) and were able to transmit the virus after a 60 min inoculation access period (IAP) to healthy plants. A minimum of four aphid vectors were needed to reach 50% transmission probability. The results suggested that the three tested strains are transmitted by A. gossypii in a semi-persistent mode. The results demonstrated that local A. gossypii population can acquire and transmit efficiently the tested virus isolates with serious implications on the virus spread. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Grande, Saverio B.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for the Control of the California Red Scale in Southern Italy2015In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 1065, p. 1149-1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), is considered one of the most important pests of citrus in the Mediterranean basin as well as in other citrus growing areas worldwide. In Southern Italy, citrus is the most widely cultivated crop and the control of the CRS relies mainly on the application of synthetic insecticides. During 2009 and 2010, selected insecticides (spirotetramat, chlorpyriphos and pyriproxyfen) were evaluated against this pest in two calabrian citrus orchards (southern Italy) under integrated pest management. Treatments were performed according to the dosage reported on the label of the commercial products. Two treatments, at 15-day interval, were performed. Control plots were sprayed with water only. Efficacy was assessed 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the first treatment and at the harvest. In both trials, spirotetramat showed the highest levels of efficacy against CRS and other citrus pests (citrus leafminer, and aphids) that were adequately controlled until the harvest.

  • 31.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zoccali, Paolo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Field efficacy of two organic acids against Varroa destructor2017In: Entomologia generalis, ISSN 0171-8177, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitization of honeybees by Varroa destructor represents a serious limiting factor for beekeeping. The past and current widespread use of synthetic acaricides, such as fluvalinate and coumaphos, results in the onset of pest resistance, therefore research efforts focused on the use of alternative solutions to control the population of this parasitic mite. In the present study, the efficacy of two formulates containing Oxalic Acid (OA) or Formic Acid (FA) was evaluated in real field conditions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the OA formulate in controlling more than 90% of V. destructor phoretic population. On the other hand, FA shown an efficacy of 60% on phoretic mites. A similar pattern was highlighted on brood and adult bees’ infestation. The OA formulate showed a proper efficacy, highlighting its potential as alternative to chemical substances in holding the increase of V. destructor during a late summer treatment.

  • 32.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population dynamics and spread of Unaspis yanonensis in Calabria, Italy2013In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Calabria (southern Italy) poses a serious threat to citrus cultivation. A regional survey was performed to record information about its distribution in local citrus orchards. Field population dynamics were also studied. The arrowhead scale, U. yanonensis, was recorded in the two main citrus cultivation areas of Calabria. In the investigated environments U. yanonensis completed two generations per year; a typical bi-modal oviposition was recorded. The arrowhead scale overwintered as second-instar males and pre-ovipositing females.

  • 33.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Serra, Demetrio
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Russo, Mariateresa
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fumigant bioactivity of five Citrus essential oils against Tribolium confusum2014In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, the huge use of pesticides caused several environmental problems, so research investigations moved to find a series of compounds with selective toxicity, of a biodegradable and environment-friendly nature, maintaining a positive action in crop and stored products protection. In this perspective, interesting results in the control of pests and fungal pathogens were obtained using essential oils, which are compounds produced by many species of plants as secondary metabolites. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the fumigant activity of five Citrus essential oils against the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val, planning a possible employment in the mill industry. The fumigant effectiveness was evaluated 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days after the start of exposure and each essential oil was analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS. Further evaluations about the toxicity of these compounds were made by partially filling the glass vials with food matrix, in order to assess the possible interference of this matter on the active compounds. The data obtained indicated that, at a low level of fumigant concentration, essential oils can effectively control stored product pests; in the presence of debris, like flour, the efficacy decreased. Plant extracts caused also increased mortality levels after the end of fumigation. The results obtained from this experimentation confirm the efficacy of essential oils in pest control and, in particular, against stored product pests.

