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  • 1.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center. Sumy State University, Ukraine.
    Chernysh, Yelizaveta
    Sumy State University, Ukraine; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chubur, Viktoriia
    Sumy State University, Ukraine; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Skvortsova, Polina
    Sumy State University, Ukraine.
    Roubik, Hynek
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Biopotential of Agricultural Waste: Production of Biofertilizers and Biofuels2022In: 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference: Energy and Clean Technologies, SGEM 2022, Vienna, 6 December 2022 - 8 December 2022 / [ed] Trofymchuk O., Rivza B., Vienna, 2022, Vol. 22, 4.2, p. 39-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is focused on performing a SWOT analysis of agricultural waste management methods. This approach can be applied in the biogas technology strategic planning process in Ukraine, which can solve the issue of implementation of environmental guidelines for the development of biofuels and biofertilizers. The main factors that determine how digestate is used are its quality, local conditions, regulations, and documents. Fertilizing fields with digestate provides many advantages, for example: reduced demand for plant protection products, reduction of unpleasant odor, and destruction of possible pathogens. The strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of biogas plants in Ukraine have been identified, and opportunities and threats have been considered. In general, the introduction of biogas technology is a very promising solution for the agricultural sector. Taking into account that a biogas plant is considered a potentially hazardous object for workers, it is necessary to constantly monitor the parameters of reactor operation in order to ensure the technological and environmental safety of the engineering facilities. For Ukraine, there is a shortage of specialists to set up an effective operation of biogas equipment and bring it to the industrial scale. It is necessary to consult with medium and small farms interested in the feasibility study and implementation of biogas technologies. 

  • 2.
    Figueiredo, V.
    et al.
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil; University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Ruetting, T.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Soil organic matter content controls gross nitrogen dynamics and N2O production in riparian and upland boreal soil2016In: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 782-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the pathways of gross soil nitrogen (N) transformations and nitrous oxide (N2O) production with N-15 enrichment techniques in a boreal forest landscape by comparing organic (riparian) and mineral (upland) soil within two catchments in northern Sweden. The values of all soil properties evaluated for the riparin and upland zones were statistically different (Pamp;lt;0.05). The rates of gross N transformation were larger in the riparian than in the upland soil (Pamp;lt;0.05), which can be explained by the larger soil organic matter (SOM) content that provides energy and mineral N as a substrate for other processes. The riparian soil at one site shows a decoupling of nitrification from mineralization; the largest gross mineralization occurred in the soil at this site, but gross nitrification was relatively small. This was probably because of the low pH (2.70.1), which inhibits the activity of autotrophic nitrifiers. Oxidation of organic N was the main source of N2O in the soil at all sites, probably because of low soil pH and large organic carbon content, which favours heterotrophic nitrification. The results of our study confirm that organic matter is the main regulating factor for gross N mineralization and nitrification; the latter are markedly different in the organic-rich riparian soil and the upland soil in the boreal forest landscape.

