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  • 1.
    Aalto Hagman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Sonde, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Innovation Crowdsourcing: Exploring the Use of an Innovation Intermediary2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the Open Innovation paradigm come new hopes for innovating companies. The ability to tap a global network of experts can, at least in theory, have a significant impact on an organization’s competitive strength. Before such a ‘network of experts’ can be used to its full potential however, a number of challenges related to knowledge markets seem to need solutions. About 10 years ago however, we could witness the entry of a new breed of company – calling themselves innovation intermediaries. These companies are built to profit from delivering the usefulness of knowledge networks to client (Seeker) companies. Though the use of such networks and markets have so far been uncommon outside of high-tech fields they are now starting to be seen used by companies in more mature environments.Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the collaboration between SCA (a large Swedish corporation) and the innovation intermediary InnoCentive in order to create a better understanding of what kind of benefits can be derived from the use of an innovation intermediary, and how these benefits are best utilized. We also set out to identify relevant limitations of innomediary use and to seek to better understand how using an innomediary can fit a client company’s higher-order activities such as exploration and exploitation.Completion and Results: Our findings include that SCA are using InnoCentive mainly as a tool to solve highly specific problems and/or problems with a low degree of complexity that they encounter in their everyday activities. The challenges related to knowledge markets, we find, are avoided by keeping problem complexity low and problem modularity high for the problems sent out to the network. In addition, InnoCentive’s business model seems to eliminate costly negotiations between Seekers and Solvers. Using this kind of ‘market solution’ however, we argue, will put bounds on the usefulness of the network and makes it mainly suited as a tool for improving an organization’s exploitation capacity.

  • 2.
    Aarnio, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kimber, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Talent Management & Strategy: Identifying Patterns through a Multiple Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exploring the Talent Management literature to understand the importance of Talent Management to strategy and the role the view on talent plays in consideration to Talent Management.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the empirical research on Talent Management to enable a creation of a conceptual framework.

    Methodology

    A multiple case study approach was taken, as 11 companies from diverse industries, sizes, backgrounds etc. was studied in order to gain a broader picture on the research topic. Furthermore, qualitative data collection method was used and main source of empirical data was interviews conducted with HR professionals of each case company.

    Findings

    The empirical findings indicated there to be a relationship between the strategy and the view on talent. There was further an indication that this relationship has an effect on the focus of the Talent Management activities. 

  • 3.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, no 4, 70-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 4.
    Abebe, Meaza Eshetu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Coordination of inter-organizational projects within creative industries: A contextual perspective2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational projects have become common forms of organizing in various industries such as construction, advertising, music, film making etc. The unique structural nature of Inter-organizational projects coupled with the fact that they carried out through the participation of multiple organizations, raises issues of coordination. Particularly when it comes to creative industries, coordination is challenged by demand and transactional uncertainties. In order to understand how inter-organizational projects achieve coordination in such situations, it is important to study their interior processes putting in consideration their environmental context. 

    The aim of this research is to study how network embeddedness enhances coordination in inter-organizational projects within creative industries.

    Inter-organizational projects: are projects that are carried out through the collaboration of multiple legally independent organizations

    Inter-organizational networks: refer to sets of long-term ties among independent organizations that are engaged in continuous exchange relations.

    Embeddedness: refers to the continuous interaction of individuals, organizations, projects etc. with their environmental context.

    Macrocultures: refer to the shared beliefs, norms values rules and practices with in inter- organizational networks that guide members on their actions.

    A qualitative approach using a multiple comparative case study was conducted. Accordingly four projects chosen from creative industries were studied using both primary and secondary data.

    Macrocultures that are embedded inter-organizational networks facilitate coordination within inter-organizational projects. Further projects that differ in their constituents task nature, time duration and team composition relied on different types of embeddedness for coordination.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Media - makt att sätta företags agenda?: En kvantitativ studie om medias makt att påverka företags hållbarhetsredovisningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Lately, there has been a significant increase in sustainability related issues in media, while companies increasingly are reporting on sustainability. Media has a central role in today's society, and sustainability is emerging as one of the most contemporary issues in the business industry. Studies with a combination of media and sustainability are a fruitful field for future research.

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between medias sustainability exposure of companies and these companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report.

    Method This quantitative study is pursued through a deductive approach in which the hypotheses are formulated with a background in existing theories. A cross-sectional design is used to measure the presence and the variation of a given phenomena at a certain time. Secondary data is used as the empirical basis. The study focuses on companies listed at Nasdaq Stockholm.

    Conclusion The results of this study indicate that medias' sustainability exposure of companies affects companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report. Size, industry, profitability and number of subsidiaries are also significant factors. We have found that media is a primary factor in explaining why companies choose to report on sustainability issues. For every news story about a given company in a sustainability context – the likelihood of that company establishing a sustainability report is increased by 2,491. This study also proves that increased media exposure leads to a more extensive sustainability reporting.

  • 6. Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Gremyr, Ida
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Nilsson, Anders
    Rehn, Alf
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Öhman, Peter
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2016Book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Logistics in Corporate Strategy2008In: Northern lights in logistics & supply chain management / [ed] Stentoft, Halldorsson, Jahre, Spens, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2008, 1, 49-66 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Northern Lights in Logistics & Supply Chain Management" portrays the past, present and future research of the subject in the Nordic countries. The NOFOMA conference - a network of Nordic researchers within the field of Logistics and Supply Chain Management - has been a focal point in the contribution to the continuous improvement and further development of Nordic research. The network has also opened up for interaction with fellow researchers from other countries. There are sixteen chapters in the book that in its own way colours the Nordic rainbow of research within Logistics and Supply Chain Management. The chapters are structured in four themes: 1) Origins and strategic aspects; 2) Research approaches in the Nordic countries; 3) Advancement of distribution strategies and; 4) Emerging application areas of logistics and SCM. The chapters provide an understanding and, perhaps more importantly, consciousness for scholars that are part of this research environment: Where are we now, what have we been influenced by, and in what area are we able to provide positive impact? The aim of the book is also to contribute to increased visibility to fellow international scholars within Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Logistics in Corporate Strategy2010In: Dimensionen der Logistik / [ed] in Schönberger, R., & Elbert, R., Heidelberg: Gabler Research , 2010, 533-552 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Funktionen, Institutionen und Handlungsebenen beschreiben die drei Dimensionen des von Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans-Christian Pfohl geschaffenen Logistikwürfels. Anlässlich seiner Emeritierung beleuchten Wissenschaftler und Praktiker in 75 Fachbeiträgen die Logistik mit all ihren Facetten und aktuellen Entwicklungen und geben Anregungen für die zukünftige Forschung und Praxis.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christopher, Martin
    Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.
    Stensson, Bo-Inge
    SKF, Sverige.
    Mastering Supply Chain Management in an era of uncertainty at SKF2015In: Global Business and Organizational Excellence: a review of research & best practices, ISSN 1932-2054, Vol. 34, no 6, 6-17 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To stay ahead in an increasingly competitive business environment, organizations need agile supply chain systems that are holistically designed and managed. The experiences of SKF, a Swedish multinational firm, point to the benefits of reengineering upstream capabilities to create value downstream. To foster the flexibility, responsiveness, and other dynamic capabilities needed to manage increased supply chain complexity, the company established programs to involve its suppliers in the value creation process, making them an extension of the organization’s resource base. The overall objective has been to migrate from a business model based on economies of scale in operations to one that exploits both economies of scope and economies of integration. As a result of its efforts to create a more agile and cost-efficient supply chain, the company has been able to decrease supply risks while improving its value creation process and responsiveness to new customer demands and advancing its sustainability and social responsibility initiatives. 

