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  • 1.
    Adibi Dahaj, Marjan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analyzing Learners' Language Awareness in Written Production: Product-Oriented vs. Process-Oriented Approaches2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Writing is one of the four skills that students learning a foreign language are supposed to acquire, and writing often has an important role in the language classroom. Furthermore, in the field of cultural and arts education, a process-oriented approach is considered essential for learning. However, even though we see an increased interest in emphasizing the writing process, in reality, what is often commented, discussed and graded is the final outcome - the product. Consequently, features of the writing process, like fluency, revisions, and pauses, are not considered. This thesis explores what information about the writing process might add to the picture. In this manner, the current study investigates the writing process of advanced Swedish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners through keystroke logging programme.

    With the increased use of word processing tools, and not least with the development of keystroke logging tools, we now have the possibility to take also the details of the writing process into account. As Spelman Miller and Sullivan (2006:1) point out,

    “[a]s an observational tool, keystroke logging offers the opportunity to capture details of the activity of writing, not only for the purposes of the linguistic, textual and cognitive study of writing, but also for the broader applications concerning the development of language learning, literacy, and language pedagogy”.

    In the present study, a keystroke logging programme named Inputlog has been used, which allows researchers to get a better understanding of writing processes as well as cognitive processes during writing (Lindgren & Sullivan, 2002).

  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Pia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Bjärle, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Har utlandsadopterade barn språkproblem?: En undersökning om vad föräldrar och pedagoger anser2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur stor kunskap pedagoger har om utlandsadopterade barn och deras eventuella språkproblem. De frågeställningar vi ämnade besvara var bland annat vad litteraturen skriver om utlandsadopterade barns språk. Vi ville också ta reda på vad föräldrarna till de utlandsadopterade barnen hade för åsikter om deras barns eventuella språkproblem och hur dessa barnen fått den hjälp de rimligtvis behöver. Vi arbetade enligt trianguleringsmetoden och arbetet inleds med en litteraturstudie, där vi redogör för den forskning vi tagit del av. Därefter följer en enkätundersökning där 15 föräldrar till utlandsadopterade barn deltog. Metoddelen avslutas med intervjuer av fem pedagoger. Resultatet visar att föräldrarna, efter hårt arbete, fick den hjälp som barnet behövde, exempelvis genom att få hjälp av en logoped eller talpedagog. Resultatet visar även att lärarna i vår undersökning inte hade någon större kunskap om utlandsadopterade barns språkproblem.

  • 3.
    Ahlsén, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Språk, hjärnan och kognition2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 437-552Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande.

  • 4.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Positions vs. precedences as primitives of constituent order1999In: Saetningsskemaet i Generativ Grammatik / [ed] Per Anker Jensen og Peter Skadhauge, Kolding: Institut for Erhvervssproglig Informatik og Kommunikation, Syddansk Universitet , 1999, p. 1-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Swedish prepositions are not pure function words2017In: Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2017) / [ed] Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Joakim Nivre, and Sebastian Schuster, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As for any categorial scheme used for annotation, UD abound with borderline cases. The main instruments to resolve them are the UD design principles and, of course, the linguistic facts of the matter. UD makes a fundamental distinction between content words and function words, and a, perhaps less fundamental, distinction between pure function words and the rest. It has been suggested that adpositions are to be included among the pure function words. In this paper I discuss the case of prepositions in Swedish and related languages in the light of these distinctions. It relates to a more general problem: How should we resolve cases where the linguistic intuitions and UD design principles are in conflict?

  • 6.
    Alyasiri, Inaam Hassan Rauf
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unfolding Correction Sequences in Classroom Interaction and its Relevance to Face-work2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses correction sequences in classroom interaction when teachers correct students’ erroneous answers. The focus of this paper is the relevance between types and techniques of correction used by teachers to correct students’ answers and face-work. The study explains face-work necessity in classroom interaction since it increases students’ motivation to participate in classroom activities.  

  • 7.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Doing Language Policy: A Micro-Interactional Study of Policy Practices in English as a Foreign Language Classes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates foreign language classroom talk and micro-level language policy-in-process from an ethnomethodological conversation analytic perspective. The study is based on 20 hours of video recordings from 20 lessons in an English as a Foreign Language classroom (EFL) in grades 8 and 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007 and 2010. The main purpose of the study is to shed light on some of the distinguishing features of how a target-language-only policy is materialised in situ in a foreign language classroom. The study demonstrates the relative ease with which teachers and pupils uphold a strict language policy in the classroom, but also the considerable interactional work that is done, by both teachers and pupils, in cases where upholding the policy becomes problematic. An interactional phenomenon which arises in such cases is language policing, where the teacher or pupils restore the policy-prescribed linguistic order. Such sequences are analysed in detail. The study increases our understanding of how language policy is lived out in practice, through interaction in the classroom.

