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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jafet
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Land Cover Change in the Okavango River Basin: Historical changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango river flows from southern Angola, through the Kavango region of Namibia and into the Okavango Delta in Botswana. The recent peace in Angola hopefully marks the end of the intense suffering that the peoples of the river basin have endured, and the beginning of sustainable decision-making in the area. Informed decision-making however requires knowledge; and there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge regarding basin-wide land cover (LC) changes, and their causes, during the Angolan civil war in the basin. Furthermore, there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge on how expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth along the Angola-Namibia border affects the water quality of the river.

    The aim of this study was therefore to develop a remote sensing method applicable to the basin (with scant ground-truth data availability) to carry out a systematic historic study of LC changes during the Angolan civil war, to apply the method to the basin, to relate these changes to major societal trends in the region, and to analyse potential impacts of expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth on the water quality of the river along the Angola-Namibia border.

    A range of remote sensing methods to study historic LC changes in the basin were tried and evaluated against reference data collected during a field visit in Namibia in October 2005. Eventually, two methods were selected and applied to pre-processed Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite image mosaics of 1973 and 2001 respectively: 1. a combined unsupervised classification and pattern-recognition change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed binary LC class change trajectory information and, 2. an NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed continuous information on degrees of change in vegetation vigour. In addition, available documents and people initiated in the basin conditions were consulted in the pursuit of discerning major societal trends that the basin had undergone during the Angolan civil war. Finally, concentrations of nutrients (total phosphorous & total nitrogen), bacteria (faecal coliforms & faecal streptococci), conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and Secchi depth were sampled at 11 locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities and an urban area during the aforementioned field visit.

    The nature, extent and geographical distribution of LC changes in the study area during the Angolan civil war were determined. The study area (150 922 km2) was the Angolan and Namibian parts of the basin. The results indicate that the vegetation vigour is dynamic and has decreased overall in the area, perhaps connected with precipitation differences between the years. However while the vigour decreased in the northwest, it increased in the northeast, and on more local scales the pattern was often more complex. With respect to migration out of Angola into Namibia, the LC changes followed expectations of more intense use in Namibia close to the border (0-5 km), but not at some distance (10-20 km), particularly east of Rundu. With respect to urbanisation, expectations of increased human impact locally were observed in e.g. Rundu, Menongue and Cuito Cuanavale. Road deterioration was also observed with Angolan urbanisation but some infrastructures appeared less damaged by the war. Some villages (e.g. Savitangaiala de Môma) seem to have been abandoned during the war so that the vegetation could regenerate, which was expected. But other villages (e.g. Techipeio) have not undergone the same vegetation regeneration suggesting they were not abandoned. The areal extent of large-scale agriculture increased 59% (26 km2) during the war, perhaps as a consequence of population growth. But the expansion was not nearly at par with the population growth of the Kavango region (320%), suggesting that a smaller proportion of the population relied on the large-scale agriculture for their subsistence in 2001 compared with 1973.

    No significant impacts were found from the large-scale agriculture and urbanisation on the water quality during the dry season of 2005. Total phosphorous concentrations (with range: 0.067-0.095 mg l-1) did vary significantly between locations (p=0.013) but locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities were not significantly different (p=0.5444). Neither did faecal coliforms (range: 23-63 counts per 100ml) nor faecal streptococci (range: 8-33 counts per 100ml) vary significantly between locations (p=0.332 and p=0.354 respectively). Thus the impact of Rundu and the extensive livestock farming along the border were not significant at this time. The Cuito river on the other hand significantly decreased both the conductivity (range: 27.2-49.7 μS cm-1, p<0.0001) and the total dissolved solid concentration (range: 12.7-23.4 mg l-1, p<0.0001) of the mainstream of the Okavango during the dry season.

    Land cover changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality were studied in this research effort. Many of the obtained results can be used directly or with further application as a knowledge base for sustainable decision-making and management in the basin. Wisely used by institutions charged with that objective, the information can contribute to sustainable development and the ending of suffering and poverty for the benefit of the peoples of the Okavango and beyond.

