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  • 1.
    Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Adelphi University, NY 21402 USA; University of Oxford, England.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cooper, Angela
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Macdonald, James
    Headington Psychotherapy, England.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Patients Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Nina Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sandström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag känner mig ju hel med extra tillagt liksom": En diskursanalytisk intervjustudie med personer som kan kategoriseras som mixed race i dagens Sverige2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kritiska mixed race-studier är ett forskningsområde som internationellt växer sig allt större, men i en svensk kontext saknas forskning på personer som klassificeras som mixed race. I denna studie har tretton personer intervjuats med syfte att se hur de talade om sitt identitetsskapande i förhållande till sin blandade identitet samt om omgivningens bemötande. För att analysera materialet användes Foucauldiansk diskursanalys som metod.

    Resultatet visar att deltagarna på varierande sätt konceptualiserar vad den blandade identiteten innebär och om eller hur den har betydelse för dem. De diskurser som var tillgängliga för deltagarna när de talade om sin blandade identitet, var diskurser kring kultur, etnicitet, nationalitet, ras och svenskhet. Den blandade identiteten konceptualiserades som något en får genom tillgång till flera kulturer eller genom blodsband samt som kroppsliga markörer. Hur deltagarna förhållit sig till den beskrivs ha varierat under deras liv liksom i olika kontexter. Deltagarna förhåller sig till att benämnas halv: vissa använder själva detta som beskrivande benämning medan andra tar avstånd från den och beskriver sig som hela, dubbla och trippel.

    Deltagarna beskriver hur deras svenskhet ifrågasätts och hur de på olika sätt förhandlar om sin tillgång till den. Det framställs hur de ofta ställs inför frågan ”var kommer du ifrån, egentligen?”. Vissa framställer praktiker som lättare ska låta dem klassas som svensk/vit, alternativt gör motstånd mot att klassas som detta. Ytterligare framförs hur deras utseende låter dem uppfattas som tillhörande gruppen invandrare, och att detta ibland kan ge fördelar. Slutligen beskrivs även rasifierande praktiker som sker i en skärningspunkt mellan ras och kön. Deltagare som identifierar sig som kvinnor beskriver hur de översexualiseras och hur deras utseende exotifieras medan de som kategoriseras som män talar om hur de misstänkliggörs. I vårt resultat blir det tydligt att ras som en socialt konstruerad kategori påverkar individers erfarenheter och villkor i dagens Sverige.

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  • 3.
    Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lena
    Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children or adolescents who lost someone close during the Southeast Asia tsunami 2004 – The life as young2022In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e2563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To lose a person close suddenly, during childhood or adolescence, can be devastating. Many children or adolescents experienced the 2004 Indonesian tsunami when they were between 10- and 15-years-old. This study, from Stockholm, Sweden, describes the long-term effects of loss, eight- or nine-years post disaster, in young adulthood.

    Method: A mixed-method approach was used including statistical analyses (n = 210) and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).

    Results: It was shown that there was a significant difference between bereaved (n=34) and nonbereaved (n = 176) respondents concerning, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and self-rated health. Three themes were found by using the IPA approach (n=9): Living in traumas, carrying heavy baggage, and living with change.

    Conclusion: The respondents described personal feelings of grief that are not expressed in their outward appearance or behavior in their daily living. When meeting young adults that have lost someone close in childhood or adolescence, this is important to have in mind.

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  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Söderberg, Mimmi
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Pratiga föräldrar och babblande barn: En analys av föräldrars mental-state-talk och sambandet med tvååriga barns språkutveckling2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrar pratar olika med sina barn och ett sätt att prata på är med mental-state-talk vilket har visats främja barns utveckling på olika sätt. Föreliggande studie syftade till att beskriva föräldrars mental-state-talk och analysera sambandet med barns språkutveckling samt mängden tid ägnad åt läsning för barnet i hemmet. För att undersöka detta transkriberades inspelade filmer där föräldrar (N=78) narrativt berättade en saga från en bilderbok för sina barn i tvåårsåldern. Utifrån transkriptionerna räknades totalt antal ord och föräldrarnas mental-state-talk kodades och analyserades. Det korrelerades sedan med barnens språkutveckling utifrån ordförråd, pragmatik och grammatik mätt med The Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory - Words and Sentences (SECDI-w&s).

    Resultatet visade att föräldrarna pratade mest om kognitiva mentala tillstånd och riktade flest ord om mentala tillstånd till karaktärer i boken. Inga signifikanta skillnader hittades mellan mammor och pappor. Resultaten visade positiva signifikanta samband mellan föräldrarnas mental-state-talk och barnens ordförråd och grammatik, men ingen signifikant korrelation med barnens pragmatik. Föräldrarnas totala mängd ord hade endast ett positivt samband med barnens grammatik. Föräldrarnas mental-state-talk korrelerade inte signifikant med mängden tid som ägnades åt läsning för barnet i hemmet. Resultaten tyder på att det är sättet som föräldrar pratar på, om de pratar mycket om mentala tillstånd, snarare än hur mycket de pratarsom har samband med barns språkutveckling.

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    Adolfsson_Söderberg_2020
  • 5.
    Ahlenius, Sven
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Knut
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Prolongation of the ejaculation latency in the male rat by thioridazine and chlorimipramine.1979In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioridazine (3 mg/kg) and chlorimipramine (1.5–6.0 mg/kg) prolonged the ejaculation latency and increased the number of mounts but did not change the number of intromissions preceding ejaculation. Blockade of peripheral and central noradrenaline receptors by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine respectively resulted in a suppression of all aspects of the sexual behavior with increasing doses. dl-5-HTP (25–100 mg/kg) in combination with an inhibitor of peripheral 5-HTP decarboxylase (benserazide, 25 mg/kg) produced, like chlorimipramine and thioridazine, a prolongation of ejaculation latency and an increase in the number of mounts preceding ejaculation. Selective inhibition of 5-HT reuptake however, by zimelidine (0–20 mg/kg) or alaproclate (0–20 mg/kg) did not affect the mating behavior. At higher doses of these drugs some animals failed to initiate sexual activities. There was an increase in the postejaculatory interval but no change in the ejaculatory latency.It is concluded that the prolonged ejaculation latencies observed following treatment with thioridazine or chlorimipramine is not due to a blockade of central or peripheral adrenergic -receptors.

  • 6.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Luppen kunskapscentrum.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kartläggning av barn i behov av stöd år 2002: Eksjö kommun2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport bygger på enkätsvar från olika myndigheter i Eksjö kommun som har rapporterat de barn/ungdomar i åldern 0-18 år som man i sin verksamhet kommer i kontakt med och som man känner oro för, p.g.a. en ogynnsam utveckling. Tjugo förutbestämda kriterier användes för att beskriva orsaken till myndighetens oro. Myndigheterna har också rapporterat om de insatser som görs redan idag samt om man bedömer att det kan bli aktuellt med ytterligare insatser nu eller i framtiden.

