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  • 1.
    Ahlenius, Sven
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Knut
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Prolongation of the ejaculation latency in the male rat by thioridazine and chlorimipramine.1979In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioridazine (3 mg/kg) and chlorimipramine (1.5–6.0 mg/kg) prolonged the ejaculation latency and increased the number of mounts but did not change the number of intromissions preceding ejaculation. Blockade of peripheral and central noradrenaline receptors by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine respectively resulted in a suppression of all aspects of the sexual behavior with increasing doses. dl-5-HTP (25–100 mg/kg) in combination with an inhibitor of peripheral 5-HTP decarboxylase (benserazide, 25 mg/kg) produced, like chlorimipramine and thioridazine, a prolongation of ejaculation latency and an increase in the number of mounts preceding ejaculation. Selective inhibition of 5-HT reuptake however, by zimelidine (0–20 mg/kg) or alaproclate (0–20 mg/kg) did not affect the mating behavior. At higher doses of these drugs some animals failed to initiate sexual activities. There was an increase in the postejaculatory interval but no change in the ejaculatory latency.It is concluded that the prolonged ejaculation latencies observed following treatment with thioridazine or chlorimipramine is not due to a blockade of central or peripheral adrenergic -receptors.

  • 2.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Tjäder, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag trivs bäst i öppna landskap...": Om naturmiljöers påverkan på oss människor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie med experimentell design har genomförts i syfte att jämföra natur- respektive urbanmiljöers påverkan på känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning efter en stressupplevelse, samt utslag på kognitiv prestation. Hypotesen var att naturstimuli genererar högre grad av känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning än urbanstimuli. Frågeställningen var om vi kunde se någon skillnad mellan gruppernas prestationsförmåga efter genomförd återhämtning, vad gäller riktad uppmärksamhet. Återhämtningsgrad har mätts i förändring i blodtryck, puls och självskattning av känslor.  Resultatet visade att naturmiljön genererar en högre nivå återhämtning med avseende på sänkt diastoliskt blodtryck, ökade positiva känslor samt minskad oro. Däremot visades ingen skillnad i kognitiv prestationsförmåga mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen är att känslomässig samt fysiologisk återhämtning kan underlättas i naturmiljö jämfört med urbanmiljö och att detta även kan ske med hjälp av naturbilder. Däremot är det inte är självklart att man får större kapacitet riktad uppmärksamhet efter exponering av naturbilder jämfört med stadsbilder.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 5.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

  • 6.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Pragmatiske språkvansker og barnepsykiatri2004In: Spesialpedagogikk, ISSN 0332-8457, no 7, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Det har dei siste åra vore ei aukande merksemd omkring språkfunksjonen til barn som er tilviste det psykiatriske behandlingsapparatet. I artikkelen er det gjort greie for reultata frå ein pilotstudie som viser komobiditet mellom psykiatriske vanskar og kommunikasjonsvanskar.

  • 7.
    Andin, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Rethymnon, Greece.
    Cardin, Velia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University College London, UK.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Capek, Cheryl M.
    School of Psychological Science, University of Manchester, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar working memory (WM) for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM) is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