  • 3.
    Florentine, Singarayer
    et al.
    Federat Univ Australia, Australia; RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westbrooke, Martin
    Federat Univ Australia, Australia.
    Potential contributions of the soil seed bank and seed rain for accelerating the restoration of riparian catchments in Australia2023In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 47, article id e02645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality and quantity of soil seed bank composition can play a key role in secondary succession restoration efforts such as those involved in this study, which concerned the restoration of damaged native sites in riparian environments in Victoria, Australia. The objective of this study of the restoration work was to determine the role played by naturally existing soil seed bank in the success of natural restoration in these restored and unmanaged riparian areas. In this regard, we sampled the soil seed bank, seed rain, seedlings in the field and vegetation cover from three sub catchments defined by restoration attempts which had been conducted (i) < 3 years, (ii) 4-8 years, and (iii) > 9 years previous to sampling. In addition, (iv) in order to provide comparative data, adjacent sites (iv) chosen for future restoration and (v) with remnant vegetation, were also sampled. From samples, a total of 8858 seedlings were recorded from the seed bank and the vegetation survey showed 170 species, with exotic species being more numerous than native. The seed rain (a total of 1422 seeds) was dominated by exotic species at all sites. When comparing the vegetation distribution and the seed rain composition, it was clear that whilst the seed bank was more promising as a comparative recruitment source of native species, there were still too many sites dominated by exotic species to rely on this as a long-term restoration strategy. However, this study indicated that there were significant variations in restoration potential among the sites, suggesting that some careful prior site selection for investment of restoration efforts is an important issue. As a consequence, we have recommended that a detailed understanding of the soil seed bank and seed rain species composition prior to the restoration is essential, since a positive seed bank composition with a significant relative density of native species seeds, will provide an indication of native species resilience and their potential for recovery. We therefore believe that the findings of this study will provide valuable information to natural resource management agencies regarding the strategy for prioritisation of restoration sites, which will be more beneficial than randomly selecting sites for habitat restoration. In addition, with successful sector restoration, it is expected that the increasing usefulness of the seed bank will allow further restoration of adjacent areas with time.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Linda
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Temperature sensitivity of decomposition in a boreal mixed mire in northern Sweden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon accumulation in soils constitutes a significant sink for carbon. How the climate change with increasing temperatures will affect the soil carbon storage represents uncertainty of the predictions in the climate change ecosystem feedback mechanisms. In this study the temperature impact on the decomposition of the large carbon pools in peatlands was investigated. Peat cores from different microtopographic units in a boreal oligotrophic minerogenic mire in northern Sweden were collected from in three depths (5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 centimeters below the surface). The samples were incubated at four temperatures: 4, 9, 14 and 19°C and the heterotrophic respiration (CO2- production) was measured hourly or 37 days. Unexpectedly, basal respiration did not show any correlation with temperature. However, the exponential increase in respiration (µ) was correlated with temperature: i.e.  giving Q10 values between 2 (SE +/- 0.36) and 5 (SE +/-1.05). Soil depth or vegetation covers did not affect temperature response (Q10) of µ. The substrate induced respiration (SIR) did not occour but for a few of the samples.

    The conclusion from this study is that degradation of peat seams not be affected by a temperature increase. The addition of glucose, nitrogen and phosphorus increased with increasing temperature with a Q10 value as expected.

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    Temperature sensitivity of decomposition in a boreal mixed mire in northern Sweden
  • 5.
    Joshi, Prayon
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Adhikari, Raize
    Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Bhandari, Rajendra
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Shrestha, Bibek
    Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Shrestha, Nischal
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Chhetri, Samikshya
    Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Sharma, Subodh
    Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Nepal; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Himalayan watersheds in Nepal record high soil erosion rates estimated using the RUSLE model and experimental erosion plots2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e15800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising unpredictability in the food supply chain in many parts of the world is related to soil loss and poor agricultural output. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), widely used for estimating soil loss, was applied in the western mid-hills in Nepal, with steep slopes and fragile geology. This region is at high risk for rapid soil erosion and mass wasting. To estimate soil loss, this study utilized the RUSLE model with experimental erosion plots in the Aadhikhola and Tinahukhola watersheds, capturing real-time erosion in the field. The annual soil loss for the Aadhikhola watershed is estimated at ∼41.4 tons ha−1 yr−1. In contrast, in the Tinahukhola watershed, soil loss is low (∼24.1 tons ha−1 yr−1). Although annual rainfall showed an increasing trend in both watersheds, the change in soil loss was statistically insignificant. The high erosion rates from the experimental plots in both watersheds support the model outputs. Results from the experimental plots recorded the rate of soil erosion for different land use as: irrigated agricultural land > rainfed agricultural land > forests. The trends highlight the role of human activities in enhancing soil erosion in these mountainous terrains in terms of medium to long-term perspectives. Therefore, sustainable agriculture practices in these terrains must investigate alternate ways to decrease soil erosion to support people's livelihoods.

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  • 6. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

    List of papers
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
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    2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1504-1510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Available from: 2012-03-02 Created: 2012-03-02 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
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    2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 4921-4928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2018-10-05
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
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    2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    National Category
    Soil Science Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Ecology Forest Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
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  • 7.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 8.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Structor Miljö Öst AB Linköping Sweden.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF R&D LNHE - Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique et Environnement Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radiotracer evidence that the rhizosphere is a hot-spot for chlorination of soil organic matter2019In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, Vol. 443, no 1-2, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in soils, leading to levels of chlorinated soil organic matter that often exceed the levels of chloride, remains mysterious in terms of its causes and regulation. While the composition of plant species and the availability of labile organic matter was recently shown to be important, the physical localization of chlorination in soils remains unclear but is a key for understanding regulation and patterns observed. Here we assess the relative importance of organic matter chlorination in (a) bulk soil, (b) the plant roots plus the rhizosphere zone surrounding the roots, and (c) above-ground plant biomass, in an experimental plant-soil system.