    Totalt inrapporterades 842 barn och ungdomar. Socialförvaltningen rapporterade 78 barn och ungdomar, Barnavårdscentralen 30 barn och skolan 689 barn och ungdomar. Av 45 enkätsvar framgår det inte vem som är rapportör. Vid bearbetningen av insamlat material har 10 enkätsvar uteslutits eftersom de inte var tillräckligt ifyllda. 103 enkätsvar uteslöt för att de flerrapporterade barn och/eller ungdomar och 17 enkätsvar uteslöts eftersom de rapporterade ungdomar som inte är skrivna i Eksjö kommun. Slutligen kom 712 barn och ungdomar att ingå i kartläggningen. Detta är drygt 18,8 % av alla aktuella barn och ungdomar. Av dessa är en klar majoritet pojkar (446 dvs. 62,6 %). För hela målgruppen främst tre huvudorsaker som ger anledning till oro hos berörda myndigheter. Det är;

    1. Föräldrarna brister i omsorgen, i stödet till den unge eller möjligheten att ge stimulans pågrund av sociala, mentala, fysiska eller psykiska handikapp och/eller missbruksproblem. För130 (av 712) barn och ungdomar anser man att det är huvudorsaken till oro.
    2. Barn/ungdomar som är introverta (tysta, blyga, nedstämda, mutister). För 69 av (712) barnoch ungdomar är det huvudorsaken till att man känner oro.
    3. Föräldrars separation eller ständiga konflikter påverkar den unge negativt. För 66 av (712)barn och ungdomar är det huvudorsaken till att man känner oro.

    Resultatredovisningen visar att skolan är den myndighet vars insatser dominerande är det också så att olika insatser inom skolan dominerar. Vanligast är undervisning i liten grupp och olika typer av specialundervisning. Olika typer av anpassad studiegång är också en vanlig insats att möta barn och ungdomar med olika svårigheter. Även olika psykosociala åtgärder förekommer också t.ex. stödsamtal med skolsköterska eller kurator. Vanligast av socialförvaltningens insatser är kontaktperson/familj.

    Berörda myndigheter uppmanas också att föreslå olika typer av nya insatser för de rapporterade barnen och ungdomarna. Även här dominerar olika typer av skolinriktade insatser. Vanliga förslag är undervisning i liten grupp och/eller olika typer av specialundervisning. När socialförvaltningen anses vara ansvarig myndigheter för önskade insatser föreslår rapporterande myndigheter allt från olika typer av familjestöd till direkta förslag till omhändertagande och placering på behandlingshem.

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    Kartläggning av barn i behov av stöd år 2002: Eksjö kommun
  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Avdelningen för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete, Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping University.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ungdomars attityder och beteende när det gäller att köpa och sälja sex: en studie i Jönköpings län våren 20082009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om i vilken omfattning ungdomar har sålt eller köpt sex är begränsad. Delvis kan det bero på svårigheten med att bestämma vad som omfattas i begreppen sälja och köpa sex. Studier visar också att det i ungdomsrelationer förekommer att gåvor ges efter sexuella aktiviteter.

    I denna studie har totalt 16 personer (1,9 %) uppgett att de i olika omfattning utfört sexuella tjänster mot ersättning och att 79 personer (9,1 %) blivit erbjudna pengar eller annan ersättning för sexuella tjänster. Det är fler killar än tjejer som säljer sex. När det gäller att ha blivit erbjuden sex mot ersättning är det flest tjejer som svarat ja. Resultatet visar också att 131 personer (15,1 %) kan tänka sig att utföra sexuella tjänster mot ersättning. I svaren kan vi också utläsa att 348 personer (40,1%), mestadels killar, accepterar att andra utför sexuella tjänster mot ersättning.

    När det gäller i vilka kretsar de som säljer sex umgås är det tydligt att ungdomarna tittar mer på porr, att det är vanligare att de visar sig i sexuella situationer och att de har mindre tolerans mot homosexuella. Samlagsdebuten var ett år tidigare än hela undersökningsgruppen. Det är vanligare att man blivit utsatt för olika sexuella handlingar mot sin vilja, men man har också utsatt andra för sexuella handlingar mot deras vilja. Sammantaget kan vi se att ungdomarna i denna studie som sålt sex lever ett påtagligt mer sexualiserat liv än vad andra ungdomar i motsvarande ålder gör.

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    Ungdomars attityder och beteende när det gäller att köpa och sälja sex: en studie i Jönköpings län våren 2008
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  • 9.
    Ahlin, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Tjäder, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag trivs bäst i öppna landskap...": Om naturmiljöers påverkan på oss människor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie med experimentell design har genomförts i syfte att jämföra natur- respektive urbanmiljöers påverkan på känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning efter en stressupplevelse, samt utslag på kognitiv prestation. Hypotesen var att naturstimuli genererar högre grad av känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning än urbanstimuli. Frågeställningen var om vi kunde se någon skillnad mellan gruppernas prestationsförmåga efter genomförd återhämtning, vad gäller riktad uppmärksamhet. Återhämtningsgrad har mätts i förändring i blodtryck, puls och självskattning av känslor.  Resultatet visade att naturmiljön genererar en högre nivå återhämtning med avseende på sänkt diastoliskt blodtryck, ökade positiva känslor samt minskad oro. Däremot visades ingen skillnad i kognitiv prestationsförmåga mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen är att känslomässig samt fysiologisk återhämtning kan underlättas i naturmiljö jämfört med urbanmiljö och att detta även kan ske med hjälp av naturbilder. Däremot är det inte är självklart att man får större kapacitet riktad uppmärksamhet efter exponering av naturbilder jämfört med stadsbilder.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Solis-Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Akerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    The impact of driver sleepiness on fixation-related brain potentials2020In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 5, article id e12962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driver sleepiness are often quantified as deteriorated driving performance, increased blink durations and high levels of subjective sleepiness. Driver sleepiness has also been associated with increasing levels of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, especially in the alpha range. The present exploratory study investigated a new measure of driver sleepiness, the EEG fixation-related lambda response. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 +/- 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment in which they drove on rural and suburban roads in simulated daylight versus darkness during both the daytime (full sleep) and night-time (sleep deprived). The results show lower lambda responses during night driving and with longer time on task, indicating that sleep deprivation and time on task cause a general decrement in cortical responsiveness to incoming visual stimuli. Levels of subjective sleepiness and line crossings were higher under the same conditions. Furthermore, results of a linear mixed-effects model showed that low lambda responses are associated with high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings. We suggest that the fixation-related lambda response can be used to investigate driving impairment induced by sleep deprivation while driving and that, after further refinement, it may be useful as an objective measure of driver sleepiness.