  • 8.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Webster, Kate E.
    School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Psychological Aspects of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries2016In: Operative techniques in sports medicine, ISSN 1060-1872, E-ISSN 1557-9794, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impairment-based evaluation has, until recently, been the mainstay of orthopaedic research in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, participation-based outcomes, in particular returning to sport, have lately garnered increased research attention. This is important because returning to sport is typically a main concern of injured athletes. Recent metaanalyses have demonstrated that the return to sport rate after ACL reconstruction is disappointingly low, and that a range of contextual factors including age, sex, sport participation level, and psychological factors may affect the return to sport rate. Moderate to large effect sizes have been demonstrated for greater psychological readiness to return to sport, and lower fear of reinjury favoring returning to the preinjury level sport after ACL reconstruction. Understanding the relationship between psychological factors and returning to sport is essential in light of the fact that most athletes recover good physical function after surgery, and many athletes with good knee function do not return to sport. Psychological factors are potentially modifiable with appropriate intervention, yet these factors are not systematically addressed in routine postoperative rehabilitation. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the relationship between psychological factors and ACL injury, including recovery from injury and returning to sport. Oper Tech Sports Med 24:77-83 Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Arehart, Kathryn
    et al.
    University of Colorado, UCB 409, Boulder, Departmen of Speech , Language and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, United States.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Syskin Pedersen, Michael
    Oticon.
    James M, Kate
    University of Colorado at Boulder , Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences (SLHS), Electrical Engineering..
    Relationship between distortion and working memory for digital noise-reduction processing in hearing aids2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 133, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies have shown a relationship between working memory and the ability of older adults to benefit from specific advanced signal processing algorithms in hearing aids. In this study, we quantify tradeoffs between benefit due to noise reduction and the perceptual costs associated with distortion caused by the noise reduction algorithm. We also investigate the relationship between these tradeoffs and working memory abilities. Speech intelligibility, speech quality, and perceived listening effort were measured in a cohort of elderly adults with hearing loss. Test materials were low-context sentences presented in fluctuating noise conditions at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-reduction strategy. The amount of distortion produced by the noise reduction algorithm was parametrically varied by manipulating two binary mask parameters, error rate, and attenuation rate. Working memory was assessed with a reading span test. Results will be discussed in terms of the extent to which intelligibility, quality, and effort ratings are explained by the amount of distortion and/or noise and by working memory ability. [Funded by NIH, Oticon, and GN ReSound.].

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag i olycksutredningar: Skapande och implementering2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag många verksamheter där människor tillsammans med befintlig teknik bildar komplexa system som ska samverka på ett effektivt men ändå säkert sätt. Trots verksamhetens höga säkerhetskrav kan en olycka eller incident ändå ske, och denna kan då bli föremål för en utredning för att hitta de bakomliggande orsakerna till händelsen. En olycksutredning ska resultera i åtgärdsförslag som bidrar till att liknande händelser inte sker igen och att säkerheten i systemet och verksamheten i stort förbättras. Det finns många olika teorier och metoder kring hur en utredning bör gå tillväga vad gäller händelseanalys och identifiering av brister i systemet, men processen att skapa och implementera åtgärdsförslagen är mindre utforskat.

    Denna studie är utförd på Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) som ansvarar för att ta hand om och lagra det använda kärnbränslet från Sveriges kärnkraftverk. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur SKB arbetar vid olycksutredningar för att skapa åtgärdsförslag och implementera dessa, samt att belysa de svårigheter som kan upplevas med detta arbete. Den metod som använts bestod av en inledande litteraturstudie av tidigare forskning följt av sju semistrukturerade intervjuer som transkriberats och analyserats.

    Resultatet visade att skapande och implementering av åtgärdsförslag är en komplex process som innebär många svåra beslut där utredaren måste kompromissa på olika sätt för att kunna skapa effektiva åtgärdsförslag. Det visade sig bland annat vara svårt att avgränsa åtgärdsförslagen och bestämma vilken nivå de ska ligga på samt att bedöma hur många åtgärdsförslag som bör skapas. Implementeringen av åtgärdsförslagen innehåller även den mycket beslutsfattande som kräver bra kommunikation och samarbete mellan alla inblandade parter. Svårigheter med implementeringen är att åtgärdsförslagen ibland tenderar att hamna mellan stolarna och att implementerade åtgärdsförslag kan generera nya risker i systemet.