  • 34.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Castracani, Cristina
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Mori, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Grasso, Donato A.
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Interaction between ants and the Mediterranean fruit fly: New insights for biological control2015In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 90, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, the positive role of ants as biological control agents in agro-ecosystems has gained growing interest. We investigated the predatory relationship between Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander), commonly widespread in the Mediterranean area. Additionally we investigated some bio-ethological aspects of C. capitata larvae that could be relevant timing factors for predation. Field observations highlighted that C. capitata larvae were preyed on by ants, and laboratory assays suggested that movement of medfly larvae, as well as olfactory cues, affected prey location by T. nigerrimum. Further observations on the circadian activity of C. capitata suggest that mature larvae leave the fruit to pupate in the soil mainly in the early morning, and they can bury faster in moistened soil. These ecological aspects are discussed in the context of sustainable agriculture. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora V.
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Timpanaro, Nicolina
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)2016In: Journal of Economic Entomology, ISSN 0022-0493, E-ISSN 1938-291X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 360-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC95 ranged from 295.13 to 832.44mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC50 values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38mg liter(-1), while LC95 ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  • 36.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora Valeria
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Carpinteri, Guido
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Fabroni, Simona
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Rapisarda, Paolo
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Effects of inert dusts applied alone and in combination with sweet orange essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial population2014In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 61, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of kaolin and diatomaceous earth applied alone and in combinations with sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] peel essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial populations were evaluated. Adult beetles reared on durum wheat (cv Simeto) were used to carry out the tests. Five formulations at five application rates were tested. Both insect mortality and progeny production were affected by the treatment, the application rate and the exposure time. C. sinensis essential oil showed a synergistic effect on the mortality of R. dominica, if combined with kaolin, and antagonistic effect when admixed with diatomaceous earth. Yeasts and moulds as well as total mesophilic aerobic bacteria growths were reduced by C sinensis essential oil applied alone more than the other dusts and dust-essential oil-based treatments. Kaolin admixed with C. sinensis peel essential oil might be a viable alternative to the chemical pesticides commonly used in wheat pest management. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Verdone, Maurizio
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Response of four stored products insects to a structural heat treatment in a flour mill2013In: Journal of Stored Products Research, ISSN 0022-474X, E-ISSN 1879-1212, Vol. 54, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatment is an ecologically sustainable technique that can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The objective of this trial was the evaluation of efficacy of a commercial structural heat treatment, performed by means of electric heaters in a flour mill. Maximum temperatures, time above 50 degrees C and to reach 50 degrees C were different for each floor of the treated mill. Susceptibility to elevated temperature of different life stages of Tribolium confusum, Gnatocerus cornutus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Rhyzopertha dominica are reported. The mortality at 12, 24 and 36 h after the beginning of the heat exposure was evaluated. Eggs of T. confusum were the most sensitive stage to heat treatment. For total effectiveness of the treatment, a time between 24 and 36 h was necessary. The use of electric heaters could represent a viable alternative to other methods used for pest control in the milling sector. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 393-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

  • 39.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

  • 40.
    Chung, Rosanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Gustafsson, Nelly
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Liberation of lutein from spinach: Effects of heating time, microwavereheating and liquefaction2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 277, p. 573-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lutein, abundant in dark leafy vegetables, has been associated with several health promoting effects. Still, to what extent different preparation conditions and practices affect the liberation of lutein from food is not fully understood. Here, we compared a range of domestic methods under realistic conditions to prepare spinach, the most common lutein-rich vegetable. After preparations, samples were processed by in vitro digestion and lutein was quantified by HPLC. Data indicate that short-term and medium-term heating of spinach, independent of heating method, substantially reduced liberated lutein and reduction was most pronounced after long boiling times. Interestingly, the loss of lutein in heated samples was partly compensated when samples were reheated in the microwave. However, the highest yield of liberated lutein was obtained from liquefied spinach. Additional dairy enhanced the liquefaction effect. Thus, for optimal liberation of lutein, liquefaction of raw spinach appears to be the method of choice.

  • 41.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Functions of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in a Large Community Sample of Adolescents2015In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 302-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  • 42.
    de Toro, Alfredo
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swed.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nkurunziza, Libère
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swed.
    Effects of extreme weather on yield of major arable crops in Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield data for a series of years on the main crops grown in Sweden were collected and summarised in order to identify years with extremely low yield, determine their frequency and risk level and relate these to weather data in order to identify weather events leading to large yield reductions.

    Annual yield data at county level for cereals, field beans, oilseed rape, potatoes and temporary grasses were taken from official statistics for the period 1965-2014. For the period 2005-2012, crop yield data on farm level were also available from official statistics. In addition, yield data for cereals and temporary grasses being studied in long-term experiments (more than 40 years) located in four different agroecological zones of Sweden were considered. Daily temperature and precipitation data for each of the 21 counties in Sweden during the period 1961-2012 were downloaded from the official Swedish weather data website.

