liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 541
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lena
    Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children or adolescents who lost someone close during the Southeast Asia tsunami 2004 – The life as young2022In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e2563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To lose a person close suddenly, during childhood or adolescence, can be devastating. Many children or adolescents experienced the 2004 Indonesian tsunami when they were between 10- and 15-years-old. This study, from Stockholm, Sweden, describes the long-term effects of loss, eight- or nine-years post disaster, in young adulthood.

    Method: A mixed-method approach was used including statistical analyses (n = 210) and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).

    Results: It was shown that there was a significant difference between bereaved (n=34) and nonbereaved (n = 176) respondents concerning, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and self-rated health. Three themes were found by using the IPA approach (n=9): Living in traumas, carrying heavy baggage, and living with change.

    Conclusion: The respondents described personal feelings of grief that are not expressed in their outward appearance or behavior in their daily living. When meeting young adults that have lost someone close in childhood or adolescence, this is important to have in mind.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ahlenius, Sven
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Knut
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Prolongation of the ejaculation latency in the male rat by thioridazine and chlorimipramine.1979In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioridazine (3 mg/kg) and chlorimipramine (1.5–6.0 mg/kg) prolonged the ejaculation latency and increased the number of mounts but did not change the number of intromissions preceding ejaculation. Blockade of peripheral and central noradrenaline receptors by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine respectively resulted in a suppression of all aspects of the sexual behavior with increasing doses. dl-5-HTP (25–100 mg/kg) in combination with an inhibitor of peripheral 5-HTP decarboxylase (benserazide, 25 mg/kg) produced, like chlorimipramine and thioridazine, a prolongation of ejaculation latency and an increase in the number of mounts preceding ejaculation. Selective inhibition of 5-HT reuptake however, by zimelidine (0–20 mg/kg) or alaproclate (0–20 mg/kg) did not affect the mating behavior. At higher doses of these drugs some animals failed to initiate sexual activities. There was an increase in the postejaculatory interval but no change in the ejaculatory latency.It is concluded that the prolonged ejaculation latencies observed following treatment with thioridazine or chlorimipramine is not due to a blockade of central or peripheral adrenergic -receptors.

  • 3.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Ahlin, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Tjäder, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag trivs bäst i öppna landskap...": Om naturmiljöers påverkan på oss människor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie med experimentell design har genomförts i syfte att jämföra natur- respektive urbanmiljöers påverkan på känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning efter en stressupplevelse, samt utslag på kognitiv prestation. Hypotesen var att naturstimuli genererar högre grad av känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning än urbanstimuli. Frågeställningen var om vi kunde se någon skillnad mellan gruppernas prestationsförmåga efter genomförd återhämtning, vad gäller riktad uppmärksamhet. Återhämtningsgrad har mätts i förändring i blodtryck, puls och självskattning av känslor.  Resultatet visade att naturmiljön genererar en högre nivå återhämtning med avseende på sänkt diastoliskt blodtryck, ökade positiva känslor samt minskad oro. Däremot visades ingen skillnad i kognitiv prestationsförmåga mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen är att känslomässig samt fysiologisk återhämtning kan underlättas i naturmiljö jämfört med urbanmiljö och att detta även kan ske med hjälp av naturbilder. Däremot är det inte är självklart att man får större kapacitet riktad uppmärksamhet efter exponering av naturbilder jämfört med stadsbilder.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Solis-Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Akerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    The impact of driver sleepiness on fixation-related brain potentials2020In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 5, article id e12962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driver sleepiness are often quantified as deteriorated driving performance, increased blink durations and high levels of subjective sleepiness. Driver sleepiness has also been associated with increasing levels of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, especially in the alpha range. The present exploratory study investigated a new measure of driver sleepiness, the EEG fixation-related lambda response. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 +/- 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment in which they drove on rural and suburban roads in simulated daylight versus darkness during both the daytime (full sleep) and night-time (sleep deprived). The results show lower lambda responses during night driving and with longer time on task, indicating that sleep deprivation and time on task cause a general decrement in cortical responsiveness to incoming visual stimuli. Levels of subjective sleepiness and line crossings were higher under the same conditions. Furthermore, results of a linear mixed-effects model showed that low lambda responses are associated with high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings. We suggest that the fixation-related lambda response can be used to investigate driving impairment induced by sleep deprivation while driving and that, after further refinement, it may be useful as an objective measure of driver sleepiness.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 7.
    Al Nimaa, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Persson, Bjorn N.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Turku, Finland.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Validation of Subjective Well-Being Measures Using Item Response Theory2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being refers to the extent to which a person believes or feels that her life is going well. It is considered as one of the best available proxies for a broader, more canonical form of well-being. For over 30 years, one important distinction in the conceptualization of subjective well-being is the contrast between more affective evaluations of biological emotional reactions and more cognitive evaluations of ones life in relation to a psychologically self-imposed ideal. More recently, researchers have suggested the addition of harmony in life, comprising behavioral evaluations of how one is doing in a social context. Since measures used to assess subjective well-being are self-reports, often validated only using Classical Test Theory, our aim was to focus on the psychometric properties of the measures using Item Response Theory. Method: A total of 1000 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. At random, half of the participants answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale or to the Harmony in life Scale. First, we evaluate and provide enough evidence of unidimensionality for each scale. Next, we conducted graded response models to validate the psychometric properties of the subjective well-being scales. Results: All scales showed varied frequency item distribution, high discrimination values (Alphas), and had different difficulty parameters (Beta) on each response options. For example, we identified items that respondents found difficult to endorse at the highest/lowest point of the scales (e.g., "Proud" for positive affect; item 5, "If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing," for life satisfaction; and item 3, "I am in harmony," for harmony in life). In addition, all scales could cover a good portion of the range of subjective well-being (Theta): -2.50 to 2.30 for positive affect, -1.00 to 3.50 for negative affect, -2.40 to 2.50 for life satisfaction, and -2.40 to 2.50 for harmony in life. Importantly, for all scales, there were weak reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Conclusion: The affective component, especially low levels of negative affect, were less accurately measured, while both the cognitive and social component were covered to an equal degree. There was less reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Thus, to improve reliability at the level of the scale, at the item level and at the level of the response scale for each item, we point out specific items that need to be modified or added. Moreover, the data presented here can be used as normative data for each of the subjective well-being constructs.