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlöf, Stefan
    Sonat, Sverige.
    Det dynamiska företaget: om följsamhet och flödesorienterade affärsmodeller2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens osäkra affärsklimat betraktas av många som ett problem och en risk som måste hanteras. I den här boken vänder författarna på perspektivet och betraktar osäkerheten som en möjlighet till framgång - om företaget har tillräcklig dynamisk förmåga. Den dynamiska förmågan innebär att företaget snabbt kan förändra sin marknadsstrategi och sin dagliga verksamhet. Det kräver en tydlig och flödesorienterad affärsmodell med en effektiv och följsam kedja från leverantör till slutkund. Denna bok presenterar en modell för hur företaget kan uppnå en sådan dynamisk effektivitet och diskuterar hur man kan omsätta den i praktisk handling. Boken vänder sig till chefer och ledningsgrupper i företag som vill utvecklas i takt med omvärldens krav och därmed få bäst förutsättningar att överleva och växa i det krävande affärsklimatet - survival of the fittest!

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of purchasing groups in retail logistics2012In: Nordic Retail Research: Emerging Diversity / [ed] Johan Hagberg, Ulrika Holmberg, Malin Sundström, Lars Walter, Göteborg: Bokförlaget BAS , 2012, 1, 155-172 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book aims to provide an illustration of the diversity that characterises contemporary Nordic research in the field of retail. The book draws on a large variety of methods, describes a variety of retail sectors and covers a large number of retail phenomena. The book is suitable for researchers, graduate students and professionals who want to learn more about contemporary retailing research

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistik i svensk handel: Ett projekt finansierat av Handelns Utvecklingsråd2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten sammanfattar ett forskningsprojekt, Logistik i svensk handel, som har pågått under perioden juli 2009 t.o.m. februari 2011 och som är finansierat av Handelns Utvecklingsråd.

    En utgångspunkt och hypotes för projektet var att det finns avgörande branschmässiga skillnader i sättet att arbeta med logistikfrågor. En hypotes som har testats mot empirin, vilket har lett till slutsatsen att logistiken endast i begränsad omfattning är branschspecifik och att branschtillhörighet inte är den avgörande faktorn för hur logistiken utformas för handelsföretag. En viktigare faktor, är hur butikerna drivs visavi centrala enheter, hur integrationen ser ut mellan logistikstrategi och inköps- respektive marknadsstrategi, samt hur systemgränserna för logistiken definieras.

    Genom hela arbetet har vi jämfört den logistikbild vi har sett med en ”ideal bild”, i form av logistiken i internationell ”mega-retailing”, vilket idag representerar ”best practice” inom logistik och där logistiken är en integrerad del av företagens affärsmodell och ett direkt stöd för företagets lönsamhet och tillväxt. Den jämförelsen visar att det är mycket stora skillnader i logistikkompetens och mognad mellan olika företag och att logistik inom många handelsföretag fortfarande är ett område med stor förbättringspotential.

    Förutom den här rapporten har projektet genererat en lång rad akademiska artiklar som är publicerade i journaler och/eller har presenterats på konferenser och seminarier. Vi har varit i kontakt med ett stort antal, kollegor, företag och forskare i Sverige och andra länder för att samla material. Ett stort tack till alla de som har bidragit med material till projektet.

    Ett speciellt tack till Andreas Hedlund på Handelns Utvecklingsråd, som förutom finansiellt stöd har backat upp projektet med seminarier arrangerade av Handelns utvecklingsråd.

    Linköping i Maj 2011

    Mats Abrahamsson   Jakob Rehme   Erik Sandberg

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stahre, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistics Changes and Challenges in Swedish Food Supply Chains2008In: Nofoma 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abring, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrdokument reglerar den praktiska hanteringen av transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a result of increased international trading, adequate management of transaction exposure has become more important. Foreign currency cash flows are associated with different risks and thus give cause to distinct transaction exposure with overseas trading. Previous research advocates that management of transaction exposure is controlled through policy documents and we have identified a lack of research in how policy documents of Swedish firms are designed.

    Problem: To what extent is previous research agreeing with how Swedish firms have developed policy documents for managing transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows?

    Aim: The aim of the study is, compared to what previous research advocates, to examine and analyze how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed within the Swedish firms. The study also aims to analyze the differences in the policy document for the transaction exposure in different foreign currency cash flows, as well as the factors that give reasons to possible deviations.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study indicate a clear congruence between previous research and established practices of how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed in Swedish firms. Policy documents are comprehensive in their design; regulate the risk management strategy but not the management procedures. Even though the actual management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows indicates significant discrepancies, the policy document doesn’t regulate any of them. Giving reason for a different management are: factors related to the foreign exchange market characteristics, company-specific factors and other influencing market factors.Contribution: The study contributes to a better understanding and clearer differentiation of how Swedish firms control the management of transaction exposure, from a business perspective. Moreover, the study intends to give rise to the interest in how and on which grounds companies differently control the management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows.

  • 15.
    Adero, Gloria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Liu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Maintaining Competitiveness Through Strategic Alliances: Case Study of Equity Bank Kenya2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Kenyan financial sector has recently been growing at high rate due to the inclusion of individuals who previously were unable access banking services. This has led to a competitive situation where banks and micro finance institutions are searching for ways to manage in this competitive sector. In addition, mobile phone companies are now considered as a competitive threat.

    Aim:

    This study will look into how strategic alliances between banks and mobile phone companies can be used to overcome these challenges with a specific focus on the recent alliance between Equity Bank (Kenya), and Safaricom Ltd. The study will also focus on the management of strategic alliances within different industries.

    Method:

    The analysis of this study is based on qualitative research including the use of interviews with members of both organizations and secondary data which includes written documentation and analysis of previously recorded discussions about the alliance with different members of both organizations.

    Results:

    The authors found strategic alliances can be used as a tool which enables firms to overcome threats from their competitors while gaining additional benefits. In terms of alliance management, the use of separate teams was found to be an effective management tool in cross industry alliances.

  • 16.
    Adrian, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kinnunen, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Aktieindexobligationer: För vem är aktieindexobligationer en passande investering?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the introduction in the early 1990s, the volume of newly issued equity index bonds overall had a positive development. This increase indicates that the product has become a popular form of savings among Swedes. Together with the fact that there are few studies done on equity index bonds as a savings product. A wider perspective has been taken into account which makes the subject interesting to study.

    Aim: Purpose of this study is to identify and analyze for who private investors equity index bonds fit as a savings product on lifecycle thought based on (i) professional and consulting practices, (ii) financial risk management theory, focusing on portfolio theory, and (iii) historical data on risk and return.

    Completion: The study was completed using interviews with private consultants, capital advisors and people working with structured products at major banks and of small players. In addition, five stereotypes were used as a basis for discussion during the interviews. In order to conduct a deeper analysis of the product as a form of saving for private investors, a portfolio optimization carried out taking the historical data on risk and return into account.