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  • 11.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden; VTI, Olaus Magnus vag 35, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Finer, Svitlana
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Alcohol impairs driver attention and prevents compensatory strategies2023In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 184, article id 107010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the negative effects of alcohol on driving performance are undisputed, it is unclear how driver attention, eye movements and visual information sampling are affected by alcohol consumption. A simulator study with 35 participants was conducted to investigate whether and how a drivers level of attention is related to self-paced non-driving related task (NDRT)-engagement and tactical aspects of undesirable driver behaviour under increasing levels of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) up to 1.0 %o. Increasing BrAC levels lead to more frequent speeding, short time headways and weaving, and higher NDRT engagement. Instantaneous distraction events become more frequent, with more and longer glances to the NDRT, and a general decline in visual attention to the forward roadway. With alcohol, the compensatory behaviour that is typically seen when drivers engage in NDRTs did not appear. These findings support the theory that alcohol reduces the ability to shift attention between multiple tasks. To conclude, the independent reduction in safety margins in combination with impaired attention and an increased willingness to engage in NDRTs is likely the reason behind increased crash risk when driving under the influence of alcohol.

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  • 12.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Olaus Magnus Vag 35, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Herman
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Christian
    Autol Dev AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Autol Dev AB, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Olaus Magnus Vag 35, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Effects of partially automated driving on the development of driver sleepiness2021In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 153, article id 106058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the development of sleepiness during manual driving versus level 2 partially automated driving, when driving on a motorway in Sweden. The hypothesis was that partially auto-mated driving will lead to higher levels of fatigue due to underload. Eighty-nine drivers were included in the study using a 2 ? 2 design with the conditions manual versus partially automated driving and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results showed that night-time driving led to markedly increased levels of sleepiness in terms of subjective sleepiness ratings, blink durations, PERCLOS, pupil diameter and heart rate. Partially automated driving led to slightly higher subjective sleepiness ratings, longer blink durations, decreased pupil diameter, slower heart rate, and higher EEG alpha and theta activity. However, elevated levels of sleepiness mainly arose from the night-time drives when the sleep pressure was high. During daytime, when the drivers were alert, partially automated driving had little or no detrimental effects on driver fatigue. Whether the negative effects of increased sleepiness during partially automated driving can be compensated by the positive effects of lateral and longitudinal driving support needs to be investigated in further studies.

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  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University Växjö, Sweden.
    Muslim discrimination: evidence from two lost letter experiments2010In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 888-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 15.
    Akob, Maher
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Terror Management Theory: konsekvenser av dödlighetens framträdande i samband med straffutfärdning av kulturella och normbetingande brott2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att analysera om ökad medvetenhet om döden påverkar vid värdering av dem som ifrågasätter och bryter mot den kulturella världsuppfattningen. Sammanlagt deltog 74 personer i experimentet; 38 i experimentgruppen och 36 i kontrollgruppen. Experimentgruppen fick två frågor angående döden medan kontrollgruppen fick svara på två frågor angående examen. Därefter fick både experiment- och kontrollgruppen läsa utsagor och utfärda ett straff.

    Resultaten visar att det finns ett mönster i värdering av dem som ifrågasätter och bryter mot den kulturella världsuppfattningen vid ökad medvetenhet om döden. Emellertid uppnåddes inga signifikanta skillnader mellan experiment- och kontrollgrupp. Studien visar att Terror Management Theory kan appliceras på instanser, som exempelvis kriser, media, och sociala relationer, som exempelvis våld mot kvinnor och ingroup och outgroup.

  • 16.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Lucchese, Franco
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden;.
    Validation of a general subjective well-being factor using Classical Test Theory2020In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 8, article id e9193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective Well-Being (SWB) is usually conceptiislind in terms of an affective (i.e., judgements of biological emotional reactions and experiences) and a cognitive component (i.e., judgements of life satisfaction in relation to a psychological self-imposed ideal). Recently, researchers have suggested that judgements of harmony in life can replace or at least complement the cognitive component of SWB. Here, however, we go beyond that suggestion and propose that harmony in life should be seen as SWBs social component since it is the sense of balance between the individual and the world around her-a process that comprises acceptance, adaptation, and balance. By adding judgements of ones social interactions (i.e., harmony in life) to judgments of ones life satisfaction (psycho) and judgements of ones emotional reactions (bio), we propose a tentatively biopsychosocial model of SWB. As a first step, we used different factorial models in order to determine if both a general factor and specific sub-factors contribute to the biopsychosocial model of SWB. Method: A total of 527 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; 20 items), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; five items), and the Harmony in life Scale (HILS; five items). We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to validate the biopsychosocial model of subjective well-being and a general factor (SWBS). Results: The 20 PANAS items reflected a mixture of general latent structure saturation and specific latent structure saturation, but contributed to their respective specific latent factor (PA: 48%; NA: 49%) more than to the general latent SWBS factor (positive affect: 25%; negative affect: 32%). The five SWLS items contributed to a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (72%) than to life satisfaction itself (22%), while the five HILS items contributed to even a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (98%) than to harmony in life (0%). The bifactor model was the best model compared with all other models we tested (chi(2) = 1,660.78, df = 375, p < 0.001); Satorra Bentler chi(2 )1,265.80, df = 375, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.067. This model of a general SWBS factor explained about 64% of the total variance in the model, while specific SWBS components together explained 15% of the total variance. Conclusion: Our study suggests SWB as a general factor in a multidimensional biopsychosocial model. Indeed, as much as 64% of the variance of SWB was explained by this general factor. The SWB components, however, contributed to a different degree to each corresponding factor in the model. For instance, while the affective and cognitive components seem to be their own constructs and also part of the general SWB factor, the social component tested here contributed 0% to its own variance but 98% to the general factor.

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  • 17.
    Al Nimaa, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Persson, Bjorn N.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Turku, Finland.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Validation of Subjective Well-Being Measures Using Item Response Theory2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being refers to the extent to which a person believes or feels that her life is going well. It is considered as one of the best available proxies for a broader, more canonical form of well-being. For over 30 years, one important distinction in the conceptualization of subjective well-being is the contrast between more affective evaluations of biological emotional reactions and more cognitive evaluations of ones life in relation to a psychologically self-imposed ideal. More recently, researchers have suggested the addition of harmony in life, comprising behavioral evaluations of how one is doing in a social context. Since measures used to assess subjective well-being are self-reports, often validated only using Classical Test Theory, our aim was to focus on the psychometric properties of the measures using Item Response Theory. Method: A total of 1000 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. At random, half of the participants answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale or to the Harmony in life Scale. First, we evaluate and provide enough evidence of unidimensionality for each scale. Next, we conducted graded response models to validate the psychometric properties of the subjective well-being scales. Results: All scales showed varied frequency item distribution, high discrimination values (Alphas), and had different difficulty parameters (Beta) on each response options. For example, we identified items that respondents found difficult to endorse at the highest/lowest point of the scales (e.g., "Proud" for positive affect; item 5, "If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing," for life satisfaction; and item 3, "I am in harmony," for harmony in life). In addition, all scales could cover a good portion of the range of subjective well-being (Theta): -2.50 to 2.30 for positive affect, -1.00 to 3.50 for negative affect, -2.40 to 2.50 for life satisfaction, and -2.40 to 2.50 for harmony in life. Importantly, for all scales, there were weak reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Conclusion: The affective component, especially low levels of negative affect, were less accurately measured, while both the cognitive and social component were covered to an equal degree. There was less reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Thus, to improve reliability at the level of the scale, at the item level and at the level of the response scale for each item, we point out specific items that need to be modified or added. Moreover, the data presented here can be used as normative data for each of the subjective well-being constructs.