  • 11.
    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Jekel, Marc
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Gloeckner, Andreas
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute Research Collect Goods, Germany.
    Finding the Right Fit: A Comparison of Process Assumptions Underlying Popular Drift-Diffusion Models2016In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1982-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research makes increasing use of eye-tracking methodologies to generate and test process models. Overall, such research suggests that attention, generally indexed by fixations (gaze duration), plays a critical role in the construction of preference, although the methods used to support this supposition differ substantially. In 2 studies we empirically test prototypical versions of prominent processing assumptions against 1 another and several base models. We find that general evidence accumulation processes provide a good fit to the data. An accumulation process that assumes leakage and temporal variability in evidence weighting (i.e., a primacy effect) fits the aggregate data, both in terms of choices and decision times, and does so across varying types of choices (e.g., charitable giving and hedonic consumption) and numbers of options well. However, when comparing models on the level of the individual, for a majority of participants simpler models capture choice data better. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 12.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention theories suggest that humans are able to decompose the complex acoustic input into separate auditory streams, which then compete for attentional resources. How this attentional competition is influenced by motivational salience of sounds is, however, not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether a positive motivational value associated with sounds could bias the attentional selection in an auditory detection task. Participants went through a reward-learning period, where correct attentional selection of one stimulus (CS+) lead to higher rewards compared to another stimulus (CS-). We assessed the impact of reward-learning by comparing perceptual sensitivity before and after the learning period, when CS+ and CS-were presented as distractors for a different target. Performance decreased after reward-learning when CS+ was a distractor, while it increased when CS- was a distractor. Thus, the findings show that sounds that were associated with high rewards captures attention involuntarily. Additionally, when successful inhibition of a particular sound (CS-) was associated with high rewards then it became easier to ignore it. The current findings have important implications for the understanding of the organizing principles of auditory perception and provide, for the first time, clear behavioral evidence for reward-dependent attentional learning in the auditory domain in humans.

  • 13.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  • 14.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 15.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

  • 16.
    Bergqvist, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Förebildsanalys som grund i agil utveckling: en studie i prioritering av bruksegenskaper2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla alla förväntningar som en användare kan ha är svårt.Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla vissa av alla de förväntningar en användare kan ha ärbetydligt mycket lättare. Men att kunna hitta just de egenskaperna som gör att en användare inteblir besviken utan nöjd med ett program är en svår process. Ett sätt att hitta de egenskaperna kanvara genom att nyttja en användarcentrerad metod som extrem programmering. Agil utvecklingoch extrem programmering har som område fokuserat relativt lite på användarnöjdhet som måttför att avgöra om ett program är lyckat eller ej.Med detta som bakgrund har ett utvecklingsprojekt tagit form med syfte att utveckla ettmodelleringsverktyg för analysmetoden FRAM. I detta projekt har en metod bestående av delsförebildsanalys och agil utveckling legat som grund. För att gruppera och prioriteraprogramegenskaper har Kanos modell för kundnöjdhet använts.Uppsatsen visar att en metod som grundar sig i förebildsanalys kan användas för att ta fram demest basala egenskaperna hos en artefakt. Detta i kontrast till viss agil utveckling ska det visa sig.Uppsatsen visar även på att den tillgängliga tiden för ett utvecklingsprojekt kan vara avgörande förvilka sorts egenskaper man utvecklar

  • 17.
    Bjerke, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Modifying Heuristic Evaluation for assessing the usability of TV-interaction devices2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are a several methods to evaluate usability of systems with graphical user interfaces (GUIS). However, effective methods for evaluating non-GUI interaction devices in the domain of Interactive Television are presently not available. This thesis presents a modified Heuristic Evaluation method for rapid inspection of non-GUI TV-interaction devices such as remote controls. Additionally, to enable the evaluators to more easily think from a user perspective when performing the evaluation, the persona method was also evaluated for use in this domain. The modified Heuristic Evaluation method was evaluated in an actual development project where engineers applied the method on remote control prototypes. The result suggests that the method can be used effectively by engineers and that it identifies usability problems appropriately. The persona approach seemed to provide little support to the engineers in terms of evaluating this type product.

