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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Management and Economics Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are religious people more prosocial? A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, no 2, 368-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this paper examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies which identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy, to the behavior of other students in a public-goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public-goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University.
    Breeding Bin Ladens: America, Islam and the future of Europe (Zachary Shore, 2006)2008In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 31, no 3, 640-641 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Commentary: Some thoughts on field experiments on housing discrimination from a European view2015In: Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, ISSN 1936-007X, Vol. 17, no 3, 149-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditional reciprocity in the investment game2011In: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 48, no 2, 404-408 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether people are conditional reciprocators in an investment game experiment, in the sense that the more they are trusted, the more they reciprocate. The results show that the majority of participants are conditional reciprocators but that they can be classified into three types: (1) exploitative reciprocators who do not reciprocate and exploit trust; (2) egoistic reciprocators who neither exploit nor reward trust; and (3) generous reciprocators who reward trusting behavior.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Etnisk diskriminering - vad vet vi, vad behöver vi veta och vad kan vi göra?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 4, 18-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering är ett avsevärt hinder på arbetsmarknaden, bostadsmarknaden och andra marknader för personer med utländsk bakgrund. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder diskriminering och en myndighet som har tillsyn över problematiken. Men vad säger forskningen om etnisk diskriminering i Sverige? Denna översikt redogör för nationalekonomiska undersökningar som entydigt har funnit belägg för etnisk diskriminering. I ljuset av denna översikt förs en diskussion kring det vi känner till och det vi behöver känna till. Slutligen framförs förslag om hur arbetet mot etnisk diskriminering kan förbättras.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University Växjö, Sweden.
    Muslim discrimination: evidence from two lost letter experiments2010In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, no 4, 888-898 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet.
    Vad säger ett efternamn?: en experimentell studie av etnisk diskriminering2004Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, no 21, 2715-2723 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala University, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, 1099-1101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, 565-585 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, no 1, 79-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitet och Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Diskriminering mot icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, 403-406 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of the first field experiment on age discrimination in the Swedish labour market. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 31-year-old male applicant and one from a fictitious 46-year-old male applicant, were sent to employers with job openings for restaurant workers and sales assistants. Employers' responses to the applicants were then recorded. The experimental data provide clear and strong evidence of significant ageism in the Swedish labour market. On average, the younger applicant received over 3 times more responses from employers looking to hire a restaurant worker and over 4 times more responses from employers looking to hire a sales assistant than the older applicant. Therefore, the older applicant received significantly fewer invitations for interviews and job offers than the younger applicant in both occupations examined.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, no 4, 3050-3058 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Inter- and Intra-Household Earnings Differentials among Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples2011In: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, no S2, S258-S278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, no 1, 83-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay males are at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of which earnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when we compare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, the disadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however, earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earnings advantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documented regardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing better than female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate that gay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians is likely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work than heterosexual females do.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, no 3, 2422-2433 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The Swedish Elderly Care2006Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden: bidrag, kritik och framtid2008In: Efterfrågad arbetskraft?: årsbok 2008 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] S. Lundberg och E. Platzer, Växjö University Press , 2008, 101-117 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 16, no 2, 105-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har fältexperiment använts för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden. I nedanstående framställning ges en presentation av fältexperiment som metod och en översikt över den forskning som genomförts med hjälp av fältexperiment i Sverige. Dessutom görs en framåtblickande diskussion.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning: årsbok 2006 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] K. Hjelm, Växjö University Press , 2006, 45-58 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, 72-77 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering.Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige fi nns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, 1327-1330 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, 588-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet och Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 8, 31-40 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering av homosexuella är förbjudet i Sverige. Trots detta är den ekonomiska forskning som finns på området begränsad. I artikeln presenteras resultat från forskningsprojekt rörande homosexuellas situation på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden i Sverige. Resultaten är i linje med resultat från internationell forskning. Homosexuella män har lägre arbetsinkomster än heterosexuella män. Diskriminering och skillnader i fördelningen av marknadsarbete och hushållarbete mellan homo- och heterosexuella hushåll framförs som förklaringar till detta. Vidare diskrimineras homosexuella män på bostadsmarknaden. Beträffande kvinnor finner vi inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan homo- och heterosexuella. Avslutningsvis presenteras några tänkbara förklaringar till varför homosexuella män diskrimineras medan detta inte är fallet för homosexuella kvinnor.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: effekten av att heta Mohammed2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 6, 34-41 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel studeras diskriminering på svensk bostadsmarknad med hjälp av ett fältexperiment utfört på internet. I experimentet studeras såväl etnisk diskriminering som könsdiskriminering genom att tre fiktiva personer, en med ett typiskt svenskt manligt namn, en med ett typiskt svensk kvinnligt namn samt en med ett typiskt arabiskt/muslimskt manligt namn söker hyresrättslägenheter vilka utannonserats som lediga av såväl privatpersoner som företag på Blocket. se. Våra resultat visar att den arabiske/muslimske mannen möter diskriminering när han söker lägenheter. Den arabisk/muslimske mannen fick långt färre positiva svar och erbjudanden till visningar av lägenheter än den svenske mannen. Vi finner också en könsdiskriminering på bostadsmarknaden där den svenska kvinnan fick fler positiva svar och visningserbjudanden än den svenske mannen.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, 835-849 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, 900-910 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how subtle religious representations affect prosocial behavior. The authors study the impact of religious representations on prosocial behavior in terms of cooperation in a one-shot/three-person public goods game.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors used the scrambled sentence task to prime participants with religious words before they were asked to make a one-shot/three-person public goods game decision.

    Findings – Both in the raw data and when controlling for factors such as age, gender and religious beliefs, the authors found that priming of religious representations increased cooperation in the experiment, that is, increased contributions to the public good. The authors found no significant interaction effects between priming and self-reported measures of religiosity, suggesting that the priming effect was present among both self-reported religious and nonreligious participants. Self-reported measures of religiosity were not correlated with cooperation in this study.

    Originality/value – The paper adds to the growing body of experimental economics literature that has studied self-reported measures of religiosity alongside behavior in different economic games. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of subtle influences of religion on cooperation. Also, in contrast to previous economic literature, the paper examines the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on cooperation.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior?: Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, no 4, 298-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Decisions under unpredictable losses: An examination of the restated diversification principle2007In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 2, no 5, 312-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the restated diversification principle is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Växjö University, Sweden.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, no 3, 324-337 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how groupidentity, socialdistance and intergroupbias may affect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, 234-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination againstlesbians in the rentalhousing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: a field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, 362-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents afieldexperiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rentalhousing market.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market2017In: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, no 1, 1-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Trust in India and Sweden: an experimental examination of the Fukuyama conjecture2008In: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Vol. 42, no 4, 420-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors test the proposition, put forward by Francis Fukuyama, that the higher the level of trust in a country the less corrupt, the more developed, and wealthier its economy will be. They study trust and voluntary cooperation using a one-shot and three-person public goods game experiment in India and Sweden. The results, in line with the proposition, show that the average contribution is significantly larger in Sweden, implying a higher level of trust and cooperation in Sweden than in India. This article provides further evidence on the relationship between trust and economic development. This study differs from previous ones in that it uses a multilateral game experiment to study trust and cooperation rather than a bilateral game experiment. Furthermore, it provides evidence from two countries not studied before in this context.

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Göteborg University and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Cooperación y confianza: análisis comparativo en economía experimental2007In: Revista CIFE, ISSN 0124-3551, Vol. 12, no 9, 9-23 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work using an experiment of game of public goods analyzes the relation between the attitudinal trust and behavioral trust in three countries. Students from Colombia, Mexico and Sweden participate in this experiment and respond a questionnaire with questions on confidence. The attitudinal trust and behavioral trust are different substantially between the analyzed countries. The confidence measured by the questions of the questionnaire does not show a pattern of common conduct between the participants of the three countries. Nevertheless, a somewhat similar behavior we found in the applied experiment, that is to say, the participants assume a certain level of risk very similarity, however, cultures and different societies come from.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Implicit influences of Christian religious representations on dictator and prisoner’s dilemma game decisions2011In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, no 3, 242-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how implicit influences of Christian religious representations affect prosociality. We examine the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on prosocial behavior. We do so by priming participants with religious words in a scrambled sentence task before they make a dictator game and a prisoner's dilemma game decision. Priming religious words significantly increased prosocial behavior in both games: participants in the treatment group were more generous and cooperative than participants in the control group. The priming effect was present regardless of participants’ self-reported religiosity. Self-reported religiosity was not correlated with generosity or cooperation.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Is the hand of God involved in human cooperation?2009In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 36, no 1/2, 70-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the supernatural punishment theory. The theory postulates that religion increases cooperation because religious people fear the retributions that may follow if they do not follow the rules and norms provided by the religion.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports results for a public goods experiment conducted in India, Mexico, and Sweden. By asking participants whether they are religious or not, one can study whether religiosity has an effect on voluntary cooperation in the public goods game.

    Findings – No significant behavioral differences were found between religious and nonreligious participants in the experiment.

    Originality/value – This paper differs from the previous limited experimental literature, studying religiosity and cooperation, in the sense that it uses a public goods game rather than a prisoner's dilemma game. The public goods game is more interesting since many real life problems are multilateral rather than bilateral. Further, the study was conducted in three different countries: India, Mexico, and Sweden; with three different types of potentialy religious people: Hindus, Catholics, and Protestants.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    The relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust: a cross-cultural study2009In: Review of social economy, ISSN 0034-6764, E-ISSN 1470-1162, Vol. 67, no 4, 457-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between trust in an experiment and trust measured by means of popular survey items in different countries. Students from Chile, Colombia, India, Mexico and Sweden participate in a public goods game experiment and answer a set of standard attitudinal survey questions about trust. We find that behavioral trust and attitudinal trust significantly differ among countries. Behavioral trust is highest in Sweden, followed by Latin America, and lowest in India. Attitudinal trust is highest in Chile and Sweden, followed by India and Mexico, and lowest in Colombia. Further, the predictive power of survey items also differs among countries. Trust measured by survey items is significantly related to behavioral trust in some but not in all societies. No single survey item predicts actual trust across all countries. Plausible explanations of the inconsistent relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust across countries are discussed.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sohag, Kazi
    Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia.
    Biomass energy, technological progress and the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from selected European countries2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 90, 202-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the causal relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in a panel of 24 European countries from 1980 to 2010. Using an analytical framework that considers pooled mean group estimations in a dynamic heterogeneous panel setting, we show that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the long run and that there is no such relationship in the short run. In particular, we find that biomass energy is insignificantly linked to CO2 emission. However, technological innovation significantly facilitates reduction of CO2 emissions in the investigated countries. Altogether, our study implies that economic growth and environmental quality can be achieved simultaneously, which opens up new insights for policy-makers for sustainable economic development via implementation of renewable energy consumption through technological innovation.

  • 42.
    Aho Ibarra, Fadia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Faraj, Nada
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Fånge, hare eller hjort- En spelteoretisk analys av prisfallet på oljan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har till syfte att med hjälp av spelteorier analyser vilka incitament som låg bakom oljeprisfallet 2014 till 2016. Studien baseras på att pröva två spelteorier och analyserar vilken teori som har störst förklaringskraft på händelseförloppet. Händelseförloppet och oljemarknadens utveckling kommer att sammanställas utifrån aktuell data från myndigheter och nyhetssidor. Därefter kommer materialet att kategoriseras i olika huvudteman för att enklare kunna illustrera händelseförloppet och få en djupare förståelse. De två spelteorierna som studien baseras på är fångarnas dilemma och Stag Hunt samt försäkringsspelet som är en utvecklad version av Stag Hunt.Oljepriset under 2014 sjönk med 48,2 % på grund av massproduktionen av samtliga oljeproducenter. Detta påbörjades med hjälp av den nya kostsamma utvinningstekniken, fracking. Oljeproducenter som OPEC ökade sin produktion bland annat för att inte förlora sina marknadsandelar. Innan 2014 bestraffades oljeproducenter om produktionsnivån förändrades då det var en faktor som förhindrade upprätthållandet av ett högt oljepris. På oljemarknaden förekom svek, hot samt bestraffningar vilket indikerar på att fångarnas dilemma överensstämde med oljemarknaden.Oljeprisfallet 2014 orsakades av massproduktionen av främst USA. Oljeproducenterna hade då vetskap om USA:s mål vilket gjorde att en av förutsättningarna för fångarnas dilemma brast. Ur ett Stag Hunt perspektiv är oljeproducenternas pareotooptimala val att samarbeta. Däremot fick USA möjligheten att bli oberoende av importerad olja och valde därför att inte samarbeta med de resterande oljeproducenterna. För att inte riskera att förlora sina marknadsandelar var OPEC tvungna att försäkra sig genom att också avvika från samarbetet.

  • 43.
    Algren, Niklas
    et al.
    Department of Finance and Statistics, Hanken School of Economics,, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Sjö, Bo
    Swedish Agency for Development Evaluation, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Zang, Yianhua
    Center for Finance, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Panel cointegration of Chinese A and B shares2009In: Applied Financial Economics, ISSN 0960-3107, E-ISSN 1466-4305, Vol. 19, no 23, 1859-1871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study information flows in China's stock markets. By using panel data methods we test for a unit root in the price premium of domestic investors’ A shares over foreign investors’ B shares, as well as cointegration between the A- and B-share prices on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. We find that the A-share premia are nonstationary, and that the A- and B-share prices are not cointegrated up till January 2001. After February 2001, when domestic investors were allowed to trade B shares, the A-share premia become stationary and the A- and B-share prices cointegrated. One interesting result from the panel data analysis is that most firms’ A and B shares are cointegrated, but not all firms. Cointegration is more likely for firms with a small A-share premium, low ratio of nontradeable shares, high growth rate and large B-share market capitalization relative to the A-share market capitalization. Our findings suggest that the relaxation of the investment restrictions decreased the segmentation between the A- and B-share markets in China.

  • 44.
    Alvin Rydén, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Sommarin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Divide and Conquer: An in-depth study of the impact of the Swedish Leniency Program on the creation of cartels in the construction industry2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar ämnena kartellbildning och eftergiftsprogrammet, samt byggbranschen. Syftet är att undersöka om det svenska eftergiftsprogrammet har förutsättningar för att avskräcka från kartellbildning i byggbranschen. För att undersöka detta kommer uppsatsen även att lyfta fram vilka förutsättningar som finns för karteller att verka i branschen. Med hjälp kartellteori identifieras faktorer som kan tänkas underlätta för karteller att verka, och med hjälp av eftergiftsteori kommer faktorer identifieras i programmet som kan tänkas hjälpa till att motverka kartellbildning. Med utgångspunkt i teorin och de faktorer som hittats kommer förhållandena i byggbranschen att undersökas.Vårt resultat visar att branschen i nuläget är relativt stabil med goda vinstmöjligheter och innehar inträdeshinder vilket tyder på att kartellbildning kan gynnas och att karteller troligen existerar i branschen. Resultatet visar även att eftergiftsprogrammet verkar ha möjligheter att avskräcka från kartellbildning genom att bidra med misstro mellan potentiella kartellmedlemmar. Dock verkar effekten bero på, åtminstone till viss del, antalet företag som överväger att ingå i ett samarbete. Att eftergiftsprogrammet är lika avskräckande i alla delar av branschen är alltså inte alls säkert. Vi kan framförallt förvänta oss att eftergiftsprogrammet “söndrar och härskar” bland de karteller med många medlemmar, och vilka verkar i de delar av byggbranschen som moderniserats.

  • 45.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deciding Fast and Slow: How Intuitive and Reflective Thinking Influence Decision Making2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I “Intuition and cooperation reconsidered”: Does intuition make people more cooperative? Rand et al. (Rand, Greene, & Nowak, 2012) reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly. We test the robustness of this finding in a series of five experiments involving about 2,500 subjects in three countries. None of the experiments confirms the Rand et al. (2012) finding, indicating that their result was an artefact of excluding about 50% of the subjects who failed to respond on time.

    Paper II “Intuition and moral decision-making – the effect of time pressure and cognitive load on moral judgment and altruistic behavior”: Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking — induced by time pressure and cognitive load — in moral judgment and behavior. Overall we find converging evidence that intuitive states do not influence moral decisions. Across all samples and decision tasks men were more likely to make utilitarian moral judgments and act selfishly compared to women, providing further evidence that there are robust gender differences in moral decision-making.

    Paper III “Public views on policies involving nudges”: When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high. Nudge polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges.

    Paper IV “The effect of fast and slow decisions on financial risk-taking”: Are individuals financial risk taking influenced by time available? We experimentally compare fast and slow decisions in a series of experiments on financial risk taking in three countries involving over 1,700 subjects. We find that time pressure increases risk aversion for gains and risk taking for losses compared to time delay; implying that time pressure increase the reflection effect of Prospect Theory.

    Paper V “Incidental effect and financial risk-taking – a neural investigation: This study builds on the results from Paper IV. Here I explore the influence of incidental negative emotions on financial risk-taking in an fMRI environment in order to assess underlying neural mechanisms. I experimentally compare neutral and unpleasant valence framing on gambles involving pure monetary gain and pure monetary loss. I find a significantly increased BOLD response in left amygdala and bilateral visual cortex when contrasting when showing unpleasant pictures, a neural effect which is in line with previous neuroimaging studies on negative emotions. However the neural effect of showing unpleasant pictures did not affect choices in the risk tasks. Consequently, I did not find any support for the hypothesis that the reflection effect of Prospect theory should be more pronounced when making risky choices influenced by incidental negative emotions.

    List of papers
    1. Intuition and cooperation reconsidered
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intuition and cooperation reconsidered
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 498, no 7452, E1-E2 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rand et al.1 reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly1. Time pressure was used to induce intuitive decisions, and they concluded that intuition promotes cooperation. We test the robustness of this finding in a series of five experiments involving about 2,500 subjects in three countries. None of the experiments confirms the Rand et al.1 finding, indicating that their result was an artefact of excluding the about 50% of subjects who failed to respond on time.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2013
    Keyword
    Human Cooperation, Intuition; Time Pressure; Public Goods; Behavioral Economics
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94022 (URN)10.1038/nature12194 (DOI)000319947800001 ()23739429 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    Neuroekonomi
    Available from: 2013-06-16 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    2015 (English)In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, 439-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

    Keyword
    Nudge; Libertarian Paternalism; Acceptability; Autonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119071 (URN)10.1007/s13164-015-0263-2 (DOI)
    Projects
    Neuroekonomi
    Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • 46.
    Andersson, David E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekeström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Economic effects and social implications of a dual currency and exchange rate system: A study of the Cuban case2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994 the Cuban regime started a gradual introduction of a new currency, the convertible peso (CUC), which could be exchanged for USD at par. In the beginning the circulation of CUC was limited, but in 2003 the CUC replaced the USD in state owned enterprises and in 2004 the USD was replaced by the CUC in all transactions made by the population and foreigners in Cuba. Two exchange rates also exist between these currencies, one for the population (unofficial exchange rate of 24:1) and one for companies and institutions (official exchange rate of 1:1). Both currencies suffer from a lack of convertibility and have created an unusual and segmented monetary environment in Cuba.

    The aim of the study is to analyze the effects of the dual currency and exchange rate in the economy in terms of economic costs and in terms of how the capabilities of the population are affected. In order to do this, a Minor Field Study was conducted in Havana where different agents of the Cuban economy were interviewed and available data collected.

    The results show that the dual monetary system creates several distortions in the Cuban economy. The dual exchange rate implicitly subsidizes imports and at the same time creates an indirect tax on exports. A system of converting both domestic currencies to one “unique currency” further complicates calculation of the productivity and profitability of state owned companies. Additionally, capital controls and segmentations of markets weaken the connections between foreign and Cuban companies and also decrease much needed inflow of foreign currency. Capital controls also leads to Cuban companies being restricted diachronically in the use of their capital in that way hampering necessary investment.

    Furthermore, the dual monetary system affects the Cuban people’s capabilities, which to a large extent depend on the direct access to CUC. Direct access to CUC in turn does not depend on productivity but on factors outside of a person’s control, such as having family abroad or being self-employed. Cuban’s with only a salary in CUP and without access to CUC has difficulties reaching a reasonable standard of living. This creates the perception that someone with direct access to CUC is richer than someone without, which leads to rent-seeking activities with people trying to work in the CUC sector even if they are highly educated and qualified for important occupations in the CUP sector.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hamilton, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad bestämmer fonders prestation och avgift?: En studie på svenska aktivt förvaltade aktiefonder under perioden 2005-20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes 66 Swedish actively managed mutual funds investing in the Swedish stock market during the period 2005-2014. The purpose is through pooled data regressions analyze the relationship between both the mutual fund’s annual fee and risk-adjusted return to the fund’s characteristics. The characteristics of the study are the size of the fund's assets, age, if the fund is bank managed or not, Tracking Error, and standard deviation of return.By using the performance measures of CAPM, Fama and French 3-factor model, and Carhart’s 4-factor model monthly risk-adjusted returns are created for all funds over the period. Two pooled data regressions are performed with the Fixed Effect Model in which the annual fee and risk-adjusted return is set up as explanatory variables against the various characteristics.The results of the study show a clear correlation between annual fee and tracking error against the risk-adjusted return. A higher fee adds value to the investor through a higher risk-adjusted return, but will not fully compensate for the increased fee. The relationship between Tracking Error and risk-adjusted return is negative, which means that mutual funds that are distant from its benchmark perform worse than the mutual funds close to its benchmark. To explain annual fee this study finds low economic significance for the characteristics included. Although several variables show statistical significance, it is difficult to say anything about the characteristics that affect a mutual fund's annual fee due to the weak economic significance.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franklin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Friskolereformens effekt på arbetslöshet, inkomst och företagande på kommunal nivå: En ekonometrisk analys av ökade elevandelarna i fristående gymnasieskola2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown significant improvements in grades for the students in municipalities that have a larger percentage of their students in independent schools. Based on these results, we run the hypothesis that higher grades are a result of an increased level of knowledge and that this increased level of knowledge should lead to effects in the entire municipality. This paper analyses how unemployment, median income and enterprise in Sweden's municipalities have been affected by the increased competition in the school market. Our hypothesis is that a higher share of students in independent high school lowers unemployment and raises incomes. We also examine the effect on the rate of enterprise in the municipality due to the share of students. The effects have been searched in an econometric panel data analysis in which 284 of Swedish municipalities are followed over a period of 20 years. The models are estimated with percentages of unemployment, income and enterprise compared with the percentage of students in independent high schools in previous periods using a Fixed Effect Model.

    We find a negative relation between the students and the percentage of unemployment and a positive relation between income and the proportion of students. The impact on earnings is weaker than it is on unemployment and the effects vary depending on the delay we assume in the model. The effect on enterprise varies in estimates with different directions depending on the explanatory variables we include in addition to student shares from different periods. Through our regressions we find connecting relationships but we have difficulties in proving an existing causality.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socioekonomiska faktorers inverkan på äldres hälsa: En jämförelse mellan kommunerna Linköping och Norrköping2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska befolkningen blir allt äldre, och denna förskjutning av befolkningssammansättningen leder till ett ökat behov av vård och omsorg. Den utmaning som detta medför för samhället motiverar att närmare studera vad som påverkar hälsan specifikt hos målgruppen äldre. Studien utgår från ett nytt datamaterial från en omfattande enkätundersökning besvarad av äldre invånare i Linköpings och Norrköpings kommun. Med Grossmans hälsoekonomiska modell som ramverk ämnar studien med kvantitativ metodik analysera vilken påverkan modellens faktorer har på äldres hälsa.

    För att möta syftet valde författarna att i regressionsanalys tillämpa modellen ordered probit och skatta effekterna av socioekonomiska faktorer och levnadsvanor på individers självrapporterade hälsa. Studien omfattade tio förklaringsvariabler i ett datamaterial omfattande 6 300 objekt.

    Resultatet visar att i en reducerad modell finns indikationer på att högre inkomst och utbildning kan leda till bättre hälsa i äldre, vilket överensstämmer med Grossmans teori. Utbildning uppvisar dock ej statistisk signifikans efter att förklaringsvariabler för levnadsvanor – rökning, fetma, alkoholmissbruk och motionering – introducerats i modellen. Författarna presenterar hypotesen att resultatet kan förklaras av att både utbildning och levnadsvanor fångas upp av en bakomliggande variabel – individens tidspreferens. Vidare finner författarna att Linköpingsbor i överensstämmelse med tidigare jämförelser anger en högre hälsonivå än Norrköpingsbor. Variabeln kommuntillhörighet visar sig vara signifikant efter kontroll av samtliga av studiens förklaringsvariabler, vilket kan tyda på en underliggande skillnad mellan kommunerna med avseende på kultur och socialt arv bortsett från effekter av levnadsvanor, utbildning och inkomstnivå.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Monica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Osäker vård? En fallstudie inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The swedish healthcare is in many situations one of the best in the world. But still, the healthcare system includes elemnts that reduce the efficiency. Partly becouse the swedish healthcare is largely monopolized, the servicecs are not properly prized and the economic responsibility and the liability legislation is limited. The main problem this study evolves around, is how a different liability rule would change the shape of the healthcare organisation. Abouve all, how would the approach to riskmanagement and preventive and riskreducing performance change with a diffrent liability rule. A quantitative investigation, with main focus on riskmanagement,have been made at two hospitals in Sweden. The reults show that the handling of an accident is inefficient and that the swedish healthcare involves more insecure elements than exepected.

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