  • 2.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, F.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, V.
    Agenzia Regionale Sviluppo e Servizi in Agricoltura, Regione Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, L.
    Depto di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali, Univ of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, V.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population Dynamics and Temperature-Dependent Development of Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) to Aid Sustainable Pest Management Decisions2014In: Neotropical Entomology, ISSN 1519-566X, E-ISSN 1678-8052, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing worldwide trades progressively led to decreased impact of natural barriers on wild species movement. The exotic scale Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), recently reported on citrus in southern Italy, may represent a new threat to Mediterranean citriculture. We studied C. aonidum population dynamics under field conditions and documented its development under various temperatures. To enable describing temperature-dependent development through the use of linear and non-linear models, low temperature thresholds and thermal constants for each developmental stage were estimated. Chrysomphalus aonidum was able to perform four generations on green parts (leaves, sprouts) of citrus trees and three on fruits. In addition, an overall higher population density was observed on samples collected in the southern part of the tree canopy. Temperature had a significant effect on the developmental rate; female needed 625 degree days (DD) to complete its development, while male needed 833 DD. The low threshold temperatures, together with data from population dynamics, demonstrated that C. aonidum is able to overwinter as second instar and as an adult. The results obtained, validated by those collected in the field, revealed few differences between predicted and observed dates of first occurrence of each C. aonidum instar in citrus orchards. Data on C. aonidum phenology and the definition of the thermal parameters (lower and upper threshold temperatures, optimum temperature, and the thermal constant) by non-linear models could allow the estimation of the occurrence in the field of each life stage and would be helpful in developing effective integrated control strategies.

  • 3.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Zappala, L.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Laudani, F.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Palmeri, V.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Bees visiting flowers of Thymus longicaulis (Lamiaceae)2016In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 1182-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bee fauna foraging on Thymus longicaulis flowers. Samplings were conducted walking along a transect during the T. longicaulis blooming period (April-June). A total of 547 bee specimens, belonging to 40 different species, were recorded during the survey. Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris were the most abundant visitors that foraged on thyme. Pollen grains collected on the bodies of the bees suggest that these pollinators may play an important role in the pollination of this plant.

  • 4.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fontana, Anna
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Albanese, Giuliana R.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Acquisition and transmission of selected CTV isolates by Aphis gossypii2014In: JOURNAL OF ASIA-PACIFIC ENTOMOLOGY, ISSN 1226-8615, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 493-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a severe threat to the citrus industry. Disease symptoms and severity may vary depending on the CTV isolates. These are responsible for the decline of trees grafted on sour orange rootstock, or stem pitting on some citrus commercial cultivars regardless of rootstock. In the Calabria region (Italy), CTV was first reported on cultivars imported from other countries. However, recent observations suggested that natural spread of CTV was occurring and a study was needed to determine the epidemiological status and aphid transmission of CTV in Calabria. The role played by local A. gossypii in the spread of CIV was analyzed in the laboratory using various viral acquisition, inoculation periods with three different CTV isolates. Single aphid vectors acquired CTV after a minimum of 30 min acquisition access period (AAP) and were able to transmit the virus after a 60 min inoculation access period (IAP) to healthy plants. A minimum of four aphid vectors were needed to reach 50% transmission probability. The results suggested that the three tested strains are transmitted by A. gossypii in a semi-persistent mode. The results demonstrated that local A. gossypii population can acquire and transmit efficiently the tested virus isolates with serious implications on the virus spread. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Grande, Saverio B.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for the Control of the California Red Scale in Southern Italy2015In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 1065, p. 1149-1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), is considered one of the most important pests of citrus in the Mediterranean basin as well as in other citrus growing areas worldwide. In Southern Italy, citrus is the most widely cultivated crop and the control of the CRS relies mainly on the application of synthetic insecticides. During 2009 and 2010, selected insecticides (spirotetramat, chlorpyriphos and pyriproxyfen) were evaluated against this pest in two calabrian citrus orchards (southern Italy) under integrated pest management. Treatments were performed according to the dosage reported on the label of the commercial products. Two treatments, at 15-day interval, were performed. Control plots were sprayed with water only. Efficacy was assessed 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the first treatment and at the harvest. In both trials, spirotetramat showed the highest levels of efficacy against CRS and other citrus pests (citrus leafminer, and aphids) that were adequately controlled until the harvest.

  • 6.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zoccali, Paolo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Field efficacy of two organic acids against Varroa destructor2017In: Entomologia generalis, ISSN 0171-8177, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitization of honeybees by Varroa destructor represents a serious limiting factor for beekeeping. The past and current widespread use of synthetic acaricides, such as fluvalinate and coumaphos, results in the onset of pest resistance, therefore research efforts focused on the use of alternative solutions to control the population of this parasitic mite. In the present study, the efficacy of two formulates containing Oxalic Acid (OA) or Formic Acid (FA) was evaluated in real field conditions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the OA formulate in controlling more than 90% of V. destructor phoretic population. On the other hand, FA shown an efficacy of 60% on phoretic mites. A similar pattern was highlighted on brood and adult bees’ infestation. The OA formulate showed a proper efficacy, highlighting its potential as alternative to chemical substances in holding the increase of V. destructor during a late summer treatment.