  • 18.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017In: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, article id 1378308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 19.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 20.
    Boström, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social Anxiety Disorder, ratings of faces and character strengths: Some insights to their relation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder has several impairments (including attention bias in ratings of facial expressions). Character strengths has been seen to increase well-being and functioning among healthy individuals. With this in mind, three aims were stated; Is there a relation between SAD and VIA, can this relation be explained by confounding’s and does ratings of faces tell anything about the relation? Data were collected through a survey from 41 participants (13 men) with a mean age of 30 years. Correlation and regression models were performed to see if these constructs were related. The findings showed that character strengths and social anxiety were correlated, and that the regression model did not predict SAD. The regression model for Via were significant with all confounding variables. Ratings of facial expression were not related to any variables. Further studies need to look more into this correlation to see the underpinnings of these constructs.

  • 21.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 527-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

  • 22.
    Braarud, Hanne
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Tranaas-Vannebo, Unni
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP/HP, Paris, France.
    Smith, Lars
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Early sustained withdrawal in infants, mothers’ mental health, other early risk factors, and socio- emotional outcome in infants2012In: Infant Mental Health Journal, 33: [Abstract supplement p 64] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomkinson, N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012, p. 64-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  paper examines the interplay between the biomedical and socioemotional risk factors, i.e. maternal depression and prematurity, as predictors of infant’s sustained withdrawal, and subsequent socioemotional outcomes. The study (n=284) follows the developmental course of infant’s sustained withdrawal during the first year, and illuminates the pathways in which the early adversity possibly compromises the infant’s natural intersubjective skills and motivation.

  • 23.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Face Processing Patterns of Persons with Asperger Syndrome: an Eye Tracking Study2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome is a severe social impairment (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR] 2000), something that has often been connected to a more specific impairment in facial recognition. However, the main diagnostic tool (the DSM-IV-TR) has received much criticism during later years and is soon to be revised (Woodbury-Smith & Volkmar 2009). Among other things, many researchers claim that the diagnosis should be complemented with a sliding scale of severity (Ring, Woodbury-Smith, Watson, Wheelright & Baron-Cohen 2008). The use of facial information is central in the social interaction of humans, evident in the special patterns of visual scanning that people employ for facial stimuli (Yarbus 1967). Because of that, this symptom of Asperger Syndrome has become a high research priority. The impairment in facial recognition has been connected to a bias towards detail based processing (McPartland, Webb, Keehn & Dawson 2010). A recent study also connects this to an unusually high visual acuity, which could result in a disposition to focus on small facial features. In the present study. facial stimuli were prepared to provoke memory conjunction errors. This type of memory error means that a person erroneously claims to recognize a face assembled by pieces of previously shown stimuli. If a person is more prone to do so, that would imply that he or she is more focused on details than on configural information (Danielsson 2006). Two groups were tested, one consisting of non-diagnosed adults and one of adults diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. A test for visual acuity was administered, which was followed by a series of facial recognition tasks. Responses in the latter part were given with a computer mouse, and eye fixations were recorded using a head mounted eye-tracking device. Three hypotheses were formulated. First, persons with AS were expected to perform more poorly in all facial recognition tasks. Second, persons with AS were expected to make more conjunction errors than test group subjects. Finally, persons with AS were expected to display a mean visual acuity significantly higher than that of the test group. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups in relation to either of the hypotheses, and results could not be referred to flaws in the experimental setup. Therefore, these results are taken to display the heterogeneity of the Asperger Syndrome population, and possibly the importance of early training measures to compensate for social impairments.

  • 24.
    Brännström, Jonas K
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dept of clinical science, Section of Logopedics, Phoiatrics and audiology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    The Process of Developing an Internet-Based Support System for Audiologists and First-Time Hearing Aid Clients2015In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In audiologic practice, complementary information sources and access to the clinician between appointments improve information retention and facilitate adjustment behaviors. An Internet-based support system is a novel way to support information sharing and clinician access. Purpose: This research forum article describes the process of developing an Internet-based support system for audiologists and their first-time hearing aid clients. Method: The iterative development process, including revisions by 4 research audiologists and 4 clinical audiologists, is described. The final system is exemplified. Conclusion: An Internet-based support system was successfully developed for audiologic practice.