  • 18.
    Ala, Tirdad Seifi
    et al.
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Univ Nottingham, Scotland.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Alickovic, Emina
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Whitmer, William M.
    Univ Nottingham, Scotland.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    An exploratory Study of EEG Alpha Oscillation and Pupil Dilation in Hearing-Aid Users During Effortful listening to Continuous Speech2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, article id e0235782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with hearing loss allocate cognitive resources to comprehend noisy speech in everyday life scenarios. Such a scenario could be when they are exposed to ongoing speech and need to sustain their attention for a rather long period of time, which requires listening effort. Two well-established physiological methods that have been found to be sensitive to identify changes in listening effort are pupillometry and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these measurements have been used mainly for momentary, evoked or episodic effort. The aim of this study was to investigate how sustained effort manifests in pupillometry and EEG, using continuous speech with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Eight hearing-aid users participated in this exploratory study and performed a continuous speech-in-noise task. The speech material consisted of 30-second continuous streams that were presented from loudspeakers to the right and left side of the listener (+/- 30 degrees azimuth) in the presence of 4-talker background noise (+180 degrees azimuth). The participants were instructed to attend either to the right or left speaker and ignore the other in a randomized order with two different SNR conditions: 0 dB and -5 dB (the difference between the target and the competing talker). The effects of SNR on listening effort were explored objectively using pupillometry and EEG. The results showed larger mean pupil dilation and decreased EEG alpha power in the parietal lobe during the more effortful condition. This study demonstrates that both measures are sensitive to changes in SNR during continuous speech.

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  • 19.
    Alexandersson, Klas
    et al.
    Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Malin
    Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Session-to-session effects of therapist adherence and facilitative conditions on symptom change in CBT and IPT for depression2023In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 33, no 1: special sektion part 2, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of adherence to both specific technique factors and facilitative condition variables (e.g., therapists involvement, understanding and support) in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). In addition, we were interested in whether the effect of therapist adherence would depend on the level of the working alliance. Method: Three sessions each from 74 patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder who were randomized to 14 sessions of IPT or CBT were rated for adherence using a modified version of The Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale-6 (CSPRS-6). Data was analyzed using Multilevel Modeling. Results: No effects of adherence to specific factors on outcome were found in neither CBT nor IPT. Facilitative conditions were associated with better outcome in CBT but not in IPT, even after adjustment for the quality of the working alliance. No interaction effects were found. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of relational factors in CBT, but do not support the need for specific adherence to any of the two treatments. Possible explanations of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

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  • 20.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Clinical supervision in cognitive behavior therapy improves therapists competence: a single-case experimental pilot study2020In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a cornerstone in psychotherapists training but there are few empirical evaluations on the effects of supervision on therapists competencies. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of standardized supervision on rater-assessed competency in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Six therapists with basic training in CBT were provided with protocol-based clinical supervision in CBT in a single-case experimental multiple baseline design. The supervision focused on specific CBT competencies and used experiential learning methods such as role-play. Each therapist recorded weekly treatment sessions during phases without and with supervision. The therapists CBT competence was assessed by third-party raters using the Revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Statistical analyses showed that the therapists CTS-R scores increased significantly during the phase with supervision with a mean item increase of M = 0.71 (range = 0.50-1.0) on the supervision focus areas. This is one of the first empirical studies that can confirm that supervision affect CBT competencies. The results also suggest that supervision can be manualized and that supervisees have a positive perception of more active training methods. Further studies are needed to replicate the results and to find ways to improve the impact of supervision.

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  • 21.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Asa
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 206-228Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 22.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

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  • 23.
    Alhola, Sini
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Unraveling interaction between tinnitus symptoms, cognitive abilities, and mental disorders2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the former studies, there is evidence of tinnitus being associated with performance on cognitive ability tests (for example Andersson et al. 2009, Hallam et al. 2004). The topic of my bachelor thesis was to unravel how depression, stress and anxiety connected with tinnitus symptoms are related to cognitive abilities such as verbal fluency, inhibition ability and working memory capacity. In order to fill an existing gap of knowledge, the relationship of different severity of stress caused by tinnitus symptoms as measured with Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and cognitive abilities and depression and anxiety symptoms was emphasized.

    The experiment group was divided into two subgroups, those with lower and higher level of perceived tinnitus severity and the differences in test scores between groups were investigated with one-way analysis of variance. As a result, significant differences between the two tinnitus patient groups were found in the level of performance in inhibition task where participants were asked to give the font color of congruent color - word pair as an answer. It was also studied whether there were correlations between perceived severity of tinnitus symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms, working memory capacity and inhibition ability. As a result of correlation analysis, this study confirmed the connection between tinnitus symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms found in previous studies, and a significant correlation was found between THI scores and anxiety symptoms, and THI scores and C inhibition test scores where the participant was asked to name the font color from incongruent color-word pairs. The results of this study suggest that there is a connection between the level of perceived tinnitus severity and the ability to name font color of incongruent color - word pair. The current study found no evidence about the connection between THI scores and other cognitive abilities as well as anxiety and depression symptoms, even though the THI scores correlated with both anxiety symptom scores and with the reaction times of an inhibition task where the participants were asked to point out the font color from incongruent color - word pairs.

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  • 24.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Tutorial on Auditory Attention Identification Methods2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention identification methods attempt to identify the sound source of a listeners interest by analyzing measurements of electrophysiological data. We present a tutorial on the numerous techniques that have been developed in recent decades, and we present an overview of current trends in multivariate correlation-based and model-based learning frameworks. The focus is on the use of linear relations between electrophysiological and audio data. The way in which these relations are computed differs. For example, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) finds a linear subset of electrophysiological data that best correlates to audio data and a similar subset of audio data that best correlates to electrophysiological data. Model-based (encoding and decoding) approaches focus on either of these two sets. We investigate the similarities and differences between these linear model philosophies. We focus on (1) correlation-based approaches (CCA), (2) encoding/decoding models based on dense estimation, and (3) (adaptive) encoding/decoding models based on sparse estimation. The specific focus is on sparsity-driven adaptive encoding models and comparing the methodology in state-of-the-art models found in the auditory literature. Furthermore, we outline the main signal processing pipeline for how to identify the attended sound source in a cocktail party environment from the raw electrophysiological data with all the necessary steps, complemented with the necessary MATLAB code and the relevant references for each step. Our main aim is to compare the methodology of the available methods, and provide numerical illustrations to some of them to get a feeling for their potential. A thorough performance comparison is outside the scope of this tutorial.