    In general, yield reductions were higher in northern than in southern counties and higher for spring cereals than winter cereals. Oats, spring rape and potatoes were the crops with the highest yield variation at county level. The frequency of a 30% yield reduction at county level was very low or close to zero in those counties with widespread cereal production, but large reductions occurred in individual years and certain counties (e.g. -80% in Norrbotten county in 1987).

    Close agreement between annual area of non-harvested crops and a 30% yield reduction was observed for certain years, crops and counties. The northern counties had on average 4-11% non-harvested crop area, with Norrbotten county having the highest values. The non-harvested area of cereals in southern counties was on average 0-2%.

    The risk of severe crop losses on farm level was around 10%, although in a few cases the risk was 25%, depending on the county. More specifically, the overall risk among the counties for individual farms of obtaining 30% lower yield for winter wheat was 5-20%, for spring wheat 5-20%, for rye 5-10% and for spring barley 5-25%. The corresponding risk of obtaining 50% lower yield for oats was 5-20%.

    The yield data for individual farms showed large variations, even in years with ‘favourable’ weather conditions. In most years, yield on the lower 10th percentile of farms was less than half the average yield at county level. Winter wheat showed the lowest variation in southern counties and oats and spring rape the highest. Farm-level yield variations were also much higher in Norrbotten county than in southern counties. This large yield variation was confirmed by data from the long-term crop experiments, in which yield reductions exceeding 30% occurred in 5-18% of years (i.e. 2-8 years in the period 1965-2010).

    Most years with the lowest yield were associated with a prolonged dry period (<20 mm precipitation over 40 days) and/or a high level of precipitation during the harvesting period (>100 mm during August). However, attempts to correlate county average yields with indices based only on daily temperature and precipitation gave poor and inconsistent results. Similar results were obtained using yield data from the long-term experiments and indices based solely on precipitation.

    The large yield variations between individual farms, the heterogeneity of crop responses to Scandinavian weather conditions and the limitations of yield prediction models in terms of detailed input data and result accuracy indicate that yield reductions should be measured on farm level.

    Within the study period, precipitation during summer months appeared to increase over time, particularly in 25% of years in southern Sweden. If this situation persists, it will have conflicting effects on crop production, by reducing the risk of drought periods and increasing the risk of rainy harvesting periods.

  • 43.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    VATEMA Co., Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barbara, Kielbasa
    Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    POMInnO Sp. Zo.o., Gdynia, Poland.
    Tonderski, Andrzej
    POMInnO Sp. Zo.o., Gdynia, Poland.
    Generating Applicable Environmental Knowledge among Farmers: Experiences from Two Regions in Poland2017In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 671-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raising environmental awareness among farmers is the key to successfully reaching environmental goals. The present study assessed the knowledge development process and the raising of environmental awareness among 30 farmers from Poland exposed to four approaches aimed to reduce phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to water. The farmers were interviewed with open-ended questions on-farm both before and after the project intervention. As hoped, the farmers attempted to adjust their farm practices to the European Union regulations, which are in some cases supported by subsidies. As a complement, the project offered tools for system-thinking based on farm data and support from agricultural advisors: a) a survey of plant-available P, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and soil pH, resulting in soil maps; b) assessment of nitrogen leaching risks from individual fields; c) compilation of a farm-gate balance. Farmers were positive to soil surveys and maps, but had limited understanding of the nutrient balance concept and calculations. They generally relied on their own experiences regarding fertilization rather than on calculated farm nutrient balances and leaching risks. Farmers’ understanding and willingness to adopt new approaches to improve nutrient efficiency and reduce negative environmental impacts are discussed.

