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  • 1.
    Andersson, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Eklund, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan, Filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Analysis and Actions for Robust ElectronicsProduction at Haldex Brake Products Ltd2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis report contains information about a project carried out at Haldex Brake Products that is situated in Redditch England. The Redditch site is part of the “Commercial Vehicle Systems” division within the Haldex group. Haldex Brake Products is designing and producing electronic anti lock brake systems. The latest product is called GEN2 and the project goal was to increase productivity and achieve more stability within the production processes of this product. The goal was achieved trough implementation suggestions affecting the three categories in overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Nine of the biggest implementations are presented in this report. Some of the suggestions are already implemented and some are under progress to be implemented. These implementations will result in an increase in productivity with additionally 953 products per week. The expected results are based on calculations on an average product. The report also contains suggestions for future actions to even more increase the efficiency of the production processes at Haldex Brake Products in Redditch.

  • 2.
    Chung, Rosanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Gustafsson, Nelly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken US.
    Liberation of lutein from spinach: Effects of heating time, microwavereheating and liquefaction2019Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 277, s. 573-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lutein, abundant in dark leafy vegetables, has been associated with several health promoting effects. Still, to what extent different preparation conditions and practices affect the liberation of lutein from food is not fully understood. Here, we compared a range of domestic methods under realistic conditions to prepare spinach, the most common lutein-rich vegetable. After preparations, samples were processed by in vitro digestion and lutein was quantified by HPLC. Data indicate that short-term and medium-term heating of spinach, independent of heating method, substantially reduced liberated lutein and reduction was most pronounced after long boiling times. Interestingly, the loss of lutein in heated samples was partly compensated when samples were reheated in the microwave. However, the highest yield of liberated lutein was obtained from liquefied spinach. Additional dairy enhanced the liquefaction effect. Thus, for optimal liberation of lutein, liquefaction of raw spinach appears to be the method of choice.

  • 3.
    Dunsäter, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Daytime veiling glare in automobiles caused by dashboard reflectance2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Veiling glare has always existed in cars, but during the last years it has been brought up as a big problem. One reason is that glossier materials are being used in car interior design. Another reason is that the customers who buy the cars are getting more quality conscious. They demand to get top quality for the high price that they pay for a car, and veiling glare problems could be regarded as “low quality”.

    Veiling glare is when light hits the car interior and reflects into the windshield, causing mirror-like images in the windshield (ghost images). This can impair the driving experience in two ways. It can lower the contrast of the road scene and it may be a cluttering for the driver.

    This work handles daytime veiling glare from dashboard reflectance. The purpose was to investigate the area and to see if Saab can avoid the problem with veiling glare by using virtual prototyping (see chapter 3.3.1). This has been done by examining if the light

    simulation software Speos can be used to simulate and predict veiling glare, and thereby be used as a tool for better design.

    Key words: Veiling glare, dashboard, windshield, Speos, virtual prototyping.

  • 4.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Knowledge Integration in Product Development Projects2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling handlar om kunskapsintegration i produktutvecklingsprojekt. Med kunskapsintegration avses processer av mål-orienterad interrelatering med syfte att dra fördel av de kunskapskomplementariteter som finns mellan individer som har differentierade kunskapsbaser. Förmågan att integrera specialiserad och distribuerad kunskap är betydelsefull för många företag då den bidrar till att förklara skillnader i produktutvecklingsframgång. Dock saknas det detaljerade, empiriska, studier av kunskapsintegration. Mot denna bakgrund är syftet med denna avhandling att undersöka vilka kunskapsintegrationsmekanismer som är lämpliga att använda i olika projektkontexter.

    Avhandlingen är baserad på två longitudinella realtidsstudier av produktutvecklingsprojekt. En detaljerad redogörelse av projektarbetet, tillsammans med en analys, presenteras för respektive projekt. Därefter görs en komparativ analys, i vilken såväl likheter som olikheter mellan de två fallen och deras respektive projektkontext diskuteras. En iterativ modell för kunskapsintegration förslås som ett resultat av studierna. Den iterativa modellen har ett flertal egenskaper som kan bidra till att öka vår förståelse för kunskapsintegration i empiriska projektkontexter. För det första visar den på vikten av att förstå i vilken utsträckning som kunskapsproblematiken i ett specifikt projekt medför behov av såväl ”aktion” som ”interaktion” och hur dessa kompletterar varandra i en iterativ process. För det andra indikerar den betydelsen av artefakter och hur dessa kan bidra till såväl aktion som interaktion. För det tredje tar den hänsyn till det faktum att aktion och interaktion medför olika kostnader för kunskapsintegration.