    Conclusion: The study determines that the product is suitable for private investors who are in the latter part of the consolidation phase and mainly not prone to risk. The study suggests that equity index bonds primarily are associated with credit- and market risk, while the risk of the product is assessed as low. The study also indicates that the properties that are added to investors’ portfolios are low risk and a potential aspect.

  • 17.
    Afrim, George
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekdahl, Ludvig
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riktkursers träffsäkerhet: En studie om kassaflödens och andra variablers samband med träffsäkerheten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies show that recommendations accuracy partly can be explained by numerous variables. Prior research leave out several variables, which based on theoretical support, may have a connection with accuracy, such as the cash flows’ volatility. Based on the DCF-model’s structure, accuracy of target prices is assumed to have a positive relationship with companies that have stable cash flows.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the accuracy of stock analysts' target prices and their connection with stable cash flows. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the role of less highlighted variables’ relationship with the accuracy of target prices, in combination with earlier investigated variables.

    Completion: Including less highlighted variables is supported by theory about corporate valuation, where cash flows’ volatility is the main focus of this study. The accuracy of the target prices is analyzed by regression analysis for three time horizons, where the dependent variable is the absolute margin of error and the dependent variables are represented by the explanatory factors that the study examines. The relationships are estimated by OLS, due to the fact that data are unbalanced.

    Conclusion:  Stock analysts’ target prices present relationships with numerous of the variables examined in the study. The strongest relationships with the accuracy of target prices are shown by cash flows’ variation, the number of stock analysts, goodwill in terms of total capital and companies’ size. The results show that companies with stable cash flow have a positive relationship with the accuracy of target prices, which supports the theories of the DCF-model for valuation of companies with stable cash flow. The estimations show that the accuracy of target prices also is explained by other factors than those this very study investigates. The results show that the accuracy is higher for shorter time horizons.

  • 18.
    Agevall, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Umans, Timurs
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    The new generation of auditors meeting praxis2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an exploratory study of whether and in what way ‘double-edged learning’ can develop from understanding the relationship between structure and judgment and thus capture students’ experience of the audit profession. The study is based on a focus group/individual interviews conducted with students performing their work-integrated learning assignments where they interact with auditors. Identifying two themes defined as Perceiving the profession and auditing and Entering into and forming in the audit profession derived from the data, it appears that when positioned within a work-integrated learning context, students develop awareness of the use of standards and checklists on one hand as well as the importance of discretional judgment on the other. Based on these results, we theorise as to how double-edged learning manifests itself in students’ experiences and understanding of the relationship between structure and judgment.

  • 19.
    Agrento, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Halmstad University.
    The 'externalisation' of local public service delivery: experience in Italy and Sweden2010In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, Vol. 5, no 1, 41-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the local government sector in European countries has undergone important changes involving, among other things, the externalisation of local public service provision through various forms of corporatisation, public-public collaboration, public-private partnerships and contracting out. An important consequence of these institutional changes has been the recasting of local governance systems through the need for increased cooperation between public and private actors. This article addresses these matters with comparative reference to the experience in Italy and Sweden. In doing so, it considers local governments in their constitutional and legal contexts, leading to more detailed discussions of their externalisation initiatives and resultant organisational forms and governance arrangements. Issues of ownership have been important concerning the significance of 'community' and 'place' in the management of public affairs.

  • 20.
    Ahad, Diana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Jusic, Anisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kommunikationsprocessen av strategiska frågor: En studie av fyra storbanker2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The interest of the organization as a social system has increased the attention of the organization's internal relationships and internal communication. In many organizations management often spend much time on formulation strategic issues, which is not communicated sufficiently and thus not used by employees. In order that employees shall not perceive strategies as vacuous, it is important that the communication process clarifies and concretes the strategy. The process of work has been developed and today there is a high demand of knowledge among employees, which in turn need increased information. This means that it has become increasingly important that employees are involved in the organization's goals and approaches to different issues. Most organizations are complaining of poor communication ability, managers are complaining that the information does not reach the employees and that these do not follow the guidelines, while employees are complaining that decisions and information are not sufficiently communicated to them. The view of communication often gives a picture of communication being something simple, where the send and the received message is identical to one another. This leads to an over-reliance of the communication effectiveness in the organization.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the internal communication process of strategic issues and to assess its effectiveness.

    Method: This is a study of four universal banks, which is based on a qualitative approach, where four interviews have taken place at management level and four interviews at local level.

    Conclusion: The study has concluded that very little attempt is made to communicate strategic issues from management level to local level. Communication takes place through simple channels, primarily through the intranet, with the condition that employees will correctly understand the message. Because of the complexity of the message and the channels used, there is a risk that the message will be misinterpreted at the local level. Motivation in the communication process plays an important role, but unfortunately the banks motivate their employees to a limited extent. The communication process of strategic issues represents today a linear communication, which needs to be more effective. To make the communication process more effective requires other communication channels, clearer message and more motivation. A network approach of communication is needed.

     

     

     

     

  • 21.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University School of Business, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, 369-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 22.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Arbetslivsinstitutet (ALI), Norrköping.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013In: Arbete & jämställdhet: förändringar under 50 år / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 169-187 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ahlers, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilms, Maximilian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ambidextrous Leadership in Innovation: A multiple case study of innovation leaders on the alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively new concept of ambidextrous leadership in innovation with the opposing yet complementary opening and closing leader behaviors has been proven to be positively related to fostering explorative and exploitative behaviors respectively among subordinates. The initiators of this concept propose that leaders in innovation need a ‘temporal flexibility to switch’ between opening and closing leader behaviors, which implies a sequential alignment of these behaviors. This proposition has yet remained theoretically and empirically unexplored and is initially questioned in this thesis with respect to related theoretical concepts.

    Therefore, this thesis aims to explain how innovation leaders align the recently defined opening and closing leader behaviors throughout the innovation process. By following a qualitative and inductive research approach, a multiple case study of five innovation leaders in German manufacturing companies was conducted. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The empirical data reveal that the initiators’ proposition of a sequential alignment is not sufficient to explain the complex alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors. Accordingly, a model which illustrates a predominantly simultaneous alignment of the two leader behaviors was developed. However, this model also considers that urgent situations or specific project phases and times of the year require innovation leaders to sequentially demonstrate one behavior at a time.

  • 24.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sinnliga produkter: estetik som konkurrensmedel2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society consumers expect the offered products to function in accordance to what is being promised. Aspects such as functionality and quality are consequently part of most companies’ product offerings and can to a lesser extent be used as competitive advantages. A good product is not enough when it comes to creating added value; a product must also convey other intangible values, such as emotional, identity boosting or aesthetic ones. By using aesthetics to appeal to consumers’ senses, this may have a greater impact regarding choice of product, which can create a larger competitiveness than traditional marketing.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate a product’s role in marketing by understanding how aesthetic values can be used as means of competition.

    Method: The study is based on seven interviews with corporate representatives within the domestic appliance business and an organisation that deals with design.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that a product’s aesthetic expression has great importance due to consumers’ increasingly growing interest for these aspects. As more senses are affected, the possibility increases for a product to appeal to the consumer. The sensuous expression that is most prominent today is visual aesthetics even if there is certain insight regarding the significance of the other senses for the consumer’s tendency to purchase. In spite of the awareness that seems to be present regarding the importance of aesthetics in the marketing of small electrical products, the study has revealed that this insight is not fully integrated. This may be due to the fact that this mean of communicating to the consumer still has not had its breakthrough on the market.