    Methods

    A radiotracer, 36Cl, was added to study translocation and transformations of Cl and Clorg in agricultural soil with and without wheat (Triticum vulgare) over 50 days.

    Results

    The specific chlorination rates (the fraction of the added 36Cl converted to 36Clorg per day) in soil with plants was much higher (0.02 d−1) than without plants (0.0007 d−1) at peak growth (day 25). The plant root and rhizosphere showed much higher formation of 36Clorg than the bulk soil, suggesting that the rhizosphere is a hotspot for chlorination in the soil. In addition, the treatment with plants displayed a rapid and high plant uptake of Cl.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the rhizosphere harbour the most extensive in-situ chlorination process in soil and that root-soil interaction may be key for terrestrial chlorine cycling.

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  • 9.
    Pickering, Lauren
    et al.
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Black, Andrew
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Gilbert, Chanelle
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Jeronimo, Matthew
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Nesic, Zoran
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Pilz, Juergen
    University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Portable Chamber System for Measuring Chloroform Fluxes from Terrestrial Environments – Methodological Challenges2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 24, p. 14298-14305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a system designed to measure chloroform flux from terrestrial systems, providing a reliable first assessment of the spatial variability of flux over an area. The study takes into account that the variability of ambient air concentrations is unknown. It includes quality assurance procedures, sensitivity assessments, and testing of materials used to ensure that the flux equation used to extrapolate from concentrations to fluxes is sound and that the system does not act as a sink or a source of chloroform. The results show that many materials and components commonly used in sampling systems designed for CO2, CH4, and N2O emit chloroform and other volatile chlorinated compounds (VOCls) and are thus unsuitable in systems designed for studies of such compounds. To handle the above-mentioned challenges, we designed a system with a non-steady-state chamber and a closed-loop air-circulation unit returning scrubbed air to the chamber. Based on empirical observations, the concentration increase during a deployment was assumed to be linear. Four samples were collected consecutively and a line was fitted to the measured concentrations. The slope of the fitted line and the y-axis intercept were input variables in the equation used to transform concentration change data to flux estimates. The soundness of the flux equation and the underlying assumptions were tested and found to be reliable by comparing modeled and measured concentrations. Fluxes of chloroform in a forest clear-cut on the east coast of Vancouver Island, BC, during the year were found to vary from −130 to 620 ng m–2 h–1. The study shows that the method can reliably detect differences of approximately 50 ng m–2 h–1 in chloroform fluxes. The statistical power of the method is still comparatively strong down to differences of 35 ng m–2 h–1, but for smaller differences, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  • 10.
    Rogers, Peter
    et al.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Yanda, Pius
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Pauline, Noah
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Haikola, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Effects of Biochar on Soil Fertility and Crop Yields: Experience from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania2022In: Tanzania Journal of Science, ISSN 0856-1761, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 256-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s agricultural production is declining due to severe loss of soil fertility through natural processes or because of human activities. Biochar has been identified as a potential soil amendment to regain its fertility and increase crop productivity. This study aimed to assess the effects of biochar on soil nutrients and crop yields in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Data were collected through key informant and household interviews, and from sampling of soils in coffee farms where biochar of maize cobs origin was incorporated at the rate of 3 t ha-1. Purposive sampling approach was deployed to identify the villages in which farmers have been incorporating biochar in farms. A total of 172 households, 30 key informants, and 12 top and subsoil samples were involved in this study. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, and excel spreadsheet was used for descriptive results and relationships. The findings revealed that biochar significantly increased soil pH, iron (Fe), organic carbon (OC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable bases (potassium-K, magnesium-Mg). T - tests showed significant increase of soil nutrients in biochar treated soils. In addition, biochar increased coffee and maize yields from 1 t ha-1 to 3 t ha-1.

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  • 11.
    Roos, Caroline
    et al.
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Quinn, Laura
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Pieters, Rialet
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Bouwman, Henk
    Northwest University, South Africa.
    Organic micro-pollutant profiles from urban, industrial, and rural soils and sediments from South Africa.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite having the largest economy in Africa, very little is known about organic pollutants in soils and sediments from urban and industrial areas of South Africa. Here, we present the results of the first studies to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated paraffins, and dioxin-like chemicals from the highly industrialised regions south of Johannesburg. Industries here include petro-chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metal production, paper and pulp, coking, mining, and coal-fired power plants.