  • 44.
    du Preez, Marinus
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Govender, Danny
    South African National Parks, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Metallic elements in Nile Crocodile eggs from the Kruger National Park, South Africa2018In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 148, p. 930-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nile Crocodile is the largest predator on the African continent. Recent mass mortalities in the Kruger National Park (KNP) raised concerns about possible influence of pollution. We analysed eggs and their eggshells collected from nests inside the KNP and from a crocodile farm for metallic elements. We found that mercury, selenium, and copper occurred at levels of concern. Eggshells had very high concentrations of iron. Apart from toxicological implications associated with elevated concentrations in eggs, we found iron possibly contributing towards thicker eggshells. Thicker shells may act as a barrier to gas and water exchange, as well as possibly increasing the effort required for the hatchling to emerge from tightly packed shells under sand. Pollutants are transported into the KNP via rivers, and possibly via air. Mercury and copper pollution are waste-, industrial- and mining-related; ecotoxicological concern should therefore be extended to all areas where the four African crocodile species occur. Reptiles are under-represented in ecotoxicological literature in general, and especially from Africa. We know of only one previous report on metals and metalloids in crocodile eggs from Africa (Zimbabwe), published 30 years ago. Reduced fitness, endocrine disruption and effects on behaviour are other possible sub-lethal effects associated with metallic elements that may only become apparent decades later in a long-lived species such as the Nile Crocodile. In the face of habitat destruction, pollution, human population increases, and climate change, further research is needed regarding pollutant concentrations and effects in all African reptiles . The rivers that carry water from outside the park sustain its aquatic life, but also transport pollutants into the KNP. Therefore, improved source mitigation remains an important task and responsibility for all involved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-19 15:57
  • 45.
    Dunsäter, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Daytime veiling glare in automobiles caused by dashboard reflectance2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Veiling glare has always existed in cars, but during the last years it has been brought up as a big problem. One reason is that glossier materials are being used in car interior design. Another reason is that the customers who buy the cars are getting more quality conscious. They demand to get top quality for the high price that they pay for a car, and veiling glare problems could be regarded as “low quality”.

    Veiling glare is when light hits the car interior and reflects into the windshield, causing mirror-like images in the windshield (ghost images). This can impair the driving experience in two ways. It can lower the contrast of the road scene and it may be a cluttering for the driver.

    This work handles daytime veiling glare from dashboard reflectance. The purpose was to investigate the area and to see if Saab can avoid the problem with veiling glare by using virtual prototyping (see chapter 3.3.1). This has been done by examining if the light

    simulation software Speos can be used to simulate and predict veiling glare, and thereby be used as a tool for better design.

    Key words: Veiling glare, dashboard, windshield, Speos, virtual prototyping.

  • 46.
    Dórea, Fernanda C.
    et al.
    Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Sweden.
    Vial, Flavie
    Epi-Connect, Skogås, Sweden.
    Hammar, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Computer Science and Informatics, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Ann
    Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Sweden.
    Lambrix, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Revie, Crawford W.
    Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada.
    Drivers for the development of an Animal Health Surveillance Ontology (AHSO)2019In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive reviews of syndromic surveillance in animal health have highlighted the hindrances to integration and interoperability among systems when data emerge from different sources. Discussions with syndromic surveillance experts in the fields of animal and public health, as well as computer scientists from the field of information management, have led to the conclusion that a major component of any solution will involve the adoption of ontologies. Here we describe the advantages of such an approach, and the steps taken to set up the Animal Health Surveillance Ontological (AHSO) framework. The AHSO framework is modelled in OWL, the W3C standard Semantic Web language for representing rich and complex knowledge. We illustrate how the framework can incorporate knowledge directly from domain experts or from data-driven sources, as well as by integrating existing mature ontological components from related disciplines. The development and extent of AHSO will be community driven and the final products in the framework will be open-access.

  • 47.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Djurle, Annika
    Institutionen för skoglig mykologi och växtpatologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Albihn, Ann
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Lars
    Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Båge, Renée
    Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    de Toro, Alfredo
    Institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Gärdenäs, Annemieke
    Institutionen för mark och miljö, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Hultgren, Jan
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Skara.
    Kvarnheden, Anders
    Institutionen för växtbiologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Lewan, Elisabet
    Institutionen för mark och miljö, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Nkurunziza, Libère
    Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Rosén, Klas
    Institutionen för mark och miljö, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Spörndly, Rolf
    Institutionen för husdjurens utfodring och vård, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Vågsholm, Ivar
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Yuen, Jonathan
    Institutionen för skoglig mykologi och växtpatologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Framtida risker och hot mot svensk spannmåls- respektive mjölkproduktion: En analys av forskningsbehov för att bedöma risker2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vad är syftet med denna Riskanalys? Svensk spannmåls- och mjölkproduktion beror på många faktorer av vilka flera är så kallade biofysiska, dvs i allt väsentligt är de av naturvetenskaplig karaktär (t ex väder, sjukdomar mm). En del förändringar i dessa förutsättningar utgör hot. Vår studie avser att identifiera några av dessa hot och utvärdera, utifrån vetenskapligt testade metodiker, sannolikheten för att de orsakar en skada på produktionen. Detta kräver dock ett mycket omfattande arbete och i denna studie har vi därför begränsat oss till att (i) strukturera hur en vetenskapligt baserad riskanalys bör gå till, och (ii) göra ett antal preliminära riskanalyser för att (iii) identifiera kunskapsluckor som behöver forskas på för att analysen ska kunna antas vila på en vetenskaplig grund.