  • 25.
    Bäckström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    User-Centered Security Applied on Management2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to research how to implement a graphical interface for presenting information security information to management. The major conclusion of the study is that management use this kind of information mainly for financial and strategic matters. Hence the information must be presented in a way that enhances this use of the information.

    The study also concludes that people act insecure mainly due to:

    a) Insufficient knowledge of how/why to act secure.

    b) The users do not want to act secure due to social and organisational factors.

    To fight the first factor, the management need a tool that helps them to see where to spend their resources. To fight the second factor, the organisation needs to be well educated and the company culture should allow the users to act secure.

    Three heuristics for the design of information security solutions for management and a design solution for the interface are also presented in the study. The three heuristics are:

    1. Provide overview information very early in the program. The ordinary manager does not have the time or the knowledge to make this overview by himself/herself.

    2. Do not overwhelm the user. The ordinary management man/woman is not interested in the details of the information security and/or do not have time to read this sort of information. If he or she wants to access the details, he or she is likely to find them (if they are placed in a logical place).

    3. Provide information in a way that is common to the manager. Use wordings that the user understands. Provide contextual help for expressions that must be presented in a technical way.

  • 26.
    Caravita, Simona
    et al.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Ambrosini, Barbara
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Stefanelli, Sara
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Cadei, Livia
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    When the bullied peer is native vs. migrant: A mixed-method study among pupils of Italian schools2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Cardin, Velia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Crete.
    Kästner, Lena
    Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Philosophy.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Woll, Bencie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Capek, Cheryl
    University of Manchester,.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones2016In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 20-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production.

  • 28.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    et al.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Messer, David J.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brown, Janice H.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 3421-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation.

  • 29.
    (Chayn) Sun, Qian
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    (Cecilia) Xia, Jianhong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Investigating the Spatial Pattern of Older Drivers Eye Fixation Behaviour and Associations with Their Visual Capacity2016In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, E-ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on the visual search patterns along sections of different road during actual driving still remains undocumented. This onroad driving study simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every identified eye fixation for each individual driver, so that the locations of the drivers gaze origin in geospatial coordinates were obtained. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers eye fixations were then mapped and analysed. In addition, the associations between older drivers visual capacity (processing speed, divided and selective attention) and their eye fixation patterns in various driving manoeuvres were investigated. The results indicate that driving scenarios have a significant impact on older drivers visual patterns. Older drivers performed more frequent eye fixations at roundabouts, while they tended to fixate on certain objects for longer periods during straight road driving. The key findings show that the processing speed and divided attention of older drivers were associated with their eye fixations at complex right-turns; drivers with a lower capacity in selective attention performed less frequent eye fixations at roundabouts. This study has also demonstrated that visualisation and spatial statistics are effective and intuitive approaches to eye movement analysis.

  • 30.
    Chee, Derserri Y.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 2658-2670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.

  • 31.
    Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Drechsler, Edda
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Hummel, Thomas
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 135, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch + Civette, and Touch + Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wang, QianYing
    Department of Communication, Stanford University.
    Nass, Clifford
    Deprtment of Communication, Stanford University.
    Similarity is More Important than Expertise: Accent Effects in Speech Interfaces2007In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2007, p. 1553-1556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a balanced between-participants experiment (N = 96)American and Swedish participants listened to touristinformation on a website about an American or Swedishcity presented in English with either an American orSwedish accent and evaluated the speakers’ knowledge ofthe topic, the voice characteristics, and the informationcharacteristics. Users preferred accents similar to their own.Similarity-attraction effects were so powerful that sameaccentsspeakers were viewed as being moreknowledgeable than different-accent speakers even whenthe information would be much better-known by theopposite-accent speaker. Implications for similarityattractionoverwhelming expertise are discussed.