  • 25.
    Ahlström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategier och styrsystem för seniorboendemarknaden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic trend in Sweden features a population with a rising average age. According to forecasts, nearly one Swede out of four will be 65 or older by the year 2025. Many individuals in this category of older persons, or seniors, can look forward to an active, healthy and relatively long old age. Studies have shown that tomorrow’s seniors and retirees will be relatively well off as social groups. In addition, attitude and generation surveys have indicated that these groups have high demands and expectations for their old age, future housing and related services. Society will thus face a considerable challenge, which includes maintaining a basic commitment to continue guaranteeing the standard of quality in housing and services for the elderly that is presently taken for granted. Necessary societal priorities, however, may require individuals to take more initiative and assume greater financial responsibility than before in some of these areas. In the 2000’s a new market segment has been established and shown vigorous growth. That segment is the senior housing market, where various housing concepts are offered to the target group, seniors, or persons aged 55+. The number of senior housing units in Sweden has soared in the last few years, from about 10 000 in 2000 to some 28 000 in 2007. In this study, the concept of senior housing, with features of integrated service and care, has been of special interest. What characterizes this housing concept is that housing and related services have been adapted and specially designed for living as an aging individual.

    This dissertation (”the survey”) is reported in the form of a monograph consisting of two separate studies. The research question that has guided the first study is, “What creates a strong market position for a player on the senior-housing market with integrated service, health care and other forms of service and care?” The research question for the second study is, “What production strategies and control systems can be identified for some of the most successful concept-builders?” The two studies are related in that the latter is based on the results of the former. The studies were conducted over a period from 2002 to 2008. The research was done as an exploratory field study. The field-study approach has given priority to breadth and inclusion of many aspects. The instrument of measurement has consisted of set interview questions with open-ended alternative responses. The underlying interviews, together with secondary data, have been presented as a number of case studies. In the survey, a number of successful players have been selected on the basis of the criteria considered typical of successful actors on the senior housing market. Both Swedish and North American organizations have participated in the survey.

    The empirical material of the survey has been analyzed on the basis of the theoretical conceptual frameworks developed for the two respective studies. The first study has been analyzed with a framework based on the concepts of environment, strategy, resources, service and competitiveness. The results have been formulated in a number of strategic choices that are summarized in the concepts of differentiation, focus, integration, collaboration, control, business development, core competence and resources. In this connection, it has been possible to show that actors who operate a successful business follow largely what Porter (1980) has defined as a strategy of differentiation. Moreover, a business-strategy typology of actors on the senior housing market has also been constructed. Also, the tentative conclusions of the first study have been formulated in four strategic ideal types: administrators, concept-builders, entrepreneurs and idealists.

    The point of departure for the second study has been the ideal type referred to as the concept-builder. The conceptual framework has therefore been developed further, based in part on the theoretical framework of Nilsson and Rapp (2005). With certain additions, these foundations have been used to construct a detailed theoretical framework for the study. The conceptual framework has been designed to describe and analyze the causal relationships relating to strategic congruence and integrated control. In this regard, additions and adjustments have been made to include strategies and control systems for the construction of buildings and the production of services. The results of the second study include a case description and an analysis of successful concept-builders. One reason for their success is assumed to be their ability to achieve strategic congruence and integrated control. In light of the findings from the analysis of the data, the conceptual framework has been somewhat modified. This adjustment has consisted in classification along the dimensions of IT, organizational culture and fundamental values. In this connection it has been possible to demonstrate the importance of the physical planning of housing for the production of services. Emphasis has been placed on designing the physical facility and housing right from the beginning so as to facilitate the service-producing operation in a later stage of the life cycle.

    One finding of the survey is that with North American concept-builders there is a high degree of consistency between strategies and control systems. The factors underlying this consistency can be summarized as market knowledge, industry experience, understanding the economies of scale attainable through clustering, organization on a small scale, a clear concept of business, a sense of value creation, a focus on objectives, farreaching delegation of authority and responsibility to the operating level, skilled management, value-oriented operations and a well-developed organizational culture. Through the survey, a number of customer-controlled operations have been illustrated in the case studies. It is apparent that compared to the past, there has been a shift in industry attitude in North America, creating a situation that differs from Swedish conditions in some respects. The North American concept-builders have defined their businesses as hotel operations for seniors. This has automatically shifted the focus toward one where residents have become customers and older people in general are regarded as assets.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Hameed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Najam, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    How Corporate Governance Affects Strategy of Corporations: - Lessons from Enron Corporation -2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate governance is a subject of academic and professional debate. It has and it will continue to be a topic under scrutiny for subsequent deliberations since there are many different research dimensions and contexts associated with it. However, it has been observed that the linkage between corporate governance and strategy of a corporation remains as an untapped area with considerable avenues of research. This paper tends to explore this linkage, using Enron scandal as backdrop.

    In the aftermath of the debacle of US energy giant Enron in 2001, the significance of corporate governance has come under heavy scrutiny of different researchers. Whereas different explanations have been attributed to its downfall, it has been widely accepted that this was a case of failed corporate governance.

    This paper tends to explore Enron downfall from the perspective of failed corporate governance. By defining and exploring corporate governance and its underlying issues, the authors have used Agency theory as a theoretical framework in unison with internationally renowned auditing company - Ernst & Young Model - to understand the role of different actors and forces responsible for Enron collapse.

    By using qualitative research method, the authors have used secondary literature as well as combination of questionnaires and telephonic interviews to obtain viewpoint of renowned international academic / professional researchers. They have been identified through convenience sampling methodology. A few internationally renowned auditing companies have also been used as part of this survey to explore diversity of perspectives in this context. Efforts have been made; to explore the main causes rather then to write just another case on Enron.

    After drawing lessons from Enron, the paper concludes with the understanding that there is direct link between corporate governance and strategy of corporations. However there is diversity of perspectives in this context and hence it requires further exploration and debate.

  • 27.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015, 965-968 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 28.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

    List of papers
    1. Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, 85-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

    Keyword
    Circular economy, Industrial symbiosis, Recycling, Business development, Green innovation
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137456 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.04.007 (DOI)000403860200009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-08-07
    2. Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    2016 (English)In: The Open Waste Management Journal, ISSN 1876-4002, E-ISSN 1876-4002, Vol. 9, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known that our common resources are limited and that recycling is key for a sustainable future; inreality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless numbers ofexamples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials.This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction to explore why it’s so difficult establishlarge scale secondary stock extraction although suitable technologies are available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways forreducing some of the main barriers presented.