    Vad menar vi med Risk? Vi har definierat risk som sannolikheten att ett hot orsakar en viss negativ konsekvens för den skyddsvärda tillgången. Av dessa termer är kanske den sistnämnda den mest centrala. Vad är det vi vill skydda? Vi har valt ut två tillgångar, Sveriges nationella spannmåls- respektive mjölkproduktion och avser då den produktion som lämnar gården, eller används inom gården, och att de skyddas så att de förblir ungefär av den omfattningen de har i dagsläget. Hoten mot denna produktion har valts utifrån förslag från tidigare studier, workshop, tillgången på experter och att hoten ska vara av biofysisk karaktär. Vilket hot som verkligen utgör en stor risk vet vi ju dock inte förrän efter riskanalysen är utförd och valen av hot bygger därför på en preliminär uppskattning. Biofysisk karaktär innebär att vi främst analyserat naturvetenskapliga hot. Hoten orsakar effekter på produktionen i mätbara termer som sedan översätts till en mer abstrakt skala från ingen till extremt negativ konsekvens. Beroende på olika osäkerhetsfaktorer erhåller vi flera konsekvensvärden för ett givet hot, och fördelningen av dessa på konsekvensskalan utgör ett mått på sannolikheten. Risken anges alltså som ett förhållande mellan konsekvens och sannolikhet.

    Varför har vi gjort denna systemavgränsning? Riskanalysen har två huvudaktörer; riskhanteraren som definierar vad som ska anlyseras och analysfunktionen som utför analysen. Riskhanteraren är i vårt fall styrgruppen för SLUs forskningsprogram Framtidens lantbruk (FA, 2015) som har definierat typen av hot och de skyddsvärda tillgångarna som ska analyseras. Vi som utfört denna studie är analysfunktionen, och har alltså dessa definitioner som en utgångspunkt. Om vi ändå tillåter oss att spekulera kring valet av spannmåls- respektive mjölkproduktionen så kan det motiveras av SLU's nationella ansvar vad avser den vetenskapliga kompetensen inom de areella näringarna. Ett fokus på biofysiska hot motiveras av att dessa är potentiellt stora och växande, såsom t ex är fallet vad avser klimatförändringar. Riskanalyser av denna typ bildar centrala underlag för att formulera olika strategier, t ex angående livsmedelsförsörjning. 

    Hur har arbetet gått till? Riskanalyserna har utförts för ett antal "krisscenarier"; fyra avseende hot mot spannmålsproduktionen (Radioaktivt-nedfall, Virus-i-spannmål, Herbicidresistens och Extremt-sommarväder) och tre avseende mjölkproduktionen (Leptospiros-utbrott, Foderimport-stopp och Värmebölja). Analysen tar sin utgångspunkt i ett omvärldsscenario som definierar de yttre förutsättningarna för vad som antas inträffa. Detta ligger till grund för att identifiera troliga hot mot produktionen och vilka åtgärder som förväntas vidtas. Vi har sedan utgått från att dessa hot och åtgärder verkligen har hänt när vi mha våra förklaringsmodeller bestämt effekterna på produktionen i termer av mätbara enheter ("metrics"; t ex procentuell minskning av lokal eller regional veteproduktion). Dessa effekter tolkas/integreras sedan till en konsekvens för, helst den nationella, men i realiteten främst den regionala produktionen i fem nivåer (ingen, liten, måttlig, stor respektive extrem). Osäkerheter i bedömningarna innebär att flera alternativa konsekvenser erhålls, för ett givet hot, och som ligger till grund för en sannolikhetsbedömning. Analyserna har gjorts av experter inom respektive hots vetenskapliga område, men som haft begränsade förutsättningar (av tidsskäl) att göra tillräckligt många bedömningar för att erhålla ett tillförlitligt mått på sannolikhetsfördelningen (osäkerheten). Istället har vi, vilket också är ett huvudsyfte med studien, huvudsakligen försökt identifiera de kunskapsluckor i förklaringsmodellerna som begränsat våra möjligheter att kunna göra vetenskapligt baserade bedömningar av effekterna (se vidare Appendix 3).