  • 8.
    Ala, Tirdad Seifi
    et al.
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Univ Nottingham, Scotland.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Alickovic, Emina
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Whitmer, William M.
    Univ Nottingham, Scotland.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    An exploratory Study of EEG Alpha Oscillation and Pupil Dilation in Hearing-Aid Users During Effortful listening to Continuous Speech2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, article id e0235782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with hearing loss allocate cognitive resources to comprehend noisy speech in everyday life scenarios. Such a scenario could be when they are exposed to ongoing speech and need to sustain their attention for a rather long period of time, which requires listening effort. Two well-established physiological methods that have been found to be sensitive to identify changes in listening effort are pupillometry and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these measurements have been used mainly for momentary, evoked or episodic effort. The aim of this study was to investigate how sustained effort manifests in pupillometry and EEG, using continuous speech with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Eight hearing-aid users participated in this exploratory study and performed a continuous speech-in-noise task. The speech material consisted of 30-second continuous streams that were presented from loudspeakers to the right and left side of the listener (+/- 30 degrees azimuth) in the presence of 4-talker background noise (+180 degrees azimuth). The participants were instructed to attend either to the right or left speaker and ignore the other in a randomized order with two different SNR conditions: 0 dB and -5 dB (the difference between the target and the competing talker). The effects of SNR on listening effort were explored objectively using pupillometry and EEG. The results showed larger mean pupil dilation and decreased EEG alpha power in the parietal lobe during the more effortful condition. This study demonstrates that both measures are sensitive to changes in SNR during continuous speech.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Tutorial on Auditory Attention Identification Methods2019In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention identification methods attempt to identify the sound source of a listeners interest by analyzing measurements of electrophysiological data. We present a tutorial on the numerous techniques that have been developed in recent decades, and we present an overview of current trends in multivariate correlation-based and model-based learning frameworks. The focus is on the use of linear relations between electrophysiological and audio data. The way in which these relations are computed differs. For example, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) finds a linear subset of electrophysiological data that best correlates to audio data and a similar subset of audio data that best correlates to electrophysiological data. Model-based (encoding and decoding) approaches focus on either of these two sets. We investigate the similarities and differences between these linear model philosophies. We focus on (1) correlation-based approaches (CCA), (2) encoding/decoding models based on dense estimation, and (3) (adaptive) encoding/decoding models based on sparse estimation. The specific focus is on sparsity-driven adaptive encoding models and comparing the methodology in state-of-the-art models found in the auditory literature. Furthermore, we outline the main signal processing pipeline for how to identify the attended sound source in a cocktail party environment from the raw electrophysiological data with all the necessary steps, complemented with the necessary MATLAB code and the relevant references for each step. Our main aim is to compare the methodology of the available methods, and provide numerical illustrations to some of them to get a feeling for their potential. A thorough performance comparison is outside the scope of this tutorial.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Fiedler, Lorenz
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Hietkamp, Renskje
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Ng, Hoi Ning Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Graversen, Carina
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Neural Representation Enhanced for Speech and Reduced for Background Noise With a Hearing Aid Noise Reduction Scheme During a Selective Attention Task2020In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 14, article id 846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Selectively attending to a target talker while ignoring multiple interferers (competing talkers and background noise) is more difficult for hearing-impaired (HI) individuals compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Such tasks also become more difficult as background noise levels increase. To overcome these difficulties, hearing aids (HAs) offer noise reduction (NR) schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NR processing (inactive, where the NR feature was switched off,vs.active, where the NR feature was switched on) on the neural representation of speech envelopes across two different background noise levels [+3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and +8 dB SNR] by using a stimulus reconstruction (SR) method. Design To explore how NR processing supports the listeners selective auditory attention, we recruited 22 HI participants fitted with HAs. To investigate the interplay between NR schemes, background noise, and neural representation of the speech envelopes, we used electroencephalography (EEG). The participants were instructed to listen to a target talker in front while ignoring a competing talker in front in the presence of multi-talker background babble noise. Results The results show that the neural representation of the attended speech envelope was enhanced by the active NR scheme for both background noise levels. The neural representation of the attended speech envelope at lower (+3 dB) SNR was shifted, approximately by 5 dB, toward the higher (+8 dB) SNR when the NR scheme was turned on. The neural representation of the ignored speech envelope was modulated by the NR scheme and was mostly enhanced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the background noise was modulated (i.e., reduced) by the NR scheme and was significantly reduced in the conditions with more background noise. The neural representation of the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene (ignored talker and background babble) was not modulated by the NR scheme but was significantly reduced in the conditions with a reduced level of background noise. Taken together, we showed that the active NR scheme enhanced the neural representation of both the attended and the ignored speakers and reduced the neural representation of background noise, while the net sum of the ignored acoustic scene was not enhanced. Conclusion Altogether our results support the hypothesis that the NR schemes in HAs serve to enhance the neural representation of speech and reduce the neural representation of background noise during a selective attention task. We contend that these results provide a neural index that could be useful for assessing the effects of HAs on auditory and cognitive processing in HI populations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Al-Qadasi, Eateman
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Outdoor Encounters in Nature as a Promoter for Environmental Consciousness of Primary School Students from their Teachers' Perspectives2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing environmental concern, outdoor education has been looked at recently as one of the instruments that provoke environmental consciousness in an attempt to alleviate the ecological crises. The outdoor natural places are evidenced to have numerous affordances for children, one of which is raising their environmental consciousness, but what is the formula required for attaining this? This study aimed at exploring how outdoor activities in nature reinforce the young students' environmental consciousness, from their teachers’ perspectives. Thirteen primary school Swedish teachers from five national and international primary schools in Sweden were recruited conveniently as a representative sample for this thesis study. Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews, then analyzed using the hermeneutic thematic analysis. The study findings showed the perceived affordances of outdoor education in regard to environmentalism, and the factors of the optimum implementation of outdoor activities in natural settings. The teachers' accounts manifested that outdoor encounters in nature allow experiential learning and enhance the young students' environmental consciousness in terms of their ecological literacy, connectedness to nature, appreciation for nature, positive attitudes toward nature, and prospective pro-environmental behaviour. Moreover, the teachers highlighted the necessity of pedagogical guidance accompanying the outdoor activities in nature, in terms of clear environment-oriented curriculum goals, environment-related content, motivated teacher guiding discussions, and modelling pro-environmental behaviour.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Alsaadi, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sjögren, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Collective moral disengagement at school: A validation of a scale for Swedish children2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recently developed classroom collective moral disengagement scale (CMD). The 18-item scale was evaluated on a sample of 1626 fourth grade students in Sweden. Through confirmatory factor analysis, the unidimensional structure of the scale was verified, and the internal consistency was good. The scale is related to individual moral disengagement and to bullying behavior both on an individual level, which supports the criteria validity of the scale and on class level, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Multigroup analyses demonstrated measurement invariance across gender. These results indicate that the scale can be used in studies on CMD, and girls’ and boys’ mean scores may be compared.