    Keyword
    Circular economy, Economy, Recycling, Resources, Sustainability
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137459 (URN)10.2174/1876400201609010011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-06-14
    3. Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, 328-335 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    National Category
    Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137462 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.012 (DOI)000356194300033 ()2-s2.0-84929966422 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    QC 20150713

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    2017 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, no 7, 2229-2246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can be used to produce energy carriers, chemicals, and materials of value. This article explores how automated data analysis approaches can help in analyzing large bodies of text to distill and present potential value pathways for secondary (waste) bio-based materials. The study employed multiple methods (literature collection, topic modelling, and co-occurrence analysis) on a collection of abstracts from 53,292 academic articles covering technologies, applications, and products (TAPs) for bio-based wastes. The results of both the topic modelling and co-occurrence analysis are presented as online interactive web pages. The topic modelling presented an overview of research clusters related to secondary organic resources, processes, and disciplines. The co-occurrence analysis helped to understand which TAPs are researched in relation to a broad spectrum of organic wastes. Co-occurrences were evaluated using the Normalized Pointwise Mutual Information measure to locate terms which co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Through the use of detailed lists of organic wastes and TAPs, the co-occurrence method mapped out 7118 unique intersections between 473 specific wastes and 228 TAPs. This technique enables us to find seemingly non-obvious valorization pathways such as the re-use of oyster shells as catalysts for bio-diesel production and bioplastic production from brewery waste. While a proof-of-concept, this work points the way for using Big Data to suggest novel pathways for implementing the Circular Economy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keyword
    By-product, Waste valorization, Circular economy, Recycling, Industrial symbiosis, Big Data
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138067 (URN)10.1007/s12649-017-9975-0 (DOI)000411975600001 ()2-s2.0-85020108904 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
    5. Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012 / [ed] M. Arm, C. Vandecasteele, J. Heynen, P. Suer and B. Lind, Swedish Geotechnical Institute , 2012, 1-9 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009 until 2011 project BRA (Bygg-och Rivningsavfall i Stockholms Län) “Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Stockholm County” was coordinated from the division of Industrial Ecology, KTH. This project was focused on actively improving (from plural perspectives) the cycles of C&D (specifically non-metallic inert) materials in the region. In response to the normative aim and inter-systems complexity, a highly participative action research procedure was adopted. Through processes of network communication, workshops, a course, and an international symposium - a number of issues (such as market development, recycled product quality, greenhouse gas impacts, collaborative planning, and statistics) were prioritized, researched, and acted upon. Indicators for measuring progress in selected areas were developed and preliminary action plans created. At a final co-organized symposium Swedish delegates laid the groundwork for the establishment of a Swedish C&D recycling b ranch organization. This initiative of continued collaboration between and within sectors is seen as a vehicle for the priorities and action requirements identified in BRA to be further enabled and held in focus. Furthermore, these actors taking ownership of the process is seen as a success in accordance to the original aims and the need for further cycles of evaluation, planning, and action.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 2012
    Keyword
    by-product, recycling, synergy, industrial ecology, facilitation
    National Category
    Construction Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137463 (URN)
    Conference
    WASCON 2012 – towards effective, durable and sustainable production and use of alternative materials in construction. 8th International conference on sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012
    Note

    QC 20130522

    Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
  • 29.
    Akanda, Md Mahmudul Alam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dzeko, Jasmin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Customers’ Perception on their Satisfaction about the Private Banks in a Developing Country: A perspective of Private Banks in Bangladesh2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customers’ satisfaction is a decisive factor in the development process of business which has also an effective impact on contributing a country's GDP. Private banks have been emerged over the time in developing countries where customers’ satisfaction is the driven force of banking industry investigated in Bangladesh. In this study a conventional American Customer Satisfaction Index model has been used over Bangladesh to compare overall performance of banking industry. Customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh has been measured from the different angle of customers’ perception based on their portfolio. This research has been designed on a quantitative approach followed by survey research method. Questionnaire was administered to collect data through objective list as well as physical interaction with the respondents from different locations in the capital city of Bangladesh named Dhaka. Collected data had been analyzed applying Partial Latent Square (PLS) software program. The study outcomes showed that the perceived quality is the main determinant factor on customer satisfaction towards banks in Bangladesh. It also revealed that significant relationship exists between customers’ satisfaction and customers’ loyalty. The revised model in 2016 represents the benchmark scores of customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh lagged behind consecutively 18 and 13 scores than that of USA and Taiwan. Considering the study results, we summed the quality of service leads to satisfied customers in turns towards customers loyalty. Banks also can get competitive advantage by evaluating all classes of customers equally through providing superior services to them.

  • 30.
    Albertsson, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attar, Housam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Små företag och offentlig upphandling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The law involving public procurement specifies that suppliers cannot be discriminated against on size, background, financial resources etc. Through a thorough literature review we found variables that were problematic for SME´s in an international context, that we wanted to further investigate within a Swedish context. Based on our investigation it can be concluded that some of the variables identified have a greater impact than others. Furthermore, our investigation showed that several variables affect the smallest companies to a greater degree than the larger companies. Finally, our survey also showed that barriers differ depending on the companies' level of participation in the procurement process.

  • 31.
    Ali Rashed, Chra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Mouyiasis, George
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Negative Unintended Consequences of Innovation- a case study regarding innovation and sustainability: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the SNE SFI GS-framework2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often related to positive outcomes for the majority to enjoy that enhances welfare and facilitates everyday activities. In different fields of study (economics, management, sociology, history and science and technology) it is becoming a field of magnitude (Malerba and Brusoni, 2007). Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) discuss the emerging interest of innovation in the field of social science. Although the interest within the subject of innovation is high, very little research has been done regarding the aim to contribute to the design innovation policy, developed by scholars studying the field of innovation. One often so neglected study within innovation is in the field of negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) (Sveiby et al, 2012). One main contributor of innovative activities is organizational operations leading to value for end customers. While firms often have the aim to create value with innovation for the greater benefit in society, sometimes these value-creating mechanisms may create unintended negative consequences in addition to the positive effects. While innovations are increasing in rapidness and numbers of output produced, the effects on society and the natural environment needs to be highlighted. With assumptions regarding vague CSR implementation in corporations (Newell, 2005), this research tries to grasp understanding on how NUCoI is perceived from the managerial perspective in organizations regarding their stakeholder viewpoint. As a starting point, the authors use Charlie Chaplin’s famous quote “More than machinery, we need humanity” from the movie “The Great Dictator” indicating the importance of caring for various stakes.

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to highlight the new field of study in social science; Negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) in relation to the societal natural environment (society and the natural environment). The research contributes to the existing frameworks on organizational value creation mechanisms in innovation policy to incorporate the aspect of negative consequences of innovation (NCoI), in terms of sustainability to highlight the importance of secondary stakeholders.

    Results: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the Societal-Natural-Environment Stakeholder Framework of Innovation and Global Sustainability framework (SNE SFI GS-framework), aims to contribute in the long-term perspective for research in innovation policy by highlighting one aspect of a field of the often so neglected societal natural environment perspective, when competing rivalry becomes too fierce. The framework highlights the importance of secondary stakeholders, where primary stakeholders may act as a “link” between the organization and secondary stakeholders. Additionally, the authors suggest going to basic practices regarding sustainability with valuating the natural resources for a prospering sustainable society. The aspects in the research include stakeholder-theory, value-creation in terms of the societal natural environment, and innovation as a field of social science, negative consequences and organizational sense-making.