  • 33.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Have you seen it before? Collaborative memory for adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    ent of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston Ontario, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Individual differences in working memory capacity modulate frontal cortical activity while listening to speech in noise2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 37.
    Davis, M.H.
    et al.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Ford, M.A.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Kherif, F.
    University of Lausanne.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Queen's University.
    Does semantic context benefit speech understanding through top-down processes? Evidence from time-resolved sparse fMRI.2011In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 3914-3932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When speech is degraded, word report is higher for semantically coherent sentences (e.g., her new skirt was made of denim) than for anomalous sentences (e.g., her good slope was done in carrot). Such increased intelligibility is often described as resulting from “top–down” processes, reflecting an assumption that higher-level (semantic) neural processes support lower-level (perceptual) mechanisms. We used time-resolved sparse fMRI to test for top–down neural mechanisms, measuring activity while participants heard coherent and anomalous sentences presented in speech envelope/spectrum noise at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The timing of BOLD responses to more intelligible speech provides evidence of hierarchical organization, with earlier responses in peri-auditory regions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus than in more distant temporal and frontal regions. Despite Sentence content × SNR interactions in the superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal regions respond after auditory/perceptual regions. Although we cannot rule out top–down effects, this pattern is more compatible with a purely feedforward or bottom–up account, in which the results of lower-level perceptual processing are passed to inferior frontal regions. Behavioral and neural evidence that sentence content influences perception of degraded speech does not necessarily imply “top–down” neural processes.

  • 38.
    Duong, Alicia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Alkohol & föräldrastress: -Finns det något samband?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett flertal undersökningar har individer skattat att de dricker i följd till stress, vilket har visats bero på att människor dricker i försök till att hantera ekonomisk stress, stress på jobbet och/eller föräldrastress (Pohorecky, 1991). Ju svårare stressen är desto högre är alkoholkonsumtionen (Pohorecky, 1991). I denna studie studeras alkohol och föräldrastress genom självskattningsenkäter tagna ur projektet Alla Barn i Sydöstra Sverige (ABIS) 8-årsuppföljning.

    Resultatet visar på att det inte finns några signifikanta skillnader i föräldrastressen hos alkoholkonsumtionens olika riskgrupper varken hos mödrarna eller fäderna, då de själva skattat sin alkoholkonsumtion. Detta resultat visar på att man inte med säkerhet kan säga att mängden alkohol som konsumeras hos föräldrar tenderar att bero på att deras föräldraskapskrav inte räcker till för deras personliga resurser. Resultatet kunde inte heller säkert visa tendenser till att alkoholen skulle kunna reducera föräldrastressen hos föräldrarna.

  • 39.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Predicting speech-in-noise perception using the trail making task: Results from a large-scale internet study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task. Computerised versions of the tests were completed, via the internet, by a large (1500+) sample of listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old, both with and without hearing loss. The results show that better performance on both the simple and complex versions of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. The findings suggest that the relation between performance in the TMT and speech recognition test may be due to the capacity of the TMT to index perceptual speed, as opposed to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

  • 40.
    Elwér, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Specifika läsförståelseproblem2009In: Dyslexi och andra svårigheter med skriftspråket / [ed] Stefan Samuelsson, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2009, 1, p. 162-182Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Craig, A. D. (Bud)
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.
    Mental energy – an fMRI investigation of the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate network2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology.
    Craig, A. D. (Bud)
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.
    Mental energy: graded co-activation of the anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices during challenging working memory,  visual perception and motor speed tasks.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Malardalen University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Procedural priming of a numerical cognitive illusion2016In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy activated in one task may be transferred to subsequent tasks and prevent activation of other strategies that would otherwise come to mind, a mechanism referred to as procedural priming. In a novel application of procedural priming we show that it can make or break cognitive illusions. Our test case is the 1/k illusion, which is based on the same unwarranted mathematical shortcut as the MPG illusion and the time-saving bias. The task is to estimate distances between values of fractions on the form 1/k. Most people given this task intuitively base their estimates on the distances between the denominators (i.e., the reciprocals of the fractions), which may yield very poor estimations of the true distances between the fractions. As expected, the tendency to fall for this illusion is related to cognitive style (Study 1). In order to apply procedural priming we constructed versions of the task in which the illusion is weak, in the sense that most people do not fall for it anymore. We then gave participants both "strong illusion" and "weak illusion" versions of the task (Studies 2 and 3). Participants who first did the task in the weak illusion version would often persist with the correct strategy even in the strong illusion version, thus breaking the otherwise strong illusion in the latter task. Conversely, participants who took the strong illusion version first would then often fall for the illusion even in the weak illusion version, thus strengthening the otherwise weak illusion in the latter task.