  • 14.
    Andelius, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of mental illness among lone actors in Sweden were studied through a thematic analysis on textual documents. Thirty-five of 70 lone actors were chosen with a systematic randomized method. The textual documents contain closed source data from The Swedish Police Authority. Of the studied lone actors 43 % had a mental disorder and signs of mental illness were observed in 34 %. The findings are consistent with previous international research that shows that approximately 40 % of lone actors have a mental disorder. In summary current study outlines that 77 % of lone actors in Sweden show signs of mental illness which can indicate that the quantity of mental disorders could have been underestimated. Finally mental illness appears to be an important risk factor for violence and The Swedish Police Authority needs to cooperate with other social actors to be able to prevent and discover violent crimes from future lone actors. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige
  • 15.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Pragmatiske språkvansker og barnepsykiatri2004In: Spesialpedagogikk, ISSN 0332-8457, no 7, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Det har dei siste åra vore ei aukande merksemd omkring språkfunksjonen til barn som er tilviste det psykiatriske behandlingsapparatet. I artikkelen er det gjort greie for reultata frå ein pilotstudie som viser komobiditet mellom psykiatriske vanskar og kommunikasjonsvanskar.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engstroem, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H. H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022In: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students academic performance will be adversely affected.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Innovating CBT and Answering New Questions: the Role of Internet-Delivered CBT2023In: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, ISSN 1937-1209, E-ISSN 1937-1217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed in the late 1990s, and since then, a large number of studies have been conducted. Many programs have been developed and sometimes implemented, and ICBT has become a major way to investigate and innovate CBT including important questions regarding mechanisms and moderating factors. The aim of this narrative review was to comment on the treatment format, the evidence behind ICBT, innovations, and finally challenges. ICBT has been developed and tested for a range of conditions including both psychiatric and somatic health problems and also transdiagnostic problems like loneliness and poor self-esteem. Meta-analytic reviews suggest that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT and by using individual patient data meta-analytic methods (IPDMA), it is now possible have better power for the search of moderators. There are also several reports of how well ICBT works in regular clinical settings, mostly replicating the results reported in efficacy studies. Cost-effectiveness has also been documented as well as studies using qualitative methodology to document client and clinician experiences. In terms of innovation, there are now studies on problems for which there is limited previous face-to-face research, and one major advancement is the use of factorial design trials in which more than one independent variable is tested. Finally, ICBT has the potential to be useful in times of crisis, with the COVID-19 pandemic being one recent example. Future challenges include use of artificial intelligence in both treatment development and possibly treatment delivery. Another urgent priority is to reach less favored parts of the world as most studies and programs have been tested and implemented in Western countries. In conclusion, ICBT is now an established as a way to develop, test, and deliver CBT.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Per A
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prosocial and moral behavior under decision reveal in a public environment2020In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People may act differently in public environments due to actual reputation concerns, or due to the mere presence of others. Unlike previous studies on the influence of observability on prosocial behavior we control for the latter while manipulating the former, i.e. we control for implicit reputation concerns while manipulating explicit. We show that revealing decisions in public did not affect altruistic behavior, while it increased cooperation and made subjects less likely to make utilitarian judgments in sacrificial dilemmas (i.e., harming one to save many). Our findings are in line with theoretical models suggesting that people, at large, are averse to standing out in both positive and negative ways when it comes to altruistic giving. This "wallflower effect" does however not seem to extend to decisions on cooperation and moral judgments made in public.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Norm avoiders: The effect of optional descriptive norms on charitable donations2022In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 35, no 1, article id e2244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing the descriptive norm concerning others prosociality could affect your behavior, but would you seek out or avoid such knowledge? This high-powered preregistered experiment explores the effect of both forced and optionally revealed descriptive norms on real monetary donations. These norms were established by learning the proportion of previous participants who had donated to a charitable organization that the respondent now was asked to donate to. For those learning about a norm, participants were more likely to donate if they were shown that a majority donates, compared with if they were shown that a minority donates. For the participants who were asked if they wanted to reveal the norm or not, we found that about half choose to reveal the norm. Those who avoided revealing the norm donated less frequently; both compared with revealers and with those who were forced to view the norm. However, these norm avoiders also donate a higher mean amount. Taken together, this hints at norm avoiders being composed of both altruistic and non-altruistic people, with fewer of those who are undecided. This type of norm avoidance may be more related to information avoidance motives rather than mere curiosity or reactance. The present findings can inspire further research into the motives of norm avoidance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Salomonsson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Ungas perspektiv på föräldraskap och ursprung: Reflektioner från unga vuxna tillkomna genom könscellsdonation och/eller uppvuxna i regnbågsfamiljer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna examensuppsats har ämnat undersöka ungdomars och unga vuxnas perspektiv på och upplevelser av föräldraskap och genetiskt ursprung samt aktuell föräldralagstiftning. Examensuppsatsen ämnar vidare utgöra underlag för en rapport som beaktas i en statlig utredning som handlar om att se över aktuella regler kring fastställande av rättsligt föräldraskap. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio unga vuxna i åldern 17 till 32 år har data samlats in och analyserats med tematisk analys.

    I resultaten fann vi att deltagarnas sätt definiera och tala om föräldraskap är i linje med tidigare forskning. Även internationell forskning kring synen på könscellsdonatorer och deras roll som föräldrar eller icke-föräldrar har kunnat appliceras på vårt intervjumaterial för att förstå donatorsrollen som infallande på ett kontinuum. Nya fynd som framkommit är att avsaknad av rättsliga band ej utgör ett oöverkomligt hinder för utövandet av socialt föräldraskap, både i avseende på att skaffa barn och sedermera uppfostra det. Deltagarna berättar dock att avsaknad av rättsligt föräldraskap har varit problematiskt vid dödsfall och separationer. Funderingar kring genetiskt ursprung och tillkomst beskrivs påbörjas i tidig ålder hos deltagarna och vara avslutat i tidig vuxen ålder, vilket är ett nytt fynd och går emot lagstiftad ålder för kännedom om donator och genetiskt ursprung. Möjlighet till kännedomen om genetiskt ursprung lyfts som barnets okränkbara rättighet.