  • 32.
    Alin, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornell, Benjamin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The individual Controller role: And how the role is affected by increased information and complex report relations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research of the controller role is extensive and has been studied in several sectors, whichprovides a wide range of definitions of the controller role. These definitions have contributed to an ambiguous controller role in regards to what work assignments are most important and to whom the controller should report. This thesis aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the controller role based on work assignments within a decentralised organisation working with complex financial products. This thesis also contributes to an understanding of how controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and their report relations. This has generated three research questions: What role does the controller have in a Swedish universal bank based on work assignments? What are the eventual differences in the controller role depending on department in the organisation? How do the controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and by their report relations? Delimitation was made to analyse controllers at various levels in Handelsbanken. In order to create an understanding of the controller role in this context, an abductive approach as been used in order to combine existing theories with empirical findings. Based on a qualitative approach, triangulation was chosen to combine assembled empirical data with semi- structured interviews. The result of this study implies that controllers mainly lean towards the role as a Business partner as they work as a support function to provide local or higher managers with relevant analysis for decision-making. Based on work processes with information, the controllers lean towards an Analyst and Coach as they generally handle all business related information. From this case study, controllers in decentralised organisations possess the role as a Specialist as they  are  situated in separate departments with a clear focus. Results also show that more automated work assignments due to technological development do not increase the controllers’ opportunity to dedicate more time on analysis. Instead, increased information flows require controllers to allocate resources towards assembling information. In terms of report relations, close adherence towards the local managers does not affect the controller’s objective reporting to higher management and the controller can arguably bemore independent within their report relations than what is described by literature.

  • 33.
    Almqvist, Roland
    et al.
    Institutet för kommunal ekonomi (IKE), Stockholms universitet.
    Donatella, Pierre
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nilsson, Viveka
    Kommunforskning i Västsverige, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ramberg, Ulf
    Rådet för Kommunalekonomisk forskning och utbildning (KEFU), Lunds universitet.
    Wänström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resursanpassning och utveckling av kommunal verksamhet.: Sammanfattning och slutord fårn det andra Nationionella kommunforsningsprogrammet.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2010–2017 har de fyra universitetsanknutna kommunforsknings-instituten i landet drivit det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet. Forskningsprogrammets innehåll har vuxit fram i samtal mellan forskare och företrädare för de kommuner som deltagit i och finansierat forskningsprogrammet. Den första delen av forskningsprogrammet (Natkom 1) påbörjades 2010 och avslutades 2013 och handlade om hur kommuner anpassar sig till förändrade förutsättningar och handskas med besvärliga situationer.

    Föreliggande rapport utgör slutrapport för den andra delen av det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet (Natkom 2) som påbörjades 2014 och avslutades 2017. Mot bakgrund av krav som ställs på den kommunala organisationen att anpassa verksamheten till de resurser som finns var temat denna gång hur kommuner hanterar resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling. Natkom 2 fokuserade på att kartlägga och beskriva idéer för resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling och hur dessa överförs till praktiken. I rapporten sammanfattas och kommenteras de viktigaste resultaten från de 16 projekt som bedrivits inom ramen för forskningsprogrammets andra del.

    En iakttagelse från projekten är att centralisering av befogenheter till kommunledningen tycks vara vanligt i arbetet med resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling. Likaså kan konstateras att anpassningen och utvecklingen oftast är av mindre art och inkrementell. Trots att det finns tydliga tecken på "pyspunka" löper verksamheten på utan tydliga försök att göra större förändringar i syfte att anpassa verksamheten till framtida utmaningar.

    De sju år som det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet i sin helhet har löpt har varit tämligen turbulenta kommunala år. Totalt har det skrivits 47 rapporter och anordnats sju konferenser. Det handlar följaktligen om ett mycket omfattande och innehållsrikt empiriskt material som sammanställts, analyserats och legat till grund för slutsatser som återförts till medverkande kommuner, men även till icke medverkande kommuner, studenter och i forsk-ningslitteraturen.

  • 34.
    Almqvist, Roland M.
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Graaf, Johan
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Jannesson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Skoog, Matti
    Företagsekonomi, Åbo akademi / Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Boken om ekonomistyrning2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok ger en bred introduktion till ämnet ekonomistyrning. Boken speglar ekonomistyrningens relevans för dagens organisationer inom näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhälle. Författarna går igenom de grundläggande modeller, verktyg och processer som traditionell ekonomistyrning erbjuder. Här märks ekonomiska ansvarsenheter, resultat- och balansräkning, kassaflödesanalys, nyckeltal, belöningssystem, budgetering, kalkylering på kort och lång sikt, internpriser samt avvikelseanalys.

    Boken om ekonomistyrning utgår från att ekonomistyrningen har en central roll i att skapa mer hållbara organisationer och lägger betydande vikt vid aspekter som sociala och miljömässiga kostnader, projektstyrning, miljöinvesteringar och humankapital. Boken har därmed ett tydligt hållbarhets- och samhällsperspektiv.

    Författarna betonar även vikten av att ekonomistyrningen utgör en välavvägd helhet genom den så kallade styrmixen. En genomtänkt styrmix ger verktyg för att motivera medarbetare att arbeta mot gemensamma mål och skapa konkurrenskraftiga organisationer. Till boken finns ett rikt övningsmaterial i form av en övningsbok.

  • 35.
    Alstermark, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hegefjärd, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Espoused corporate and business level strategies: An analysis of annual reports in the heavy electrical engineering industry, 1987-20022006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Strategy forms an inevitable part of a company’s existence, whether explicitly formulated or implicitly acted on. Today, there are many ways to find information about companies and their strategic directions, for example in the non-financial sections of annual reports. However, the future actions and strategic choices tend not to be spoken of explicitly or in terms of strategy concepts or typologies. Thus, the presentation of strategies in annual reports may differ in terminology from the conceptions and notions as presented in strategy concepts. This implies a challenging base for analysis and will inevitably create an interesting situation if one wants to map out a company’s strategic direction with these reports as basis. Annual reports could also possibly constitute a cross-over between the theoretical realm and the business world, which might allow the drawing of parallels between theoretical concepts and espoused strategic actions.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overall image of strategy in the heavy electrical engineering industry in the time period of 1987 to 2002, using the non-financial information in annual reports as the single source for identifying and classifying companies in terms of strategy.

    Mode of procedure

    Annual reports from four large companies in the heavy electrical engineering industry have been studied with a grounded approach of textual analysis. The case study was conducted with an inductive starting point, and covered a vast amount of empirical material. Key features of strategic directions, on the corporate and business level, were derived from the empirical material as well as from strategy literature, and these features then served as base for further analysis and conclusions.

    Results

    All four studied companies displayed different strategic phases on the two levels. However, inconsistency and a multitude of comments sometimes obstructed the identification of distinct phases. On an inter-company level, the European companies tended to have more features in common than the American ones. Furthermore, specific characteristics have been identified for each company. Finally, each of the four case companies was classified in terms of generic strategies. The classification of the companies showed that a multitude of strategic typologies was applicable during the studied time period, some recurrently and others in unique periods.