    List of papers
    1. Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom
    2013 (English)In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines what we call micro-level language policy-in-process – that is, how a target-language-only policy emerges in situ in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of language policing, the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed target language as the medium of classroom interaction in the English as a foreign language classroom of an international school in Sweden. Using ethnomethodological conversation analysis, we have identified a regular three-step sequence for language policing: (1) a (perceived) breach of the target-language-only rule, (2) an act of language policing and (3) an orientation to the target-language-only rule, usually in the guise of medium switching to the target language. Focusing primarily on teacher-to-pupil policing, where the teacher polices pupils’ (perceived) use of their L1 (Swedish), we identify three different categories of teacher-policing. These categories are based on particular configurations of features deployed in the three steps, such as initiator techniques (e.g.reminders, prompts, warnings and sanctions) and pupils’ responses to being policed (e.g. compliance or contestation).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2013
    Keywords
    conversation analysis, classroom interaction, practiced language policy, code-switching, language policing.
    National Category
    Specific Languages Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96370 (URN)10.1080/19463014.2013.783500 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-08-15 Created: 2013-08-15 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom
    2013 (English)In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 84-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Gafaranga, 2011). The data comes from sequential analyses of 20 hours of video recordings in grades 8 & 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007-2010. Drawing on Auer (1984) and Gafaranga’s (1999) organisational code-switching framework, this study sheds light on how teachers and pupils self-initiate a switch to English in their interactions. As will be demonstrated, both teachers and pupils, while orienting to the English-only norm, use a three-step sequence for language policing.

    Keywords
    Classroom interaction, code-switching, conversation analysis, language policy, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), language in education policy (LIEP)
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100197 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom
    2014 (English)In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine instances of the methods pupils deploy to do language policy in an English as a foreign language classroom in Sweden, where there is a locally practised English-only rule. Although we exemplify some more tacit methods of constructing a monolingual classroom (Slotte-Lüttge 2007), we focus primarily on instances where pupils police other pupils and on occasion even the teacher, when they are perceived not to be upholding the rule. This blatantly explicit method of pupils doing language policy, which we term language policing, generally serves to (re-)establish and maintain English as the medium of interaction and instruction. The data for this study consists of video-recordings of 18 EFL lessons in an International Swedish school and was collected in grade 8 and 9 classes (15-16 year olds) between the years 2007-2010. In order to reveal the interactional orientations of the participants in situ (Seedhouse, 1998:101), conversation analysis has been used to identify and analyse naturally occurring cases of pupils doing language policy. By discussing the analyses with reference to different policing trajectories, how participants employ a range of initiator techniques, and the nature and distribution of their policing methods, for example, we elucidate the empirical basis for our subcategories of pupil- initiated policing. We also relate language policing practices to the maintenance of a monolingual classroom and conclude that establishing and maintaining the English-only rule “sufficient[ly] for all practical purposes” is a routine matter (cf. Zimmerman 1971:227), since little language policing is needed to maintain it. In cases where the language rule is breached, both pupils and teacher play an active role in (re-)establishing themonolingual classroom.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä, 2014
    Keywords
    Conversation Analysis, practiced language policy, language policing, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), codeswitching.
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109347 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language policing the purist and monolinguist beliefs in the English as a Second Language classroom2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    English is the official policy in the school (under observation) for English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom. However, the participants here actually police each other’s and their own language choice to accomplish this language policy. Language policing here refers to the collaborative co-construction and orientation of the participants to the micro-level language policy in situ. The participants’ indigenous way of interpreting the official policy is negotiated, challenged and accomplished online. The official policy of the classroom is based on purist and monolinguist belief which entails that “English-only” is spoken in the classroom both by the teacher and the pupils. Swedish is deemed as a forbidden language. To keep “English-only” rule, however, alternate practices of policing emerge to avoid Swedish in the class. The study highlights the alternate practices displayed by the participants which emerge because of language policing.

    The empirical data of the study comprises of over 20 hours of video recordings of ESL classrooms in an International Swedish school. The data was collected between the years 2008-2010 in the grades 8 and 9. There are 17 incidences of language policing in the data. The English language teachers of this particular school follow an “English-only” policy which is enforced through a point system.

    The study aims to contribute to the research in the micro orientation of the second language (L2) classroom (Hellermann, 2008; Cekaite, 2006; Seedhouse, 2004). It is also an attempt to see how through talk and actions participants defy the policies in practice that are monolinguist and purist.

    References

    Cekaite, A. (2006) Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom. Tema Barn: Linköping Studies in Arts and Science.

    Hellermann, J. (2008) Social Actions for Classroom Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Seedhouse, P. (2004) The Interactional Architecture of the Language Classroom: A Conversation Analysis Perspective. Oxford. Blackwell.

  • 9.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The co-construction and negotiation of micro level language policy in an English as a second language classroom2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 11.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    et al.
    Centre for Speech Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsinstitut Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Mabiza, Evans
    Antelope Park, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
    An acoustic analysis of lion roars. II: Vocal tract characteristics2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, 2011, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes the first attempt to perform an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion of a lion (Panthera leo) roar. The main problems that one encounters in attempting this, is the fact that little is known about the dimensions of the vocal tract, other than a general range of vocal tract lengths. Precious little is also known about the articulation strategies that are adopted by the lion while roaring. The approach used here is to iterate between possible values of vocal tract lengths and vocal tract configurations. Since there seems to be a distinct articulatory changes during the process of a roar, we find a smooth path that minimizes the error function between a recorded roar and the simulated roar using a variable length articulatory model.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Avdelningen för didaktik och forskning om pedagogiskt arbete (DIPA). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rusanganwa, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kagwesage, Anne Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Learning within a multilingual context: The case of Higher Education in Rwanda2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate strategies employed by students, lecturers and academic administrators to facilitate learning within a university in Rwanda. On a political level, the potential of linguistic diversity is a tool for nation building and, in times of globalization, access to information, communication, technology and business with international communities. However, on a societal and individual level, using foreign media of instruction may hamper the implementation of targeted goals.

    The focus of this study is on how students handle the linguistic diversity they are exposed to. The research tools used to gather data are questionnaires, interviews and audio-recorded group work. The data were analysed drawing upon theories related to learning in multilingual settings. Findings show that language diversity has a great potential of facilitating learning, thus emphasizing the complementarities rather than the exclusion of languages used in Rwanda. However, what the participants described as “lack of background knowledge” might be a sign of an underlying language problem, where students memorise lecturers’ notes and reproduce them during any kind of evaluation, without questioning and reflecting on the material in order to convert information into knowledge.

  • 13.
    Andrén, Mats
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multimodal constructions in children: Is the headshake part of language?2015In: Gesture, ISSN 1568-1475, E-ISSN 1569-9773, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 141-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish children’s use of the headshake from 18 to 30 months shows a developmental progression from rote-learned and formulaic coordination with speech to increasingly more flexible and productive coordination with speech. To deal with these observations, I make use of the concept of multimodal constructions, to extend usage-based approaches to language learning and construction grammar by inclusion of the kinetic domain. These ideas have consequences for the (meta‑)theoretical question of whether gesture can be said to be part of language or not. I suggest that some speech-coordinated gestures, including the headshake, can be considered part of language, also in the traditional sense of language as a conventionalized system.

  • 14.
    Andrén, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Blomberg, Johan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Children’s use of gesture and action with static and dynamic verbs2018In: Language, Interaction and Acquisition, ISSN 1879-7865, E-ISSN 1879-7873, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 22-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use of gestures by 18-, 24- and 30-month-old Swedish children, as well as their practical actions in coordination with verbs. Previous research on connections between children’s verbs and gestures has mainly focused only on iconic gestures and action verbs. We expand the research foci in two ways: we look both at gestures and at practical actions, examining how the two are coordinated with static verbs (e.g. sleep) and dynamic verbs (e.g. fall). Thanks to these additional distinctions, we have found that iconic gestures and iconic actions (the latter in particular) most commonly occurred with dynamic verbs. Static verbs were most commonly accompanied by deictic actions and deictic gestures (the latter in particular). At 30 months, deictic bodily expressions, including both gestures and actions, increased, whereas iconic expressions decreased. We suggest that this may reflect a transition to less redundant ways of using bodily expressions at 30 months, where bodily movement increasingly takes on the role of specifying verb arguments rather than expressing the semantics of the verb itself.

  • 15.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dialogue and tradition: The open secret of language2014In: Grammar and dialogism: sequential, syntactic, and prosodic patterns between emergence and sedimentation / [ed] Susanne Günthner, Wolfgang Imo and Jörg Bücker, Berlin / Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, 1, p. 53-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that a language, a langue in a modified Saussurean sense, is a regular outcome of conversation. Based on an analysis of a series of five Swedish telephone conversations, it is demonstrated through a turn-by-turn analysis of the first of these phone calls that an embedded and dynamic system of linguistic resources emerges in conversation and is stabilized in a tradition of conversations, and that the very methods which participants use to structure conversation - turn-taking, sequence organization, and repair - also structure conversation like a language.

  • 16.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaction and constructions2014In: Constructions, ISSN 1860-2010, E-ISSN 1860-2010, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I observe how a construction emerges, through a method of turn construction whichI call recycling with différance, in an informal conversation between four peers. Basing myself on a detailed analysis of the social impact of the turns at talk through which the construction emerges, I argue that a construction never substitutes for or absorbs a series of individual turns, but is a socially negotiated interim structuring of these turns. As such, it is potentially open to new modifications and new uses, which, however, also have to be socially negotiated.

  • 17.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Om Hills metod2010In: Aiolos, ISSN 1400-7770, no 38-39, p. 49-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On the open secret of language2011In: PERILUS 2011: Symposium on Language Acquisition and Language Evolution / [ed] Lacerda, Francisco; Bjursäter, Ulla, Stockholm: Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet , 2011, p. 31-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language is not inside speaking but comes forth as a consequence of dialogue and tradition.

  • 19.
    Anward, Jan
    et al.
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Uppsala universitet.
    Linell, Per
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Uppsala universitet.
    Om lexikaliserade fraser i svenskan1975In: Nysvenska studier : tidskrift för svensk stil- och språkforskning, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 55-56, p. 77-119Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Man får anta att språkbrukaren har till sitt förfogande ett lexikon innehållande lexikaliska enheter (byggstenar) och en grammatik innehållande regler för hur meningar (el. andra större enheter) konstrueras med de lexikaliska enheterna som byggstenar. De lexikaliska enheterna är inte enstaka morfem; snarare är de stammar eller 'ord', där de senare kan vara grundord, avledningar, sammansättningar etc. (se t.ex. Linell, 1976). Många lexikaliska enheter är emellertid av fraskaraktär. I den här uppsatsen skall vi behandla vissa av dessa s.k. lexikaliserade fraser, varvid vi skall belysa en rad skillnader mellan, på den ena sidan, sådana lexikonlagrade 'fasta förbindelser' och, på den andra sidan, syntaktiska nykonstruktioner (jfr Jespersens (1924: 18 ff.) termer 'formulas' resp. 'free expressions').

  • 20.
    Anward, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linke, Angelika
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Familienmitglied ‚Vofflan‘. Zur sprachlichen Konzeptualisierung von Haustieren als Familienmitglieder.: Eine namenpragmatische Miniatur anhand von Daten aus der schwedischen Tages- und Wochenpresse.2015In: Beiträge zur Namenforschung, ISSN 0005-8114, Vol. 50, no 1/2, p. 77-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish newspapers and journals an interview with or a feature article

    about a person is normally accompanied by an infobox, where, among other items, there

    is a headline named familj (family). Under this headline are mentioned not only partners,

    children, and other relatives, but also pets, notably dogs and cats. Our contribution poses

    the question to what extent this verbal (written) presentation of pets serves to construct

    them as ‘family members’. Based on our findings – the fact that pets are frequently mentioned

    in connection with family members, overlap between names of pets and names of

    human family members, and close textual alignment of humans and pets, among other

    things – we discuss whether these findings should be interpreted as a tendency towards

    anthropomorphism with regard to pets, or, somewhat more radically, whether we are witnessing

    a linguistic practice where cultural species boundaries are blurred.

  • 21.
    Archer, Brent
    et al.
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette, PO Box 43170, Lafayette, LA 70504-3170, USA.
    Müller, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Penn, Claire
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein, Gauteng 2000, South Africa.
    Facilitation effects of cueing techniques in two Sesotho speakers with anomia2016In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-571X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aphasiologists developing treatments for anomia should closely align therapy methods with the typological and morphological characteristics of the language in question. The lead author initiated this study to develop more defensible interventions for speakers of Sesotho, a South African language. Prefix-based cueing (our alternative name for initial phoneme cueing that describes these cues in Sesotho-oriented terms) was compared to a novel technique, root-based cueing (RBC). While prefix-based cues are described in the literature, we hypothesized root-based cues would be more appropriate in this context since they were thought to be more consonant with the linguistic parameters of Sesotho. Two speakers with aphasia, who demonstrated significant anomic symptoms, served as participants. We used a multiple-baseline, single case study design. Two 144-item word lists were developed with every item represented by a photograph. Each of the two word lists was associated with one of the two cueing techniques investigated. After baseline measurements were obtained, each participant attended eight facilitation sessions for each cueing condition, resulting in eight data points per condition and participant. For both participants, RBC resulted in greater naming performance than cueing by means of initial phonemes. Our explanation of these results is based on the Interactive Lexical Network model of lexical access; root-based cues may be more effective because they more efficiently constrain the number of lemmas activated after a cue is provided. We argue that a confluence of factors (word-retrieval processes and the character of Sesotho morphosyntax) gave rise to the noted differences in naming facilitation.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Gottzén, Lucas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    Generational positions at family dinner: Food morality and social order2011In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 405-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns generation and food morality, drawing on video recordings of dinners in Swedish middle-class families. A detailed analysis of affect displays during one family dinner extends prior work on food morality (Ochs, Pontecorvo, & Fasulo 1996; Grieshaber 1997; Bourdieu 2003; Wiggins 2004), documenting ways in which participants may shift between distinct GENERATIONAL POSITIONS with respect to affects and food morality (from “irresponsiblechild” to caretaker positions). In our recordings, an elder sibling is shifting between a series of contrasting affective stances (Ochs & Schieffelin 1989; M. Goodwin 2006; Stivers 2008), linked to generational positions along an implicit age continuum: positioning himself, at one end of the continuum, as his young brother’s accomplice, and at the other as an adult, aserious guardian of food morality. This study shows that generational positionsare not fixed, but are positions adopted as parts of language socializationand interactional events.

  • 23.
    Ball, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Is there phonology without meaning?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ball, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Multilingualism and acquired neurogenic speech disorders. Plenary presentation.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ball, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Rhotic Phonemes in Modern Standard Welsh: The effect of Welsh-English Bilingualism?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ball, Martin J.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Multilingualism and acquired neurogenic speech disorders2015In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 2015 / [ed] Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram, Chania, Crete: Institute of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech , 2015, p. 40-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acquired neurogenic communication disorders can affect language, speech, or both. Although neurogenic speech disorders have been researched for a considerable time, much of this work has been restricted to a few languages (mainly English, with German, French, Japanese and Chinese also represented). Further, the work has concentrated on monolingual speakers. In this account, I aim to outline the main acquired speech disorders, and give examples of research into multilingual aspects of this topic. The various types of acquired neurogenic speech disorders support a tripartite analysis of normal speech production. Dysarthria (of varying sub - types) is a disorder of the neural pathways and muscle activity: the implementation of the motor plans for speech. Apraxia of speech on the other hand is a disorder of compilation of those motor plans (seen through the fact that novel utterances are disordered, while often formulaic utterances are not). Aphasia (at least when it affects speech rather than just language) manifests as a disorder at the phonological level; for example, paraphasias disrupt the normal ordering of segments, and jargon aphasias affect both speech sound inventories and the link between sound and meaning. I will illustrate examples of various acquired neurogenic speech dis orders in multilingual speakers drawn from recent literature. We will conclude by considering an example of jargon aphasia produced by a previously bilingual speaker (that is, bilingual before the acquired neurological damage). This example consists of non - perseverative non - word jargon, produced by a Louisiana French - English bilingual woman with aphasia. The client’s jargon has internal systematicity and these systematic properties show overlaps with both the French and English phonological system and structure. Therefore, while she does not have access to the lexicon of either language, it would seem that she accesses both the French and English phonological systems.

  • 27.
    Barzamini, Roya
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Languages for All, Languages for Life?: A Case Study of Multilingualism and Educational Provision in One Local Education Authority in England2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the thesis is on the Language Policy in the English education system for bilinguals by looking at texts such as official documents (Languages for All: Languages for Life A Strategy for England and Every Language Matters) and the inspection reports of several schools and identifying discourses and then considering the consequences of these discourses (what are these discourses reveal) for education.

  • 28.
    Becket, Ralph
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Bouillon, Pierrette
    ISSCO, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Bratt, Harry
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Bretan, Ivan
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Digalakis, Vassilis
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Franco, Horacio
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Kaja, Jaan
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Keegan, Martin
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Lewin, Ian
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Milward, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Price, Patti
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Sauermeister, Per
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Weng, Fuliang
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Spoken Language Translator: Phase Two Report1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken Language Translator (SLT) is a project whose long-term goal is the construction of practically useful systems capable of translating human speech from one language into another. The current SLT prototype, described in detail in this report, is capable of speech-to-speech translation between English and Swedish in either direction within the domain of airline flight inquiries, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words. Translation from English and Swedish into French is also possible, with slightly poorer performance.

    A good English-language speech recognizer existed before the start of the project, and has since been improved in several ways. During the project, we have constructed a Swedish-language recognizer, arguably the best system of its kind so far built. This has involved among other things collection of a large amount of Swedish training data. The recognizer is essentially domain-independent, but has been tuned to give high performance in the air travel inquiry domain.

    The main version of the Swedish recognizer is trained on the Stockholm dialect of Swedish, and achieves near-real-time performance with a word error rate of about 7%. Techniques developed partly under this project make it possible to port the recognizer to other Swedish dialects using only modest quantities of training data.

    On the language-processing side, we had at the start of the project a substantial domain-independent language-processing system for English, a preliminary Swedish version, and a sketchy set of rules to permit English to Swedish translation. We now have good versions of the language-processing system for English, Swedish and French, and fair to good support for translation in five of the six possible language- pairs. Translation is carried out using a novel robust architecture developed under the project. In essence, this translates as much of the input utterance as possible using a sophisticated grammar-based method, and then employs a much simpler set of word- to-word translation rules to fill in the gaps.

    The language-processing modules are all generic in nature, are based on large, linguistically motivated grammars, and can fairly easily be tuned to give good performance in new domains. Much of the work involved in the domain adaptation process can be carried out by non-experts using tools developed under the project.

    Formal comparisons are problematic, in view of the different domains and languages used and the lack of accepted evaluation criteria. None the less, the evidence at our disposal suggests that the current SLT prototype is no worse than the German Verbmobil demonstrator, in spite of a difference in project budget of more than an order of magnitude.

  • 29.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Disfluency Distribution in a Unimodal and a Multimodal Human–Machine Interface2000In: Proceedings of ICSLP’ 00, 2000, Vol. 3, p. 626-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the distribution of disfluencies intwo human–computer dialogue corpora. One corpus consistsof unimodal travel booking dialogues, which were recorded over the telephone. In this unimodal system, all components except the speech recognition were authentic. The other corpus was collected using a semi-simulated multi-modal dialogue system with an animated talking agent and a clickable map. The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss the effects of modality, task and interface design on the distribution and frequency of disfluencies in these twocorpora.

  • 30.
    Bergström, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Differences in production of disfluencies in children with typical language development and children with mixed receptive-expressive language disorder2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, the 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund and Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several studies about non-fluency inpeople who stutter, but comparatively few regardingchildren with language impairment. The currentresearch body regarding disfluencies in childrenwith language impairment has been using differentstudy-designs and definitions, making some resultsrather contradictory.

    The purpose of the present study is to expand theknowledge about disfluencies in children withlanguage impairment and compare the occurrenceof disfluencies between children with languageimpairment and children with typical languagedevelopment in the same age group.

    A total of ten children with language impairmentand six children with typical language developmentparticipated in this study. The subjects wererecorded when talking freely about a thematicpicture or toys and then analysed by calculatingdisfluencies per 50 words including frequency ofdifferent kinds of disfluencies according to Johnsonand Associates’ (1959) classic taxonomy.

    Our results show that children with languageimpairment do produce statistically significant moredisfluency in general, notably sound and syllablerepetition, broken words and prolongations.

  • 31.
    Betz, Simon
    et al.
    Phonetics and Phonology Workgroup, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wagner, Petra
    Phonetics and Phonology Workgroup, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Prolongation in German2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, The 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund & Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate segment prolongation as a means of disfluent hesitation in spontaneous German speech. We describe phonetic and structural features of disfluent prolongation and compare it to data of other languages and to non-disfluent prolongations.

  • 32.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Kaja, Jaan
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, USA.
    Corpora and Data Collection2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 33.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    Approaches to gathering realistic training data for speech translation systems1996In: Proceedings of Third IEEE Workshop on Interactive Voice Technology for Telecommunications Applications, 1996, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1996, p. 97-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Spoken Language Translator (SLT) is a multi-lingual speech-to-speech translation prototype supporting English, Swedish and French within the air traffic information system (ATIS) domain. The design of SLT is characterized by a strongly corpus-driven approach, which accentuates the need for cost-efficient collection procedures to obtain training data. This paper discusses various approaches to the data collection issue pursued within a speech translation framework. Original American English speech and language data have been collected using traditional Wizard-of-Oz (WOZ) techniques, a relatively costly procedure yielding high-quality results. The resulting corpus has been translated textually into Swedish by a large number of native speakers (427) and used as prompts for training the target language speech model. This ᅵbudgetᅵ collection method is compared to the accepted method, i.e., gathering data by means of a full-blown WOZ simulation. The results indicate that although translation in this case proved economical and produced considerable data, the method is not sensitive to certain features typical of spoken language, for which WOZ is superior

  • 34.
    Cardin, Velia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferraz De Oliveira, Rita
    London South Bank University, School of Applied Science.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Beese, Lilli
    University College London, Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre.
    Woll, Bencie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A working memory role for superior temporal cortex in deaf individuals independently of linguistic content2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of sign languages have been used to test traditional cognitive models of working memory (WM) that distinguish between verbal and visuospatial WM (e.g. Baddeley, 2003), without considering that sign languages operate in the visuospatial domain. Previous studies have shown that WM mental representations and processes are largely similar for signed and spoken languages (e.g. Rönnberg et al., 2004). However, it is not clear to what extent visual WM processes aid and support sign language WM.

    Here we characterise the neural substrates supporting sign language and visual WM, and the mechanisms that subserve differential processing for signers and for deaf individuals. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with three groups of participants: deaf native signers, hearing native signers and hearing non-signers. Participants performed a 2-back WM task and a control task on two sets of stimuli: signs from British Sign Language or non-sense objects. Stimuli were composed of point-lights to control for differences in visual features.

    Our results show activation in a fronto-parietal network for WM processing in all groups, independently of stimulus type, in agreement with previous literature. We also replicate previous findings in deaf signers showing a stronger right posterior superior temporal cortex (STC) activation for visuospatial processing, and stronger bilateral STC activation for sign language stimuli.

    Group comparisons further reveal stronger activations in STC for WM in deaf signers, but not for the groups of hearing individuals. This activation is independent of the linguistic content of the stimuli, being observed in both WM conditions: signs and objects. These results suggest a cognitive role for STC in deaf signers, beyond sign language processing.

  • 35.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Becket, Ralph
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator: An Evaluation1997In: Proceedings of ACL/EACL workshop Spoken Language Translation, 1997, p. 73-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted fro the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  • 36.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Kaja, Jaan
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Sautermeister, Per
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    SRI International, USA.
    Fuliang, Weng
    SRI International, USA.
    Common Speech–Language Issues2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 284-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 37.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Evaluation2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 297-312Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 38.
    Cekaite, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing conversational skills in a second language: Language learning affordances in a multiparty classroom setting2008In: Second language acquisition and the young learner: child's play?, John Benjamins , 2008, 1, p. 105-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This new volume of work highlights the distinctiveness of child SLA through a collection of different types of empirical research specific to younger learners. Characteristics of children's cognitive, emotional, and social development distinguish their experiences from those of adult L2 learners, creating intriguing issues for SLA research, and also raising important practical questions regarding effective pedagogical techniques for learners of different ages. While child SLA is often typically thought of as simple (and often enjoyable and universally effortless), in other words, as “child's play”, the complex portraits of young second language learners which emerge in the 16 papers collected in this book invite the reader to reconsider the reality for many younger learners. Chapters by internationally renowned authors together with reports by emerging researchers describe second and foreign language learning by children ranging from pre-schoolers to young adolescents, in home and school contexts, with caregivers, peers, and teachers as interlocutors.

  • 39.
    Cekaite, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Härma, skoja, retas: repetition som ett sätt att förhandla sociala positioner i ett flerspråkigt klassrum2009In: Den väsentliga vardagen, Carlssons , 2009, 1, p. 244-255Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här ger arton forskare som alla varit doktorander till professor Karin Aronsson sin beskrivning av olika former av vardagliga fenomen. Det handlar om hur människor i olika sammanhang samspelar och skapar mening. Gemensamt för de författare som bidrar i boken är att de är eller har varit doktorander vid Institutionen Barn och tema Kommunikation, vid Linköpings universitet. Sedan mitten av 1980-talet har institutionen erbjudit en dynamisk forskningsmiljö för personer med intresse för samtal, kulturella uttryck och socialt liv i och utanför institutionella sammanhang.

  • 40.
    Cekaite, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action2009In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores L2 novices’ ways of soliciting teacherattention, more specifically, their summonses. The data arebased on detailed analyses of video recordings in a Swedishlanguage immersion classroom. The analyses illuminate the lexicalshape of summonses in conjunction with prosody, body posture,gestures, and classroom artefacts. As demonstrated, a simplestructure of summoning provided a handy method for solicitingand establishing the teacher's attention, and facilitated thenovices’ participation in classroom activities from earlyon. Importantly, however, the local design of the summonseswas influenced by the competitive multiparty classroom setting.The analyses illustrate how the novices upgraded their summonsesby displaying a range of affective stances. Different aspectsof the students’ embodied actions were employed as waysof indexing affective stances, for example ‘tired’,‘resigned’, or ‘playful’, that in thelocal educational order created methods that invited the teacher'sattention and conversational uptake. These locally availableresources allowed children to upgrade their summonses and toindicate their communicative projects, in spite of their limitedSwedish (L2) resources. The findings are discussed in termsof their implications for understanding participation in L2classroom interactions as being a matter of delicately calibratedcollaborative accomplishments.

  • 41.
    Cekaite, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    Uppsala universitet, Institution för pedagogik.
    Staging linguistic identities and negotiating monolingual norms in multhiethnic school settings2008In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 177-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on children's language alternation practices in two primary school settings. More specifically we explore how participants (children and teachers) in episodes of language alternation invoke linguistic and social identities, thereby 'talking into being' language and educational ideologies. The present study is based on multi-sited ethnography in two multiethnic educational settings where classroom activities are primarily in Swedish. Theoretically, it draws on sequential identity-related approaches to language alternation practices (Gafaranga, 2001). As demonstrated, both children and teachers draw on a range of linguistic varieties, and refrained from involving in polylingual practices. In so doing, they were actively engaged in producing and resisting a range of locally valued identities (i.e. monolingual, bilingual, and polylingual student). Simultaneously a monolingual norm was brought into being and, importantly, the children appropriated and exploited the monolingual norms-in being for organising their social relations. Overall the study highlights the links between social and linguistic identities, language choice, and language and educational ideologies. We argue that an understanding of children's polylingual practices in multilingual settings is provided by a close analysis of the local processes of identity work located within the wider sociocultural context (e.g. language and educational ideologies)

  • 42.
    Cekaite, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holm Kvist, Malva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Comforting Touch: Tactile Intimacy and Talk in Managing Childrens Distress2017In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines young childrens distress management in situ, focusing on situations of crying and caregivers embodiedhapticsoothing responses in preschools in Sweden. The adults responses to crying involve embraces, stroking, and patting. Haptic soothing is managed by calibrating the bodily proximity and postural orientations between the participants, including hapticembracing or face-to-faceformations that are coordinated with particular forms of talk. Haptic formations configure specific affordances for embodied participation by actualizing the availability of tactile, aural, and visual modalities. The interactional organization of soothing in an embracing formation involves: an initiation/invitation and response, submergence of two bodies into a close haptic contact, and coordinated withdrawal from haptic contact. The embracing formation temporarily suspends the requirements for the distressed person to act like a responsive listener and speaker. The caregiver uses the face-to-face formation to reestablish conditions for the childs interactional co-presence. Data are in Swedish and English translation.

  • 43.
    Colliander, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Building bridges and strengthening positions: Exploring the identity construction of immigrant bilingual teachers2017In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how bilingual teachers with an immigrant background construct professional identity in the context of initial literacy and second language teaching of adults. Specifically, the study seeks to understand what the teachers’ membership of different work-related communities means for their professional identity and what capital the teachers use, negotiate and acquire to strengthen their positions in this professional field. The study is based on interviews with seven bilingual teachers. The data has been analysed from the perspective of situated learning theory and by employing some complementing concepts of Bourdieu used as thinking tools. The findings illustrate how the teachers construct their professional identity in relation to their students and by positioning themselves in different teacher communities. Moreover, the findings stress how the local school community plays a crucial part in determining the position the teachers obtain in the field. But in spite of being acknowledged as professionals, the teachers still need to negotiate their position by acquiring new capital and stressing the capital they already have.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-05-07 11:26
  • 44.
    Deppermann, Arnulf
    et al.
    Institut für deutsche Sprache Mannheim.
    Feilke, Helmuth
    Gießen University.
    Linke, Angelika
    Zurich University.
    Sprachliche und kommunikative Praktiken2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta Sweden.
    A Comparative Study of Disfluencies in Four Swedish Travel Dialogue Corpora1999In: Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech Workshop, 1999, p. 3-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on ongoing work on disfluencies carried out at Telia Research AB. Four travel dialogue corpora are described: human–"machine"–human (Wizard-of-Oz); human–“machine” (Wizard-of-Oz); human–human and human–machine. The data collection methods are outlined and their possible influence on the collected material is discussed. An annotation scheme for disfluency labelling is described. Preliminary results on five different kinds of disfluencies are presented: filled and unfilled pauses, prolonged segments, truncations and explicit editing terms.

  • 46.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    A Probabilistic Tagging Module Based on Surface Pattern Matching1994In: NODALIDA ’93 – Proceedings of ‘9:e Nordiska Datalingvistikdagarna’,Stockholm 3–5 June 1993 / [ed] Robert Eklund, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 1994, p. 83-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper treats automatic, probabilistic tagging. First, residual, untagged, output from the lexical analyser SWETWOL2 is described and discussed. A method of tagging residual output is proposed and implemented: the left-stripping method. This algorithm, employed by the module ENDTAG, recursively strips a word of its leftmost letter, and looks up the remaining ‘ending’ in a dictionary. If the ending is found, ENDTAG tags it according to the information found in the dictionary. If the ending is not found in the dictionary, a match is searched in ending lexica containing statistical information about word classes associated with the ending and the relative frequency of each word class. If a match is found in the ending lexica, the word is given graded tagging according to the statistical information in the ending lexica. If no match is found, the ending is stripped of what is now its left-most letter and is recursively searched in dictionary and ending lexica (in that order). The ending lexica – containing the statistical information – employed in this paper are obtained from a reversed version of Nusvensk Frekvensordbok (Allén 1970), and contain endings of one to seven letters. Success rates for ENDTAG as a standalone module are presented.

  • 47.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ASR “Sweet Sixteen”: An Evaluation of Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer Success Rates in 69 Commercial Applications 16 years After Its Inception and an Assessment of Inter- and Intralabeler Agreement2012In: Proceedings FONETIK 2012. The XXVth Swedish Phonetics Conference May 30–June 1, 2012, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 113-116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of success ratesof the Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer in 69commercial applications provided by VoiceProvider Sweden. The analysis is based on 185quality assurance reports from the periodJanuary 2007 through October 2011. An interandintralabeller agreement analysis is included.

  • 48.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Crosslinguistic Disfluency Modeling: A Comparative Analysis of Swedish and Tok Pisin Human–Human ATIS Dialogues2000In: Proceedings of 6th international conference on Spoken language processing : ICSLP 2000 : the proceedings of the conference : Oct. 16-20, 2000, Beijng, China, 2000, p. 991-994Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies disfluencies in authentic human–humandialogues in Swedish and Tok Pisin. It is found that while there are no major differences as to types or frequencies on a macro level, there are dissimilarities on a micro level, notably in the characteristics of how prolonged segments are realized. The paper also discusses the results in the light of reported disfluencies in English, German, Ilokano and Tagalog.

  • 49.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimaldi’s “Discovery of the Cat Language”: A theory in need of revival (or perhaps not?)2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund university , 2015, p. 27-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen a growing number of studies on both felid vocalizations ingeneral and human–felid communication in particular. Frequently considered as the starting point for this line of research is Mildred Moelk’s seminal paper from 1944, in which she provides a taxonomy of basic felid vocalizations, complete with phonetic transcriptions. Less known is the fact that Cat Language was decoded in far more detail half a century earlier, by one “Prof. Grimaldi”, who sadly never published his findings. However, an English translation of Grimaldi’s findings was published by Marvin Clark in 1895, so the astonishing observations made by Grimaldi are not lost to the world. In the present paper a summary of Grimaldi’s results will be provided, in the hope that this research will serve as a source ofinspiration to present and future researchers of Cat Language.

  • 50.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Ingressive Speech As An Indication That Humans Are Talking To Humans (And Not To Machines)2002In: Conference Proceedings: ICSLP 2002, 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing; INTERSPEECH 2002; September 16 - 20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, 2002, Vol. 2, p. 837-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulmonic ingressive speech is often mentioned anecdotally in the linguistic research. Most previous studies investigating the phenomenon have stressed the paralinguistic function of ingressive speech (IS).

    This paper studies IS in two corpora of spontaneous Swedish speech. Eight subjects made business travel bookings in two data collections. In one corpus the subjects talked with a real, human travel agent; in the other theyspoke with what they believed was a computer, played by a professional actor. The results show that all subjects made use of IS in the human–human setting, while no one used IS in the human–machine setting.

    These results strengthen the notion that IS is a speech phenomenon that is truly associated with human interactions. The results are discussed from the perspective of possible underlying factors, including discourse structure, gender issues, and possible enhancements in automatic speech-based dialog systems.

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