    Vad är resultatet? Vi har gjort vissa grova skattningar av sannolikheten trots det bristfälliga antalet bedömningar av konsekvenser. Om ett radioaktivt nedfall sker i en region får det extrema konsekvenser för dess spannmålsproduktion på regional nivå. Ett omfattande angrepp av jordburna virus orsakar en måttlig eller stor konsekvens. En utvecklad herbicidresistens hos ogräsen orsakar i huvudsak en liten till måttlig konsekvens. En extremt torr sommar kan ett år orsaka en stor konsekvens och ett annat år ingen alls. Likaledes orsakar en Regnig-sensommar i ca hälften av fallen ingen konsekvens, men för de resterande åren kan alla grader av konsekvenser uppstå på spannmålsproduktionen. För mjölkproduktionen orsakar samtliga tre hot (Leptospiros-utbrott, Foderimport-stopp och Värmebölja) en liten till måttlig konsekvens. Vad avser ett importsopp för foder är detta under förutsättning att olika åtgärdsprogram kombineras. Om fokus läggs på endast ett åtgärdsprogram ökar risken väsentligt. Dessa skattningar ska alltså inte betraktas som en vetenskapligt baserad analys i nuläget, utan demonstrerar främst exempel på resultat från sådana analyser. Skattningarna har hjälpt oss att identifiera vilka kunskaper vi saknar för att analyserna ska kunna betraktas som vetenskapligt baserade (se vidare Tabell 4.3a; sammanfattningar av respektive scenario finns i Resultatdelen).

    Analyserna har ibland också lett till att vi identifierat följdhändelser som faller utanför systemavgränsningen för vår studie och som andra studier har till uppgift att utreda. Många av de hot vi analyserat kan leda till betydande ekonomiska konsekvenser för enskilda företag, vilket i sin tur utgör hot mot produktionen. För denna analys krävs dock socioekonomiska analyser. Vi ser här också kopplingar mellan krisscenarier som är av biofysisk karaktär, t ex kan foder kontaminerat med radioaktivt cesium utgöra ett hot mot mjölkproduktionen. Vår studie har dock bara analyserat ett krisscenarios inverkan på antigen spannmåls- eller mjölkproduktionen.

    Vilka är de viktigaste slutsatserna? En central fråga är: Hur trovärdiga/säkra är dessa förutsägelser? Risk avser en förutsägelse om något som ännu inte hänt. Det första som behövs är alltså någon form av modell. Dessa modeller kan vara av olika sort i termer av vilken empirisk kunskap de använder för extrapolering (t ex funktioner, behandlingseffekter, mm), om de är objektiva och om de är transparenta. Alla modeller är osäkra i någon mening. Dock saknas i alla de fall vi undersökt mått på modellernas förutsägelseförmåga (med något enstaka undantag). En allmän slutsats blir att forskningen behöver inriktas mot att testa modellernas förutsägelseförmåga mot observationer för att kunna bidra till en vetenskapligt baserad riskanalys av spannmåls- respektive mjölkproduktionen. Detta innebär att experiment- och försöksupplägg behöver göras utifrån hypoteser (modeller) om hur de dynamiska förloppen beror på varierande förutsättningar och omgivningsförhållanden. T ex behöver de statistiska relationerna för hur Extremt-sommarväder påverkar spannmålsproduktionen, som används i vår studie, kompletteras med tester av grödmodeller som kan beakta flera vädervariablers samtida variationer i både tid och rum. För kunskapsluckor som är specifika för respektive hot, se Tabell 4.4.

    Sammanfattningsvis behövs (i) fler förutsägelser av respektive potentiellt hots konsekvenser på produktionen, med modeller som har någon form av graderad tillförlitlighet, för att erhålla mått på osäkerheter. Dessutom behövs det (ii) tester av hypoteser för uppskalningar från kontrollerade experiment och försök (på en liten skala i tid och rum) till regional och nationell skala över flera år, och (iii) utveckling av metodiker för hur sannolikheter för hot, åtgärder respektive konsekvenser kan kombineras till en sannolikhetsfördelning som inbegriper bedömningsosäkerheter för alla dessa faktorer. Troligtvis behövs också att fler potentiella biofysiska hot analyseras.

