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  • 1.
    Eneland, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Metoder för att undersöka effekterna av naturvårdshänsynen i skogsbruket efter den nya skogsvårdslagen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has examined the difference between the new forestry actand the previous one. The research has been divided in two parts, one is a literature study of the law and the other is a field study of methods for measuring the change in consideration of nature. As compliment too the field study a literature study of the research parameters nature conservation benefits. The examine of the laws were done in this way, the introduction of the laws and the nature conservation paragraphs were read and compared. For the field study methods have been worked out and tested in the field. The research parameters that have been tested are standing dead wood with subgroup man made snags, thick trees, consideration of nature areas, distribution of tree species and nesting trees. The field testing were made in the neighboring forest of the city Orsa in the administrative province of Dalarna.The results of the field methods are that half of the methods have a possible use in a larger study with some modifications. The other half are missing references data to be useful.The biggest differences between the laws are that in new law the goals for production and environment care are equal. There is also an change in attitude towards greater consideration of nature.

  • 2.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rutting, Tobias
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evolution of nitrogen cycling in regrowing Amazonian rainforest2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 8538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive regions of tropical forests are subjected to high rates of deforestation and forest regrowth and both are strongly affect soil nutrient cycling. Nitrogen (N) dynamics changes during forest regrowth and the recovery of forests and functioning similar to pristine conditions depends on sufficient N availability. We show that, in a chronosequence of Amazonian forests, gross nitrification and, as a result, nitrate-to-ammonium (NO3- : NH4+) ratio were lower in all stages of regrowing forests (10 to 40 years) compared to pristine forest. This indicates the evolution of a more conservative and closed N cycle with reduced risk for N leaking out of the ecosystem in regrowing forests. Furthermore, our results indicate that mineralization and nitrification are decoupled in young regrowing forests (10 years), such as that high gross mineralization is accompanied by low gross nitrification, demonstrating a closed N cycle that at the same time maintains N supply for forest regrowth. We conclude that the status of gross nitrification in disturbed soil is a key process to understand the mechanisms of and time needed for tropical forest recovery.

  • 3.
    Korkmaz, M.
    et al.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    Akyol, A.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    Turkoglu, T.
    Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ, Turkey.
    Bergner, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tolunay, A.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    PERSPECTIVE ON FOREST BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS FOR PROTECTED AREAS: A COMPARISON OF TURKISH AND SWEDISH FOREST EXPERT OPINIONS2018In: Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, ISSN 1589-1623, E-ISSN 1785-0037, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 3595-3609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of expert opinions on forest biodiversity indicators for protected areas, using a questionnaire given to forest experts in Turkey and Sweden. Experts were selected according to whether they had studied or worked in areas related to biodiversity, protected areas and sustainable forest management. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the differences between the opinions of Swedish and Turkish experts regarding the indicators. The experts from both countries considered "endemic species" and "naturalness" as the most important indicators, while "overused species", "forest distribution and regeneration", "carrying capacity in terms of important species of area" and "the existence of different conservation status of protected areas" were considered equally as the least important indicators. The most important difference between the two groups was related to the indicators "dead wood" and "hollow trees", which Swedish experts found more important than their Turkish counterparts. Two other large differences were that the Swedish experts found "litter layer" much more important and Turkish experts instead found "plant species composition" much more important. The differences between the two groups reveal different perspectives regarding the planning and management of protected areas in each respective country.

  • 4.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

    List of papers
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
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    2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1504-1510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Available from: 2012-03-02 Created: 2012-03-02 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
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    2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 4921-4928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
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    2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    National Category
    Soil Science Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Ecology Forest Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 6.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate-related forest policies and trends2015In: The future use of Nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 99-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the carbon cycle, forests have a place in climate-related forest policies and trends. By describing forest-related measures driven by international climate negotiations, such as the afforestation and reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), or the voluntary carbon market, this chapter illustrates how carbon has become an important but fuzzy commodity. The demand for carbon-focused measures is also seen in suggested activities in the Swedish context, shown with the Arctic Boreal Climate Development (ABCD) project. It can be said that due perhaps to the complexity involved in quantifying and accounting for carbon, other benefits such as energy substitution or improved hydrology from carbon-improving management strategies are being enhanced in the debate.