  • 36.
    Altkvist, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Richardsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i stålbranschen: Att börja hållbarhetsredovisa med intressenternas behov i fokus2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following an increased awareness concerning social and environmental aspectsin society, more enterprises establish sustainability reports in order to inform theirstakeholders about the company’s sustainability duties. A previous study indicates that themetal sector is enjoying relatively limited increases in business opportunities and/or financialvalue of corporate responsibility. Another study suggests that there is a gap in expectationsbetween producers and users of sustainability reports due to an uncertainty regarding whatinformation such reports should contain and what audience such reports should target. Thequestion is whether or not a gap in expectations concerning sustainability reporting is acontributing factor to the limited increases in financial value in the metal sector?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine how a sustainability report should becarried out by a company in the steel industry given what information the company and thestakeholders consider as essential in a sustainability report.

    Methodology: To accomplish the purpose of the study, a deductive approach was used due tothe availability of suitable theories. We conducted semi-structured interviews in order toenable a deeper analysis of the subject. Interviews were carried out with employees at thesteel company Ovako in order to investigate what information they aim to communicate, themotivations for sustainability reporting, to whom the information is addressed and howcommunication with stakeholders is carried out. Four interviews with different stakeholders inthe Swedish steel industry were also conducted in order to study what information theyrequire for. The purpose was to highlight potential differences between the company and thestakeholders.

    Results: The study indicates the importance of clarifying the motives behind sustainabilityreporting and to identify which stakeholders to target. The importance stems from the fact thatthese factors decide what information to include. The case company identifies thestakeholders' expectations as their main motive and these should therefore form the basis forthe sustainability report. Both internal stakeholders such as employees and externalstakeholders as investors, customers and society are identified as important stakeholders bythe case company. The study further indicates that financial stakeholders without specificsustainability criteria do not place emphasis on the content of sustainability reports. Financialstakeholders with such criteria on the other hand, demand in particular informationconcerning environmental aspects, while non-financial stakeholders also requests informationon social aspects such as employee responsibility and business ethics. The case companydoes, however, show skepticism on whether social aspects such as employee responsibilityare relevant to include in the report due to the information's subjective nature and narrowaudience. The study indicates that the lack of stakeholder dialogues results in a sustainabilityreport that excludes information requested by stakeholders to whom the report is addressed.For a company in the steel industry, information concerning impact on the environment mayseem more relevant, but given the non-financial stakeholders demand the company shouldalso report on their social impact.

  • 37.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, 572-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 38.
    Andersen, E. S.
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Vaagaasar, A.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Projects and politics: exploring the duality between action and politics in complex projects2010In: International Journal of Management and Decision Making, ISSN 1462-4621, Vol. 11, no 2, 121-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional research and literature on project management and organisation theory tend to view project organisations as non-political bodies and purely action-oriented endeavours. In contrast, this paper presents an alternative analysis drawing on the idea of projects as political and emergent processes. Based on in-depth, case-study findings of a complex development and implementation project, we suggest an analytical framework that focuses on the interrelatedness of action and political processes and which explains how project management deals with the two processes simultaneously. We identify and analyse three separate but nested organisational logics applied by the project management team to cope with the dual challenges of politics and action. The general idea is to illustrate the notion of projects as emergent processes involving both politics and action. The three logics are: 1) balancing openness and closure; 2) reformulating tasks to seek solutions; 3) relating to improve action capacity. Our findings add to the literature on the role and practice of project management in complex projects that entail both stakeholder and technological challenges.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    BRACE-modellen: Ett företagsspecifikt avkastningskrav för mindre onoteradebolag2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In ten to twelve years, 40 % of Sweden's 500 000 family- and owner led firms will be up for sale according to an estimation done by PwC in 2012. Many small and medium sized firms will therefore need to be valued within the near future. The models and theories used in todays' business valuations are not applicable for small private firms why the authors chose to conduct this study.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design a practically useful model in terms of assessing the owners' required rate of return in a small private firm. The model should include the firm-specific risks that are linked to private firms.

    Methodology: This study uses a qualitative research method where data is collected through interviews with people who on a daily basis, work with, value and advise small private firms. From the data collected through the interviews as well as theories regarding the subject the authors have designed a practical model with the intentions to support private firm valuations.

    Conclusion: The BRACE-model (Business Risk Adjusted Cost of Equity) consists of two main components, a CAPM-premium and a firm-specific risk premium. The firm-specific risk premium is derived from the firm's size and illiquidity and is further quantified with a point system where a small private firm's specific risks are considered.

  • 40.
    Andersson, David E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teknologimarknader: idéer som ekonomiska tillgångar2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 95-109 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Larsson, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Den svenska företagsobligationsmarknaden: En studie av dess strukturella förutsättningar och utvecklingspotential2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Saving in corporate bonds has traditionally been low in Sweden. Due to many years of budget deficits and a large national debt the Swedish bond market has been dominated by government bonds. Although lately some change can be seen, as the Swedish government have improved its finances the need for lending money has decreased. This in combination with falling levels of interest and a low real interest has rendered in a growing interest for corporate bonds. There are only a few studies of the Swedish corporate bond market and none of them discusses or questions the telephone based market structure of today in any depth.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate why the Swedish corporate bond market has not evolved into a functioning electronic auction based marked such as the stock market and also research what might be needed for such a change to occur.

    Delimitations: The study focuses on the Swedish corporate bond market. By corporate bond all bonds issued by non financial companies in SEK is meant. Bonds issued by Swedish companies but in other currencies then SEK is hence not included in this study. The delimitations also include macroeconomic factors since these effects already have been studied in earlier research. Finally this study also disregards any effects that competing sources of finance and channels of investment might have.

    Method: The study is based on nine interviews that together with other material, literature and previous research has been analysed using mainly transaction cost theories.

    Results: This study has found that the lack of change in the Swedish corporate bond market can be explained by information asymmetries. A functioning electronic corporate bond marked needs a higher level of transparency of information then is the case in Sweden today. To increase this, and hence open up for an electronic marketplace, a better and more accessible information system combined with a higher level of standardization of the instruments are needed.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Emilie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Johansson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Värdering av goodwill: - En studie av företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background: Since January 1st 2005 all public companies in Sweden must apply the international rules IFRS in their annual reports. That means that goodwill is no longer amortized with the same amount every year over its useful life, but is instead considered to have an indefinite life and should be tested at least annually for impairment. Due to this rule transition, the rules for accounting in Sweden have converged with the international rules and one aim is to increase the comparability between companies in different countries. A study made by Gauffin and Thörnsten (2010) showed that the impairments made by American public companies composed by 30 percent of the total value of goodwill in 2008, while the corresponding percentage in Sweden the same year was only 1,5. 2008 was the year when the financial crisis began, which affected companies in both the US and in Sweden. Despite of that, and that the rules for goodwill accounting are basically the same, there is still a significant difference between the two countries in regard to impairment charges of goodwill.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explain the relatively low impairment charges of goodwill among companies listed at Stockholmsbörsen in the year of 2008, and to explain how Swedish companies view on goodwill.

    Completion: This study includes a review of the annual reports for 2007-2009 from all companies listed on Stockholmsbörsen, where data related to the companies goodwill and impairment tests has been collected. Also, interviews have been done with six different companies and three experts.

    Results: The study has generated several possible explanations for the relatively low impairment charges in Sweden in 2008. The main explanation seems to be related to the fact that there is a lack of scrutiny for public companies in Sweden. Goodwill and impairment test is something that the companies doesn´t want to put much time and effort into, in order to make a reliable valuation. This behaviour would most reasonably change if the Swedish companies were more scrutinized, like the American companies are. In that way, an inaccurate valuation of goodwill would lead to consequences for the companies, which pressures them to apply the rules as it is supposed to.