    Hur går vi vidare? En mer fullständig riskanalys som inkluderar alla potentiellt stora hot mot produktionen, och samtidigt är vetenskapligt baserad, kräver att potentiella hot utreds kontinuerligt inom respektive produktionsrelaterat ämnesområde vid SLU. Detta kräver troligen att verksamheter som testar hypoteser för att förutsäga effekter av hot knyts nära den experimentella forskningen och experter inom respektive ämnesområde. Det krävs troligen också att en syntesverksamhet etableras på en ämnesövergripande nivå där metodiker kan standardardiseras, och olika hot och dess konsekvenser kan jämföras och kombineras. En sådan fungerande verksamhet behöver utvidga systemgränserna jämfört med vår studie, genom att sannolikheter för att hot uppkommer och att åtgärder faktiskt vidtas, också bedöms. Dessa sannolikheter behöver sedan integreras med sannolikheterna för konsekvenserna på produktionen. Därefter kan riskanalysen utökas till att inbegripa en mer avlägsen framtid, t ex liknande de tidsperspektiv som klimatförändringsanalyser behandlar. Två av hoten mot mjölkproduktionen utgör exempel på riskanalys för en nära framtid (ca 2025). Vi avslutar rapporten med att diskutera hur en sådan ansats kan se ut i ett längre perspektiv.

  • 48.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anaerobic digestion in the kraft pulp and paper industry: Challenges and possibilities for implementation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is a large producer of wastewater and sludge, putting high pressure on waste treatment. In addition, more rigorous environmental legislation for pollution control and demands to increase the use of renewable energy have put further pressure on the pulp and paper industry’s waste treatment, where anaerobic digestion (AD) and the production of methane could pose a solution. Kraft pulping makes up 80% of the world production of virgin wood pulp, thus, the wastewaters from this sector represent a large unused potential for methane production.

    There are three main types of substrates available for AD at pulp and paper mills, the wastewaters, the primary sludge/fibre sludge, and the waste activated sludge. AD treatment of these streams has been associated with several challenges, such as the presence of inhibiting compounds or low degradability during AD. The aim of this thesis was to experimentally address these challenges and potentials, focusing on wastes from kraft mills.

    Methane potential batch tests showed that many wastewater streams still posed challenges to AD, but the alkaline elemental chlorine-free bleaching stream and the condensate effluents had good methane potentials. Further, the methane potential of kraft mill fibre sludge was high, and co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and waste activated sludge was feasible in stirred tank reactors with sludge recirculation. By increasing the organic loading in a pilot-scale activated sludge facility and thereby lowering the sludge age, the degradability of the waste activated sludge was improved. The higher wastewater treatment capacity achieved by this method provides an opportunity for the mills to increase their pulp and paper production. Further, by dewatering the digestate after AD and returning the liquid to the activated sludge treatment, costs for nutrient supplementation can be reduced.

    In conclusion, the thesis shows that AD of wastes from the kraft pulp and paper industry was feasible and carried many benefits regarding the generation of methane as a renewable energy carrier, improved wastewater treatment and reduced costs. Different strategies on how AD may be implemented in the kraft pulp and paper industry were formulated and discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With the final aim of reducing the energy consumption and increase the methane production at Swedish pulp and paper mills, the methane potential of 62 wastewater effluents from 10 processes at seven pulp and/or paper mills (A-G) was determined in anaerobic batch digestion assays. This mapping is a first step towards an energy efficient and more sustainable utilization of the effluents by anaerobic digestion, and will be followed up by tests in lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. Five of the mills produce kraft pulp (KP), one thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), two chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and two neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp. Both elementary and total chlorine free (ECF and TCF, respectively) bleaching processes were included. The effluents included material from wood rooms, cooking and oxygen delignification, bleaching (often both acid- and alkali effluents), drying and paper/board machinery as well as total effluents before and after sedimentation. The results from the screening showed a large variation in methane yields (percent of theoretical methane potential assuming 940 NmL CH4 per g TOC) among the effluents. For the KP-mills, methane yields above 50% were obtained for the cooking effluents from mills D and F, paper machine wastewater from mill D, condensate streams from mills B, E and F and the composite pre-sedimentation effluent from mill D. The acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora and also seemed to have a negative effect on the yields of composite effluents downstream while three of the alkaline ECF-bleaching effluents gave positive methane yields. ECF bleaching streams gave higher methane yields when hardwood was processed. All TCF-bleaching effluents at the KP mills gave similar degradation patterns with final yields of 10-15% of the theoretical methane potential for four of the five effluents. The composite effluents from the two NSSC-processes gave methane yields of 60% of the theoretical potential. The TMP mill (A) gave the best average yield with all six effluents ranging 40-65% of the theoretical potential. The three samples from the CTMP process at mill B showed potentials around 40% while three of the six effluents at mill G (CTMP) yielded 45-50%.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Biogas; Anaerobic digestion; Kraft pulp; Chemical thermo-mechanical pulp; Neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulp; Bleaching
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104129 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.12.072 (DOI)000329377800053 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-07 Created: 2014-02-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07
    2. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 56, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for thebiogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibresludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation.Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800 days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludgeand activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, theCa:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abatedby short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robustconditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4 gvolatile solids (VS) L1 day1, a hydraulic retention time of 4 days and a methane production of230 ± 10 Nm L per g VS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Pulp and paper Anaerobic digestion Sludge recirculation High-rate CSTR Fibre sludge Activated sludge
    National Category
    Renewable Bioenergy Research Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Water Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131780 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.06.034 (DOI)000383827700020 ()27453288 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [32802-1]; Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB; Poyry AB; BillerudKorsnas AB; SCA; Fiskeby Board AB; Purac AB