    The concentration of PAHs ranged between 44-39 000 ng/g dw and the concentration of carcinogenic PAHs ranged between 19-19 000 ng/g dw. Pyrogenic processes were the most likely sources, with some petrogenic contributions. Carcinogenic PAHs at low-income residential sites were sufficient to potentially cause health effects such as cancer considering direct contact with soil. PCB concentrations ranged between 120‑4 700 ng/kg dw in soils and sediments with highest concentrations from industrial and associated residential areas. Concentrations of dioxin TEQWHO2005 ranged between 0.12 -32 ng/kg TEQ dw in sediments, and between 0.34-20 ng/kg dw in soils. Various combustion and high-temperature processes were likely sources of pollution at the majority of the sites. The polychlorinated paraffins had concentrations between 1.8‑1 200 ng/g dw. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were at or close to limits of detection.

    The sources, processes and threats that govern and the lesser concentrations in sediment and higher concentrations in soils need further investigation as it may affect human exposure. Bio-accumulation into humans and biota from terrestrial and aquatic food webs under developing-country conditions as examined here needs further investigation before conclusive statements about threats and the need for mitigating interventions can be made. These studies have contributed towards a much better understanding of organic chemical pollutants in sediments and soils from the largest industrial and urban area in South Africa.

  • 12.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bianchi, T. S.
    University of Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Hutchings, J. A.
    University of Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Kuhry, P.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ranjan, R. K.
    Central University of South Bihar, India.
    Organic carbon characteristics in Swedish forest soil trace post-depositional carbon dynamics2016In: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 492-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) characteristics in three forests along a north-south transect in Sweden where these forest types cover about 69% of the landscape. There was variation in C-14 ages, and the median ages ranged from about 25 to amp;gt; 2500 cal BP in SOC. Although total SOC and nitrogen (N) contents decreased, stable carbon isotope and humification indices increased with depth. These progressive changes with depth and age were related to degradation. The delta C-13 values and specific biomarkers indicated that organic carbon was primarily from C-3 plants. Biomarkers were effective in distinguishing OC input from specific sources (i.e. angiosperms, gymnosperms and grasses). A sharp decrease in biomarkers with depth indicated degradation of OC in the upper soil horizon, and limited contribution in the subsoil towards the stabilization of SOC. The sharp decrease in carbon stocks and C-14 age in the soil OC pool with increasing soil depth, and quite large values for the percentage of modern carbon, suggested a decrease in SOC pools. Overall, these results showed that carbon sequestration in high latitude forests was small, and their role as potential carbon sinks needs to be reassessed.

  • 13.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
    Grossman, Ethan L.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
    Murphy, Ellyn M.
    Environmental and Energy Sciences Division, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA.
    Benner, Ronald
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    Characterization and Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Yegua Ground Water in Brazos County, Texas2005In: Groundwater, E-ISSN 1745-6584, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 760-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in five shallow (< 20 m) and three deeper wells (27 to 30 m) in the Eocene Yegua Formation (Brazos County in east-central Texas) ranged from 92 to 500 ᅵm. Characterization of high, intermediate, and low molecular weight DOC fractions (HMW > 3000 amu, IMW 1000 to 3000 amu, and LMW 500 to 1000 amu) and combined neutral sugar analyses provide information on organic matter sources in the Yegua aquifers. Combined neutral sugars ranged in concentration from 0.6 to 2.7 ᅵmol/L and comprised 0.8% to 6.7% of DOC in ground water. Glucose was the most abundant neutral sugar, followed by xylose and galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, and fucose. These combined neutral sugars were more diagenetically altered in shallow, oxic ground water as indicated by high mole % fucose + rhamnose and low neutral sugar yield. The precursors for neutral sugars are most probably angiosperm leaves, which show a similar distribution pattern of neutral sugars. Ground water DOC was depleted in 13C relative to soil-zone organic matter (OM) (-16ᅵ to -19ᅵ). The d13C values of bulk DOC and HMW DOC ranged from -24ᅵ to ᅵ32ᅵ, whereas LMW and IMW DOC ranged from -32ᅵ to -34ᅵ and ᅵ16ᅵ to ᅵ28ᅵ, respectively. This variability in d13C values is probably related to microbial processes and selective preservation of OM. Carbon isotope analyses in bulk and different molecular weight DOC fractions imply a predominantly C3 OM source and a low contribution of soil-zone OM to DOC.

  • 14.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
    Grossman, Ethan L.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
    Ulrich, Glenn A.
    Institute for Energy and the Environment, Department of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019-0245, USA.
    Suflita, Joseph M.
    Institute for Energy and the Environment, Department of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019-0245, USA.
    Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas2001In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical and microbiological evidence indicates that viable microorganisms produce and consume volatile organic acids (VOA) in the Yegua formation. Acetic and propionic acid concentrations in mudstones range from 200 to 1270 and 20 to 38 nmol·gdw−1 respectively, whereas concentrations in sands are 50–200 and less than 20 nmol·gdw−1. VOA concentrations in sediments and in laboratory incubations suggest net production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB) in sands. Notably, SRB activity is mostly confined to aquifer sands. Vertical diffusion and advection were modeled to estimate acetic acid transport from aquitard to aquifer. Assuming that SRB completely respire the acetic acid transported into the aquifer (3.2 μmol·l−1·m·a−1), the CO2 production rate in the aquifer sands is 5.3 μmol·l−1·a−1. This slow mineralization rate of in situ organic matter is within the range for deep aquifers, and probably accounts for the long-term survival of microorganisms in oligotrophic environments. Finally, the microbial communities in Yegua sediments appear to exhibit a loose commensalism, with microorganisms in aquitards providing VOAs for respiratory processes (i.e., SO4 reduction) in aquifers.

  • 15.
    Schulze, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Soil carbon relations in Swedish agriculture: A GIS analysis and literature review of soil characteristics at farm level2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon storage in agricultural soils is an important measure to mitigate climate change. As the soil management techniques can greatly influence the amount of carbon stored in agricultural soils, the influence of different managements was analyzed in a literature review for northern Europe and Sweden. With a unique dataset, the temporal development of soil organic matter, and in a case study the influence of SOM on crop yield in Sweden was examined, as well as the relationship of SOM towards clay content and pH level. For northern Europe, organic amendments in form of manure and sewage sludge application and crop residue incorporation as well as nitrogen fertilization and diverse crop rotations indicate a positive impact on soil organic carbon. The influence of reduced tillage was found to be less impactful. Detailed development of SOM in Swedish agricultural fields remains unclear due to data restraints and scarcity, but for the Skåne region the data analysis suggests a stable SOM content for the time period analyzed. The relationship of SOM to crop yield remains unclear but indicates that SOM can have a positive effect on crop yield. More research is needed to understand underlying mechanisms of development, management influence and yield response on soil organic carbon for northern Europe.

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  • 16.
    Shrivastava, Anamika
    et al.
    Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
    Ghosh, Devanita
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
    Dash, Ayusman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
    Bose, Suatapa
    Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
    Arsenic Contamination in Soil and Sediment in India: Sources, Effects, and Remediation2015In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contamination is turning out to be a major problem these days with its area coverage and the number of people affected directly or indirectly. Now, the level of the contaminant has spread over the soil and sediments from groundwater and other natural sources. Arsenic poisoning in groundwater events is familiar to the world, but the consequences of soil contamination are still unrevealed to the community, specially the people of contaminated counties. Arsenic is a serious instantaneous concern for the people and other life forms regarding the poisoning through crops and vegetables. Many remediation technologies that mainly include physical, chemical, and a few biological methods have been evolved with time to check its effects. The physical and chemical methods for this purpose are often inefficient and/or very expensive, mainly limited to application in aqueous systems, and produce toxic sludge, which again becomes a matter of concern. But bioremediation relies on the fact that biological organisms have the ability to degrade, detoxify, and even accumulate harmful chemicals and offers attractive perspectives for biomonitoring (via biosensors), treatment of wastewater, and the recycling of polluted soils.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Measurements and fluxes of volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) from natural terrestrial sources: Measurement techniques and spatio-temporal variability of flux estimates2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and especially chlorinated VOCs (VOCls) are regarded as en viron mental risk substances in water bodies due to their toxic characteristics. Even in the atmo­sphere they highly impact atmospheric chemistry, e.g. degrading the ozone layer. Several studies have convincingly identified a number of natural VOCl sources thereby challenging the view of VOCls as only produced by humans. Yet, fundamental knowledge is still missing concerning the emission, distribution and the natural abundance of VOCls, especially regarding the high spatial and temporal variability of emissions from terrestrial sources. In the nuclear industry, Cl­36 is a dose­dominating radionuclide in some waste, and this adds to the need to better understand the processes, transport and fate of chlorine in the bio sphere. In this report 38 studies on VOCl flux measurement estimates were reviewed to summarize the current knowledge on spatio­temporal variations of different VOCls and various measurement tech niques.

    Chloromethane is the most studied VOCl compound and chloroform, the second most studied. A few other studies have estimated fluxes of additional VOCls such as tetrachloromethane (CCl4), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), tetrachloroethane (C2H2Cl4), freons (CFCs), chloroethane (C2H5Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). Studies were conducted in climates and terrestrial ecosystems ranging from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest but most studies focus on the temperate climate region. Wetlands and coastal systems dominate the studied ecosystems. Flux chambers are the most common method for investigation of the soil­atmosphere exchange of VOCls, but a few studies used soil gas profiles and one the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) technique. Methodological uncer­tainties are mainly related to sample contamination, few replicates, chamber design, and chamber deployment (the time of measurement) effects on the soil­atmosphere exchange itself. Despite the many challenges in measuring VOCls and estimating the fluxes, a substantial part of the chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems, and especially from wetlands and coastal areas, is emitted to the atmosphere as VOCls. In inland forested ecosystems, the release of Cl to the atmosphere could be as much as 0.1 g m–2, which is 40 % of the wet deposition and there are studies that suggest that freshwater wetlands are much larger source of chlorine in the atmosphere than previously understood.

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    Measurements and fluxes of volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) from natural terrestrial sources: Measurement techniques and spatio-temporal variability of flux estimates
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  • 18.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Högbom, Lars
    Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Skogforsk, Svalöv, Sweden.
    Ring, Eva
    Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of previous nitrogen addition on chlorine in forest soil, soil solution and biomass2013In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 116, no 1-3, p. 3-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that forests and forest soil contribute to the signature of chlorine composition in water bodies. However, little is known about the potential effects of land management activities on chlorine biogeochemistry. This study examines the effects of previous nitrogen addition on chlorine chemistry in a Pinus sylvestris L. forest located in south-central Sweden (60°00′N, 13°43′E). Repeated addition of nitrogen to study plots over a 20-year period resulted in total additions of 0, 450 and 900 kg N ha−1. Soil samples were collected before harvesting, and soil solution and biomass were sampled following final felling. Contrary to previous findings, we found no clear evidence that previous addition of nitrogen had hampered the formation of organic chlorine in the organic soil layer. We suggest that the effects of nitrogen addition on chlorination processes are not seen in the surface soil, but are instead manifested in the migration of organic matter in the mineral soil. Soil organic matter from the E-horizon had a lower chlorination degree in the nitrogen-amended plots than in the control plots. In addition, we observed lower Cl levels in the seedling needles following high nitrogen fertilization (900 N) than in 450 N or control. These results add on the importance of studying chlorine dynamics with focus on what chlorinated soil organic matter can be resistant to degradation compared to average soil organic matter and what can be leached as a result of harvesting and available for vegetation.

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  • 19.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine cycling and the fate of Cl in terrestrial environments2021In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 7691-7709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine (Cl) in the terrestrial environment is of interest from multiple perspectives, including the use of chloride as a tracer forwater flow and contaminant transport, organochlorine pollutants, Cl cycling, radioactive waste (radioecology; 36Cl is of largeconcern) and plant science (Cl as essential element for living plants).During the past decades, there has been a rapid developmenttowards improved understanding of the terrestrial Cl cycle. There is a ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organicmatter in terrestrial ecosystems where naturally formed chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) in soil frequently exceed theabundance of chloride. Chloride dominates import and export from terrestrial ecosystems while soil Clorg and biomass Cl candominate the standing stock Cl. This has important implications for Cl transport, as chloride will enter the Cl pools resulting inprolonged residence times. Clearly, these pools must be considered separately in future monitoring programs addressing Clcycling. Moreover, there are indications that (1) large amounts of Cl can accumulate in biomass, in some cases representing themain Cl pool; (2) emissions of volatile organic chlorines could be a significant export pathway of Cl and (3) that there is aproduction of Clorg in tissues of, e.g. plants and animals and that Cl can accumulate as, e.g. chlorinated fatty acids in organisms.Yet, data focusing on ecosystem perspectives and combined spatiotemporal variability regarding various Cl pools are still scarce,and the processes and ecological roles of the extensive biological Cl cycling are still poorly understood.