  • 7.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population dynamics and spread of Unaspis yanonensis in Calabria, Italy2013In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Calabria (southern Italy) poses a serious threat to citrus cultivation. A regional survey was performed to record information about its distribution in local citrus orchards. Field population dynamics were also studied. The arrowhead scale, U. yanonensis, was recorded in the two main citrus cultivation areas of Calabria. In the investigated environments U. yanonensis completed two generations per year; a typical bi-modal oviposition was recorded. The arrowhead scale overwintered as second-instar males and pre-ovipositing females.

  • 8.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Serra, Demetrio
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Russo, Mariateresa
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fumigant bioactivity of five Citrus essential oils against Tribolium confusum2014In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, the huge use of pesticides caused several environmental problems, so research investigations moved to find a series of compounds with selective toxicity, of a biodegradable and environment-friendly nature, maintaining a positive action in crop and stored products protection. In this perspective, interesting results in the control of pests and fungal pathogens were obtained using essential oils, which are compounds produced by many species of plants as secondary metabolites. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the fumigant activity of five Citrus essential oils against the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val, planning a possible employment in the mill industry. The fumigant effectiveness was evaluated 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days after the start of exposure and each essential oil was analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS. Further evaluations about the toxicity of these compounds were made by partially filling the glass vials with food matrix, in order to assess the possible interference of this matter on the active compounds. The data obtained indicated that, at a low level of fumigant concentration, essential oils can effectively control stored product pests; in the presence of debris, like flour, the efficacy decreased. Plant extracts caused also increased mortality levels after the end of fumigation. The results obtained from this experimentation confirm the efficacy of essential oils in pest control and, in particular, against stored product pests.

  • 9.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Castracani, Cristina
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Mori, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Grasso, Donato A.
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Interaction between ants and the Mediterranean fruit fly: New insights for biological control2015In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 90, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, the positive role of ants as biological control agents in agro-ecosystems has gained growing interest. We investigated the predatory relationship between Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander), commonly widespread in the Mediterranean area. Additionally we investigated some bio-ethological aspects of C. capitata larvae that could be relevant timing factors for predation. Field observations highlighted that C. capitata larvae were preyed on by ants, and laboratory assays suggested that movement of medfly larvae, as well as olfactory cues, affected prey location by T. nigerrimum. Further observations on the circadian activity of C. capitata suggest that mature larvae leave the fruit to pupate in the soil mainly in the early morning, and they can bury faster in moistened soil. These ecological aspects are discussed in the context of sustainable agriculture. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora V.
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Timpanaro, Nicolina
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)2016In: Journal of Economic Entomology, ISSN 0022-0493, E-ISSN 1938-291X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 360-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC95 ranged from 295.13 to 832.44mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC50 values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38mg liter(-1), while LC95 ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  • 11.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora Valeria
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Carpinteri, Guido
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Fabroni, Simona
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Rapisarda, Paolo
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Effects of inert dusts applied alone and in combination with sweet orange essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial population2014In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 61, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of kaolin and diatomaceous earth applied alone and in combinations with sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] peel essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial populations were evaluated. Adult beetles reared on durum wheat (cv Simeto) were used to carry out the tests. Five formulations at five application rates were tested. Both insect mortality and progeny production were affected by the treatment, the application rate and the exposure time. C. sinensis essential oil showed a synergistic effect on the mortality of R. dominica, if combined with kaolin, and antagonistic effect when admixed with diatomaceous earth. Yeasts and moulds as well as total mesophilic aerobic bacteria growths were reduced by C sinensis essential oil applied alone more than the other dusts and dust-essential oil-based treatments. Kaolin admixed with C. sinensis peel essential oil might be a viable alternative to the chemical pesticides commonly used in wheat pest management. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Verdone, Maurizio
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Response of four stored products insects to a structural heat treatment in a flour mill2013In: Journal of Stored Products Research, ISSN 0022-474X, E-ISSN 1879-1212, Vol. 54, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatment is an ecologically sustainable technique that can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The objective of this trial was the evaluation of efficacy of a commercial structural heat treatment, performed by means of electric heaters in a flour mill. Maximum temperatures, time above 50 degrees C and to reach 50 degrees C were different for each floor of the treated mill. Susceptibility to elevated temperature of different life stages of Tribolium confusum, Gnatocerus cornutus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Rhyzopertha dominica are reported. The mortality at 12, 24 and 36 h after the beginning of the heat exposure was evaluated. Eggs of T. confusum were the most sensitive stage to heat treatment. For total effectiveness of the treatment, a time between 24 and 36 h was necessary. The use of electric heaters could represent a viable alternative to other methods used for pest control in the milling sector. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    de Toro, Alfredo
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swed.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nkurunziza, Libère
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swed.
    Effects of extreme weather on yield of major arable crops in Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield data for a series of years on the main crops grown in Sweden were collected and summarised in order to identify years with extremely low yield, determine their frequency and risk level and relate these to weather data in order to identify weather events leading to large yield reductions.