    Available from: 2016-10-05 Created: 2016-10-05 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill
    2018 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 2068-2076Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The activated sludge process within the pulp and paper industry is generally run to minimize the production of waste activated sludge (WAS), leading to high electricity costs from aeration and relatively large basin volumes. In this study, a pilot-scale activated sludge process was run to evaluate the concept of treating the wastewater at high rate with a low sludge age. Two 150 L containers were used, one for aeration and one for sedimentation and sludge return. The hydraulic retention time was decreased from 24 hours to 7 hours, and the sludge age was lowered from 12 days to 2–4 days. The methane potential of the WAS was evaluated using batch tests, as well as continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) in 4 L reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Wastewater treatment capacity was increased almost four-fold at maintained degradation efficiency. The lower sludge age greatly improved the methane potential of the WAS in batch tests, reaching 170 NmL CH4/g VS at a sludge age of 2 days. In addition, the continuous AD showed a higher methane production at thermophilic conditions. Thus, the combination of high-rate wastewater treatment and AD of WAS is a promising option for the pulp and paper industry.

    Keywords
    Activated sludge, sludge age, anaerobic digestion, biochemical methane potential, CSTR, pulp and paper
    National Category
    Bioprocess Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146089 (URN)10.2166/wst.2018.120 (DOI)000435663800011 ()29722692 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [32802-2]; Scan-dinavian Biogas Fuels AB; Poyry AB; BillerudKorsnas AB; SCA; Fiskeby Board AB; Purac AB

    Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
  • 49.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 56, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for thebiogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibresludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation.Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800 days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludgeand activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, theCa:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abatedby short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robustconditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4 gvolatile solids (VS) L1 day1, a hydraulic retention time of 4 days and a methane production of230 ± 10 Nm L per g VS.

  • 50.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge Integration in Product Development Projects2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is concerned with knowledge integration in product development projects. Knowledge integration is conceived of as processes of goal-oriented interrelating with the purpose of benefiting from knowledge complementarities existing between individuals with differentiated knowledge bases. Knowledge integration is a subject of importance to many firms as the degree of integration of specialised and distributed knowledge helps explain differences in firms’ product development performance. However, knowledge integration is poorly understood as detailed, empirical, studies are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore what mechanisms of knowledge integration are suitable in different project settings.

    The dissertation is based on two empirical studies, both of which are longitudinal, real-time studies of product development projects. A detailed account of the project work in each of the two projects, the Stacker project and the Turbine project, is presented together with an analysis of each case. Thereafter, a comparative analysis is conducted, in which both similarities and differences between the two projects and their settings are discussed. As a result of the studies, an iterative model of knowledge integration is proposed. The iterative model has a number of features which would benefit the analysis of knowledge integration in empirical settings. It recognises the importance of considering to what extent the “knowledge problematic” of a specific product development project needs to involve acting and interacting and how these are made complementary in an iterative process. Second, it indicates the significance of using various artefacts and how these may be involved in acting as well as interacting. Third, it recognises that acting and interacting may be associated with different costs of knowledge integration.

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