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  • 20.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfgren, Anders
    EcoAnalytica, Hägersten, Sweden.
    Saetre, Peter
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Solna, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Solna, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Distribution in Soil and Vegetation in Boreal Habitats along a Moisture Gradient from Upland Forest to Lake Margin Wetlands2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 30, p. 11067-11074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assumed dominance of chloride (Cl–) in terrestrial ecosystems is challenged by observations of extensive formation of organically bound Cl (Clorg), resulting in large soil Cl storage and internal cycling. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of Cl in ecosystems. We quantified patterns of Cl distribution in different habitats along a boreal hillslope moisture gradient ranging from relatively dry upland coniferous forests to wet discharge areas dominated by alder. We confirmed that dry habitats are important for Cl storage but found that Cl pools tended to be larger in moist and wet habitats. The storage of Clorg was less important in wet habitats, suggesting a shift in the balance between soil chlorination and dechlorination rates. Cl concentrations in the herb layer vegetation were high in wet and moist sites attributed to a shift in plant species composition, indicating plant community-dependent ecosystem Cl cycling. Mass-balance calculations showed that internal Cl cycling increased overall ecosystem Cl residence times at all sites and that plant uptake rates of Cl– were particularly high at wet sites. Our results indicate that habitat characteristics including plant communities and hydrology are key for understanding Cl cycling in the environment.

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  • 21.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reyier, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rietz, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Influence of Multiple Environmental Factors on Organic Matter Chlorination in Podsol Soil2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 24, p. 14114-14123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. The abundance of chlorinated organic compounds frequently exceeds chloride in surface soils, and the ability to chlorinate soil organic matter (SOM) appears widespread among microorganisms. Yet, the environmental control of chlorination is unclear. Laboratory incubations with Cl-36 as a Cl tracer were performed to test how combinations of environmental factors, including levels of soil moisture, nitrate, chloride, and labile organic carbon, influenced chlorination of SOM from a boreal forest. Total chlorination was hampered by addition of nitrate or by nitrate in combination with water but enhanced by addition of chloride or most additions including labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). The greatest chlorination was observed after 15 days when nitrate and water were added together with labile organic matter. The effect that labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by a second independent experiment showing higher stimulation at increased availability of labile organic matter. Our results highlight cause-effect links between chlorination and the studied environmental variables in podsol soil-with consistent stimulation by labile organic matter that did overrule the negative effects of nitrate.

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  • 22.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Redon, Paul-Olivier
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Chatenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Chatenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Montelius, Malin
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorination of soil organic matter: The role of humus type and land use2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 806p2, article id 150478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of natural organic chlorine (Clorg) typically exceed levels of chloride in most soils and is therefore clearly of high importance for continental chlorine cycling. The high spatial variability raises questions on soil organic matter (SOM) chlorination rates among topsoils with different types of organic matter. We measured Clorg formation rates along depth profiles in six French temperate soils with similar Cl deposition using 36Cl tracer experiments. Three forest sites with different humus types and soils from grassland and arable land were studied. The highest specific chlorination rates (fraction of chlorine pool transformed to Clorg per time unit) among the forest soils were found in the humus layers. Comparing the forest sites, specific chlorination was highest in mull-type humus, characterized by high microbial activity and fast degradation of the organic matter. Considering non-humus soil layers, grassland and forest soils had similar specific chlorination rates in the uppermost layer (0–10 cm below humus layer). Below this depth the specific chlorination rate decreased slightly in forests, and drastically in the grassland soil. The agricultural soil exhibited the lowest specific chlorination rates, similar along the depth profile. Across all sites, specific chlorination rates were correlated with soil moisture and in combination with the patterns on organic matter types, the results suggest an extensive Cl cycling where humus types and soil moisture provided best conditions for microbial activity. Clorg accumulation and theoretical residence times were not clearly linked to chlorination rates. This indicates intensive Cl cycling between organic and inorganic forms in forest humus layers, regulated by humic matter reactivity and soil moisture, while long-term Clorg accumulation seems more linked with overall deep soil organic carbon stabilization. Thus, humus types and factors affecting soil carbon storage, including vegetation land use, could be used as indicators of potential Clorg formation and accumulation in soils.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Maïté, Bueno
    Universite de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254, Pau, France.
    Oelmann, Yvonne
    Geoecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Halogens in soil2022In: Elsevier Reference Collection in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among all halogens fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) have the highest concentrations in soil followed by bromine (Br) and iodine (I). The variability of halogen contents in soils is high, which depends to a major degree on atmospheric deposition (Cl, Br, I), parent material (F), organic matter (Cl, Br, I), secondary minerals (F, Br), and local pollution (F, Cl). The enzyme-mediated reaction between halide ions and organic matter known as halogenation is considerable in some soils for Cl, Br and I, and should be accounted for in future ecosystem halogen budgets.