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  • 25.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Fiedler, Lorenz
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Hietkamp, Renskje
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Ng, Hoi Ning Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Neural Representation Enhanced for Speech and Reduced for Background Noise With a Hearing Aid Noise Reduction Scheme During a Selective Attention Task2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Selectively attending to a target talker while ignoring multiple interferers (competing talkers and background noise) is more difficult for hearing-impaired (HI) individuals compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Such tasks also become more difficult as background noise levels increase. To overcome these difficulties, hearing aids (HAs) offer noise reduction (NR) schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NR processing (inactive, where the NR feature was switched off,vs.active, where the NR feature was switched on) on the neural representation of speech envelopes across two different background noise levels [+3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and +8 dB SNR] by using a stimulus reconstruction (SR) method. Design To explore how NR processing supports the listeners selective auditory attention, we recruited 22 HI participants fitted with HAs. To investigate the interplay between NR schemes, background noise, and neural representation of the speech envelopes, we used electroencephalography (EEG). The participants were instructed to listen to a target talker in front while ignoring a competing talker in front in the presence of multi-talker background babble noise. Results The results show that the neural representation of the attended speech envelope was enhanced by the active NR scheme for both background noise levels. The neural representation of the attended speech envelope at lower (+3 dB) SNR was shifted, approximately by 5 dB, toward the higher (+8 dB) SNR when the NR scheme was turned on. The neural representation of the ignored speech envelope was modulated by the NR scheme and was mostly enhanced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the background noise was modulated (i.e., reduced) by the NR scheme and was significantly reduced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene (ignored talker and background babble) was not modulated by the NR scheme but was significantly reduced in the conditions with a reduced level of background noise. Taken together, we showed that the active NR scheme enhanced the neural representation of both the attended and the ignored speakers and reduced the neural representation of background noise, while the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene was not enhanced. Conclusion Altogether our results support the hypothesis that the NR schemes in HAs serve to enhance the neural representation of speech and reduce the neural representation of background noise during a selective attention task. We contend that these results provide a neural index that could be useful for assessing the effects of HAs on auditory and cognitive processing in HI populations.

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  • 26.
    Allander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    The influence of working memory on the quality of linguistic predictions during speech understanding in adverse listening conditions: Comparing cortical responses using MEG2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech understanding is a fundamental human ability that enable flexible communication among individuals. Understanding natural speech in normal conditions is a fast and automatic process. It is facilitated through integration between prior knowledge about a speech signal and multimodal speech inputs. In situations where listening conditions are adverse, for example due to hearing impairment or environmental noise, speech understanding is challenged and reliance on prior knowledge increases. Prior knowledge about phonology and semantics are involved in predictive mechanisms that generates more successful speech understanding. Working memory processing seems to be involved in influencing the quality of such predictions. To evaluate the role of working memory in the quality of linguistic predictions, a cortical comparison using MEG was used. MEG data from a previous experiment, where participants performed an auditory sentence completion task with background noise was analyzed. Results from statistical analysis, time-domain analysis and time frequency analysis suggests that differences in working memory processing does not influence the quality of linguistic predictions. Further research is required to assess what factors are involved in the quality of linguistic predictions which could lead to unsuccessful speech understanding, in order to improve communication in everyday situations.  

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  • 27.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Psykologiska institutionen vid Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Ritualer: självförverkligande eller tvångsupprepning?2010In: Den rituella människan: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv / [ed] Anne-Christine Hornborg, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010, p. 97-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ritualer är ett fenomen som väckt intresse i många vetenskaper men kanske främst i socialantropologi och religionsvetenskap. Detta intresse gäller i hög utsträckning ritualer i religiösa sammanhang. De förekommer dock i många andra kontexter, t. ex. i officiella sammanhang, såsom riksmötets (riksdagens) högtidliga öppnande eller högtidshållanden av andra världskrigets slut. Vidare förekommer de inom utbildningsväsendet, t. ex. i samband med doktorsdisputationer eller vid starten av en skoldag, liksom i föreningslivet, t. ex. hos frimurarna, vid årsmöten eller andra möten på fritiden samt i arbetslivet. Ritualbegreppet används också i än vidare sammanhang, bland annat har forskare studerat parningsritualer i djurs sexliv.

    Eftersom de förekommer i så många kontexter är ritualer ett fenomen som är lämpat att studera i ett tvärvetenskapligt sammanhang och föreliggande kapitel är ett försök att belysa dem ur två olika men ändå överlappande perspektiv, nämligen kognitionspsykologi och kunskapsantropologi. Även socialantropologisk forskning ges plats här. Kapitlet vill bidra till bättre förståelse av vad ritualer är och diskuterar både några viktiga förutsättningar för dem och deras funktioner. Först behandlas några olika sätt att definiera vad ritualer är. Därefter ges en referensram som kan bidra till att öka förståelsen av deras natur. Så följer en diskussion om några av deras funktioner. Till sist ges några sammanfattande synpunkter.

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    Ritualer : självförverkligande eller tvångsupprepning?
  • 28. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Causal Attribution and Self-Focused Attention for Shyness2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how and to what degree shy individuals differ from non-shy individuals regarding their attributional patterns. The results from 3 quantitative and 1 qualitative study paint a somewhat different picture of how shyness is associated with social cognition compared to previous research in the field. The following 4 main conclusions were drawn. (1) Being shy does not necessarily imply distorted social cognitions since shy people exhibited less of a self–other difference compared to non-shy people. (2) Being self-focused and shy means that emotional reactions are likely to be perceived as caused by stable internal causes rather than less stable internal and external causes. If shy people are self-focused to a lesser extent there is still a tendency for these individuals to exhibit this attributional pattern. (3) Shyness is more important than behavioral inhibition in determining ascriptions of causes to emotional reactions, whereas shyness and behavioral inhibition interact in determining people’s perceptions of the degree to which freely chosen causes are caused by internal and external factors, respectively. One conclusion of these findings is that future research needs to focus on how people in everyday life really explain their own and other people’s behaviors and reactions. (4) Very shy people can experience identity confusion as well as a conflicting wish to stay shy and to overcome shyness at the same time. Even though these results imply quite severe consequences of being shy, in general shyness seems to be viewed in quite a positive light.

    List of papers
    1. Attributions of shyness–resembling behaviors by shy and non–shy individuals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attributions of shyness–resembling behaviors by shy and non–shy individuals
    1999 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 575-585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Shy and non-shy individuals attributions of shyness-resembling behaviors in scenarios involving either themselves or other, hypothetical, people were studied through the use of a questionnaire. The participants were Swedish high-school students who rated the extent to which a number of such behaviors could be explained by four different causes, two internal (shyness and lack of interest) and two external (other persons and situational circumstances) causes. The results showed that shy participants attributed their own shyness-resembling behaviors to internal causes to a higher degree than did non-shy participants. Furthermore, non-shy participants attributed their own behaviors to external rather than internal causes, whereas shy participants judged internal and external causes to be about equally good explanations of their own behaviors. Both shy and non-shy participants attributed other peoples behaviors to internal rather than external causes. The differences between shy and non-shy participants were discussed in terms of differences in focus of attention, meaning that shy individuals seem to be much more self-focused than non-shy ones.

    Keywords
    Shyness; Attribution; Causal locus; Self–other difference; Actor–observer difference
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13840 (URN)10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00267-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12 Last updated: 2009-02-04
    2. The Role of Shyness and Self–Focused Attention for Attribution of Reactions in Social Situations to Internal and External Causes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Shyness and Self–Focused Attention for Attribution of Reactions in Social Situations to Internal and External Causes
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 519-527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that shyness would be associated with attribution of emotional reactions to stable internal causes rather than to less stable internal and external causes was tested in Study 1 (N = 60). In Study 2 (N= 112) the hypothesis that the explanatory power of shyness would decrease once the effect of self-focused attention on attribution to stable internal causes had been controlled for was tested. The results confirmed both hypotheses. Shyness correlated positively with attribution to stable internal causes, but non-significant with attribution to less stable internal and external causes. Shyness explained a lesser portion of the variance in attribution to both of the internal causes when controlling for self-focus. Even though the findings indicate that self-focus is central to the social cognitive processes of shy individuals, they also suggest that self-focus cannot fully explain attribution to internal causes in general and shy individuals' attributional pattern in particular.

    Keywords
    Shyness, attribution, internal causes, external causes, emotional reactions, self-focused attention
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13841 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00607.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. The Role of Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition for Attribution of Emotional Reactions and Ratings of Degree of Internality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition for Attribution of Emotional Reactions and Ratings of Degree of Internality
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13842 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12
    4. Tales from the shy: Interviews with self– and peer rated, shy and non–shy individuals concerning their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in social situationsbehaviors in social situations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tales from the shy: Interviews with self– and peer rated, shy and non–shy individuals concerning their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in social situationsbehaviors in social situations
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13843 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12
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  • 29.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Origo: A randomized Controlled Study: – the Efficacy of a Guided Self-help Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder via the Internet2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if a population suffering from generalized anxiety disorder could benefit from an Internet based self-help treatment guided via email contact with a therapist. The treatment was based on established cognitive behavioral principles. It was hypothesized that significant improvements would be found as measured by eight self report questionnaires, absence of a clinical diagnoses and global clinical improvement. A total of 89 participants were included and 44 were randomized to a treatment condition and 45 were assigned to a waitlist control. The controls received similar treatment after the first post treatment assessment, conducted eight weeks after the beginning or treatment of the first group. The results showed statistically significant improvements for the treatment group. No changes were observed in the waiting-list control group, with the exception of a minor decrease in depression scores. Large effect sizes were found both within the treatment group and between the two groups in favor of the treatment. In conclusion, Internet treatment can be an efficacious format for treating generalized anxiety disorder.

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  • 30.
    Al-Qadasi, Eateman
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Outdoor Encounters in Nature as a Promoter for Environmental Consciousness of Primary School Students from their Teachers' Perspectives2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing environmental concern, outdoor education has been looked at recently as one of the instruments that provoke environmental consciousness in an attempt to alleviate the ecological crises. The outdoor natural places are evidenced to have numerous affordances for children, one of which is raising their environmental consciousness, but what is the formula required for attaining this? This study aimed at exploring how outdoor activities in nature reinforce the young students' environmental consciousness, from their teachers’ perspectives. Thirteen primary school Swedish teachers from five national and international primary schools in Sweden were recruited conveniently as a representative sample for this thesis study. Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews, then analyzed using the hermeneutic thematic analysis. The study findings showed the perceived affordances of outdoor education in regard to environmentalism, and the factors of the optimum implementation of outdoor activities in natural settings. The teachers' accounts manifested that outdoor encounters in nature allow experiential learning and enhance the young students' environmental consciousness in terms of their ecological literacy, connectedness to nature, appreciation for nature, positive attitudes toward nature, and prospective pro-environmental behaviour. Moreover, the teachers highlighted the necessity of pedagogical guidance accompanying the outdoor activities in nature, in terms of clear environment-oriented curriculum goals, environment-related content, motivated teacher guiding discussions, and modelling pro-environmental behaviour.

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  • 31.
    Alsaadi, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Sjögren, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Collective moral disengagement and school bullying: An initial validation study of the Swedish scale version2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Alsaadi, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sjögren, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Collective moral disengagement at school: A validation of a scale for Swedish children2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recently developed classroom collective moral disengagement scale (CMD). The 18-item scale was evaluated on a sample of 1626 fourth grade students in Sweden. Through confirmatory factor analysis, the unidimensional structure of the scale was verified, and the internal consistency was good. The scale is related to individual moral disengagement and to bullying behavior both on an individual level, which supports the criteria validity of the scale and on class level, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Multigroup analyses demonstrated measurement invariance across gender. These results indicate that the scale can be used in studies on CMD, and girls’ and boys’ mean scores may be compared.

  • 33.
    Alvinge, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Is Speed a Magnitude?: Neurocognitive Estimations of Speed and its’ Connection to Time, Space and Numeric/Quantity Estimations2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between space, time, numbers and quantities have suggested that there must be a shared representational format which underlies them. One of the more prominent theories of an underlying system of representation is that of ATOM, which suggests that the there exists a generalized system of magnitude which processes these dimensions. However, there has been no study that examines whether speed is also processed within such a system. This study investigates this by seeing if a SNARC or Problem-Size effect arise in two speed estimation tests. The fundamental task for the participants in both tests was to judge which of two stimuli was the fastest, with the stimuli moving towards a wall located in the center of a computer screen. Their correct discrimination and response time was recorded. The results found that there were no significant results for either effect. This might be due to low sample size, methodological difficulties, and low robustness. Future research might amend these difficulties by having a more consistent setup with more trials reflecting the effect being tested and fix some potential problems with the test environment.

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  • 34.
    Amanda, Jaber
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Evaluating the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) is an instrument that consist of several measurements, such as team-member exchange, workload, the TRAMS observation protocol etc. This thesis researches the observation protocol. The TRAMS protocol is an assessment method for resilience in simulation games. The aim of this protocol is to support the identification of resilience strategies used and developed by the participants in a simulation game. It is a challenge to assess resilience in teams and that is why the TRAMS protocol has been developed. The scenario of the simulation games is a disruption for 10 days in the card payment system. During the simulation games, the participants work in teams and have to try to cope with the disruption in the card payment system. During the course of this study, 14 simulation games have been conducted with seven different teams. Each of the simulation games has been executed during one whole day, and the participating teams have in total played two games each. During every simulation game there were three observers equipped with the TRAMS protocol. To interpret the data collected with the TRAMS protocol, two methods have been used: transcription and thematic analysis. As a result, guidelines and design changes was formed. In addition, results showed that the distribution and frequency of observations of resilience strategies made were similar, that the observations noted by the observers were similar, and lastly eight themes from the data collection could be extracted: Coordinate and collaborate, Payment options, Cash circulation, Safety, Fuel and transportation, Inform, communicate and the media, Hoarding and rationing, Vulnerable groups. In conclusion, the TRAMS protocol is still under development and 15 more simulation games are planned to be conducted within the ongoing CCRAAAFFTING project. However, the protocol has been applied in this study´s 14 simulation games so far, and the similarities in how the observers filled in the protocol and how similar the observations were, indicate that it hopefully can develop into a recognized research tool in the future. 