  • 44.
    Espelage, Dorothy L.
    et al.
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Rao, Mrinalini A.
    Yale University, USA.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Understanding ecological factors associated with bullying across the elementary to middle school transition in the United States2015In: Perspective on bullying / [ed] R. D. Maiuro, New York: Springer, 2015, p. 31-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Forkstam, Christian
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Elwér, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Petersson, Karl Magnus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Instruction effects in implicit artificial grammar learning: A preference for grammaticality2008In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1221, no 24, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human implicit learning can be investigated with implicit artificial grammar learning, a paradigm that has been proposed as a simple model for aspects of natural language acquisition. In the present study we compared the typical yes–no grammaticality classification, with yes–no preference classification. In the case of preference instruction no reference to the underlying generative mechanism (i.e., grammar) is needed and the subjects are therefore completely uninformed about an underlying structure in the acquisition material. In experiment 1, subjects engaged in a short-term memory task using only grammatical strings without performance feedback for 5 days. As a result of the 5 acquisition days, classification performance was independent of instruction type and both the preference and the grammaticality group acquired relevant knowledge of the underlying generative mechanism to a similar degree. Changing the grammatical stings to random strings in the acquisition material (experiment 2) resulted in classification being driven by local substring familiarity. Contrasting repeated vs. non-repeated preference classification (experiment 3) showed that the effect of local substring familiarity decreases with repeated classification. This was not the case for repeated grammaticality classifications. We conclude that classification performance is largely independent of instruction type and that forced-choice preference classification is equivalent to the typical grammaticality classification.

  • 46.
    Forsblad (Kristiansson), Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Distributed cognition in home environments: The prospective memory and cognitive practices of older adults2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore how older people make use of, and interact with, their physical environment in home and near-by settings to manage cognitive situations, specifically prospective memory situations. Older adults have in past research been shown to perform better on prospective memory in real-life settings than what findings in laboratory-like settings predict. An explanation for this paradox is that older adults has a more developed skill of using the environment for prospective memory than younger adults. However, research investigating this explanation has primarily been based on self-reports.

    I contribute to the understanding of this skill by doing two related things. First I introduce distributed cognition, a theoretical perspective that primarily has been used within professional and socio-technical environments, to the research field of prospective memory in everyday life. Second I present a cognitive ethnography conducted during two years across eight home, and near-by, environments and old-age retired persons, for which I have used theoretical concepts from distributed cognition to analyze observations.

    The analysis shows rich variations in how participants use common cultural cognitive tools, invent their own cognitive tools, deliberately and incidentally shape more or less functional spaces, make use of other physical features, orient themselves toward and make sense of cognitive resources. I complement both prospective memory and distributed cognition research by describing both the intelligent shaping and use of space. Furthermore, by taking a distributed cognitive perspective I show that prospective memory processes in home environments involve properties, and the management, of a multipurpose environment.

    Altogether this supports the understanding of distributed cognition as a perspective on all cognition. Distributed cognition is not a reflection of particular work practices, instead it is a formulation of the general features of human cognition. Prospective memory in everyday life can be understood as an ability persons have. However, in this thesis I show that prospective memory can also be understood as a process that takes place between persons, arrangements of space, and tools.