  • 24.
    Teka, Kassa
    et al.
    Mekelle Univ, Ethiopia.
    Haftu, Mulu
    Wukro St Marys Inst, Ethiopia.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Can integrated watershed management reduce soil erosion and improve livelihoods? A study from northern Ethiopia2020In: INTERNATIONAL SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION RESEARCH, ISSN 2095-6339, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed at evaluating the impact of integrated watershed management on reducing soil erosion and changes in the livelihoods of rural farming households in Ethiopia. The changes in soil erosion for the years between 2002 and 2015 were estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, while the impacts on livelihoods were assessed by household interviews. During the study period, the overall average annual soil loss was halved. Furthermore, crop productivity, water availability (irrigation and domestic) and fodder availability increased by 22, 33 and 10%, respectively, while an increase in household income (by 56%) was observed. Moreover, 72% of the sampled households were able to cover their 12-month annual expenditure demands in 2015, while only 50% of the households were able to cover these demands in 2002. It can be concluded that the implemented integrated watershed management activities seemingly resulted in reduced soil loss, enhanced vegetation cover, and additional household income. This paper also elaborates on the hurdles for integrated watershed management expansion. (C) 2020 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press. Production and Hosting by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 25.
    Xie, Wenjing
    et al.
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Wenjuan
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Pu
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hao, Yanfen
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Bolei
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Ligang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Yong
    Jianghan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Unexpected Dioxin Formation During Digestion of Soil with Oxidizing Acids2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxins, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), are among the most toxic unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants, and their emission is of great concern. Herein, we discovered abundant dioxin formation in soil and various organic carbon-containing matrices after digestion with aqua regia. Sigma 17PCDD/Fs concentrations were in the range of 66.6-142,834 pg/g dw (5.6-17,021 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g dw) in 19 soil samples after digestion with aqua regia for 6 h. Sigma 17PCDD/Fs concentration was significantly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon content (R-2 = 0.89; p &lt; 0.01). Compared with cellulose and lignin, humic acid served as an important organic matter component that was converted to PCDD/Fs during soil digestion. Strong oxidation and production of reactive chlorine by aqua regia may be the key factors in the formation of PCDD/Fs. The yearly emission of PCDD/Fs due to digestion with strong acids by the inspection and testing industry was estimated to be 83.8 g TEQ in China in 2021 based on the highest level, which was similar to 0.9% of the total dioxin inventory in China. Great attention should be paid to unexpected dioxin formation during digestion processes considering the potential risk of release from laboratories and enterprises.

  • 26.
    Åberg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Microbial uptake and allocation of extractable Cl in a French coniferous forest soil profile2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The extractable Cl is the fraction in the Cl pool that is mobile and more easily accessible for living organisms such as plants and microbes. Previous research has shown that microbes are important for the biogeochemical cycling of Cl and that they impact the retention of Cl in soil environments. The aim with this study was to determine the fractions of extractable Cl in different soil layers (humus and minerogenic soil horizons). Extracts from a 36Cl tracer experiment were used, where the soil from a French coniferous forest had been incubated and monitored for 120 days. The dominating fraction of the total Cl in this soil is Clin. The results show that Cl- uptake by microbes is prevalent, this was highest in humus reaching a peak of approximately 25 %. This uptake was initially rapid and stabilised by the end of the experiment. This increase confirms that the microbial uptake is substantial and need to be taken into consideration when estimating the total amount of Clin in soil. Also low fractions of Clorg-ex can be found in the extracts of approximately 1 %, which is in contrast to other studies where it is higher. This may be due to the fact that in this study the fraction represent the newly formed extractable organic chlorine. Comparisons with previous studies of Clorg confirms that the formation occurs in the surface layer and are then transported as chlorinated organic matter down to the minerogenic soil horizons.

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