    Utifrån dessa fynd drar vi slutsatsen att trots lagmässiga hinder kan ett fullständigt föräldraskap i många fall utövas av icke-juridiska föräldrar samt att avsaknad av genetiska band ej utgör en barriär för relationsskapande eller identitetsutveckling. Däremot anses lagstiftning och samhällsattityder fortfarande vara exkluderande och osynliggörande gentemot regnbågsfamiljer och könscellsdonation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Ungas perspektiv på föräldraskap och ursprung
  • 21.
    Andin, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    fMRI Evidence of Magnitude Manipulation during Numerical Order Processing in Congenitally Deaf Signers2018In: Neural Plasticity, ISSN 2090-5904, E-ISSN 1687-5443, article id 2576047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital deafness is often compensated by early sign language use leading to typical language development with corresponding neural underpinnings. However, deaf individuals are frequently reported to have poorer numerical abilities than hearing individuals and it is not known whether the underlying neuronal networks differ between groups. In the present study, adult deaf signers and hearing nonsigners performed a digit and letter order tasks, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found the neuronal networks recruited in the two tasks to be generally similar across groups, with significant activation in the dorsal visual stream for the letter order task, suggesting letter identification and position encoding. For the digit order task, no significant activation was found for either of the two groups. Region of interest analyses on parietal numerical processing regions revealed different patterns of activation across groups. Importantly, deaf signers showed significant activation in the right horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus for the digit order task, suggesting engagement of magnitude manipulation during numerical order processing in this group.

  • 22.
    Andin, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Rethymnon, Greece.
    Cardin, Velia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University College London, UK.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Capek, Cheryl M.
    School of Psychological Science, University of Manchester, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar working memory (WM) for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM) is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Webster, Kate E.
    School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Psychological Aspects of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries2016In: Operative techniques in sports medicine, ISSN 1060-1872, E-ISSN 1557-9794, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impairment-based evaluation has, until recently, been the mainstay of orthopaedic research in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, participation-based outcomes, in particular returning to sport, have lately garnered increased research attention. This is important because returning to sport is typically a main concern of injured athletes. Recent metaanalyses have demonstrated that the return to sport rate after ACL reconstruction is disappointingly low, and that a range of contextual factors including age, sex, sport participation level, and psychological factors may affect the return to sport rate. Moderate to large effect sizes have been demonstrated for greater psychological readiness to return to sport, and lower fear of reinjury favoring returning to the preinjury level sport after ACL reconstruction. Understanding the relationship between psychological factors and returning to sport is essential in light of the fact that most athletes recover good physical function after surgery, and many athletes with good knee function do not return to sport. Psychological factors are potentially modifiable with appropriate intervention, yet these factors are not systematically addressed in routine postoperative rehabilitation. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the relationship between psychological factors and ACL injury, including recovery from injury and returning to sport. Oper Tech Sports Med 24:77-83 Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Arehart, Kathryn
    et al.
    University of Colorado, UCB 409, Boulder, Departmen of Speech , Language and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, United States.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Syskin Pedersen, Michael
    Oticon.
    James M, Kate
    University of Colorado at Boulder , Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences (SLHS), Electrical Engineering..
    Relationship between distortion and working memory for digital noise-reduction processing in hearing aids2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 133, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies have shown a relationship between working memory and the ability of older adults to benefit from specific advanced signal processing algorithms in hearing aids. In this study, we quantify tradeoffs between benefit due to noise reduction and the perceptual costs associated with distortion caused by the noise reduction algorithm. We also investigate the relationship between these tradeoffs and working memory abilities. Speech intelligibility, speech quality, and perceived listening effort were measured in a cohort of elderly adults with hearing loss. Test materials were low-context sentences presented in fluctuating noise conditions at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-reduction strategy. The amount of distortion produced by the noise reduction algorithm was parametrically varied by manipulating two binary mask parameters, error rate, and attenuation rate. Working memory was assessed with a reading span test. Results will be discussed in terms of the extent to which intelligibility, quality, and effort ratings are explained by the amount of distortion and/or noise and by working memory ability. [Funded by NIH, Oticon, and GN ReSound.].

  • 25.
    Aronsson, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag i olycksutredningar: Skapande och implementering2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag många verksamheter där människor tillsammans med befintlig teknik bildar komplexa system som ska samverka på ett effektivt men ändå säkert sätt. Trots verksamhetens höga säkerhetskrav kan en olycka eller incident ändå ske, och denna kan då bli föremål för en utredning för att hitta de bakomliggande orsakerna till händelsen. En olycksutredning ska resultera i åtgärdsförslag som bidrar till att liknande händelser inte sker igen och att säkerheten i systemet och verksamheten i stort förbättras. Det finns många olika teorier och metoder kring hur en utredning bör gå tillväga vad gäller händelseanalys och identifiering av brister i systemet, men processen att skapa och implementera åtgärdsförslagen är mindre utforskat.

    Denna studie är utförd på Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) som ansvarar för att ta hand om och lagra det använda kärnbränslet från Sveriges kärnkraftverk. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur SKB arbetar vid olycksutredningar för att skapa åtgärdsförslag och implementera dessa, samt att belysa de svårigheter som kan upplevas med detta arbete. Den metod som använts bestod av en inledande litteraturstudie av tidigare forskning följt av sju semistrukturerade intervjuer som transkriberats och analyserats.