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  • 35.
    Amcoff, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    I don’t know because I’m not a robot: I don’t know because I’m not a robot:A qualitative study exploring moral questions as a way to investigate the reasoning behind preschoolers’ mental state attribution to robots2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Portrayals of artificially intelligent robots are becoming increasingly prevalent in children’s culture. This affects how children perceive robots, which have been found to affect the way children in school understand subjects like technology and programming. Since teachers need to know what influences their pupils' understanding of these subjects, we need to know how children’s preconceptions about robots affect the way they attribute mental states to them. We still know relatively little about how children do this. Based on the above, a qualitative approach was deemed fit. This study aimed to (1) investigate the reasoning and preconceptions underlying children’s mental state attribution to robots, and (2) explore the effectiveness of moral questions as a way to do this. 16 children aged 5- and 6 years old were asked to rate the mental states of four different robots while subsequently being asked to explain their answers. Half of the children were interviewed alone and half in small groups. A thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the qualitative data. Children’s mental state attribution was found to be influenced by preconceptions about robots as a group of entities lacking mental states. Children were found to perceive two robots, Atlas, and Nao, differently in various respects. This was argued to be because the children perceived these robots through archetypal frameworks. Moral questions were found successful as a way to spark reflective reasoning about the mental state attribution in the children. 

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  • 36.
    Aminoff, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Sellén, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Fly me to the moon: LUNA: En faktoriell studie om betydelsen av self-efficacy, behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan vid IKBT för depression2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression är en växande folkhälsosjukdom och anses vara den globalt ledande orsaken till funktionsnedsättning. Internetbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi (IKBT) för depression har visat sig vara en effektiv behandling. Behandlingsformatet kan tillhandahållas på varierande sätt, exempelvis utifrån vem som väljer behandlingsprogram och grad av behandlarstöd. Lägre grad av stöd är exempelvis mindre resurskrävande och kan därmed bidra till en ökning av tillgången på psykologisk behandling. Samtidigt kräver det ett mer kognitivt och beteendemässigt engagemang av patienten. Till följd av detta är det intressant att undersöka för vilka patienter som en friare behandlingsform är mest fördelaktigt. I den aktuella studien undersöks således två oberoende behandlingsvariabler, typ av individualiserat behandlingsprogram och typ av stöd. Dessa undersöks med en faktoriell design (2x2) på en IKBT-behandling för vuxna (N = 172) med depression. Syftet med studien är att undersöka huruvida grad av self-efficacy och behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan korrelerar med depressiva symtom samt om initial grad av self-efficacy och behandlingsförväntan/utfallsförväntan kan predicera den eventuella symtomförändring som uppnåtts efter behandlingens slut. Med syftet att generera kunskap om vilka som drar nytta av ett friare, och mer kostnadseffektivt, behandlingsformat undersöks dessutom om grad av self-efficacy korrelerar med behandlingsutfall specifikt för deltagare i behandlingsgruppen med egenvalda moduler och stöd vid behov. Huruvida skillnader mellan behandlingsgrupperna föreligger undersöktes även vad gällande förändring i upplevd self-efficacy.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar resultatet att grad av self-efficacy ökar (d = 0.46) under behandlingen och att förändringen i self-efficacy korrelerar med förändringen i depressiva symtom. Ett samband mellan behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan och behandlingsutfall påvisades dessutom. Initial grad av upplevd self-efficacy predicerar inte behandlingsutfallet totalt, men högre grad av upplevd self-efficacy vid ett friare behandlingsformat visades ha ett samband med lägre förändring i depressionssymtom

    (ηp2= .030). Denna studie belyser därmed vikten av att ta hänsyn till både self-efficacy och behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan vid IKBT-behandling för depression, vilka båda visats ha ett samband med behandlingsutfallet.

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  • 37.
    Aminoff, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sellén, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörliden, Elise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Berg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychological Distress Associated With the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 684540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with various negative psychological consequences. This is a challenge for the society as regular psychological services cannot be offered to the same extent as before the pandemic. In addition to the requirement of social distancing, there is a need to adjust psychological treatment components like exposure to avoid increasing the spread of the infection. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has an established evidence base for a range of psychiatric problems and has been suggested as one possible approach to deal with the situation. This study aimed to conduct a randomized controlled pilot trial during the summer of 2020 with a broad focus on psychological distress and a treatment approach that tailors the intervention based on symptom profile and preferences.

    Methods: Following the advertisement and interview, we included 52 participants with elevated levels of psychological distress. They were randomly allocated to either a 7-week-long individually tailored ICBT (n = 26) or a wait-list control condition (n = 26). Measures of depression and quality of life were used as primary outcomes. We also included secondary outcome measures of anxiety, insomnia, trauma, stress, anger, and alcohol use. For screening, we used the CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS).

    Results: Overall moderate to large between-group effects were found at post-treatment in favor of the treatment on measures of both depression [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); Cohens d = 0.63; Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): d = 0.62] and anxiety [Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7-item scale (GAD-7); d = 0.82]. This was also observed for stress symptoms [Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14); d = 1.04]. No effects were seen on measures of quality of life, insomnia, symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and anger. There was an effect on alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT); d = 0.54], which was not of clinical relevance.

    Conclusion: Individually tailored ICBT shows initial promise as a way to reduce psychological problems in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. A possible limitation was that the trial was conducted when the effects of the pandemic were decreasing and when fewer people were affected by the restrictions (e.g., the summer of 2020).

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  • 38.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

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    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 39.
    Andelius, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of mental illness among lone actors in Sweden were studied through a thematic analysis on textual documents. Thirty-five of 70 lone actors were chosen with a systematic randomized method. The textual documents contain closed source data from The Swedish Police Authority. Of the studied lone actors 43 % had a mental disorder and signs of mental illness were observed in 34 %. The findings are consistent with previous international research that shows that approximately 40 % of lone actors have a mental disorder. In summary current study outlines that 77 % of lone actors in Sweden show signs of mental illness which can indicate that the quantity of mental disorders could have been underestimated. Finally mental illness appears to be an important risk factor for violence and The Swedish Police Authority needs to cooperate with other social actors to be able to prevent and discover violent crimes from future lone actors. 

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    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige
  • 40.
    Andersen, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Mobbning, vad är det?: -En diskursanalys av hur barn talar om mobbning2010Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att söka förståelse för hur barn talar om mobbning och är baserad på individuella kvalitativa intervjuer med 30 barn i årskurs fyra. Dessa intervjuer analyserades med hjälp av diskursanalys och studien svarar på hur barn talar om mobbning när de ombeds definiera begreppet samt hur barn talar kring orsakerna till mobbning. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att barnens tal om mobbning till stor del ger uttryck för att mobbning är ett laddat ämne vilket kan ses som en moralisk diskurs som omfattar såväl barnen som intervjuaren. Positionering är en strategi barnen använder sig av i sitt sätt att tala om mobbning för att visa sin ståndpunkt i relation till ämnet. Positioneringen kan ses som en följd av den moraliska diskursen och blir särskilt tydlig när fokus ligger på den interaktionella dimensionen i intervjuerna. Barnens sätt att tala om definitionen av mobbning lyfter komplexiteten i begreppet och resultatet visar hur definitionen förändras i samtalet då barnen följer samtalskontexten. Barnens sätt att tala kring orsakerna till mobbning visar hur de genom skilda förklaringar placerar olika grader av social ansvarighet på de olika aktörerna. Resultatet i studien väcker frågor kring huruvida begreppet mobbning bör lyftas till diskussion i framtida forskning.

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  • 41.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Biringer, Eva
    Helse Fonna HF, Norge.
    Helland, Turid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Developmental Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring language profiles for children with AD/HD and children with Asperger syndrome2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of the present study was to investigate communication impairments in a Norwegian sample of children with ADHD and children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and to explore whether children with ADHD can be differentiated from children with AS in terms of their language profiles on the Norwegian adaptation of the Children’s Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2). Method: The CCC-2 was completed by the parents, and altogether, 77 children aged between 6 and 15 years participated in the study. Results: Communication impairments were as common in a group of children with ADHD as in a group of children with AS. Although a similar pattern appeared on most CCC-2 scales, children with ADHD and children with AS could be distinguished from each other in terms of their language profiles on the subscales assessing stereotyped language and nonverbal communication. Conclusion: Language abilities should be taken into account when standard assessments of ADHD and AS are performed and before therapies are initiated

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  • 42.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Pragmatiske språkvansker og barnepsykiatri2004In: Spesialpedagogikk, ISSN 0332-8457, no 7, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Det har dei siste åra vore ei aukande merksemd omkring språkfunksjonen til barn som er tilviste det psykiatriske behandlingsapparatet. I artikkelen er det gjort greie for reultata frå ein pilotstudie som viser komobiditet mellom psykiatriske vanskar og kommunikasjonsvanskar.

  • 43.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Helland, Turid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language profiles and mental health problems in children with specific language imapirment and children with AD/HD2014In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to explore whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with ADHDcan be differentiated from each other in terms of their language profiles, and also to investigate whether these two clinicalgroups differ regarding mental health problems. Method: A total of 59 children in the age range 6 to 12 years participatedin the study. The parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist–Second Edition and the Strengths andDifficulties Questionnaire. Results: Communication impairments were as prominent in the ADHD group as in the SLIgroup; however, the groups were separable from each other in terms of their language profiles. Furthermore, the ADHDgroup experienced significantly more mental health problems compared with the SLI group. Conclusion: Language shouldbe assessed in children with ADHD and instruments sensitive to ADHD should be included when assessing children withSLI. Mental health should be an area of concern to be addressed in both groups. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX)

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  • 44.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Stord Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Lundervold, Astri
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Posserud, Maj-Britt
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Stable associations between behavioral problems and language impairments across childhood - the importance of pragmatic language problems2014In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 943-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated language function associated with behavior problems, focusing on pragmatics. Scores on the Children’s Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2) in a group of 40 adolescents (12–15 years) identified with externalizing behavior problems (BP) in childhood was compared to the CCC-2 scores in a typically developing comparison group (n=37). Behavioral, emotional and language problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and 4 language items, when the children in the BP group were 7–9 years (T1). They were then assessed with the SDQ and the CCC-2 when they were 12–15 years (T2). The BP group obtained poorer scores on 9/10 subscales on the CCC-2, and 70% showed language impairments in the clinical range. Language, emotional and peer problems at T1 were strongly correlated with pragmatic language impairments in adolescence. The findings indicate that assessment of language, especially pragmatics, is vital for follow-up and treatment of behavioral problems in children and adolescents.

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    Stable associations between behavioral problems and language impairments across childhood - the importance of pragmatic language problems
  • 45.
    Andersen, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tebring, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metakognitiva strategier vid lösning av rika matematiska problem: Vilka strategier används och vilka för problemlösningsprocessen framåt?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis handlar denna studie om relationen mellan metakognition och matematisk problemlösning.Metakognition betyder kortfattat förmågan att tänka över det egna tänkandet och har visat sig vara en central del avarbete med problemlösning. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka metakognitiva strategier som elever användervid arbete med rika matematiska problem samt hur dessa påverkar huruvida problemlösningsprocessen förs framåt.Studien bygger på fyra observationer av 13 elever i årskurs åtta som arbetade med rika matematiska problem. Resultatet kodades med hjälp av ett analysverktyg som skapades med stöd i tidigare forskning och studien kom framtill att de vanligaste strategierna som eleverna använde var att identifiera relevant information samt att hitta ”nyckeln”i problemet. Dessa strategier var också de som förde problemlösningsprocessen framåt. Avslutningsvis dras slutsatsenatt elever som lyckas i sin problemlösning använder många olika metakognitiva strategier och att de behärskar detvå vanligaste strategierna, vilket leder till att de kan komma vidare i problemlösningen.

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  • 46.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engstroem, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H. H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022In: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students academic performance will be adversely affected.

  • 47.
    Andersson, E
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Steneby, S
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, K
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljótsson, B
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, E
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enander, J
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, V
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, N
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, C
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with or without booster: a randomized controlled trial.2014In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 2877-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program.

    METHOD: A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT.

    RESULTS: The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.58-2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan-Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Evelyn
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schalling, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e79015-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.

    METHOD: Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202). Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment) for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.

    RESULTS: At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.

    CONCLUSIONS: None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.

     

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  • 49.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Age may moderate response to different unguided Internet-delivered interventions for depression2014In: Evidence-Based Mental Health, ISSN 1362-0347, E-ISSN 1468-960X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Atheism and how it is perceived: Manipulation of, bias against and ways to reduce the bias2016In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 194-203Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the cognitive foundations of religion and experimental methods have been used to explain religious behaviours. However, in the world, there are a substantial number of non-believers (atheists), and this has been a largely unknown field for experimental and more basic research informed by cognitive science. This has now changed and in this review, I cover three domains of study. First, studies in which belief in God has been manipulated in the direction of showing less belief are reviewed. For example, it is shown that analytical thinking reduces religious belief. Second, recent studies on cognitive bias against atheists are covered showing that atheists are distrusted, elicit disgust and are viewed as immoral both explicitly and implicitly. Third, I review studies in which prejudice against atheists has been experimentally manipulated showing that it is possible to reduce bias against atheists. I conclude the paper arguing that the bias against atheists need to be investigated in the Scan-dinavian countries.

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