  • 7.
    Petersson, Linda K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlgren, Jonas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Gotmark, Frank
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salk, Carl
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Lof, Magnus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Changing land use and increasing abundance of deer cause natural regeneration failure of oaks: Six decades of landscape-scale evidence2019In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 444, p. 299-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many tree species worldwide are suffering from slow or failed natural regeneration with dramatic consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, it is difficult to disentangle the complex effects of factors influencing regeneration processes on long-lived tree species at large scales. In this study, we use long-term data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory (1953-2015) combined with deer hunting data (1960-2015) to reveal experimentally-intractable processes impeding oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in southern Sweden. Oak-dominated ecosystems are widespread in northern temperate regions, where oaks are foundation species with disproportionate importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Our study reveals that during the last six decades, oak tree numbers and standing volume have continuously increased, while natural regeneration of oak declined steeply after the early 1980s. We connect this decline to denser and darker forests, combined with increased abundance of deer. Land use changes during the six decades, such as abandonment of traditional practices and large-scale introduction of forest management oriented towards high volume production, led to continuously denser forests and thereby reduced the oak regeneration niche. In addition, the impact of changed game management was evident. This was particularly clear from a natural experiment on Gotland, a large island free of deer until roe deer were introduced in the late 20th century, at which point oak regeneration began a steep decline. At the stand level, natural oak regeneration could be expected to mainly occur in pulses after disturbance events, followed by a period of low regeneration success as the cohort ages. However, at a landscape scale one would expect a mix of successional stages that would even out such demographic patterns. A prolonged period of low regeneration at a landscape scale will eventually lead to a large gap in the oak size distribution as was observed in this study. This could eventually hurt the many species dependent on old and large oak trees. Active management to restore the oak regeneration niche, i.e. forest habitats with more light and less browsing pressure, therefore seems essential. The latter includes developing strategies that manage both deer populations and their available food across landscapes. Our study is the first to link oak regeneration failure to long-term changes in land use and increased deer populations at a landscape scale in this region. Furthermore, our study show how historical data can clarify confounded processes impacting long-lived forest species.

  • 8.
    Scharis, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Rasmussen, Gregory S. A.
    Painted Dog Conservation, Hwange National Park, PO Box 72, Dete, Zimbabwe.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Using morphometrics to quantitatively differentiateAfrican wild dog footprints from domestic dogfootprints – a pilot study2016In: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, E-ISSN 1365-2028, Vol. 54, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable population estimation and species inventories areimportant for wildlife conservation, but such estimationsare often difficult due to unreliable identification of thespecies in question. Furthermore, for predator conflictresolution, it is essential to be able to reliably identify thepredator. This study presents a new method to quantitativelydistinguish African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) footprintsfrom feral domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)footprints. Footprint photographs were digitally processedusing Photoshop and the NIH image processing softwareImageJ, and total pad area and angles between thecentroids of the backpad and the digits of the paw weremeasured. Pad angles showed statistically significantdifferences between the two species and, with the exceptionthat there was no significant difference in pad areabetween African wild dog females and domestic dog males,total pad areas were also diagnostic. Consequently, thecombination of total pad area and the angle betweenbackpad and digits are useful discriminators to reliablyidentify the species from an unknown footprint.

  • 9.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gomez, Eliot
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Ove
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden..
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic plants2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 1-8, article id e1501136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directlymerged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  • 10.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Measurements and fluxes of volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) from natural terrestrial sources: Measurement techniques and spatio-temporal variability of flux estimates2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and especially chlorinated VOCs (VOCls) are regarded as en viron mental risk substances in water bodies due to their toxic characteristics. Even in the atmo­sphere they highly impact atmospheric chemistry, e.g. degrading the ozone layer. Several studies have convincingly identified a number of natural VOCl sources thereby challenging the view of VOCls as only produced by humans. Yet, fundamental knowledge is still missing concerning the emission, distribution and the natural abundance of VOCls, especially regarding the high spatial and temporal variability of emissions from terrestrial sources. In the nuclear industry, Cl­36 is a dose­dominating radionuclide in some waste, and this adds to the need to better understand the processes, transport and fate of chlorine in the bio sphere. In this report 38 studies on VOCl flux measurement estimates were reviewed to summarize the current knowledge on spatio­temporal variations of different VOCls and various measurement tech niques.

    Chloromethane is the most studied VOCl compound and chloroform, the second most studied. A few other studies have estimated fluxes of additional VOCls such as tetrachloromethane (CCl4), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), tetrachloroethane (C2H2Cl4), freons (CFCs), chloroethane (C2H5Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). Studies were conducted in climates and terrestrial ecosystems ranging from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest but most studies focus on the temperate climate region. Wetlands and coastal systems dominate the studied ecosystems. Flux chambers are the most common method for investigation of the soil­atmosphere exchange of VOCls, but a few studies used soil gas profiles and one the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) technique. Methodological uncer­tainties are mainly related to sample contamination, few replicates, chamber design, and chamber deployment (the time of measurement) effects on the soil­atmosphere exchange itself. Despite the many challenges in measuring VOCls and estimating the fluxes, a substantial part of the chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems, and especially from wetlands and coastal areas, is emitted to the atmosphere as VOCls. In inland forested ecosystems, the release of Cl to the atmosphere could be as much as 0.1 g m–2, which is 40 % of the wet deposition and there are studies that suggest that freshwater wetlands are much larger source of chlorine in the atmosphere than previously understood.

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