    Resultatet visade att skapande och implementering av åtgärdsförslag är en komplex process som innebär många svåra beslut där utredaren måste kompromissa på olika sätt för att kunna skapa effektiva åtgärdsförslag. Det visade sig bland annat vara svårt att avgränsa åtgärdsförslagen och bestämma vilken nivå de ska ligga på samt att bedöma hur många åtgärdsförslag som bör skapas. Implementeringen av åtgärdsförslagen innehåller även den mycket beslutsfattande som kräver bra kommunikation och samarbete mellan alla inblandade parter. Svårigheter med implementeringen är att åtgärdsförslagen ibland tenderar att hamna mellan stolarna och att implementerade åtgärdsförslag kan generera nya risker i systemet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Jekel, Marc
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Gloeckner, Andreas
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute Research Collect Goods, Germany.
    Finding the Right Fit: A Comparison of Process Assumptions Underlying Popular Drift-Diffusion Models2016In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1982-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research makes increasing use of eye-tracking methodologies to generate and test process models. Overall, such research suggests that attention, generally indexed by fixations (gaze duration), plays a critical role in the construction of preference, although the methods used to support this supposition differ substantially. In 2 studies we empirically test prototypical versions of prominent processing assumptions against 1 another and several base models. We find that general evidence accumulation processes provide a good fit to the data. An accumulation process that assumes leakage and temporal variability in evidence weighting (i.e., a primacy effect) fits the aggregate data, both in terms of choices and decision times, and does so across varying types of choices (e.g., charitable giving and hedonic consumption) and numbers of options well. However, when comparing models on the level of the individual, for a majority of participants simpler models capture choice data better. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 27.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention theories suggest that humans are able to decompose the complex acoustic input into separate auditory streams, which then compete for attentional resources. How this attentional competition is influenced by motivational salience of sounds is, however, not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether a positive motivational value associated with sounds could bias the attentional selection in an auditory detection task. Participants went through a reward-learning period, where correct attentional selection of one stimulus (CS+) lead to higher rewards compared to another stimulus (CS-). We assessed the impact of reward-learning by comparing perceptual sensitivity before and after the learning period, when CS+ and CS-were presented as distractors for a different target. Performance decreased after reward-learning when CS+ was a distractor, while it increased when CS- was a distractor. Thus, the findings show that sounds that were associated with high rewards captures attention involuntarily. Additionally, when successful inhibition of a particular sound (CS-) was associated with high rewards then it became easier to ignore it. The current findings have important implications for the understanding of the organizing principles of auditory perception and provide, for the first time, clear behavioral evidence for reward-dependent attentional learning in the auditory domain in humans.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, OR USA.
    The continuous and changing impact of affect on risky decision-making2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 10613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective experience has an important role in decision-making with recent theories suggesting a modulatory role of affect in ongoing subjective value computations. However, it is unclear how varying expectations and uncertainty dynamically influence affective experience and how dynamic representation of affect modulates risky choices. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling on data from a risky choice task (N = 101), we find that the temporal integration of recently encountered choice parameters (expected value, uncertainty, and prediction errors) shapes affective experience and impacts subsequent choice behavior. Specifically, self-reported arousal prior to choice was associated with increased loss aversion, risk aversion, and choice consistency. Taken together, these findings provide clear behavioral evidence for continuous affective modulation of subjective value computations during risky decision-making.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Azadi, Maryam
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Moazen, Parisa
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Wiskerke, Joost
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Semnanian, Saeed
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Azizi, Hossein
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Preconception paternal morphine exposure leads to an impulsive phenotype in male rat progeny2021In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 238, p. 3435-3446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale Identifying the long-term neurocognitive implications of opioid addiction may further our understanding of the compulsive nature of this brain disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of paternal adolescent opiate exposure on cognitive performance (visual attention, impulsivity, and compulsivity) in the next generation. Methods Male Wistar rats received escalating doses of morphine (2.5-25 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 10 days during adolescence (P30-39). In adulthood (P70-80), these rats were allowed to mate with drug-naive females. Male offspring from morphine- and saline-exposed sires, once in adulthood, were trained and tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time test (5-CSRTT) to evaluate their cognitive abilities under baseline, drug-free conditions as well as following acute (1, 3, 5 mg/kg morphine) and subchronic morphine (5 mg/kg morphine for 5 days) treatment. Behavioral effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also assessed. Results Morphine-sired offspring exhibited delayed learning when the shortest stimulus duration (1 s) was introduced, i.e., when cognitive load was highest. These subjects also exhibited a reduced ability to exert inhibitory control, as reflected by increased premature and perseverative responding under drug-free baseline conditions in comparison to saline-sired rats. These impairments could not be reversed by administration of naloxone. Moreover, impulsive behavior was further enhanced in morphine-sired rats following acute and subchronic morphine treatment. Conclusion Paternal opiate exposure during adolescence was found to primarily impair inhibitory control in male progeny. These results further our understanding of the long-term costs and risk of opioid abuse, extending across generations.

  • 31.
    Babarro, Izaro
    et al.
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain; Tolosa Hiribidea 70, Spain.
    Andiarena, Ainara
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain.
    Fano, Eduardo
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain.
    Garcia-Baquero, Gonzalo
    Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain; Inst Salud Carlos 3, Spain.
    Lebena, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arranz-Freijo, Enrique B.
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain.
    Ibarluzea, Jesus
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Biodonostia Hlth Res Inst, Spain; Inst Salud Carlos 3, Spain; Minist Hlth Basque Govt, Spain.
    Do prepubertal hormones, 2D:4D index and psychosocial context jointly explain 11-year-old preadolescents involvement in bullying?2022In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 172, article id 108379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bullying is a type of aggressive behavior that occurs repeatedly and intentionally in school environments and where there is a power imbalance. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association that hormones and the psychosocial context jointly have with bullying behavior. Method: Participants were 302 11-year-old preadolescents from the Gipuzkoan cohort of the INMA Project. Bullying was assessed using the Olweus Bully/victim Questionnaire. Prenatal sexual hormones were assessed by calculating 2D:4D ratio and in order to measure prepubertal testosterone and cortisol levels saliva samples were collected within a week of each other. Additionally, various psychosocial factors were evaluated: executive function, family context, school environment and social context. To analyze our complex hypothesis, six metamodels were tested using structural equation modeling. Results: In relation to victims, results showed that victimization was related to worse school environment perception in boys, and higher stress and conflict in the family in girls. In the case of their involvement in bullying as a bully, lower salivary cortisol levels, worse school environment perception and lower peers and social support was related to being more frequently involved as a bully in boys, while having more family stress and conflict was related with being a bully in girls. Conclusions: This approach makes it possible not only to explore the different biological and psychosocial factors affect bullying behavior, but also to explore associations between the predictor variables.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Bader, Felix
    et al.
    School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Baumeister, Bastian
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Berger, Roger
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On the Transportability of Laboratory Results2021In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 1452-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “transportability” of laboratory findings to other instances than the original implementation entails the robustness of rates of observed behaviors and estimated treatment effects to changes in the specific research setting and in the sample under study. In four studies based on incentivized games of fairness, trust, and reciprocity, we evaluate (1) the sensitivity of laboratory results to locally recruited student-subject pools, (2) the comparability of behavioral data collected online and, under varying anonymity conditions, in the laboratory, (3) the generalizability of student-based results to the broader population, and (4), with a replication at Amazon Mechanical Turk, the stability of laboratory results across research contexts. For the class of laboratory designs using interactive games as measurement instruments of prosocial behavior we find that rates of behavior and the exact behavioral differences between decision situations do not transport beyond specific implementations. Most clearly, data obtained from standard participant pools differ significantly from those from the broader population. This undermines the use of empirically motivated laboratory studies to establish descriptive parameters of human behavior. Directions of the behavioral differences between games, in contrast, are remarkably robust to changes in samples and settings. Moreover, we find no evidence for either anonymity effects nor mode effects potentially biasing laboratory measurement. These results underscore the capacity of laboratory experiments to establish generalizable causal effects in theory-driven designs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Bang, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Igelström, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Modality-specific associations between sensory differences and autistic traits2023In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory processing differences measured by self- or parent-report co-segregate with quantitative autistic traits and have potential endophenotypic properties. It is not known to what extent this reflects generalized sensory dysfunction versus more specific associations involving individual senses or autistic trait domains. We combined Bayesian variable selection with dominance analysis to obtain a more nuanced understanding of modality-specific associations. We recruited two independent samples of adults to complete the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire. For each domain of autistic traits (social interaction, communication, cognitive rigidity), we performed stochastic search variable selection using Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire modality subscales as predictors while controlling for uncertainty in other variables. Dominance analysis was applied to the reduced models to evaluate the relative importance of predictors. Only auditory scores reliably predicted all three autistic traits when other modalities were accounted for. The proprioceptive scale, which included motor and interoceptive deficits, predicted communicative autistic traits more than other trait domains. The tactile scale appeared most specific for social autistic traits. Although the findings must be interpreted in light of the limitations of the questionnaires, the study suggests that auditory differences may be more likely than differences in other senses to be a robust sensory endophenotype relevant to autism. Lay abstract Sensory symptoms are a major source of distress for many autistic people, causing anxiety, stress, and avoidance. Sensory problems are thought to be passed on genetically together with other autistic characteristics, such as social preferences. This means that people who report cognitive rigidity and autistic-like social function are more likely to suffer from sensory issues. We do not know what role the individual senses, such as vision, hearing, smell, or touch, play in this relationship, because sensory processing is generally measured with questionnaires that target general, multisensory issues. This study aimed to investigate the individual importance of the different senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste, balance, and proprioception) in the correlation with autistic traits. To ensure the results were replicable, we repeated the experiment in two large groups of adults. The first group contained 40% autistic participants, whereas the second group resembled the general population. We found that problems with auditory processing were more strongly predictive of general autistic characteristics than were problems with the other senses. Problems with touch were specifically related to differences in social interaction, such as avoiding social settings. We also found a specific relationship between proprioceptive differences and autistic-like communication preferences. The sensory questionnaire had limited reliability, so our results may underestimate the contribution of some senses. With that reservation in mind, we conclude that auditory differences are dominant over other modalities in predicting genetically based autistic traits and may therefore be of special interest for further genetic and neurobiological studies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Bang, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Igelström, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Relationships between autistic trait dimensions and speech understanding, affective sound intolerance, and general auditory perceptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound intolerance is a transdiagnostic phenomenon with high clinical relevance in autism. It appears to cosegregate with quantitative autistic traits (QATs) and can be measured dimensionally. Auditory subscales of commonly used instruments tend to pool speech perception difficulties with autonomic and limbic reactions to sound. We evaluated associations between QATs and auditory difficulties using more specific self-report measures of affective reactions to sounds, speech perception and non-social auditory function. We found that both social and non-social QATs linearly predicted autonomic and limbic reactions to sounds. Communicative QATs specifically predicted difficulties with speech perception, but also with spatial perception and auditory stream segregation. We discuss possible mechanisms and suggest that transdiagnostic studies are especially suitable for research on autistic auditory perception.