  • 47.
    Frölander, Hans Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moller, Claes
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Utkal University, India.
    Marshall, Jan D.
    Jackson Lab, ME 04609 USA; Alstrom Syndrome Int, ME USA.
    Piacentini, Heather
    Alstrom Syndrome Int, ME USA.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Theory-of-mind in individuals with Alstrom syndrome is related to executive functions, and verbal ability2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1426, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study focuses on cognitive prerequisites for the development of theory-of-mind (ToM), the ability to impute mental states to self and others in young adults with Alstrom syndrome (AS). AS is a rare and quite recently described recessively inherited ciliopathic disorder which causes progressive sensorineural hearing loss and juvenile blindness, as well as many other organ dysfunctions. Two cognitive abilities were considered; Phonological working memory (WM) and executive functions (EF), both of importance in speech development. Methods: Ten individuals (18-37 years) diagnosed with AS, and 20 individuals with no known impairment matched for age, gender, and educational level participated. Sensory functions were measured. Information about motor functions and communicative skills was obtained from responses to a questionnaire. ToM was assessed using Happes strange stories, verbal ability by a vocabulary test, phonological WM by means of an auditory presented non-word serial recall task and EF by tests of updating and inhibition. Results: The AS group performed at a significantly lower level than the control group in both the ToM task and the EF tasks. A significant correlation was observed between recall of non-words and EF in the AS group. Updating, but not inhibition, correlated significantly with verbal ability, whereas both updating and inhibition were significantly related to the ability to initiate and sustain communication. Poorer performance in the ToM and EF tasks were related to language perseverance and motor mannerisms. Conclusion: The AS group displayed a delayed ToM as well as reduced phonological WM, EF, and verbal ability. A significant association between ToM and EF, suggests a compensatory role of EF. This association may reflect the importance of EF to perceive and process input from the social environment when the social interaction is challenged by dual sensory loss. We argue that limitations in EF capacity in individuals with AS, to some extent, may be related to early blindness and progressive hearing loss, but maybe also to gene specific abnormalities.

  • 48.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tjus, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Computer-assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities - A Longitudinal Study2013In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventionson the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinalintervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before theintervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the firstmeasurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Threegroups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: oneaimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on wordand sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourthgroup received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group withage-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that receivedcombined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instructionand the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additionalpositive results for the group that received the combined training, themajority of students fromthat group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention.

  • 49.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Science Linnaeus University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Faculty of Life and health Science Linnaeus University.
    Carlsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Self-image and reading development: the effect of self-image on reading development among pupils in grade 22014In: The Online Journal of Counseling and Education, ISSN 2146-8192, Vol. 3, p. 17-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between self-image and different reading abilities among pupils with reading difficulties in grade 2. The purpose was also to examine whether there were any differences between typical readers and pupils with reading difficulties with regard to self-image. The empirical material consists of 130 pupils who were tested at five different test sessions with different reading-related tests. Their self-image was tested twice at an interval of nearly a school year

    The results showed that there were differences between pupils with reading difficulties and typical readers with regard to the self-image level, where pupils with reading disabilities had a significantly lower self-image than typical readers. Among pupils with reading disabilities those with a low self-image showed significantly less improvement in word decoding and reading comprehension than students with a typical self-image.

  • 50.
    Gidhagen, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Dependency in Norrköping.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Outcome of psychological treatment of patients with substance use disorders in routine care2017In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 343-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed about outcome of treatments in routine care for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). These patients often suffer from psychological distress in addition to SUDs. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of community-based psychological treatment on SUD patients’ psychosocial problems, as well as on their substance use. Design: All patients who were referred or self-referred for psychological treatment to a social worker or a psychotherapist at three outpatient treatment centers for SUD patients were asked to participate in the study. Methods: Ratings at treatment start and end were obtained on Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, n = 100), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C, n = 49), and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (DUDIT-C, n = 27). Results: CORE-OM mean scores were significantly improved. In total 14% of the patients were recovered, 10% improved, and 5% deteriorated. Both AUDIT-C and DUDIT-C mean scores were significantly improved for patients with alcohol use and patients using illicit drugs, respectively. Conclusions: Routine psychological treatment had positive effects on psychological distress as well as on reduction of substance use. A substantial number of patients remained however unchanged, particularly regarding psychological distress. More studies with larger patient groups are needed to develop treatment for SUD patients in routine care.

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