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  • 1.
    Aalto Hagman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Sonde, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Innovation Crowdsourcing: Exploring the Use of an Innovation Intermediary2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the Open Innovation paradigm come new hopes for innovating companies. The ability to tap a global network of experts can, at least in theory, have a significant impact on an organization’s competitive strength. Before such a ‘network of experts’ can be used to its full potential however, a number of challenges related to knowledge markets seem to need solutions. About 10 years ago however, we could witness the entry of a new breed of company – calling themselves innovation intermediaries. These companies are built to profit from delivering the usefulness of knowledge networks to client (Seeker) companies. Though the use of such networks and markets have so far been uncommon outside of high-tech fields they are now starting to be seen used by companies in more mature environments.Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the collaboration between SCA (a large Swedish corporation) and the innovation intermediary InnoCentive in order to create a better understanding of what kind of benefits can be derived from the use of an innovation intermediary, and how these benefits are best utilized. We also set out to identify relevant limitations of innomediary use and to seek to better understand how using an innomediary can fit a client company’s higher-order activities such as exploration and exploitation.Completion and Results: Our findings include that SCA are using InnoCentive mainly as a tool to solve highly specific problems and/or problems with a low degree of complexity that they encounter in their everyday activities. The challenges related to knowledge markets, we find, are avoided by keeping problem complexity low and problem modularity high for the problems sent out to the network. In addition, InnoCentive’s business model seems to eliminate costly negotiations between Seekers and Solvers. Using this kind of ‘market solution’ however, we argue, will put bounds on the usefulness of the network and makes it mainly suited as a tool for improving an organization’s exploitation capacity.

  • 2.
    Aarnio, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kimber, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Talent Management & Strategy: Identifying Patterns through a Multiple Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exploring the Talent Management literature to understand the importance of Talent Management to strategy and the role the view on talent plays in consideration to Talent Management.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the empirical research on Talent Management to enable a creation of a conceptual framework.

    Methodology

    A multiple case study approach was taken, as 11 companies from diverse industries, sizes, backgrounds etc. was studied in order to gain a broader picture on the research topic. Furthermore, qualitative data collection method was used and main source of empirical data was interviews conducted with HR professionals of each case company.

    Findings

    The empirical findings indicated there to be a relationship between the strategy and the view on talent. There was further an indication that this relationship has an effect on the focus of the Talent Management activities. 

  • 3.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, no 4, 70-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 4.
    Abebe, Meaza Eshetu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Coordination of inter-organizational projects within creative industries: A contextual perspective2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational projects have become common forms of organizing in various industries such as construction, advertising, music, film making etc. The unique structural nature of Inter-organizational projects coupled with the fact that they carried out through the participation of multiple organizations, raises issues of coordination. Particularly when it comes to creative industries, coordination is challenged by demand and transactional uncertainties. In order to understand how inter-organizational projects achieve coordination in such situations, it is important to study their interior processes putting in consideration their environmental context. 

    The aim of this research is to study how network embeddedness enhances coordination in inter-organizational projects within creative industries.

    Inter-organizational projects: are projects that are carried out through the collaboration of multiple legally independent organizations

    Inter-organizational networks: refer to sets of long-term ties among independent organizations that are engaged in continuous exchange relations.

    Embeddedness: refers to the continuous interaction of individuals, organizations, projects etc. with their environmental context.

    Macrocultures: refer to the shared beliefs, norms values rules and practices with in inter- organizational networks that guide members on their actions.

    A qualitative approach using a multiple comparative case study was conducted. Accordingly four projects chosen from creative industries were studied using both primary and secondary data.

    Macrocultures that are embedded inter-organizational networks facilitate coordination within inter-organizational projects. Further projects that differ in their constituents task nature, time duration and team composition relied on different types of embeddedness for coordination.

  • 5.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SME Performance and Its Relationship to Innovation2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current SME performance models suffer from a number of disadvantages. The models use intensively a business ratio approach, they look at SMEs as a homogenous group, they consider firms to be closed systems, they do not directly incorporate the impact of an enterprise’s innovation activities, and finally they are complex and rely on sophisticated statistical refining methods making them unpractical to use by SME managers. There are four major challenges when one tries to build SME performance models that lack these deficiencies. The first challenge is that the desired performance evaluation model must optimally incorporate both quantitative and qualitative input. The second challenge is that the model must incorporate non-financial input parameters, such as firm size and age (among others), in the performance evaluation models. The third is that the model must consider the variety of SMEs as concerns their business sectors, nationalities, sizes, and ages. The final challenge is that the model must be able to utilize existing limited information available from the SMEs bookkeeping practices in an optimal way.

    The thesis addresses three questions related to constructing a better SMEperformance model, namely (1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the existing models used in evaluating SME performance? (2) What characterizes a comprehensive model for measuring SME performance with acknowledgement of the firm’s innovation activities? (3) How can a firm’s innovation activities be enhanced in relation to the firm’s external environment?

    To construct a model that copes with these challenges, I used a literature-based selection of parameters as well as a theory-based selection. I used both a conceptual approach and an empirical approach to discuss and propose a model, the Survival Index Value (or SIV) model, as an alternative to the existing performance models for SMEs.

    The major contributions of this thesis to the field of SME performance can be summarized in three outcomes: the SIV model as a new model of SME performance evaluation, the ASPEM as a new tool for strategic utilization of SME performance models, and a new approach to account for innovation in relation to the external environment of the firm using the IBAM tool.

    The work adds to the theory of the firm, as it presents a new way of evaluating firm performance. It also contributes to bridging the theory of the firm to organizational theory, by elevating the significance of networking and its impact on SME efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)
    2004 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 2, no 1-2, 155-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A number of firm performance models are available. Reviewing these models and pointing out their individual strengths and weaknesses, would help both academic researchers and professional users to understand and appreciate how and when to use these various models. The theoretical models for Small and Medium-size Enterprise (SME) performance can be divided into two categories: firm dynamics theories and performance prediction models. In the first part of this paper we review, in a condensed manner, the most relevant firm dynamic theories, i.e. SME's performance models. These include: Stochastic Theories, Learning Model Theories and Hazard Modeling Theories. In the second part of this paper, we examine the performance prediction models of SMEs, which include Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks (NN) and the SIV® models, among others. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these models are exposed and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SpringerLink, 2004
    Keyword
    small and medium-size enterprises - survival index value - SIV® model - Z-scores - neural networks
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71336 (URN)10.1023/B:JIEN.0000026911.03396.2d (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization
    2005 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 3, no 1, 53-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying and measuring small firm performance is vital in our understanding of how internationalization influences firm performance. That is also important when attempting to grasp the mechanisms of the internationalization processes. There are few methods used for the evaluation of performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs). These methods can be either macro or micro economic in nature. Hazard Modeling, Stochastic Models, and Learning Models are examples of macro economic models while Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks, and the SIV® model are examples of micro models. Choosing the most suitable performance model is an essential step in order to maximize our knowledge in relation to firm performance. Utilizing SMEs performance measures without thinking about the category of model, will bias the outcome of the majority of SMEs studies. However, using firm performance diverse models in an efficient manner requires strategic thinking. In this paper, we are re-introducing a tool that can accommodate that aspect. Abouzeedan (2002) designated the new tool: the Arena of SMEs Performance Models or an ASPEM diagram. The horizontal axis in the diagram indicates the Information Intensity Requirements of the model. The vertical axis indicates the Coverage Intensity of the model varying from an individual firm up to a whole group of firms. By allocating each of the SMEs performance models, at the suitable region of the ASPEM Diagram, researchers can better build a sound strategy for the application of these methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SpringerLink, 2005
    Keyword
    Arena of SMEs performance models, ASPEM - SIV® model, Zeta-scores, ZETA-scores, neural networks, stochastic theories, hazard modeling
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71337 (URN)10.1007/s10843-005-0305-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 12, no 4, 277-301 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In his original work of the Survival Index Value (SIV®) model, Dr. Adli Abouzeedan proposed a new parameter, which he named as the Survival Index (SI) (see Abouzeedan, 2001; Abouzeedan and Busler, 2002a). The new parameter is used to evaluate the performance of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) utilizing firm survivability as an indicator. The SI is calculated using an equation known as Survival Index (SI) Value Equation or SIE. In this paper, we applied the SIV® model to run an analysis on a very young Swedish firm and up to our knowledge, for the first time. The firm is a small one, working within a business sector defined as "fish preparation industry". This particular enterprise had a bad performance through its short life. The purpose of this study is to truly determine if the SIV® model has the capacity to indicate the performance of the firm. The case study presented in this work showed the valuable analytical power of the new model since it succeeded in giving a clear indication of the worsening situation of the enterprise. During the SIV® analysis of this Swedish firm new concepts have been introduced which do increase the practicality and analytical capacity of the model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    World Scientific Publishing Co., 2004
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71340 (URN)10.1142/S0218495804000154 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries
    2006 (English)In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 2, no 3, 270-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Economies have different levels of entrepreneurial activities depending on the availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In their working paper, Abouzeedan and Busler (2004) established a new type of capital, adding up the components of the most important types of capital. These are the human capital, financial capital and the system capital. In that paper, the two researchers defined each of the components and explained what they meant with those terminologies. They called this new type of capital, innovation capital. The two researchers have argued that innovation capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in a region and thus the general character of the economy. They also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix or IBAM as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions. In this extended work, they have used this analysis and tried to apply it to Arab countries using a general knowledge and deductive approach to the issue. They conclude the paper with some recommendations as how to enrich the innovation capital in that region.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2006
    Keyword
    Human capital; financial capital; system capital; innovation capital; innovation balance matrix; IBAM; Arab countries; Middle East; entrepreneurship.
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71341 (URN)10.1504/WREMSD.2006.009893 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries
    2007 (English)In: Science,Technology and Sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa: Section III: Science Technology and Innovation / [ed] Allam Ahmed, Inderscience Enterprises Limited , 2007, 158-175 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the connection between economic progress and the entrepreneurial environment has been investigated by researchers using diverse approaches. One way to investigate the question is to use deductive analysis regarding the forms of capital contributing to the entrepreneurial environment of society. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler were the first to introduce the concept of 'Innovation Capital'. The two researchers argued that Innovation Capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment. In the same paper, the researchers also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix (IBAM) as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions, applying it across the globe. In a later work, the two researchers tried to run a similar IBAM analysis focusing on the Arab world. The two writers found that the best solution to the lack of individual entrepreneurial economies in that region is through what they called the 'additive solution'. In this work, we take their argument deeper and look at the kind of policies that would achieve that solution.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2007
    Series
    Globalisation, Technology and Sustainable Development Book Series
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71342 (URN)0-907776-30-2 (ISBN)0-907776-32-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
    6. Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital
    2009 (English)In: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2009. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development / [ed] Allam Ahmed, World Association for Sustainable Development , 2009, 287-294 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies develop different levels of entrepreneurial capacity depending on the degree of availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In an earlier work by Abouzeedan and Busler (2006), a new type of capital, that is, innovation capital, has been suggested to serve as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in an economy. Innovation capital incorporates the concepts of human capital, financial capital and system capital. However, the issue of accessibility and openness in the innovation process also need to be reflected in the innovation capital concept. Innovation activities in the modern economies are growing to become more interconnected and open in their nature. In this paper, we defined and incorporated a new component within the innovation capital, namely open capital. We also reflected on how the four components of the innovation capital concept, including the open capital, are interconnected.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    World Association for Sustainable Development, 2009
    Keyword
    Open Capital, Human Capital, Financial Capital, System Capital, Innovation Capital, Open Innovation, Open Innovation Management
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71344 (URN)978-1-907106-05-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
    7. Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model
    2011 (English)In: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, 170-179 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ICSB, 2011
    Keyword
    small and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs, performance evaluation models, SIV model
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71345 (URN)978-0-9819028-3-8 (ISBN)0-9819028-3-9 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ICSB 2011 World Conference Date: June 15-18, 2011, Stockholm Waterfront Congress Center, Stockholm, Sweden
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University USA.
    Analysis of Swedish Fishery Company Using SIV® Model: A Case Study2004In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 12, no 4, 277-301 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his original work of the Survival Index Value (SIV®) model, Dr. Adli Abouzeedan proposed a new parameter, which he named as the Survival Index (SI) (see Abouzeedan, 2001; Abouzeedan and Busler, 2002a). The new parameter is used to evaluate the performance of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) utilizing firm survivability as an indicator. The SI is calculated using an equation known as Survival Index (SI) Value Equation or SIE. In this paper, we applied the SIV® model to run an analysis on a very young Swedish firm and up to our knowledge, for the first time. The firm is a small one, working within a business sector defined as "fish preparation industry". This particular enterprise had a bad performance through its short life. The purpose of this study is to truly determine if the SIV® model has the capacity to indicate the performance of the firm. The case study presented in this work showed the valuable analytical power of the new model since it succeeded in giving a clear indication of the worsening situation of the enterprise. During the SIV® analysis of this Swedish firm new concepts have been introduced which do increase the practicality and analytical capacity of the model.

  • 7.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley Graduate Center, Malvern, PA 19355.
    ASPEM as the New Topographic Analysis Tool for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Performance Models Utilization2005In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 3, no 1, 53-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying and measuring small firm performance is vital in our understanding of how internationalization influences firm performance. That is also important when attempting to grasp the mechanisms of the internationalization processes. There are few methods used for the evaluation of performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs). These methods can be either macro or micro economic in nature. Hazard Modeling, Stochastic Models, and Learning Models are examples of macro economic models while Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks, and the SIV® model are examples of micro models. Choosing the most suitable performance model is an essential step in order to maximize our knowledge in relation to firm performance. Utilizing SMEs performance measures without thinking about the category of model, will bias the outcome of the majority of SMEs studies. However, using firm performance diverse models in an efficient manner requires strategic thinking. In this paper, we are re-introducing a tool that can accommodate that aspect. Abouzeedan (2002) designated the new tool: the Arena of SMEs Performance Models or an ASPEM diagram. The horizontal axis in the diagram indicates the Information Intensity Requirements of the model. The vertical axis indicates the Coverage Intensity of the model varying from an individual firm up to a whole group of firms. By allocating each of the SMEs performance models, at the suitable region of the ASPEM Diagram, researchers can better build a sound strategy for the application of these methods.

  • 8.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA.
    Entrepreneurial policies and the innovation balance matrix: the case of the Arab countries2007In: Science,Technology and Sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa: Section III: Science Technology and Innovation / [ed] Allam Ahmed, Inderscience Enterprises Limited , 2007, 158-175 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the connection between economic progress and the entrepreneurial environment has been investigated by researchers using diverse approaches. One way to investigate the question is to use deductive analysis regarding the forms of capital contributing to the entrepreneurial environment of society. Adli Abouzeedan and Michael Busler were the first to introduce the concept of 'Innovation Capital'. The two researchers argued that Innovation Capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment. In the same paper, the researchers also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix (IBAM) as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions, applying it across the globe. In a later work, the two researchers tried to run a similar IBAM analysis focusing on the Arab world. The two writers found that the best solution to the lack of individual entrepreneurial economies in that region is through what they called the 'additive solution'. In this work, we take their argument deeper and look at the kind of policies that would achieve that solution.

  • 9.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA.
    Innovation Balance Matrix: an application in the Arab countries2006In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 2, no 3, 270-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies have different levels of entrepreneurial activities depending on the availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In their working paper, Abouzeedan and Busler (2004) established a new type of capital, adding up the components of the most important types of capital. These are the human capital, financial capital and the system capital. In that paper, the two researchers defined each of the components and explained what they meant with those terminologies. They called this new type of capital, innovation capital. The two researchers have argued that innovation capital can be used as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in a region and thus the general character of the economy. They also introduced the Innovation Balance Matrix or IBAM as an analytical tool to classify economies based on their entrepreneurial conditions. In this extended work, they have used this analysis and tried to apply it to Arab countries using a general knowledge and deductive approach to the issue. They conclude the paper with some recommendations as how to enrich the innovation capital in that region.

  • 10.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Amana Commercial Consultants, Partille, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley Graduate Center, Malvern, PA 19355, USA.
    Typology Analysis of Performance Models of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs)2004In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1099-9264, E-ISSN 1939-4675, Vol. 2, no 1-2, 155-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of firm performance models are available. Reviewing these models and pointing out their individual strengths and weaknesses, would help both academic researchers and professional users to understand and appreciate how and when to use these various models. The theoretical models for Small and Medium-size Enterprise (SME) performance can be divided into two categories: firm dynamics theories and performance prediction models. In the first part of this paper we review, in a condensed manner, the most relevant firm dynamic theories, i.e. SME's performance models. These include: Stochastic Theories, Learning Model Theories and Hazard Modeling Theories. In the second part of this paper, we examine the performance prediction models of SMEs, which include Z-Scores, ZETA-Scores, Neural Networks (NN) and the SIV® models, among others. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these models are exposed and discussed.

  • 11.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Busler, Michael
    The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managing Innovation in a Globalised Economy: Defining the Open Capital2009In: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2009. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development / [ed] Allam Ahmed, World Association for Sustainable Development , 2009, 287-294 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies develop different levels of entrepreneurial capacity depending on the degree of availability of tangible as well as intangible resources. In an earlier work by Abouzeedan and Busler (2006), a new type of capital, that is, innovation capital, has been suggested to serve as an indicator for the degree of richness of the entrepreneurial environment in an economy. Innovation capital incorporates the concepts of human capital, financial capital and system capital. However, the issue of accessibility and openness in the innovation process also need to be reflected in the innovation capital concept. Innovation activities in the modern economies are growing to become more interconnected and open in their nature. In this paper, we defined and incorporated a new component within the innovation capital, namely open capital. We also reflected on how the four components of the innovation capital concept, including the open capital, are interconnected.

  • 12.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model2011In: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, 170-179 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ljungberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Vad är en bantad balansräkning?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under senare år har det blivit vanligare att företagen i tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar talar om att de har ”bantat” sin balansräkning. Företag använder begreppet i flera olika sammanhang och för att signalera att åtgärder som är positiva för företagen genomförts. Innebörden och konsekvensen av de åtgärder som vidtagits i företagen varierar dock kraftigt.

    Syfte: Syftet med vår magisteruppsats är att utreda vilken innebörd begreppet ”bantade” balansräkningar har för ett antal företag inom olika branscher.

    Genomförande: I undersökningen valde vi ut företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen som offentliggjort att de genomfört bantningar av sina balansräkningar. Genom att studera tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar har vi utrönt vilka åtgärder som vidtagits av företagen samt effekterna av de genomförda åtgärderna.

    Resultat: En bantning av en balansräkning innebär att åtgärder för att minska tillgångsmassan skett. Vilka dessa åtgärder är och vilket syftet med dem är varierar dock kraftigt. Några exempel på åtgärder som företagen utfört är extra aktieutdelningar, sale and lease back, outsourcing, försäljning av dotterbolag och återköp av egna aktier. Användningen av begreppet sker mycket godtyckligt. Effekterna av åtgärderna varierar, några vi funnit är minskad skuldsättning, ökad skuldsättning, minskade tillgångar och ökad lönsamhet.

  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Media - makt att sätta företags agenda?: En kvantitativ studie om medias makt att påverka företags hållbarhetsredovisningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Lately, there has been a significant increase in sustainability related issues in media, while companies increasingly are reporting on sustainability. Media has a central role in today's society, and sustainability is emerging as one of the most contemporary issues in the business industry. Studies with a combination of media and sustainability are a fruitful field for future research.

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between medias sustainability exposure of companies and these companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report.

    Method This quantitative study is pursued through a deductive approach in which the hypotheses are formulated with a background in existing theories. A cross-sectional design is used to measure the presence and the variation of a given phenomena at a certain time. Secondary data is used as the empirical basis. The study focuses on companies listed at Nasdaq Stockholm.

    Conclusion The results of this study indicate that medias' sustainability exposure of companies affects companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report. Size, industry, profitability and number of subsidiaries are also significant factors. We have found that media is a primary factor in explaining why companies choose to report on sustainability issues. For every news story about a given company in a sustainability context – the likelihood of that company establishing a sustainability report is increased by 2,491. This study also proves that increased media exposure leads to a more extensive sustainability reporting.

  • 15. Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Gremyr, Ida
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Nilsson, Anders
    Rehn, Alf
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Öhman, Peter
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2016Book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Logistics in Corporate Strategy2010In: Dimensionen der Logistik / [ed] in Schönberger, R., & Elbert, R., Heidelberg: Gabler Research , 2010, 533-552 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Funktionen, Institutionen und Handlungsebenen beschreiben die drei Dimensionen des von Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans-Christian Pfohl geschaffenen Logistikwürfels. Anlässlich seiner Emeritierung beleuchten Wissenschaftler und Praktiker in 75 Fachbeiträgen die Logistik mit all ihren Facetten und aktuellen Entwicklungen und geben Anregungen für die zukünftige Forschung und Praxis.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Logistics in Corporate Strategy2008In: Northern lights in logistics & supply chain management / [ed] Stentoft, Halldorsson, Jahre, Spens, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2008, 1, 49-66 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Northern Lights in Logistics & Supply Chain Management" portrays the past, present and future research of the subject in the Nordic countries. The NOFOMA conference - a network of Nordic researchers within the field of Logistics and Supply Chain Management - has been a focal point in the contribution to the continuous improvement and further development of Nordic research. The network has also opened up for interaction with fellow researchers from other countries. There are sixteen chapters in the book that in its own way colours the Nordic rainbow of research within Logistics and Supply Chain Management. The chapters are structured in four themes: 1) Origins and strategic aspects; 2) Research approaches in the Nordic countries; 3) Advancement of distribution strategies and; 4) Emerging application areas of logistics and SCM. The chapters provide an understanding and, perhaps more importantly, consciousness for scholars that are part of this research environment: Where are we now, what have we been influenced by, and in what area are we able to provide positive impact? The aim of the book is also to contribute to increased visibility to fellow international scholars within Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christopher, Martin
    Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.
    Stensson, Bo-Inge
    SKF, Sverige.
    Mastering Supply Chain Management in an era of uncertainty at SKF2015In: Global Business and Organizational Excellence: a review of research & best practices, ISSN 1932-2054, Vol. 34, no 6, 6-17 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To stay ahead in an increasingly competitive business environment, organizations need agile supply chain systems that are holistically designed and managed. The experiences of SKF, a Swedish multinational firm, point to the benefits of reengineering upstream capabilities to create value downstream. To foster the flexibility, responsiveness, and other dynamic capabilities needed to manage increased supply chain complexity, the company established programs to involve its suppliers in the value creation process, making them an extension of the organization’s resource base. The overall objective has been to migrate from a business model based on economies of scale in operations to one that exploits both economies of scope and economies of integration. As a result of its efforts to create a more agile and cost-efficient supply chain, the company has been able to decrease supply risks while improving its value creation process and responsiveness to new customer demands and advancing its sustainability and social responsibility initiatives. 

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlöf, Stefan
    Sonat, Sverige.
    Det dynamiska företaget: om följsamhet och flödesorienterade affärsmodeller2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens osäkra affärsklimat betraktas av många som ett problem och en risk som måste hanteras. I den här boken vänder författarna på perspektivet och betraktar osäkerheten som en möjlighet till framgång - om företaget har tillräcklig dynamisk förmåga. Den dynamiska förmågan innebär att företaget snabbt kan förändra sin marknadsstrategi och sin dagliga verksamhet. Det kräver en tydlig och flödesorienterad affärsmodell med en effektiv och följsam kedja från leverantör till slutkund. Denna bok presenterar en modell för hur företaget kan uppnå en sådan dynamisk effektivitet och diskuterar hur man kan omsätta den i praktisk handling. Boken vänder sig till chefer och ledningsgrupper i företag som vill utvecklas i takt med omvärldens krav och därmed få bäst förutsättningar att överleva och växa i det krävande affärsklimatet - survival of the fittest!

  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmgren, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dan
    Chalmers.
    Inside the Core: Managing risks in Business Critical Outsourcing2011In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual IPSERA Conference, Vision 20/20 – Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Challenges / [ed] F. Rozemeijer, M. Wetzels, L. Quintens, 2011, 1092-1101 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are increasingly outsourcing business critical activities, which increases the risk of substantial negative impact on the financial and strategic business performance. The aim of this paper is to show how outsourcer and supplier seek to mitigate the risks during the negotiations and the ongoing operations of the outsourced activities. The conclusion is that risk mitigating dimensions are directional and operates at different organizational levels, and secondly, that the dimension operates sequentially as a means to mitigate performance and relational risks. It is also concluded that goodwill trust and a cooperative stance have substantial impact on the success of the outsourcing.

  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmgren, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dan
    Chalmers.
    Managing risk in complex and business critical outsourcing of services2011In: Proceedings of 18th International Annual Conference of the European Operations Management Association. EurOMA, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades the phenomenon of outsourcing of resources and activities has emerged as an important trend in a wide range of organizations and many companies are today outsourcing complex and business critical resources and activities. This increase in business criticality also increases the risk of substantial and negative impact on the financial and strategic performance. The proposition is that business critical outsourcing is approached with a joint risk perspective and that an understanding of the decision process is essential for success. Further, it is important to view outsourcing as an ongoing process with a number of key stages.

  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of purchasing groups in retail logistics2012In: Nordic Retail Research: Emerging Diversity / [ed] Johan Hagberg, Ulrika Holmberg, Malin Sundström, Lars Walter, Göteborg: Bokförlaget BAS , 2012, 1, 155-172 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book aims to provide an illustration of the diversity that characterises contemporary Nordic research in the field of retail. The book draws on a large variety of methods, describes a variety of retail sectors and covers a large number of retail phenomena. The book is suitable for researchers, graduate students and professionals who want to learn more about contemporary retailing research

  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistik i svensk handel: Ett projekt finansierat av Handelns Utvecklingsråd2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten sammanfattar ett forskningsprojekt, Logistik i svensk handel, som har pågått under perioden juli 2009 t.o.m. februari 2011 och som är finansierat av Handelns Utvecklingsråd.

    En utgångspunkt och hypotes för projektet var att det finns avgörande branschmässiga skillnader i sättet att arbeta med logistikfrågor. En hypotes som har testats mot empirin, vilket har lett till slutsatsen att logistiken endast i begränsad omfattning är branschspecifik och att branschtillhörighet inte är den avgörande faktorn för hur logistiken utformas för handelsföretag. En viktigare faktor, är hur butikerna drivs visavi centrala enheter, hur integrationen ser ut mellan logistikstrategi och inköps- respektive marknadsstrategi, samt hur systemgränserna för logistiken definieras.

    Genom hela arbetet har vi jämfört den logistikbild vi har sett med en ”ideal bild”, i form av logistiken i internationell ”mega-retailing”, vilket idag representerar ”best practice” inom logistik och där logistiken är en integrerad del av företagens affärsmodell och ett direkt stöd för företagets lönsamhet och tillväxt. Den jämförelsen visar att det är mycket stora skillnader i logistikkompetens och mognad mellan olika företag och att logistik inom många handelsföretag fortfarande är ett område med stor förbättringspotential.

    Förutom den här rapporten har projektet genererat en lång rad akademiska artiklar som är publicerade i journaler och/eller har presenterats på konferenser och seminarier. Vi har varit i kontakt med ett stort antal, kollegor, företag och forskare i Sverige och andra länder för att samla material. Ett stort tack till alla de som har bidragit med material till projektet.

    Ett speciellt tack till Andreas Hedlund på Handelns Utvecklingsråd, som förutom finansiellt stöd har backat upp projektet med seminarier arrangerade av Handelns utvecklingsråd.

    Linköping i Maj 2011

    Mats Abrahamsson   Jakob Rehme   Erik Sandberg

  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stahre, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistics Changes and Challenges in Swedish Food Supply Chains2008In: Nofoma 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Abring, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrdokument reglerar den praktiska hanteringen av transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a result of increased international trading, adequate management of transaction exposure has become more important. Foreign currency cash flows are associated with different risks and thus give cause to distinct transaction exposure with overseas trading. Previous research advocates that management of transaction exposure is controlled through policy documents and we have identified a lack of research in how policy documents of Swedish firms are designed.

    Problem: To what extent is previous research agreeing with how Swedish firms have developed policy documents for managing transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows?

    Aim: The aim of the study is, compared to what previous research advocates, to examine and analyze how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed within the Swedish firms. The study also aims to analyze the differences in the policy document for the transaction exposure in different foreign currency cash flows, as well as the factors that give reasons to possible deviations.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study indicate a clear congruence between previous research and established practices of how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed in Swedish firms. Policy documents are comprehensive in their design; regulate the risk management strategy but not the management procedures. Even though the actual management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows indicates significant discrepancies, the policy document doesn’t regulate any of them. Giving reason for a different management are: factors related to the foreign exchange market characteristics, company-specific factors and other influencing market factors.Contribution: The study contributes to a better understanding and clearer differentiation of how Swedish firms control the management of transaction exposure, from a business perspective. Moreover, the study intends to give rise to the interest in how and on which grounds companies differently control the management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows.

  • 26.
    Ackerholt, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hartford, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Identifiering av det logistiska förpackningssystemet En studie av teleutrustningsindustrin2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to outsourcing, the material flows in the telecom equipment industry have undergone major changes, which in turn has imposed new challenges for packaging supplier Nefab who delivers to the industry. In order to achieve market intelligence, Nefab wants to map the material flows, and investigate possibilities of further reusable logistical packaging systems.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to describe the typical features of the logistical material flows in a technically based, rapidly growing industry, and analyze the driving forces and obstacles, which influence the selection of logistical packaging system.

    Procedure: After developing a theoretical framework consisting of general logistical theories and theories related to logistical packaging, we have interviewed companies in the logistics channel of Ericsson Radio Systems.

    Results: We have found the main characteristics of material flows in our investigated industry to be Variations in Demand, Focus on Time-to-Customer, and Globalization of Logistics Channels. Regarding driving forces and obstacles in the selection of logistical packaging systems, we have identified Transportation Characteristics, Customer Demands, Quality, Handling & Administration, and Current Packaging System as important factors.

  • 27.
    Adero, Gloria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Liu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Maintaining Competitiveness Through Strategic Alliances: Case Study of Equity Bank Kenya2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Kenyan financial sector has recently been growing at high rate due to the inclusion of individuals who previously were unable access banking services. This has led to a competitive situation where banks and micro finance institutions are searching for ways to manage in this competitive sector. In addition, mobile phone companies are now considered as a competitive threat.

    Aim:

    This study will look into how strategic alliances between banks and mobile phone companies can be used to overcome these challenges with a specific focus on the recent alliance between Equity Bank (Kenya), and Safaricom Ltd. The study will also focus on the management of strategic alliances within different industries.

    Method:

    The analysis of this study is based on qualitative research including the use of interviews with members of both organizations and secondary data which includes written documentation and analysis of previously recorded discussions about the alliance with different members of both organizations.

    Results:

    The authors found strategic alliances can be used as a tool which enables firms to overcome threats from their competitors while gaining additional benefits. In terms of alliance management, the use of separate teams was found to be an effective management tool in cross industry alliances.

  • 28.
    Adlersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Blomdahl, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Hedge Fund Style Allocation: A Risk Adjusted Fund of Hedge Fund Perspective2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis has been to explore the use of hedge fund styles when constructing portfolios of hedge funds (i.e. funds of hedge funds). The central question is if the use of hedge fund styles can significantly explain and improve risk adjusted returns (characterized by Sharpe ratios). The study has been done in collaboration with Optimized Portfolio Management AB who desire further knowledge and evaluation of hedge fund styles for their fund of hedge funds.

    To be able to create successful ex ante portfolios we have explored various prediction models for both risk and return. Our findings indicate that return prediction is problematic using simple models such as regression since the risk exposure of the indices appear to change significantly over time. One can however using exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) achieve relatively promising estimations of future returns.

    Covariance matrix estimation seems to be more straightforward. We have achieved promising results using both traditional EWMA models as well as improved estimators using principal component analysis.Covariance prediction models were evaluated separately using a minimum-variance portfolio optimization technique and provided a significant risk reduction compared to the aggregated hedge fund universe (represented by a naively diversified portfolio). Combinations of risk and return prediction models were evaluated using traditional mean-variance portfolio construction methods, which were optimized for Sharpe ratios. These provided a significant increase in risk adjusted returns relative to the aggregated hedge fund universe. The allocation is however discouraging due to serious instability over time.

    Our findings indicate that there indeed is an advantage of taking hedge fund styles into consideration when constructing funds of hedge funds in a risk adjusted perspective. However, further research into return prediction needs to be done in order to stabilize portfolio allocation. An alternative seems to be tactical style allocation on a more fundamental analysis basis.

  • 29.
    Adolfsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kullman, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Processförbättring&Organisationsförändring: en fallstudie av Vildmarkshotellet2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många organisationer står idag inför en allt hårdare konkurrens, vilket ställer ökade krav på ständig utveckling och förnyelse. För att uppnå detta krävs en ökad kundorientering samt att bättre kunna ta tillvara på medarbetarnas potential. Ett sätt att möta dessa ökade krav har varit att börja fundera på att förändra arbetsorganisationen.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga och analysera Vildmarkshotellets konferensprocess samt ge förslag på hur denna kan förbättras.

    Genomförande: Studien började med en diskussion kring uppdraget. Därefter påbörjade vi en litteraturstudie som låg till grund för det empiriska material som samlats in via intervjuer med hotellets ledningsgrupp, avdelningschefer samt vissa medarbetare.

    Rekommendationer: De brister som i dagsläget finns inom Vildmarkshotellets konferensprocess kan främst härledas från dagens funktionella organisationsstruktur och det är tre övergripande aspekter som Vildmarkshotellet skall fokusera på. Dessa är att de skall förändra driftorganisationens struktur och personalens tankestrukturer samt stärka ansvarskänslan inom organisationen.

    Teoretiska slutsatser: Vi anser att organisationsstrukturen avgör vilket arbets- och tankesätt som kommer prägla organisationen samt även vilket perspektiv de anställda kommer ha på sin relation till de externa och interna kunderna. För att en organisations arbetssätt skall präglas av att sätta kunden i centrum är det viktigt att de anställdas attityder genomsyras av en stark ansvarskänsla och en känsla av delaktighet samtidigt som organisationen arbetar med ständiga processförbättringar och baserar beslut på fakta. Det är även av stor vikt att företagsledningen fokuserar på att skapa engagemang och en helhetsbild över organisationen för att denna skall genomsyras av ovanstående aspekter.

  • 30.
    Adolfsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Venture Capitalists on the Seed Stage Arena: A Fit or Misfit2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Growth oriented entrepreneurial businesses need funding for the development of their idea, technology, product etc. However, for the businesses in the very earliest stages of development, access to funding is very limited. Growing young ventures are important job creators and positively affect growth in an economy. Bridging the gap of funding to these companies is therefore on the agenda of governments around the world.

    Purpose: To describe the situation facing seed stage investing venture capitalists. I will emphasize difficulties and evaluate venture capitalists ability in addressing them. Effects of the difficulties in form of access to financing for entrepreneurs and a possible need for government intervention will be examined.

    Method: Empirical information from seed stage investing venture capital organizations have been collected in the form of face-to-face interviews, email- questionnaires and a telephone interview. Organizations from Sweden, Denmark and Germany are included in the study.

    Result: Several factors make seed stage investing unattractive compared to later stages. Important difficulties are higher risks, high costs for fund management, goal incongruence in the investor – venture capitalist relation and lack of bargaining power for seed venture capitalists. Environmental factorsthat have an impact on seed investing are the deal flow, the investment climate and access to soft funding. Seed stage investing is a very challenging business and the difficulties are to a large extent hard to overcome. The investors more likely have to accept them and I conclude that long term profitability of seed funds is unlikely, at least in absence of government support in form of soft funding towards the entrepreneurial businesses.

  • 31.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Solarz, Diana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Power Shift and Retailer Value in the Swedish FMCG Industry2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent years in the Swedish Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry have been characterized by a palpable shift in power balance, favouring the retailers. Since the shift in power balance has strengthened the negotiation position of the retailers, the suppliers now have to, to a greater extent than before, accommodate to the retailers’ goals, whether they be financial or strategic.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate how this recent power shift has affected the relationships of suppliers and retailers. This development has resulted in the rather new and unexplored area of retailer value, which this study further aimed to explore.

    Research method: Interviews were conducted with representatives fromthe leading retailer chains and market leading suppliers.

    Results: The increased use of information and control on behalf of the retailers has led to the suppliers, to a greater extent than before, having to adjust to the retailers'different store concepts. However, in order to create retailer value, the suppliers also need to focus on the consumers’ needs and preferences, since the way to the retailer’s shelves is through creating consumer demand. They also have to stay innovative and make use of the experience and in-depth knowledge they possess within their product segments, as that is where they still have the upper hand.

  • 32.
    Adrian, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kinnunen, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Aktieindexobligationer: För vem är aktieindexobligationer en passande investering?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the introduction in the early 1990s, the volume of newly issued equity index bonds overall had a positive development. This increase indicates that the product has become a popular form of savings among Swedes. Together with the fact that there are few studies done on equity index bonds as a savings product. A wider perspective has been taken into account which makes the subject interesting to study.

    Aim: Purpose of this study is to identify and analyze for who private investors equity index bonds fit as a savings product on lifecycle thought based on (i) professional and consulting practices, (ii) financial risk management theory, focusing on portfolio theory, and (iii) historical data on risk and return.

    Completion: The study was completed using interviews with private consultants, capital advisors and people working with structured products at major banks and of small players. In addition, five stereotypes were used as a basis for discussion during the interviews. In order to conduct a deeper analysis of the product as a form of saving for private investors, a portfolio optimization carried out taking the historical data on risk and return into account.

    Conclusion: The study determines that the product is suitable for private investors who are in the latter part of the consolidation phase and mainly not prone to risk. The study suggests that equity index bonds primarily are associated with credit- and market risk, while the risk of the product is assessed as low. The study also indicates that the properties that are added to investors’ portfolios are low risk and a potential aspect.

  • 33.
    Afazeli, Siamak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sattari Dabaghi, Alireza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Görn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of   Enterprise Quality and Export Performance: An Empirical Study on the Pharmaceutical Industry in IRAN2011In: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Science 2011, 14th QMOD Conference 29st-31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain: From LearnAbility & InnovaAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo and Elizabeth Viles Javier Santos, Pamplona, Spain: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, 55-73 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between export involvement and domestic market performance with focus on pharmaceutical firms. The study covers three research questions including: 1: How to assess the export involvement/performance of the Iranian pharmaceutical companies? 2: How to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in domestic market? 3: How to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance?

    An intensive literature review and integration of relevant views and models helped us to build our own framework as a conceptual and analytical model. The model consists of EXPERF model, EFQM model, Export performance evaluation, domestic performance evaluation and the relationship between domestic performance and export performance. EFQM model and respective ILL indices was used for measuring domestic performance of the organizations on nine components of leadership, policy and strategy, people, partnership and resources, processes, people results, customer results, society results and key performance results. In order to achieve true representative of Iranian pharmaceutical companies K-mean clustering algorithm has been used to cluster Iranian pharmaceutical companies. EXPERF scale was used to measure export performance of the pharmaceutical companies in Iran on three aspects of financial export performance, strategic export performance and satisfaction with the export venture. Six clusters emerged after running the clustering algorithm in MATLAB software. This software enables us to put the similar companies together. Then centroids of the clusters were chosen to verify the relationship. Then relationship between export involvement (export performance) of pharmaceutical companies and their domestic performance was determined by use of Pearson coefficient.

    Pearson correlation = 0.708 and Sig= 0.026which is less than 0.0 5 then with 95% confidence we can claim that there is a significant relation between export performance of the Centroids and Domestic performance of the centroids of Iranian pharmaceutical companies and considering that the correlation

    coefficient value is positive, it means better export performance will result in better domestic performance. In other words Export performance of the companies has positive direct effect on domestic performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Further studies can be done on clustering of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; effects of export involvement on individual components of EFQM based performance of firms and also verification of effect of export involvement and domestic performance in other business contexts.

  • 34.
    Afrim, George
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekdahl, Ludvig
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riktkursers träffsäkerhet: En studie om kassaflödens och andra variablers samband med träffsäkerheten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies show that recommendations accuracy partly can be explained by numerous variables. Prior research leave out several variables, which based on theoretical support, may have a connection with accuracy, such as the cash flows’ volatility. Based on the DCF-model’s structure, accuracy of target prices is assumed to have a positive relationship with companies that have stable cash flows.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the accuracy of stock analysts' target prices and their connection with stable cash flows. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the role of less highlighted variables’ relationship with the accuracy of target prices, in combination with earlier investigated variables.

    Completion: Including less highlighted variables is supported by theory about corporate valuation, where cash flows’ volatility is the main focus of this study. The accuracy of the target prices is analyzed by regression analysis for three time horizons, where the dependent variable is the absolute margin of error and the dependent variables are represented by the explanatory factors that the study examines. The relationships are estimated by OLS, due to the fact that data are unbalanced.

    Conclusion:  Stock analysts’ target prices present relationships with numerous of the variables examined in the study. The strongest relationships with the accuracy of target prices are shown by cash flows’ variation, the number of stock analysts, goodwill in terms of total capital and companies’ size. The results show that companies with stable cash flow have a positive relationship with the accuracy of target prices, which supports the theories of the DCF-model for valuation of companies with stable cash flow. The estimations show that the accuracy of target prices also is explained by other factors than those this very study investigates. The results show that the accuracy is higher for shorter time horizons.

  • 35.
    Agerman, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Wänström, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Finansiella Illusioner: ett test av Stockholmsbörsens effektivitet2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low Price-Earnings ratio, low Book-to market ratio and low stock prices can give the impression that a stock is “cheap”. Is it through systematic use of these portfolio strategies possible to beat the market index – in other words does financial illusions exist?

    Purpose: To examine if the Stockholm Stock Exchange is an efficient market. Limitations: The efficiency is tested solely through the chosen portfolio strategies: low Price-Earnings ratio, low Book-to-market ratio and low stock prices. The research only includes stocks listed on the A-, O-, OTC- and Attract40 lists during the period 1998-01-01 to 2001-12-31. Methodology: With CAPM as an equilibrium model we are examining if the P/e, Book-to-market or the stock price portfolios generate systematic overperformance in comparision to the market index SIXRX. Significance tests on the 5 % level have been performed to determine if the returns are significantly separated from zero.

    Results: We can establish that none of the chosen portfolio strategies generated any significant systematic overperformance.

  • 36.
    Agevall, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Umans, Timurs
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    The new generation of auditors meeting praxis2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an exploratory study of whether and in what way ‘double-edged learning’ can develop from understanding the relationship between structure and judgment and thus capture students’ experience of the audit profession. The study is based on a focus group/individual interviews conducted with students performing their work-integrated learning assignments where they interact with auditors. Identifying two themes defined as Perceiving the profession and auditing and Entering into and forming in the audit profession derived from the data, it appears that when positioned within a work-integrated learning context, students develop awareness of the use of standards and checklists on one hand as well as the importance of discretional judgment on the other. Based on these results, we theorise as to how double-edged learning manifests itself in students’ experiences and understanding of the relationship between structure and judgment.

  • 37.
    Agrento, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Halmstad University.
    The 'externalisation' of local public service delivery: experience in Italy and Sweden2010In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, Vol. 5, no 1, 41-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the local government sector in European countries has undergone important changes involving, among other things, the externalisation of local public service provision through various forms of corporatisation, public-public collaboration, public-private partnerships and contracting out. An important consequence of these institutional changes has been the recasting of local governance systems through the need for increased cooperation between public and private actors. This article addresses these matters with comparative reference to the experience in Italy and Sweden. In doing so, it considers local governments in their constitutional and legal contexts, leading to more detailed discussions of their externalisation initiatives and resultant organisational forms and governance arrangements. Issues of ownership have been important concerning the significance of 'community' and 'place' in the management of public affairs.

  • 38.
    Ahad, Diana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Jusic, Anisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kommunikationsprocessen av strategiska frågor: En studie av fyra storbanker2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The interest of the organization as a social system has increased the attention of the organization's internal relationships and internal communication. In many organizations management often spend much time on formulation strategic issues, which is not communicated sufficiently and thus not used by employees. In order that employees shall not perceive strategies as vacuous, it is important that the communication process clarifies and concretes the strategy. The process of work has been developed and today there is a high demand of knowledge among employees, which in turn need increased information. This means that it has become increasingly important that employees are involved in the organization's goals and approaches to different issues. Most organizations are complaining of poor communication ability, managers are complaining that the information does not reach the employees and that these do not follow the guidelines, while employees are complaining that decisions and information are not sufficiently communicated to them. The view of communication often gives a picture of communication being something simple, where the send and the received message is identical to one another. This leads to an over-reliance of the communication effectiveness in the organization.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the internal communication process of strategic issues and to assess its effectiveness.

    Method: This is a study of four universal banks, which is based on a qualitative approach, where four interviews have taken place at management level and four interviews at local level.

    Conclusion: The study has concluded that very little attempt is made to communicate strategic issues from management level to local level. Communication takes place through simple channels, primarily through the intranet, with the condition that employees will correctly understand the message. Because of the complexity of the message and the channels used, there is a risk that the message will be misinterpreted at the local level. Motivation in the communication process plays an important role, but unfortunately the banks motivate their employees to a limited extent. The communication process of strategic issues represents today a linear communication, which needs to be more effective. To make the communication process more effective requires other communication channels, clearer message and more motivation. A network approach of communication is needed.

     

     

     

     

  • 39.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University School of Business, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, 369-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 40.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Arbetslivsinstitutet (ALI), Norrköping.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013In: Arbete & jämställdhet: förändringar under 50 år / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 169-187 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Ahlers, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilms, Maximilian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ambidextrous Leadership in Innovation: A multiple case study of innovation leaders on the alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively new concept of ambidextrous leadership in innovation with the opposing yet complementary opening and closing leader behaviors has been proven to be positively related to fostering explorative and exploitative behaviors respectively among subordinates. The initiators of this concept propose that leaders in innovation need a ‘temporal flexibility to switch’ between opening and closing leader behaviors, which implies a sequential alignment of these behaviors. This proposition has yet remained theoretically and empirically unexplored and is initially questioned in this thesis with respect to related theoretical concepts.

    Therefore, this thesis aims to explain how innovation leaders align the recently defined opening and closing leader behaviors throughout the innovation process. By following a qualitative and inductive research approach, a multiple case study of five innovation leaders in German manufacturing companies was conducted. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The empirical data reveal that the initiators’ proposition of a sequential alignment is not sufficient to explain the complex alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors. Accordingly, a model which illustrates a predominantly simultaneous alignment of the two leader behaviors was developed. However, this model also considers that urgent situations or specific project phases and times of the year require innovation leaders to sequentially demonstrate one behavior at a time.

  • 42.
    Ahlgren, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Björck, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Internetbaserade distansutbildningar2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the informational age of today, continuous learning is of greatest importance. The demand for this seems to be increasing, while at the same time people are under more pressure to carry out more tasks in shorter amounts of time. A way to solve the problem of finding time to learn could be to make use of the possibilities that Internet offers for learning at a distance. The purpose of this thesis is to, from a pedagogical perspective, contribute to the discussion concerning Internet based distance education for a target population consisting of professionals. We have found that some of the courses included in the two certification programs which we have investigated are suitable for Internet based distance education. Furthermore, we believe that such an educational format should be a complement, and not a substitute, for the target population.

  • 43.
    Ahlin, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strandberg, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    K2 eller K3?: En studie av de väsentliga skillnaderna2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Accounting regulations for unlisted companies in Sweden is changing. There is a draft for new accounting rules for unlisted companies. Through the definition of a small company in the Swedish Annual Accounting Act, 97 percent of Swedish companies will have the possibility to choose between K2 and K3. The market demands a better understanding of differences between the regulations.

    Aim: Identify significant differences between K2 and K3, in order to examine which of these differences that is the most important factors for companies in their selection of rules.

    Method: A qualitative study has been conducted in which interviews and responses were used as data collection. A sampling method was used to identify distinct differences between the K2 and K3. These differences have been the basis for examining the significant differences as well.

    Analysis and conclusion: Differences between K2 and K3 that are significant in the choice of the firm have been identified in five areas. These differences will therefore affect the firms’ choice between K2 and K3. The reason is that they are a part of an assessment of the company’s overall needs of complexity in their accounting.

  • 44.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sinnliga produkter: estetik som konkurrensmedel2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society consumers expect the offered products to function in accordance to what is being promised. Aspects such as functionality and quality are consequently part of most companies’ product offerings and can to a lesser extent be used as competitive advantages. A good product is not enough when it comes to creating added value; a product must also convey other intangible values, such as emotional, identity boosting or aesthetic ones. By using aesthetics to appeal to consumers’ senses, this may have a greater impact regarding choice of product, which can create a larger competitiveness than traditional marketing.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate a product’s role in marketing by understanding how aesthetic values can be used as means of competition.

    Method: The study is based on seven interviews with corporate representatives within the domestic appliance business and an organisation that deals with design.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that a product’s aesthetic expression has great importance due to consumers’ increasingly growing interest for these aspects. As more senses are affected, the possibility increases for a product to appeal to the consumer. The sensuous expression that is most prominent today is visual aesthetics even if there is certain insight regarding the significance of the other senses for the consumer’s tendency to purchase. In spite of the awareness that seems to be present regarding the importance of aesthetics in the marketing of small electrical products, the study has revealed that this insight is not fully integrated. This may be due to the fact that this mean of communicating to the consumer still has not had its breakthrough on the market.

  • 45.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Alternatives to the use of unequal voting rights: a propos the potential threat to their effectiveness as a takeover defense2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The origin of this study was the negotiations around a EU takeover directive, aimed at making the market for corporate control more open. One of the proposals was to neutralise shares carrying multiple rights in takeover situations when a potential acquirer obtains 75% of the total share capital. For many Swedish ownership groups, this would mean that the system of unequal voting rights, constituting an important defense to their control, would decrease in effectiveness. In the middle of writing this thesis, an EU agreement was finally reached, making the proposal voluntary to adopt. The imminent threat posed to the Swedish system faded, but has though not disappeared since the present rules anew will be brought under inspection in five years.

    Purpose: To give examples on potential tactics to adopt if unequal voting rights would risk to become neutralised in takeover situations, these tactics dependent on two different scenarios: (1) Present Swedish ownership structure is considered advantageous for the country and thus to be remained or (2) A more open market for takeovers is desired. Course of action: Interviews have been conducted with parties within Swedish trade and industry, partly in order to assess the value and necessity of the content of this thesis.

    Conclusion: The threat of an abolition of the unequal voting rights is not perceived as imminent by parties within Swedish trade and industry and few alternative resistance strategies are suggested. If current Swedish ownership structure is to be remained, the author proposes competition-reducing defenses, if a more open market for takeovers is aimed for, auction-inducing resistance strategies. The choice of how to proceed should depend on how afraid the Swedish Government and Swedish companies are of a change in present ownership structure.

  • 46.
    Ahlqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Värdet av företagsrating2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasingly, companies choose to finance their business with corporate bonds which has resulted in an increased demand on credit ratings. As such the rating agencies have a very important role in the financial markets. Examining the value of a credit-rating can be very interesting for both issuer and investor.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify and define the value of rating.

    Execution: The study is built upon nine interviews with rated and non-rated firms and investors.

    Result: The most important value of rating is the greater access to the corporate- and CP market. This infers that additional capital can be issued, in comparison to that available from bank loans, however, not necessarily at a lower rate. Consequently, the rate is not the driving factor concerning the choice of buying a rating. Rating has great effect on the pricing of bonds and CP’s, which is a result of the reliance investors have on the rating agencies. Rating affects the investment decision directly through the investment mandates, and indirectly through the effect on the individual investment decision.

  • 47.
    Ahlström, Jenni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Konsten att belöna goda prestationer: en studie i projektorienterad miljö2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I de kunskapsintensiva företagen av idag krävs en ny utformning av belöningssystem. Eftersom de mänskliga resurserna utgör en viktig del i konkurrenskraften är det också alla medarbetare i företaget som ska beröras av ett belöningssystem. Utmaningen ligger i att företagets övergripande målsättning med belöningssystemet måste fogas samman med medarbetarnas uppfattning om vad som motiverar för att det ska få avsedd effekt.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera utformningen av belöningssystem i en komplex projektorienterad miljö, med hänsyn tagen till såväl företagsledningens önskemål om beteenden och prestationer att premiera som till vilka belöningar sommotiverar medarbetarna.

    Genomförande: Intervjuer har genomförts med 7 chefer och 8 medarbetare på ABB Power Systems. Dessutom har en enkätundersökning bland medarbetare inom enheten genomförts.

    Resultat: Studien visar att önskvärda prestationer och beteenden kan specificeras i måluppfyllelse respektive goda insatser. I en projektorienterad miljö bör det finnas utrymme för att belöna såväl enskilda individer som grupper. Belöningar som utdelas ska variera både i förhållande till vad de består av och med avseende på deras värde.

  • 48.
    Ahlström, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hjelm, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ett varumärkets styrka och dess distribution: en studie genomförd med utgångspunkt från varumärken som säljer en livsstil2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A strong brand is becoming an increasingly important factor when surviving on a competitive market. A strong brand can therefore be considered a strategically important resource. The relationship between a brand's strength and its distribution can decide the future of a brand in the long run. Lifestyle branding is becoming a more popular way of differentiating ones brand from the competition.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify factors which according to the lifestyle brand owners are central when measuring the strength of a brand. Furthermore it will also identify functions of the distribution channel over which the brand owner wishes to have control. The goal is to try to capture these dimensions in a measuring model. The model is aimed at being used by lifestyle brand owners in order to identify a position of the relationship of a brands strength and its distribution.

    Procedure: We chose to conduct a qualitative study and performed five interviews. Our chosen method was one of induction. By combining empirical data with existing theories of brand strength and distribution we have identified factors and functions which according to the brand owner are considered central.

    Results: When evaluating a brands strength the factors which could be considered are quality, recognition, recall, loyalty, and market share. To evaluate the distribution one can consider the control the brand owner has over the following functions of distribution; assortment, exposure, price, and knowledge of the personnel. We conclude that an increase of brand strength will provoke an increase of control over distribution. This relation also works in the opposite direction.

  • 49.
    Ahlström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategier och styrsystem för seniorboendemarknaden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic trend in Sweden features a population with a rising average age. According to forecasts, nearly one Swede out of four will be 65 or older by the year 2025. Many individuals in this category of older persons, or seniors, can look forward to an active, healthy and relatively long old age. Studies have shown that tomorrow’s seniors and retirees will be relatively well off as social groups. In addition, attitude and generation surveys have indicated that these groups have high demands and expectations for their old age, future housing and related services. Society will thus face a considerable challenge, which includes maintaining a basic commitment to continue guaranteeing the standard of quality in housing and services for the elderly that is presently taken for granted. Necessary societal priorities, however, may require individuals to take more initiative and assume greater financial responsibility than before in some of these areas. In the 2000’s a new market segment has been established and shown vigorous growth. That segment is the senior housing market, where various housing concepts are offered to the target group, seniors, or persons aged 55+. The number of senior housing units in Sweden has soared in the last few years, from about 10 000 in 2000 to some 28 000 in 2007. In this study, the concept of senior housing, with features of integrated service and care, has been of special interest. What characterizes this housing concept is that housing and related services have been adapted and specially designed for living as an aging individual.

    This dissertation (”the survey”) is reported in the form of a monograph consisting of two separate studies. The research question that has guided the first study is, “What creates a strong market position for a player on the senior-housing market with integrated service, health care and other forms of service and care?” The research question for the second study is, “What production strategies and control systems can be identified for some of the most successful concept-builders?” The two studies are related in that the latter is based on the results of the former. The studies were conducted over a period from 2002 to 2008. The research was done as an exploratory field study. The field-study approach has given priority to breadth and inclusion of many aspects. The instrument of measurement has consisted of set interview questions with open-ended alternative responses. The underlying interviews, together with secondary data, have been presented as a number of case studies. In the survey, a number of successful players have been selected on the basis of the criteria considered typical of successful actors on the senior housing market. Both Swedish and North American organizations have participated in the survey.

    The empirical material of the survey has been analyzed on the basis of the theoretical conceptual frameworks developed for the two respective studies. The first study has been analyzed with a framework based on the concepts of environment, strategy, resources, service and competitiveness. The results have been formulated in a number of strategic choices that are summarized in the concepts of differentiation, focus, integration, collaboration, control, business development, core competence and resources. In this connection, it has been possible to show that actors who operate a successful business follow largely what Porter (1980) has defined as a strategy of differentiation. Moreover, a business-strategy typology of actors on the senior housing market has also been constructed. Also, the tentative conclusions of the first study have been formulated in four strategic ideal types: administrators, concept-builders, entrepreneurs and idealists.

    The point of departure for the second study has been the ideal type referred to as the concept-builder. The conceptual framework has therefore been developed further, based in part on the theoretical framework of Nilsson and Rapp (2005). With certain additions, these foundations have been used to construct a detailed theoretical framework for the study. The conceptual framework has been designed to describe and analyze the causal relationships relating to strategic congruence and integrated control. In this regard, additions and adjustments have been made to include strategies and control systems for the construction of buildings and the production of services. The results of the second study include a case description and an analysis of successful concept-builders. One reason for their success is assumed to be their ability to achieve strategic congruence and integrated control. In light of the findings from the analysis of the data, the conceptual framework has been somewhat modified. This adjustment has consisted in classification along the dimensions of IT, organizational culture and fundamental values. In this connection it has been possible to demonstrate the importance of the physical planning of housing for the production of services. Emphasis has been placed on designing the physical facility and housing right from the beginning so as to facilitate the service-producing operation in a later stage of the life cycle.

    One finding of the survey is that with North American concept-builders there is a high degree of consistency between strategies and control systems. The factors underlying this consistency can be summarized as market knowledge, industry experience, understanding the economies of scale attainable through clustering, organization on a small scale, a clear concept of business, a sense of value creation, a focus on objectives, farreaching delegation of authority and responsibility to the operating level, skilled management, value-oriented operations and a well-developed organizational culture. Through the survey, a number of customer-controlled operations have been illustrated in the case studies. It is apparent that compared to the past, there has been a shift in industry attitude in North America, creating a situation that differs from Swedish conditions in some respects. The North American concept-builders have defined their businesses as hotel operations for seniors. This has automatically shifted the focus toward one where residents have become customers and older people in general are regarded as assets.

  • 50.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Management and Economics Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are religious people more prosocial? A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, no 2, 368-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this paper examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies which identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy, to the behavior of other students in a public-goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public-goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

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