  • 35.
    Barrafrem, Kinga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Trust in the government increases financial well-being and general well-being during COVID-192021In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, Vol. 31, article id 100514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the antecedents of subjective financial well-being and general well-being during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In an online survey conducted in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic with over 1000 Swedish participants we found that distrust in the government to cope with financial (but not healthcare) challenges of the pandemic was negatively related to the feeling of financial security. In a structural equation model, we also show that trust in government to deal with financial challenges of COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on general well-being through the mediating channel of financial well-being. In addition, trust in government to deal with healthcare challenges of COVID-19 pandemic has a significant direct impact on individuals’ general well-being. Our findings have important implications for public policy as they highlight the importance of citizens’ trust in well-functioning governmental institutions to help cope with not only healthcare, but also financial challenges of an ongoing pandemic.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Barrafrem, Kinga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health.
    The arithmetic of outcome editing in financial and social domains2021In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 86, article id 102408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outcome editing refers to a set of mental rules that people apply when deciding whether to evaluate multiple outcomes jointly or separately, which subsequently affects choice. In a large-scale online survey (n = 2062) we investigate whether individuals use the same outcome editing rules for financial outcomes (e.g., a lottery win) and social outcomes (e.g., a party with friends). We also test the role of numeric ability in explaining outcome editing. Our results show that people’s preferences for combining or separating events depend on whether those events are in the financial or the social domain. Specifically, individuals were more likely to segregate social outcomes than monetary outcomes, except for when all outcomes were negative. Moreover, numeric ability was associated with preferences for outcome editing in the financial domain but not in the social domain. Our findings extend the understanding of the arithmetic operations underlying outcome editing and suggest that people rely more on calculations when making choices involving multiple financial outcomes and more on feelings when making choices involving social outcomes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Batinovic, Lucija
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Howe, Marlon
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Ageism in Hiring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Age Discrimination2023In: Collabra: Psychology, E-ISSN 2474-7394, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to identify effect sizes of age discrimination in recruitment based on evidence from correspondence studies and scenario experiments conducted between 2010 and 2019. To differentiate our results, we separated outcomes (i.e., call-back rates and hiring/invitation to interview likelihood) by age groups (40-49, 50-59, 60-65, 66+) and assessed age discrimination by comparing older applicants to a control group (29-35 year-olds). We conducted searches in PsycInfo, Web of Science, ERIC, BASE, and Google Scholar, along with backward reference searching. Study bias was assessed with a tool developed for this review, and publication bias by calculating R-index, p-curve, and funnel plots. We calculated odds ratios for callback rates, pooled the results using a random-effects meta-analysis and calculated 95% confidence intervals. We included 13 studies from 11 articles in our review, and conducted meta-analyses on the eight studies that we were able to extract data from. The majority of studies were correspondence studies (k=10) and came largely from European countries (k=9), with the rest being from the U.S. (k=3) and Australia (k=1). Seven studies had a between-participants design, and the remaining six studies had a within-participants design. We conducted six random-effects meta-analyses, one for each age category and type of study design and found an average effect of age discrimination against all age groups in both study designs, with varying effect sizes (ranging from OR = 0.38, CI [0.25, 0.59] to OR = 0.89, CI [0.81, 0.97]). There was moderate to high risk of bias on certain factors, e.g., age randomization, problems with application heterogeneity. Generally, there’s an effect of age discrimination and it tends to increase with age. This has important implications regarding the future of the world’s workforce, given the increase in the older workforce and later retirement.