  • 5.
    Fagerberg, Petter
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Langley, Billy
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Oraysky, Aleksandra
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sandborg, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ioakimidis, Ioannis
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ultra-processed food advertisements dominate the food advertising landscape in two Stockholm areas with low vs high socioeconomic status. Is it time for regulatory action?2019Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikkel-id 1717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ultra-processed food consumption is a risk factor for obesity and has a negative environmental impact. Food companies spend billions of dollars on advertisements each year to increase the consumption of ultra-processed food. In Australia, USA, and New Zealand, most food advertisements around schools and in train stations promote ultra-processed food, but no similar studies have been conducted in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore the proportion of ultra-processed food advertisements in two districts of Stockholm, Sweden with low vs. high socioeconomic status (SES).

    Methods

    Two independent researchers (per area) mapped all advertisements, including storefronts, in two Stockholm districts. During consecutive days, all advertisements were photographed in Skärholmen (low SES district), and Östermalmstorg (high SES district), on the streets inside and outside the subway stations, as well as inside and outside of local shopping malls. Advertisements promoting food products were identified and a trained dietician categorized whether they promoted ultra-processed foods. Chi-Square test was conducted to test for differences in the proportion of ultra-processed food advertisements between the two study areas.

    Results

    In total, 4092 advertisements were photographed in Skärholmen (n = 1935) and Östermalm (n = 2157). 32.8% of all advertisements promoted food, while 65.4% of food advertisements promoted ultra-processed foods. A significantly higher proportion of ultra-processed food advertisements out of total food advertisements was identified in the low SES area, irrespective of the researcher taking the pictures (74.6% vs. 61.8%, p < 0.001 and 70.4% vs. 54.8%, p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of food advertisements out of total advertisements between the two areas.

    Conclusions

    This study provides initial evidence about the scale and the differences in exposure to food advertisements across areas in Stockholm. The observed high proportion of ultra-processed food advertisements is concerning and is in sharp contrast to the Swedish dietary guidelines that recommend reduced consumption of such foods. Based on our results, residents in low SES areas might be more exposed to ultra-processed food advertisements than those in high SES areas in Stockholm. If such findings are confirmed in additional areas, they should be considered during the deployment of food advertisement regulatory actions.

  • 6.
    Jones, Alexandra
    et al.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög. George Inst Global Hlth, Australia.
    Neal, Bruce
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Defining Unhealthy: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System2018Inngår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institutes Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified core or discretionary based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified core that received HSR amp;lt;= 2.0; and those classified discretionary that received HSR amp;gt;= 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were high in salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as core or discretionary. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Jan Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Hornberje Holding AS, Sweden.
    May fermented Baltic Sea herring help in conditions of gut disorders, such as gastric catarrh and heartburn?2018Inngår i: JOURNAL OF COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE RESEARCH, ISSN 2146-8397, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 53-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been suggested that disruption of the gut microbiota can be significant with respect to pathological intestinal conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastric catarrh (GC), and heartburn (HB). Through history, an essential part of the colonization of the human gut took place by ingestion of food preserved by fermentation. The natural replenishment of microbes via food and beverage is today low because food is "sterilized" through boiling, broiling, and pasteurization. Modulating the gut rnicrobiota with fermented food products may hence be considered as a strategy to treat such conditions. Fermented Baltic Sea herring (FBSH) is an example of a Lactobacillus-fermented food product, which was tested in the present study. Methods: A 30-day open study was performed in 42 volunteers with IBS, GC, or HB. Volunteers were recruited by advertisements in daily newspapers. The volunteers were provided with gelatin capsules for the study, each containing approximately 100 mg freeze dried FBSH. They were also provided with forms that contained columns and rows for every test day where the volunteers were ask to fill in number of capsules taken, and to report possible improvements according to a 0-10 scale, where 10 stands for full recovery. Results: The most reported common disorder symptom was IBS and 7 of 14 of these volunteers reported recovery, with a mean recovery of 4.4. All of the 9 volunteers reported recovery from GC, with a mean recovery of 8.4. Five of 6 volunteers reported recovery from HB, with a mean recovery of 6.8. Conclusion: Although the present study is a small open study, the overall results are exciting and merits further studies in volunteers, ideally in a double-blind placebo-controlled manner.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Catrine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Effects on product quality for probiotic yoghurts caused by long storage times during production2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years there has been a large increase in the worldwide sales of cultured products containing probiotics. The obstacle in the production of fermented products incubated with probiotic strains is its effect on sensory, chemical and physical properties. This Master´s Thesis investigates how extended storage times in fermentation tank as well as buffer tank during production of probiotic yoghurts affect final product quality. Through experimental studies, maximum storage times for probiotic yoghurts were to be recommended. The study includes analyses of pH, viscosity, stability, acetic acid concentration, microbial viability and sensory evaluations.

    Design of experiments (DOE) was used to construct a 32-factorial design for the experiment where different storage times were tested. The analyses showed that:

    • pH decreases with both storage time in fermentation tank and buffer tank.
    • Viscosity increases with long storage times in fermentation tank, while it decreases with long storage times in buffer tanks.
    • Many samples had a sandy/grainy and slimy texture which could be related to high levels of Bifidobacteria or high fermentation temperatures.
    • High levels of acetic acid was found in all samples.
    • All measurements data where within the specification limits, whereas no recommendation for maximum storage times during production could be given.
  • 9.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    et al.
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johannisson, Anders
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lavonen, Elin
    Norrvatten, Solna.
    Mandava, Geeta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity2019Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 5, s. 182-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products whenchlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products(DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemicalanalysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity),genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovativewater treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation,ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scaleafter each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to theformation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination(10 mg Cl2 L-1) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% inwater chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorinationwas achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted indecreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found betweenUV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formedfrom pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, highdosechlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance andNrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of theinnovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventionalprocess and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step inthe innovative water treatment process.

  • 10.
    Milan, Amber M.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Shrestha, Aahana
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Karlstrom, Helga J.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Martinsson, Jakob A.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Nils J.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Perry, Jo K.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Day, Li
    AgResearch Ltd, New Zealand.
    Barnett, Matthew P. G.
    AgResearch Ltd, New Zealand; Riddet Inst, New Zealand; High Value Nutr Natl Sci Challenge, New Zealand.
    Cameron-Smith, David
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand; AgResearch Ltd, New Zealand; Riddet Inst, New Zealand.
    Comparison of the impact of bovine milk beta-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial2020Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 149-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lactose malabsorption (LM) is a major cause of digestive discomfort from dairy products. Recently. a role for bovine beta-casein A1 has been proposed. Objectives: We examined whether there are distinct symptoms of digestive discomfort due to either lactose or differing bovine beta-casein types. Methods: Women (n = 40; age: 25.2 +/- 05 y) with self-reported varying dairy tolerance underwent a 50-g lactose challenge. Based on postchallenge LM and digestive discomfort, participants were classified as either lactose intolerant (LI; n = 10, self-reported intolerant, diagnosed lactose intolerant), nonlactose dairy intolerant (NLDI; n = 20, self-reported intolerant, diagnosed lactose tolerant), or dairy tolerant (DT: n = 10, self-reported tolerant, diagnosed lactose tolerant). In a double-blinded randomized sequence, participants consumed 750 mL conventional milk (CON; containing Al and A2 beta-casein and lactose), a2 Milk (A2M; exclusively containing A2 beta-casein with lactose), or lactose-free conventional milk (LF-CON; containing Al and A2 beta-casein without lactose). Subjective digestive symptoms and breath hydrogen (measuring LM) were recorded regularly over 3 h, and further ad hoc digestive symptoms over 12 h. Results: LI subjects experienced prolonged digestive discomfort with CON milk. A2M reduced (P amp;lt; 0.05) some symptoms (nausea: A2M 8 +/- 3 mm compared with CON 15 +/- 3mm: fecal urgency: A2M 4 +/- 1 compared with CON 10 +/- 3 mm), and attenuated the rise in breath hydrogen over 3 h, relative to CON milk (A2M 59 +/- 23 compared with CON 98 +/- 25 ppm at 150 min; P amp;lt; 0.01). In contrast, NLDI subjects experienced rapid-onset, transient symptoms (abdominal distension, bloating, and flatulence) without increased breath hydrogen, irrespective of milk type. Conclusions: In LI individuals, LM and digestive comfort with lactose-containing milks was improved with milk containing exclusively A2 beta-casein. Furthermore, self-reported dairy intolerance without LM (NLDI) is characterized by early-onset digestive discomfort following milk ingestion, irrespective of lactose content or beta-casein type.

  • 11.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Structor Miljö Öst AB Linköping Sweden.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF R&D LNHE - Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique et Environnement Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Radiotracer evidence that the rhizosphere is a hot-spot for chlorination of soil organic matter2019Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, Vol. 443, nr 1-2, s. 245-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in soils, leading to levels of chlorinated soil organic matter that often exceed the levels of chloride, remains mysterious in terms of its causes and regulation. While the composition of plant species and the availability of labile organic matter was recently shown to be important, the physical localization of chlorination in soils remains unclear but is a key for understanding regulation and patterns observed. Here we assess the relative importance of organic matter chlorination in (a) bulk soil, (b) the plant roots plus the rhizosphere zone surrounding the roots, and (c) above-ground plant biomass, in an experimental plant-soil system.

    Methods

    A radiotracer, 36Cl, was added to study translocation and transformations of Cl and Clorg in agricultural soil with and without wheat (Triticum vulgare) over 50 days.

    Results

    The specific chlorination rates (the fraction of the added 36Cl converted to 36Clorg per day) in soil with plants was much higher (0.02 d−1) than without plants (0.0007 d−1) at peak growth (day 25). The plant root and rhizosphere showed much higher formation of 36Clorg than the bulk soil, suggesting that the rhizosphere is a hotspot for chlorination in the soil. In addition, the treatment with plants displayed a rapid and high plant uptake of Cl.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the rhizosphere harbour the most extensive in-situ chlorination process in soil and that root-soil interaction may be key for terrestrial chlorine cycling.

  • 12.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Walfridsson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Säkerhetsbrytare för Gräsklippare2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes teh solution of two problems regarding safety on powered lawnmowers; protectning the users from injury when using the lawnmower in slopes, and when cleaning the cutting blade.

    The task was carried out through initial studies on a representative lawnmower. A generation of ideas followed with an evaluation to select the best solution. The winning concept was further developed to reach acceptable performance. The word resulted in a functioning prototype utilising an original way of detecting inclinations without incorrect signals. It c an serve as a platform for further development into a product.

    The work gives insightful experience of solving real-world problems, and especially to deal with situations where several variables and their effects are unknown

    Please note that several parts of the work are confidential, and have therefore been removed from the thesis.

  • 13.
    Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Environmental Imprint of Human Food Consumption: Linköping, Sweden 1870 - 20002005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Human food consumption has changed from the late 19th century to the turn of the millennium, and so has the need for resources to sustain this consumption. For the city of Linköping, situated in southeastern Sweden, the environmental imprint of an average inhabitant’s food consumption is studied from the year 1870 to the year 2000. The average consumer is the driving factor in this study, since changes in food consumption have a direct influence on the environmental imprint. This thesis analyses the environmental imprint of human food consumption from a historical perspective, by applying two different methods. An analysis of the average Swedish food consumption creates the basis for a material flow analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as a study of the spatial imprint.

    Emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus into the hydrosphere have decreased over this period for the system of food consumption and production for an average consumer, while the input via chemical fertilizer has increased significantly. The efficiency of this system could be increased if for instance more phosphorus in human excreta would be reused within the system instead of large deposition and losses into the hydrosphere. The spatial imprint of human food consumption shows, given the changing local preconditions, that less space would be needed for regional production of the consumed food. However, the share of today’s import and thus globally produced food doubles this spatial imprint.

    The results of this study show not only a strong influence of the consumption of meat and other animal products on the environmental imprint, but also great potential in the regional production of food. In the context of an increasing urban population, and thus additional billions of people who will live at an increasing distance from the agricultural production land, concern for the direct effects of our human food consumption can be of decisive importance for future sustainable food supply.

    Delarbeid
    1. Reconstructing Swedish Food Consumption from Hospital Diets after 1870
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reconstructing Swedish Food Consumption from Hospital Diets after 1870
    2004 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 149-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption is of great interest from an environmental point of view since different diets have a significant impact on space, water, and the use of other resources. This article studies the quantity and composition of food consumption in Sweden between 1870 and 2000. The primary material, consisting of historical hospital dietary regulations from 1871 to 1928, is introduced in detail and compared to other national investigations. The results show a distinctive increase in the consumption of meat, fish, vegetables, and fruits, with a parallel decrease in cereal and milk consumption. Strong regional patterns could be detected concerning the consumption of meat and fish. The data are compared to other national investigations and particularly to studies of German and Finnish food consumption in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

    Emneord
    Food consumption, Sweden, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, hospital diet
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13349 (URN)10.1080/03670240490446786 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-02 Laget: 2005-09-02 Sist oppdatert: 2009-06-04
    2. Food Consumption and Nutrient Flows – Nitrogen in Sweden since the 1870s
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Food Consumption and Nutrient Flows – Nitrogen in Sweden since the 1870s
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 61-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in food consumption and related processes have a significant impact on the flow of nitrogen in the environment. This study identifies both flows within the system and emissions to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. A case study of an average inhabitant of the city of Linköping, Sweden, covers the years 1870, 1900, 1950, and 2000 and includes changes in food consumption and processing, agricultural production, and organic waste handling practices. Emissions to the hydrosphere from organic waste handling increased from 0.57 kilograms of nitrogen per capita per year (kg N/cap per year) to 3.1 kg N/cap per year, whereas the total flow of nitrogen to waste deposits grew from a negligible amount to 1.7 kg N/cap per year. The largest flow of nitrogen during the entire period came from fodder. The input of chemical fertilizer rose gradually to a high level of 15 kg N/cap per year in the year 2000. The total load per capita disposed of to the environment decreased during these 130 years by about 30%.

    Emneord
    dynamic modeling, food production, industrial ecology, materials flow analysis (MFA), mathematical materials flow analysis (MMFA), substance flow analysis (SFA)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13350 (URN)10.1162/jiec.2006.10.4.61 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-02 Laget: 2005-09-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13
    3. The Flow of Phosphorus in Food Production and Consumption: Linköping, Sweden, 1870-2000
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Flow of Phosphorus in Food Production and Consumption: Linköping, Sweden, 1870-2000
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13351 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-02 Laget: 2005-09-02 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13
    4. Recycling of Phosphorus in Urban Sweden: A historical overview to prepare a strategy for the future
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Recycling of Phosphorus in Urban Sweden: A historical overview to prepare a strategy for the future
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 611-624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable sanitation and food security have been issues in all human history although named differently. This study describes the evolution of sanitation arrangements in the Swedish town Linkoping for the period 1870-2000. The flow of phosphorus from food consumption is estimated for the period and its output is divided into gainful reuse in agriculture and energy production and (harmful) losses to the hydrosphere and landfills. The rate of gainful reuse varies dramatically, from very high, up until the 1920s, followed by a drop to almost zero around 1950. Reuse was picking up since the introduction of a phosphorus removal unit at wastewater treatment plants and application of sludge in agriculture from the 1970s, but was followed by a sharp decline at the end of the 20th century. The results from Linkoping are applied to scenarios for Sweden as a whole and extended to some anticipated implications for the world in the years to come.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    IWA Publishing, 2010
    Emneord
    Food security, Material flow analysis, Phosphorus, Recycling, Reuse, Strategy, Sustainability, Sustainable sanitation, Sweden
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13352 (URN)10.2166/wp.2009.165 (DOI)000280882100010 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-02 Laget: 2005-09-02 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13
    5. Spatial Imprint of Food Consumption: A Historical Analysis for Sweden, 1870-2000
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Spatial Imprint of Food Consumption: A Historical Analysis for Sweden, 1870-2000
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 565-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on quantity and composition of food as well as on production conditions and techniques, the space needed to sustain an individual’s nourishment varies. The amount of space needed also depends on the use of resources such as energy, water, and fertilizers, as well as potential land degradation and water pollution. Our study focuses on the changing spatial imprint of an average inhabitant of an expanding Swedish city, Linköping, from 1870 to 2000 taking into account both shifts in consumption as well as agricultural productivity and practices. Despite the distinctly larger amount of animal food products, such as meat and fish, consumed in 2000, we calculate the area needed to sustain an individual’s annual food consumption could be less than one fourth of that needed in 1870. However, if the import of various globally produced foods is included in our calculations, the land needed to sustain the consumption of an inhabitant of Linköping in 2000 doubles. We also argue that an examination of this regional imprint can be used to explore and evaluate possibilities for regional development.

    Emneord
    spatial imprint, food consumption, nineteenth/twentieth century, Sweden, ecological footprint
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13353 (URN)10.1007/s10745-005-5160-3 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-09-02 Laget: 2005-09-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 14.
    Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reconstructing Swedish Food Consumption from Hospital Diets after 18702004Inngår i: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 149-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption is of great interest from an environmental point of view since different diets have a significant impact on space, water, and the use of other resources. This article studies the quantity and composition of food consumption in Sweden between 1870 and 2000. The primary material, consisting of historical hospital dietary regulations from 1871 to 1928, is introduced in detail and compared to other national investigations. The results show a distinctive increase in the consumption of meat, fish, vegetables, and fruits, with a parallel decrease in cereal and milk consumption. Strong regional patterns could be detected concerning the consumption of meat and fish. The data are compared to other national investigations and particularly to studies of German and Finnish food consumption in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

  • 15.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Measurements and fluxes of volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) from natural terrestrial sources: Measurement techniques and spatio-temporal variability of flux estimates2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Flyktiga organiska föreningar (VOC) och i synnerhet klorerade VOCs (VOCls) betraktas som miljö­farliga ämnen i vattenmiljöer på grund av sina toxiska egenskaper, men även i atmosfären eftersom de har en stor inverkan på atmosfärskemin, t ex genom att påverka ozonskiktet. Ett antal studier har hittat flera naturliga källor för VOCl och därmed förändrat synen på VOCls som endast producerade av människor. Trots det så saknas kunskaperna fortfarande om utsläpp de naturliga flödena av VOCls, särskilt när det gäller variation i tid och rum från terrestra miljöer. I kärnkraftsindustrin är Cl­36 en dosdominerande radionuklid för en del avfallströmmar. Därför behövs en bättre förståelse för omsättningen av klor i ytnära ekosystem.

    Klormetan är den mest studerade av VOCl och den näst mest studerade är kloroform. Några andra studier har uppskattat flöde av andra VOCl som tetraklormetan (CCl4), metylkloroform (CH3CCl3), tetrakloretan (C2H2Cl4), freoner (CFC), kloretan (C2H5Cl), bromodiklormetan (CHBrCl2). Studier genomfördes i klimat och markbaserade ekosystem som sträcker sig från arktisk tundra till tropisk regnskog, men de flesta studier fokuserar på tempererat klimatområde. Våtmarker och kustsystem är de studerande dominerande ekosystemen. Kammare är den vanligaste metoden för att uppskatta flöden av av VOCls, men det finns också några studier med koncentrationsgradienter i markprofiler, och en form av mikrometeorologimetodik. De metodologiska osäkerheterna som diskuteras kretsar i första hand kring kontamination, få replikat, design av fältmätningar och fältmätningarnas påverkan på markprocesser och därmed indirekt på flödena. Trots de många utmaningarna för att mäta VOCls och uppskatta flödena är det klart att flödet av klor till atmosfären är ett viktigt flöde i klors biogeo­kemiska cykel i terrestra ekosystem. Skogsekosystem kan avge så mycket som 0.1 g m–2, vilket är 40 % av våtdepositionen av klorid och det finns studier som tyder på att våtmarker är en långt mycket större källa till klor i atmosfären än man tidigare trott.

  • 16.
    Wingård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Källman, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Alla kan inte allt: en kvalitativ studie kring implementeringen av2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2006 har myndigheter och kommuner i Sverige arbetat med att införa EU: s nya förordningar rörande livsmedelspolitik. Målet med dessa förordningar är att säkerställa säkra livsmedel för alla konsumenter inom EU. Begreppet säkra livsmedel bygger i sin tur på strategin från jord till bord där EU: s mål är att livsmedel ska behandlas på ett säkert sätt i hela produktionskedjan till försäljning. Det är i nuläget upp till varje medlemsstat att implementera, med implementering menas att politiska beslut förverkligas i förvaltningarna de nya lagarna och målet är att livsmedel ska vara lika säkra var man än befinner sig inom EU: s gränser. Uppsatsen syfte är att analysera hur långt implementeringen av Europalagstiftningen rörande livsmedel med fokus på utbildning och kunskap har kommit i en medelstor kommun i Sverige (Nyköping).

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