    Annual yield data at county level for cereals, field beans, oilseed rape, potatoes and temporary grasses were taken from official statistics for the period 1965-2014. For the period 2005-2012, crop yield data on farm level were also available from official statistics. In addition, yield data for cereals and temporary grasses being studied in long-term experiments (more than 40 years) located in four different agroecological zones of Sweden were considered. Daily temperature and precipitation data for each of the 21 counties in Sweden during the period 1961-2012 were downloaded from the official Swedish weather data website.

    In general, yield reductions were higher in northern than in southern counties and higher for spring cereals than winter cereals. Oats, spring rape and potatoes were the crops with the highest yield variation at county level. The frequency of a 30% yield reduction at county level was very low or close to zero in those counties with widespread cereal production, but large reductions occurred in individual years and certain counties (e.g. -80% in Norrbotten county in 1987).

    Close agreement between annual area of non-harvested crops and a 30% yield reduction was observed for certain years, crops and counties. The northern counties had on average 4-11% non-harvested crop area, with Norrbotten county having the highest values. The non-harvested area of cereals in southern counties was on average 0-2%.

    The risk of severe crop losses on farm level was around 10%, although in a few cases the risk was 25%, depending on the county. More specifically, the overall risk among the counties for individual farms of obtaining 30% lower yield for winter wheat was 5-20%, for spring wheat 5-20%, for rye 5-10% and for spring barley 5-25%. The corresponding risk of obtaining 50% lower yield for oats was 5-20%.

    The yield data for individual farms showed large variations, even in years with ‘favourable’ weather conditions. In most years, yield on the lower 10th percentile of farms was less than half the average yield at county level. Winter wheat showed the lowest variation in southern counties and oats and spring rape the highest. Farm-level yield variations were also much higher in Norrbotten county than in southern counties. This large yield variation was confirmed by data from the long-term crop experiments, in which yield reductions exceeding 30% occurred in 5-18% of years (i.e. 2-8 years in the period 1965-2010).

    Most years with the lowest yield were associated with a prolonged dry period (<20 mm precipitation over 40 days) and/or a high level of precipitation during the harvesting period (>100 mm during August). However, attempts to correlate county average yields with indices based only on daily temperature and precipitation gave poor and inconsistent results. Similar results were obtained using yield data from the long-term experiments and indices based solely on precipitation.

    The large yield variations between individual farms, the heterogeneity of crop responses to Scandinavian weather conditions and the limitations of yield prediction models in terms of detailed input data and result accuracy indicate that yield reductions should be measured on farm level.

    Within the study period, precipitation during summer months appeared to increase over time, particularly in 25% of years in southern Sweden. If this situation persists, it will have conflicting effects on crop production, by reducing the risk of drought periods and increasing the risk of rainy harvesting periods.

  • 14.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, O.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, F.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, V.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fumigant and Repellent Activity of Limonene Enantiomers Against Tribolium confusum du Val2016In: Neotropical Entomology, ISSN 1519-566X, E-ISSN 1678-8052, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of pesticides, as carried out in the last 50 years, caused several negative environmental and human health consequences, leading to the development of alternative techniques to control pests, such as the use of compounds of plant origin. In this study, we assessed the fumigant and repellent activity of both the enantiomers of limonene, a monoterpene usually found in many plant species, against Tribolium confusum du Val. We tested both molecules at different doses, air temperatures, and in absence and presence of flour. R-(+)-limonene resulted more effective than S-(-)-limonene; indeed, it was able to reach 100% of efficacy at a concentration of 85 mg/L air when tested at different temperatures without flour. Data showed a positive relationship between efficacy and temperature, and a negative effect of the presence of debris on the bioactivity of limonene. Furthermore, repellency trials reported a higher activity of R-(+)-limonene compared to the other enantiomer.

  • 15.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Mosca, Saveria
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia Patricia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly2017In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 677-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the “core” associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal communitywasmainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  • 16.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Universita of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molecular analysis of the fungal microbiome associated with the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae2015In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 18, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular approach was used to investigate the fungal microbiome associated with Bactrocera oleae a major key pest of Olea europea, using the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as barcode gene. Amplicons were cloned and a representative number of sequenced fragments were used as barcode genes for the identification of fungi. The analysis of the detected sequence types (STs) enabled the identification of a total of 34 phylotypes which were associated with 10 fungal species, 3 species complexes and 8 genera. Three phylotypes remained unresolved within the order Saccharomycetales and the phylum Ascomycota because of the lack of closely related sequences in GenBank. Cladosporium was the most abundantly detected genus, followed by Alternaria and Aureobasidium, well-known components of olive sooty moulds. Interestingly, Colletotrichum sp. and other fungal plant pathogens were also detected, leading to potential new insights into heir epidemiology. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

    List of papers
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1504-1510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Available from: 2012-03-02 Created: 2012-03-02 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
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    2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 4921-4928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    National Category
    Soil Science Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Ecology Forest Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cascone, Pasquale
    Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Grande, Saverio B.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Guerrieri, Emilio
    Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy; Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy.
    Hymenoptera wasps associated with the Asian gall wasp of chestnut (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) in Calabria, Italy2014In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 699-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitoid complex of the Asian chestnut gall wasp Drycosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu was studied in Calabria (Italy). A total of 14 different species of parasitoids were collected, of which three are recorded on the Asian gall wasp for the first time. The composition of the parasitoid complex collected in Calabria was compared with that reported from Italy and from Europe. The altitude of the sites of collection seemed to have an effect on the distribution and abundance of the single species of parasitoids.

  • 19.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Scirto, Giuseppe
    Associazione Regionale Allevatori Calabria, Lamezia Terme, CZ, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A scientific note on a new pest for European honeybees: first report of small hive beetle Aethina tumida, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Italy2015In: Apidologie, ISSN 0044-8435, E-ISSN 1297-9678, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 527-529Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ruhe, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nordin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Classification of Points Acquired by Airborne Laser Systems2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During several years research has been performed at the Department of Laser Systems, the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI), to develop methods to produce high resolution 3D environment models based on data acquired with airborne laser systems. The 3D models are used for several purposes, both military and civilian applications, for example mission planning, crisis management analysis and planning of infrastructure.

    We have implemented a new format to store laser point data. Instead of storing rasterized images of the data this new format stores the original location of each point. We have also implemented a new method to detect outliers, methods to estimate the ground surface and also to divide the remaining data into two classes: buildings and vegetation.

    It is also shown that it is possible to get more accurate results by analyzing the points directly instead of only using rasterized images and image processing algorithms. We show that these methods can be implemented without increasing the computational complexity.

  • 21.
    Strid, Jan Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tindra: Ett landskap i tidens spegel2009 (ed. 1000)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok handlar om det tidigare militära övningsområdet i Linköping. När området inköptes av Linköpings kommun efter garnisonens nedläggnng 1997 öppnades portarna till ett landskap av stor skönhet och överraskande ålderdomlig prägel - en oas för unika naturupplevelser i stadens närmaste grannskap.

    Boken vill ge bakgrunden till att området genom historien kunnat fungera som en fristad för flora och fauna, men också för fornminnen. Dess historia från forntid till militärtid skildlras med ett rikt illustrationsmaterial i form av kartor, modellbilder och nya och gamla fotografier

    ----

  • 22.
    Zoccali, Paolo
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Benelli, Giovanni
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pontedera, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of Mediterranean lands2017In: SAUDI JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ISSN 1319-562X, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1045-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Honeybees are critically important for the environment and to the economy. However, there are in substantial decline worldwide, leading to serious threat to the stability and yield of food crops. Beekeeping is of pivotal importance, combining the wide economical aspect of honey production and the important ecological services provided by honeybees. In this scenario, the prompt identification of beekeeping areas is strategic, since it maximised productivity and lowered the risks of colony losses. Fuzzy logic is an ideal approach for problem-solving tasks, as it is specifically designed to manage problems with a high degree of uncertainty. This research tested a novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of lands located in Calabria (Southern Italy), without relying to Analytic Hierarchy Process - Multiple Criteria Decision Making (AHP-MCDM), thus avoiding the constraints due to the technique and decision makers’ influences. Furthermore, the data used here were completely retrieved from open access sources, high-lighting that our approach is characterized by low costs and can be easily reproduced for a wide arrays of geographical contexts. Notably, the results obtained by our experiments were validated by the actual beekeeping reality. Besides beekeeping, the use of this system could not only be applied in beekeeping land suitability evaluations, but may be successfully extended to other types of land suitability evaluations. (C) 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

1 - 22 of 22
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