  • 38.
    Berg, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; UCL, England.
    Knowledge About Treatment, Anxiety, and Depression in Association With Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents: Development and Initial Evaluation of a New Test2020In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2158244019899095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating knowledge and learning in psychotherapy is a growing field of research. Studies that develop and evaluate valid tests are lacking, however. Here, in the context of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for adolescents, a new test was developed using subject matter experts, consensus among researchers, self-reports by youths, and a literature review. An explorative factor analysis was performed on 93 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old, resulting in a three-factor solution with 20 items, accounting for 41% of the total variance. The factors were Act in aversive states, Using positive reinforcement, and Shifting attention. The internal consistency for the whole instrument was good (alpha = .84). Hopefully, the procedure presented here can contribute to the field by illustrating one way of evaluating knowledge in ICBT. The clinical use of the knowledge test needs further investigation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 40.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Bergqvist, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Förebildsanalys som grund i agil utveckling: en studie i prioritering av bruksegenskaper2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla alla förväntningar som en användare kan ha är svårt.Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla vissa av alla de förväntningar en användare kan ha ärbetydligt mycket lättare. Men att kunna hitta just de egenskaperna som gör att en användare inteblir besviken utan nöjd med ett program är en svår process. Ett sätt att hitta de egenskaperna kanvara genom att nyttja en användarcentrerad metod som extrem programmering. Agil utvecklingoch extrem programmering har som område fokuserat relativt lite på användarnöjdhet som måttför att avgöra om ett program är lyckat eller ej.Med detta som bakgrund har ett utvecklingsprojekt tagit form med syfte att utveckla ettmodelleringsverktyg för analysmetoden FRAM. I detta projekt har en metod bestående av delsförebildsanalys och agil utveckling legat som grund. För att gruppera och prioriteraprogramegenskaper har Kanos modell för kundnöjdhet använts.Uppsatsen visar att en metod som grundar sig i förebildsanalys kan användas för att ta fram demest basala egenskaperna hos en artefakt. Detta i kontrast till viss agil utveckling ska det visa sig.Uppsatsen visar även på att den tillgängliga tiden för ett utvecklingsprojekt kan vara avgörande förvilka sorts egenskaper man utvecklar

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Bershad, Anya K.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Van Hedger, Kathryne
    Univ Western Ontario, Canada.
    McGlone, Francis
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Walker, Susannah C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    de Wit, Harriet
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Effects of MDMA on attention to positive social cues and pleasantness of affective touch2019In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1698-1705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychostimulant drug +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reportedly produces distinctive feelings of empathy and closeness with others. MDMA increases social behavior in animal models and has shown promise in psychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How it produces these prosocial effects is not known. This behavioral and psychophysiological study examined the effects of MDMA, compared with the prototypical stimulant methamphetamine (MA), on two measures of social behavior in healthy young adults: (i) responses to socially relevant, "affective" touch, and (ii) visual attention to emotional faces. Men and women (N = 36) attended four sessions in which they received MDMA (0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg), MA (20 mg), or a placebo in randomized order under double-blind conditions. Responses to experienced and observed affective touch (i.e., being touched or watching others being touched) were assessed using facial electromyography (EMG), a proxy of affective state. Responses to emotional faces were assessed using electrooculography (EOG) in a measure of attentional bias. Subjective ratings were also included. We hypothesized that MDMA, but not MA, would enhance the ratings of pleasantness and psychophysiological responses to affective touch and increase attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. Consistent with this, we found that MDMA, but not MA, selectively enhanced ratings of pleasantness of experienced affective touch. Neither drug altered the ratings of pleasantness of observed touch. On the EOG measure of attentional bias, MDMA, but not MA, increased attention toward happy faces. These results provide new evidence that MDMA can enhance the experience of positive social interactions; in this case, pleasantness of physical touch and attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. The findings are consistent with evidence that the prosocial effects are unique to MDMA relative to another stimulant. Understanding the behavioral and neurobiological processes underlying the distinctive social effects of MDMA is a key step to developing the drug for psychiatric disorders.

  • 43.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    et al.
    ISA Lille, France; Univ Tours, France.
    Barbarat, Maxence
    ISA Lille, France.
    Lormant, Flore
    Univ Tours, France.
    Germain, Karine
    INRAE, France.
    Brachet, Mathilde
    INRAE, France.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calandreau, Ludovic
    Univ Tours, France.
    Guesdon, Vanessa
    ISA Lille, France.
    Social motivation and the use of distal, but not local, featural cues are related to ranging behavior in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)2020In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 769-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals can navigate an environment relying on different sources of information, such as geometrical or featural cues. The favoring of one type of information over another depends on multiple factors, such as inter-individual differences in behavior and cognition. Free-range chickens present different range use patterns, which may be explained by behavioral and cognitive differences. However, how behavior, cognition, and range use intercorrelate is still poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to further understand possible differences in behavior and cognition between two groups of free-range broiler chickens: those who frequently explore their range (high rangers) and those who prefer to stay in or near the barn (low rangers). Prior to range access, individual behavior was measured in open field-, emergence-, and social motivation tests. To investigate cognitive differences, we analyzed whether exploratory behavior was linked to different performances in the use of distal and local spatial cues during an orientation task. During the social motivation test, low rangers showed a higher inclination to be near conspecifics than did high rangers. Our orientation tests show that chickens preferred to orientate themselves using the local cues over the distal cues. Individual differences were only found for distal, but not for local, cue use suggesting that demanding tasks are more efficient in revealing individual cognitive differences. Our results suggest that considering variation in social motivation may allow a more comprehensive understanding of chicken range use. Our results also support the importance of incorporating multiple aspects of individual differences to understand individual reactions to its environment.