     

  • 43.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birgit Nilsson: entreprenör besjälad av förbättring2004In: Den offentliga sektorns entreprenörer: en porträttbok / [ed] Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Kommentus , 2004, 107-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kreativitet och patentering i storföretag: Om de innovativa individernas betydelse för att skapa och bedöma nya idéer2012In: Innovationsledning och kreativitet i svenska företag / [ed] Anders Richtnér & Johan Frishammar, VINNOVA , 2012, 86-97 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens syfte är att ge kunskap och inspiration åt chefer, ledare och medarbetare med intresse för kreativitet och innovation. Den baseras på forskning och tar upp exempel hämtade från många av Sveriges ledande företag. Avsikten är att belysa hur organisatoriska förhållanden påverkar förutsättningarna för kreativitet och innovation samt att ge uppslag till hur företags innovationsförmåga kan utvecklas.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, ChristianLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sussex.
    Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften presenterar ett urval resultat och texter från forskningsprogrammet ”Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi” (Knowledge Integration and Innovation in Transnational Enterprise, KITE) som finansierats av Riksbankens Jubileumsfond i två faser under åren 2007–2015. I programmet har vi analyserat hur företag, speciellt i tekniktunga industrier, påverkas av den allt mer globala konkurrensen om nya produkter och tjänster, hur nya specialiserade kunskaper växer fram och tas tillvara, och hur de kan förenas med existerande kunskapsbas. I denna skrift finns studier på tre olika nivåer: branschnivån, med analyser av innovationsprocesser och kunskapsutmaningar i industriella sektorer; företagsnivån, med skildringar av förändringar i företagens interna organisering av kunskapsbildande processer och undersökningar av nya former för utbyte och samspel mellan företag; samt mikronivån, med undersökningar av samspelet mellan individuella specialister inom företag. Skriften vänder sig både till den intresserade allmänheten och till forskare med annan vetenskaplig bakgrund. Fokus är på internationellt konkurrerande branscher och företag, men analyserna av kunskapens delning och sammanflätning, separation och integration, har bäring också på andra kunskapsintensiva sektorer och verksamheter, från statliga verk till sjukvård.

    En vetenskaplig presentation av programmets forskning under de första fyra åren finns i boken Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms (redigerad av Berggren, Bergek, Bengtsson, Hobday & Söderlund och utgiven av Oxford University Press 2011). En uppföljande volym, Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries, planeras av samma förlag 2016 (redigerad av Tell, Berggren, Brusoni & Van de Ven). I den medverkar ett antal internationella författare vilket visar kunskapsområdets globala tyngd och intresse. Under programmets drygt åtta år har deltagarna publicerat ett mycket stort antal artiklar, konferensbidrag, bokkapitel och liknande. För dessa hänvisar vi till programmets hemsida www.liu.se/kite.

    Vi har under hela programperioden arbetat intensivt med att diskuteraoch konstruktivt kritisera och utveckla varandras bidrag. Därför har det varit naturligt att denna skrift inbegriper många programdeltagares medverkan. En presentation av samtliga medverkande finns i slutet av denna skrift. Följande KITE-forskare har medverkat i nedan angivna kapitel:

    Hans Andersson (kapitel 4)

    Lars Bengtsson (kapitel 7)

    Marie Bengtsson (kapitel 3)

    Anna Bergek (kapitel 2)

    Christian Berggren (kapitel 1)

    Karin Bredin (kapitel 6)

    Cecilia Enberg (kapitel 5, 7)

    Mattias Johansson (kapitel 4)

    Nicolette Lakemond (kapitel 7)

    Lars Lindkvist (kapitel 3)

    Thomas Magnusson (kapitel 1)

    Camilla Niss (kapitel 6)

    Jonas Söderlund (kapitel 6)

    Fredrik Tell (kapitel 5)

    Vi vill också tacka Jenny Björkman på Riksbankens Jubileumsfond och Makadam förlag för deras engagerade arbete med redigering och produktion av slutresultatet.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leveraging inventors' creativity2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While creativity is often understood as the generation of valuable novelty, we extend that view into a framework based on well-known and established models from the creativity literature. In addition to generation of novelty which forms our frameworks first dimension, we add selection of novelty, and type of creative contribution.  

    Based on interviews with inventors and managers in three large, patent-intensive firms, representing completely different industries, we show how the framework can be employed in order to better understand in what ways different practices exploit and/or support the inventors’ creative abilities. By relating the practices not to creativity in general but to components of creativity (c.f Amabile 1997) the paper enriches the discussion of how inventors’ can be leveraged in technology-based firms.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring and exploiting inventors at Westco: A case of contextual ambidexterity in R&D2009In: IRNOP IX: International Research Network on Organizing by Projects, Berlin, 11-13 October 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Värdet av konstruktiva opponenter: om uppfinnare och patentingenjörer i kreativ samverkan2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, 51-61 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategi och styrning2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] Jonas Söderlund och Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, 39-68 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design as Change - From Teleology to Guided Evolution?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is connected to change. Whether we start from Herbert Simon’s often cited “the transformation of existing conditions into preferred ones” (1996 p.111) or design as linked to innovation (Brown 2008, Verganti 2006) or even Heskett’s (2002) ‘betterment of the human condition’, design is a future oriented (Buchanan 2001), change inducing activity. But how is design thinking (in a wide sense) different from traditional managerial thinking in terms of the concept of change? What of the process(es) by which the existing conditions are transformed into the preferred ones, i.e. how may the change process be conceptualized in design? How does the general concern of change in the design community relate to the advances in strategic and organizational change theories? Our aim is to begin an exploration of how design may be conceptualized in relation to change.

    We do this by using two out of Pettigrew’s (1987) three related aspects of change: ‘process’, how something changes, and ‘content’, i.e. what is changed, to frame design as change (the third is ‘context’, the why of change). We make an attempt to explore and identify change perspectives, explicit or implicit, in design by using Van de Ven and Poole’s (1995) synthetic model of four “basic types of process theories” (p. 511): teleology, evolution, life cycle, and dialectic, all driven by different generative mechanisms or ‘motors of change’. Van de Ven & Poole’s ideal process types do though not handle the content aspect. To capture design content, we therefore use Heskett’s (2002) division of the designed artifacts’ function into two concepts, ‘utility’ and ‘significance’.

    Design processes are normally described as either of a teleological kind, i.e. driven by a goal set at the beginning of the process, or as similar to an evolutionary process. Some elements of the evolutionary model are frequent in descriptions of design processes, e.g. iterativity, prototyping and gradual development. However, the uncontrollability and slowness of evolution are less salient. A better way to frame design processes as evolutionary may therefore be to see them as guided (Lovas and Ghoshal 2000), i.e. driven not only by random mutation and competition but also by intent.

    By using Heskett’s distinction between utility and significance it is possible to further dissect the design process/design processes. Processes aiming for ‘utility’ eventually must converge into a solution, but is it necessarily the same when it regards the process by which ‘significance’ is designed, created and maintained? By analytically separating (c.f. Archer 1995) the by definition integrative design process, we argue that discussing design as process and content expands previous views of design as change.

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