  • 44.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. JUNIA, France; Univ Tours, France.
    Simoni, Arthur
    JUNIA, France.
    Germain, Karine
    INRAE, France.
    Leterrier, Christine
    Univ Tours, France.
    Lansade, Lea
    Univ Tours, France.
    Collin, Anne
    Univ Tours, France.
    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine
    Univ Tours, France.
    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth
    Univ Tours, France.
    Guettier, Elodie
    Univ Tours, France.
    Leruste, Helene
    JUNIA, France.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calandreau, Ludovic
    Univ Tours, France.
    Guesdon, Vanessa
    JUNIA, France.
    Foraging Behavior Shows Individual-Consistency Over Time, and Predicts Range Use in Slow-Growing Free-Range Male Broiler Chickens2022In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 9, article id 814054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on free-range chickens shows that individual behavioral differences may link to range use. However, most of these studies explored individual behavioral differences only at one time point or during a short time window, assessed differences when animals were out of their social group and home environment (barn and range), and in specific tests or situations. Therefore, it is yet unclear how different behaviors relate to range use and how consistent these behaviors are at the individual level. To fill this gap, we here aimed to describe the behavioral budget of slow-growing male broiler chickens (S757N) when in their social group and home environment during the whole rearing period (from the second week of life to the twelfth week, before slaughter), and to relate observed behavioral differences to range use. For this, we followed a sample of individuals in two flocks (n = 60 focal chickens out of 200 chickens per flock), over two seasons, during three periods: before range access (from 14 to 25 days old), during early range access (first weeks of range access, from 37 to 53 days old), and during late range access (last weeks of range access, from 63 to 87 days old). By the end of each period, individual tests of exploration and social motivation were also performed, measuring exploration/activity and sociability propensities. Our results show that foraging (i.e., pecking and scratching at the ground) was the only behavior that correlated to range use for all three rearing periods, independent of the season. Foraging was also the only behavior that showed within-individual consistency from an early age and across the three rearing periods. Foraging may, therefore, serve as a useful behavioral predictor of range use in free-range broiler chickens. Our study increases the knowledge of how behaviors develop and relate to each other in a domesticated and intensely selected species, and improves our understanding of the biology of free-range broiler chickens. These findings can, ultimately, serve as a foundation to increase range use and improve chicken welfare.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Beukes, Eldré W
    et al.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, United States; Vision and Hearing Sciences Research Centre, School of Psychology and Sports Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, United States; Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Vision and Hearing Sciences Research Centre, School of Psychology and Sports Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baguley, David M.
    National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Ropewalk House, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Nottingham Audiology Services, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Exploring tinnitus heterogeneity2021In: Tinnitus - an interdisciplinary approach towards individualized treatment: from heterogeneity to personalized medicine / [ed] Winfried Schlee, Berthold Langguth, Tobias Kleinjung, Sven Vanneste, Dirk De Ridder, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2021, Vol. 260, p. 79-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus experiences differ widely. A greater understanding of the core processes underlying these variations is needed. Moreover, meaningful definitions for different subgroups are required to better manage this heterogeneous population. The objective of the present research was to contribute toward the understanding of tinnitus heterogeneity by identifying factors that can predict tinnitus severity and to ascertain if distinct subgroups of tinnitus presentation can be identified.

  • 46.
    Birze, Arija
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    LeBlanc, Vicki
    Univ Ottawa, Canada.
    Regehr, Cheryl
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Paradis, Elise
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Einstein, Gillian
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Toronto, Canada.
    The "Managed" or Damaged Heart? Emotional Labor, Gender, and Posttraumatic Stressors Predict Workplace Event-Related Acute Changes in Cortisol, Oxytocin, and Heart Rate Variability2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital to the everyday operation of police services, police communicators (911 call-takers and dispatchers) are persistently subject to imminent challenges in the workplace; they must always be prepared to engage and deal with a wide variety of circumstances that provoke various intense emotions and physiological stress responses. Acute changes in cortisol, oxytocin, and heart rate variability are central to adaptive responses in stressful complex social interactions, but they might also be indicative of physiological dysregulation due to long-term psychosocial stress exposures. Thus, we examine acute stress-induced release of peripheral oxytocin and cortisol along with changes in heart rate variability, and how each relates to persistent workplace stressors and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Findings indicate chronic forms of gendered workplace stress such as emotional labor, gender role stress and, posttraumatic stress each have differential associations with, and predict physiological responses to, acutely stressful events in the workplace. These associations suggest potential mechanisms through which communicators become more vulnerable to developing stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress injuries, especially after cumulative traumatic exposures in this context. The results also suggest potential pathways for the biological embedding of stressful gendered workplace experiences.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gender and age trends in how the four loci of moral disengagement are associated with bullying in early adolescence2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Bjerke, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Modifying Heuristic Evaluation for assessing the usability of TV-interaction devices2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are a several methods to evaluate usability of systems with graphical user interfaces (GUIS). However, effective methods for evaluating non-GUI interaction devices in the domain of Interactive Television are presently not available. This thesis presents a modified Heuristic Evaluation method for rapid inspection of non-GUI TV-interaction devices such as remote controls. Additionally, to enable the evaluators to more easily think from a user perspective when performing the evaluation, the persona method was also evaluated for use in this domain. The modified Heuristic Evaluation method was evaluated in an actual development project where engineers applied the method on remote control prototypes. The result suggests that the method can be used effectively by engineers and that it identifies usability problems appropriately. The persona approach seemed to provide little support to the engineers in terms of evaluating this type product.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Padova University, Italy.
    A longitudinal study of growth of verbal bullying across late childhood: Associations with moral disengagement2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    There is strong empirical support for the link between moral disengagement (MD) and bullying in late childhood. However, only a few studies have examined these associations longitudinally. Given that previous research suggest that verbal bullying is the most common type of bullying in adolescence, with increasing prevalence during the childhood years, understanding factors associated with verbal bullying during these years may be of great importance. This study examines changes in verbal bullying across late childhood, focusing specifically on associations between moral disengagement and the individual child’s change trajectory.

    Method:

    A total of 1214 Swedish children completed a web-based questionnaire at three time points (in grades 4, 5, and 6). Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine unique trajectories of groups(classrooms) and individuals.

    Result:

    The results showed that verbal bullying increased between grades four, five, and six, and that bullying scores were positively associated with MD scores over time. In addition, the bullying trajectories of children with higher levels of MD were higher and steeper, indicating that these children scored higher on bullying in general as well as increased more in bullying over time, compared to children with lower levels of MD.

    Discussion:

    Our findings add to the literature, by exploring temporal and dispositional aspects of moral disengagement. The results are discussed in relation to the literature and the socio-cognitive perspective of bullying behavior as a result of reciprocal interplay between personal and social influences. 

  • 50.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement and their Associations with Indirect Bullying, and Pro-Aggressive Bystander Behavior2020In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 28-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the links between seven specific mechanisms of moral disengagement and indirect bullying, direct bullying, and pro-aggressive bystander behavior. In addition, the moderating role of gender on these associations was examined. Participants were 317 Swedish students in Grades 4 to 8 (𝑋⎯⎯⎯age=12.6X¯age=12.6, SD = 1.35; 62% girls). Multivariate multiple regression analyses showed that indirect bullying was predicted by gender and victim attribution. Direct bullying was predicted by moral justification, and for girls, by victim attribution. Pro-aggressive bystander behavior was predicted by diffusion of responsibility, victim attribution, gender, and age. That is, boys and younger students were more prone to take the aggressor’s side compared with girls and older students. Furthermore, the relation between pro-aggressive bystander behavior and distortion of consequences appeared stronger in boys than in girls. These results highlight the relative importance of specific moral disengagement mechanisms and may have implications for interventions targeting bullying.

1234567 1 - 50 of 541
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf