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  • 1.
    Adborn, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärares yrkesetik.: En litteraturstudie.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur läraretik definieras, motiveras och förvärvas enligt yrkesetisk litteratur för lärare och lärarstudenter. Förhoppningen är att undersökningen ska bidra till att ge kunskap om den etiska dimensionen i lärares arbete och om den kompetens lärare behöver för att kunna hantera etiska konflikter i skolans vardag.

    Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ textanalys av tre böcker om yrkesetik som används på lärarprogrammen i Sverige. Böckerna är:

    • Läraren i etikens motljus av Trygve Bergem, professor i pedagogik.

    • Lärares yrkesetik av Roger Fjellström, docent i praktisk filosofi.

    • Den värdefulla praktiken av Kennert Orlenius, fil.dr. i pedagogik och Airi Bigsten, förskollärare och

      doktorand i pedagogik.

      Böckerna analyseras utifrån följande frågor:

    • Varför finns det yrkesetik för lärare?

    • Vad innefattar lärares yrkesetik?

    • För vem är yrkesetiken bra?

    • Hur förvärvas/utvecklas yrkesetiken?

      Undersökningen visar att:

      • Skolan består av en etisk/moralisk dimension inför vilken läraren behöver god

        handlingsberedskap.

      • Introduktionen av yrkesetik bör ske under lärarutbildningen, vilket ökar möjligheten för läraren att

        tidigt utveckla sin etiska kompetens.

      • Yrkesetiken är viktig för att yrket skall ses som en profession. 

  • 2.
    Almén, Edgar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Furenhed, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hartman, Sven G.
    Lärarhögskolan, Stockholm.
    Skogar, Björn
    Lärarutbildningen, Karlstad och Södertörn.
    Livstolkning och värdegrund: att undervisa om religion, livsfrågor och etik2000Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans värdegrund har på senare år lyfts fram i många olika sammanhang. Uppgiften att undervisa om religion, etik, och livsfrågor har också debatterats. Detta undervisningsområde hör till skolans svåraste uppgifter - men kanske också till de viktigaste. Denna antologi ger ett bidrag till utvecklingen av ett professionellt lärarkunnande i frågor som gäller skolans värdegrund och undervisning på livsåskådningsområdet.

    Författarna ger utifrån sina respektive kompetensområden en belysning av några av ämnesområdets centrala aspekter.

    De texter som ingår har skrivits särskilt för lärarutbildningen men kan också användas i andra sammanhang. Avsikten har varit att via texterna föra de studerande i kontakt med såväl aktuell forskning som professionell lärarkunskap av annat slag.

  • 3.
    Aman, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Colonial Differences in Intercultural Education: On Interculturality in the Andes and the Decolonization of Intercultural Dialogue2017In: Comparative Education Review, ISSN 0010-4086, E-ISSN 1545-701X, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay seeks to wean interculturality from its comfort zone of flat substitutability across cultural differences by pushing for the possibility of other ways of thinking about the concept depending on where (the geopolitics of knowledge) and by whom (the bodypolitics of knowledge) it is being articulated. In order to make a case for the importance of always considering the geopolitical and bodypolitical dimension of knowledge production within interculturality, this essay shifts focus away from policies of the European Union and UNESCO to the Andean region of Latin America. In that part of the world the notion of interculturalidad – translation: interculturality – is not only a subject on the educational agenda, it has also become a core component among indigenous social movements in their push for decolonization. With reference points drawn from a decolonial perspective and the concept of “colonial difference”, this essay makes the case that interculturalidad, with its roots in the historical experience of colonialism and in the particular, rather than in assertions of universality, offers another perspective on interculturality bringing into the picture other epistemologies. It concludes by arguing for the requirement to start seeing interculturality as inter-epistemic rather than simply inter-cultural.

  • 4.
    Aman, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning.
    Decolonising Intercultural Education : Colonial Differences, the Geopolitics of Knowledge, and Inter-Epistemic Dialogue2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the centre of Decolonising Intercultural Education is a simple yet fundamental question: is it possible to learn from the Other? This book argues that many recent efforts to theorise interculturality restrict themselves to a variety of interpretations within a Western framework of knowledge, which does not necessarily account for the epistemological diversity of the world.

    The book suggests an alternative definition of interculturality, framed not in terms of cultural differences, but in terms of colonial difference. It brings analysis of the Latin American concept of interculturalidad into the picture and explores the possibility of decentring the discourse of interculturality and its Eurocentric outlook, seeing interculturality as inter-epistemic rather than simply inter-cultural.

    Decolonising Intercultural Education will be of interest to educational practitioners, researchers and postgraduate students in in the areas of education, postcolonial studies, Latin American studies and social sciences.

  • 5.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 6.
    Behrensen, Maren
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Treacherous tropes: how ethicists communicate2016In: Ethics and communication: global perspectives / [ed] Göran Collste, London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2016, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bäcklund, Jimmy Ulf Anti-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    Reciprok egoism, skeptisk empirism och modern fysikalism: Titelförslag på några principer och diskurs kring dessas korrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains an ontological and epistemic analysis of the implication of a consistently physicalist view of reality. This in polemic contrast with transcendentalist positions as that of T. M. Scanlon. I follow along the lines of a sceptical empiricism that I ascribe to Hume and from which, I argue, consistently follows guidelines as set by for example J. L. Mackie and Galen Strawson on topics of self-referential altruism and realistic physicalism respectively.

  • 8.
    Casparsson, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Surrogacy and the best interest of the child2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If altruistic surrogacy should be legal in Sweden, laws concerning screening of the parents should be mandatory and adoption should be promoted as an alternative to surrogacy to a larger extent. Both in surrogacy and adoption the best interest of the child should be a priority, but parents regardless of sexuality, income and to some extent age, should qualify as long as they can prove their ability as parents.

  • 9.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Applied and Professional Ethics2012In: KEMANUSIAAN: The Asian Journal of Humanities, ISSN 1394-9330, E-ISSN 1985-8353, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of applied ethics in recent decades has had great significance for philosophy and society. In this article, I try to characterise this field of philosophical inquiry. I also discuss the relation of applied ethics to social policy and to professional ethics. In the first part, I address the following questions:

    1. What is applied ethics?
    2. When and why did applied ethics appear?
    3. How do we engage in applied ethics? What are the methods?

    In the second part of the article, I introduce professional ethics. What is professional ethics, and how can one distinguish professional ethics from applied ethics? I argue that the moral content of professional ethics is a result of professional relations. I also argue that professional ethics best can be understood as a type of virtue ethics.

  • 10.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att upprätta offrens värdighet - om global rättvisa och försoning2016In: Liv i försoning: Om upprättelse i kyrka och samhälle / [ed] C R Bråkenhielm och G Möller, Stockholm: Verbum Forlag, 2016, p. 41-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Book review: Janusz Salamon (ed). Solidarity Beyond Borders: Ethics in a Globalising World2016In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 366-368Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Colonialism, Epistemic Injustice and Global Justice: A response to ‘Overcoming the Epistemic Injustice of Colonialism’ Rajeev Bhargava*2014In: Global Policy, ISSN 1758-5880, E-ISSN 1758-5899, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 386-387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det handlar om människovärde2013In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Därför är vissa mer jämlika än andra: Recension av Per Sundman: Egalitarian liberalism revisited. On the meaning and justification of social justice (Uppsala 2016)2016In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 25 Nov., p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ethics and Communication: global Perspectives2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can ethics be communicated in an age of globalisation? Is it possible to overcome cultural differences and agree on common values and principles that cross cultural borders? How does globalisation challenge ethics and established moral traditions? How are human rights justified in a global context?

    This timely collection of essays responds directly to these questions. An international team of contributors pursue issues in ethics, information and communication that include both the classical question of the universality/contextuality of ethics and values, but also new challenges for communication relating to how values and norms are communicated and shared across cultural and political borders. The essays in this book explore theoretical questions of global ethics and ethical universalism, ethics and communication with reference to specific world views and religions, and the challenge of globalisation for ethical communication in particular social arenas

  • 16.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett läraretiskt dilemma2014In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Global justice and globalisation2016In: Global ethics for leadership: values and virtues for life / [ed] Christoph Stückelberger, Walter Fust, Obiora Ike, Geneve: Globethics.Net , 2016, p. 81-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation involves both promising potentials and risks. It has the potential – through the spread of human rights, the migration of people and ideas, and the integration of diverse economies - to improve human wellbeing and enhance the protection of human rights worldwide. But globalisation also incurs risks: global environmental risks (such as global warming), the creation of new centres of power with limited legitimacy, a 'race to the bottom' regarding workers' safety and rights, risky journeys of thousands of migrants and not least growing global inequalities. Globalisation, therefore, is a key factor for today's discussions of justice.

    As globalisation connects people, it also raises associated responsibilities between them. Until recently, the interest in justice among political philosophers and social ethicists was mainly focused on the nation state. However, this is no longer feasible. Since economic globalisation affects how wealth and power are distributed globally it has become indispensable to discuss social ethics in a global context and to develop principles of global justice. Global justice, therefore, entails an assessment of the benefits and burdens of the structural relations and institutional arrangements that constitute and govern globalisation

    The academic discussion of global justice is vibrant and expanding. In my introduction I provide an overview of the discussions on global poverty, justice, cosmopolitanism and statism, migration, the capability approach and different dimensions of global justice.

  • 18.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Global Rectificatory Justice2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent events have proved that colonialism has left indelible prints in history. In 2013, the British Foreign Secretary apologized and promised compensation for the atrocities in Kenyan detention camps in the 1950s and the same year the heads of governments of the Caribbean Community issued a declaration demanding reparation for the genocide of indigenous populations and for slavery and the slave trade during colonialism The discussion and literature on global justice has mainly focused on distributive justice. What are the implications of colonialism for a theory of global justice today? What does rectificatory justice mean in the light of colonialism? What does global rectificatory justice require in practice? In seeking to answer these questions, the author fills a significant gap in the literature on global justice.

  • 19.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Globaliation and Global Justice: A Thematic Introduction2016In: De Ethica, ISSN 1854-3405, E-ISSN 2001-8819, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation involves both promising potentials and risks. It has the potential – through the spread of human rights, the migration of people and ideas, and the integration of diverse economies – to improve human wellbeing and enhance the protection of human rights worldwide. But globalisation also incurs risks: global environmental risks (such as global warming), the creation of new centres of power with limited legitimacy, a ‘race to the bottom’ regarding workers’ safety and rights, risky journeys of thousands of migrants and not least growing global inequalities. Globalisation, therefore, is a key factor for today’s discussions of justice.

    As globalisation connects people, it also raises associated responsibilities between them. Until recently, the interest in justice among political philosophers and social ethicists was mainly focused on the nation state. However, this is no longer feasible. Since economic globalisation affects how wealth and power are distributed globally it has become indispensable to discuss social ethics in a global context and to develop principles of global justice. Global justice, therefore, entails an assessment of the benefits and burdens of the structural relations and institutional arrangements that constitute and govern globalisation.

    The academic discussion of global justice is vibrant and expanding. In my introduction I provide an overview of the discussions on global poverty, justice, cosmopolitanism and statism, migration, the capability approach and different dimensions of global justice.

  • 20.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Human dignity, immigration and refugees2014In: The Cambridge Handbook of Human Dignity: interdisciplinary perspectives / [ed] Marcus Düwell, Jens Braarvig, Roger Brownsword, and Dietmar Mieth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 461-470Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In Defence of War. By Nigel Biggar2014In: Philosophical quarterly (Print), ISSN 0031-8094, E-ISSN 1467-9213, Vol. 64, no 257, p. 644-646Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Just war theory has always been a matter of controversy in the Christian tradition. How could war possibly be just according to a belief based on the teaching of ‘the Prince of Peace’? In the history of Christianity, one finds on the one side radical Christians arguing for pacifism, and on the other Church Fathers, bishops and theologians who elaborate a doctrine of just war.

  • 22.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introduction: Ethics and Communication - Global Perspectives2016In: Ethics and Communication: Global Perspectives / [ed] Göran Collste, London & New York: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2016, 1, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Is a generous Immigration Policy a Way to Rectify for Colonial Injustices?2013In: Review of Ecumenical Studies, ISSN 2065-5940, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from former colonies to former colonial powers represents a large part of the 20th century migration. The question discussed in this article is if a generous immigration policy on behalf of persons from former colonies is an appropriate means for the European nations and former colonial powers to compensate for colonial injustices.

  • 24.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Is a generous Immigration Policy a Way to Rectify for Colonial Injustices?2012In: Proceedings from The 49th Societas Ethica Annual Conference 2012, Theme: Ethics and Migration, August 23–26, 2012, Lucian Blaga University Sibiu, Romania / [ed] Göran Collste, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 71-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from former colonies to former colonial powers represents a large part of the 20th century migration. The question discussed in this article is if a generous immigration policy on behalf of persons from former colonies is an appropriate means for the European nations and former colonial powers to compensate for colonial injustices.

  • 25.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Principles and approaches in ethics assessment: Research integrity2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research is a conscious and systematic approach to acquire knowledge, based on theories, methods and standards that have been developed through the history of scientific disciplines. The terms “research integrity” and “good research practice” refer to ideals for how research ought to be performed.

    In the 1940s the American sociologist Robert Merton proposed norms for scientific research that have influenced the discussion on research integrity since then. According to Merton good research should not be secret or anyone’s property but requires instead openness and publicity. Merton uses the term communism/communalism for this norm. The second norm, according to Merton, is universalism, which means that the only relevant criteria for assessing research are the scientific criteria. The position or characteristic of the researcher has no relevance. Thirdly, disinterestedness means that the main motive driving the researcher should be the quest for knowledge, not for example economic gain or fame. Finally, the researcher should always be open for questioning the result. Merton calls this “organized scepticism”. This norm coheres with Karl Popper’s famous demarcation line between research and other activities; falsification, i.e. the constant efforts to falsify one’s result in order to get closer to the truth. Merton’s norms for research are summarized in the acronym CUDOS. Although the exact meaning and implication of Merton’s criteria can be discussed, they imply an ideal for scientific work and deviations from this ideal can be seen as misconduct in research.

    Merton’s CUDOS norms are well - known examples of ideals and norms for science. These norms could be seen as the basis for professional ethics of researchers. Scientific misconduct and fraud are deviation from the ideals of science and good research practice. In the following we first conceptualise the area of scientific misconduct. Then we present some norms, guidelines and codes of scientific integrity. In the next section we

    argue that scientific misconduct is a real problem that must be taken seriously by the research community and finally we discuss how scientific misconduct is investigated, how common it is and how it can be explained.

     

  • 26.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Proceedings from The 49th Societas Ethica Annual Conference 2012, Theme: Ethics and Migration, August 23–26, 2012, Lucian Blaga University Sibiu, Romania2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    August 23-26 2012 Societas Ethica, the European Society for Research in Ethics held its 49th annual conference. The conference theme was “Ethics and Migration” and the setting the Romanian city Sibiu in Transylvania. The site for the conference mirrored the theme. Transylvania has during the centuries been a place for waves of migration, for example, already in the 12th Century it received many German immigrants. It is also today a home for hundreds of thousands of Roma people.

    Migration is so far a neglected issue within applied ethics. This is surprising due to both the seriousness of the issue and the ethical dilemmas it poses. With this conference the Societas Ethica, wished to bolster the ethical discussion on migration. The conference channels illustrated the range of ethical issues that migration raises:

    Many people migrate from poverty and oppression but are stopped at the borders of the rich nations in Europe and America; what are their obligations towards the migrants? How is migration related to global justice?

    Migrants and refugees are vulnerable. They have lost their communities and citizenships. What are the rights of migrants and refugees? Who is obliged to protect their rights?

    Fortress Europe has unfortunately become a reality. With surveillance, fences and barbwire Europe tries to keep the migrants at a distance. But, what are the moral obligations of the individual European nations and of the European Union? What do we owe them?

    Immigrants who have successfully entered Europe are often met with hostility and end up in segregated communities. What are the ethical challenges of segregation and conflicts based on religion and ethnicity?

    The unknown person, the different, the Other, is often despised and persecuted. European history shows ample of evidence of this fact. How should minorities, like for example the Roma people, be respected and included by the majority populations and by the states?

    The first key note speech was held by Dr Gernot Haupt, Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt over the theme “Antigypsism and migration”. Haupt showed with plenty of examples how the Roma people in Europe have been victims of constant policies of exclusion; from repression to extermination culminating in the Holocaust in the 1930s and 1940s. Haupt expressed critique of the present attitude of the majority in societies with Roma minorities. Their message is; it is always they, the Roma, who must change, not we!

    Dr Matthew Gibney from Oxford University addressed the topic “Refugees and justice between states”. He noticed that presently the majority of the world’s refugees go to neighboring poor countries and hence that the refugee situation exacerbate the global inequalities. How can this change? Are not for example nations responsible for creating massive streams of refugees, like the United States after the attack on Iraq in 2003, obliged to host the resulting refugees?

    Dr Michelle Becka from University of Frankfurt am Main talked about “Ethics on the border. Towards a theological horizon in the discourse of migration”. She emphasized that being a stranger is an important theme in the biblical tradition; migrants are in focus for theological ethics. When the humanity of migrants is reduced due to oppression and segregation it is crucial for theological ethics to emphasize the need for solidarity.

    In the last keynote speech Dr Oliver Bakewell from Oxford University talked over the theme “The relationships between migration and human development”. His lecture focused on the potential positive effects of migration for development through Diasporas communities with links to their homelands, remittances, i.e. the financial support that immigrants send back to their home countries, etc.

    More than 40 participants, among them many young scholars from all over Europe but also from India, the United States, Hong Kong and Australia, presented high quality paper. As the only European society open for scholars in moral philosophy, theological ethics and applied ethics, Societas Ethica has a great potential to influence and stimulate the ethical discussions in Europe.

  • 27.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rectification for Atrocities under Colonialism2016In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, ISSN 1369-801X, E-ISSN 1469-929X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 852-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wars and injustices can have wide-ranging reverberations. Colonialism ended – with a few exceptions – over fifty years ago, but there are still many traces left. In this essay I focus on two cases of atrocities under colonialism that have left scars in the present and my question is: how can a nation rectify for the long-term effects of an aggression? What is the appropriate ethical response? The two examples are the German genocide of the Herero tribe in 1904–1905 and the British war against the Mau Mau movement in Kenya in the 1950s. The examples are chosen because they both illustrate enduring claims for rectification after aggressions. After the presentation of these cases and of how Germany and Great Britain have responded, I discuss the meaning of rectificatory justice and criteria for reasonable claims for rectification.

  • 28.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “…restoring the dignity of the victims”. Is global rectificatory justice feasible?2010In: Ethics and global politics, ISSN 1654-4951, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 85-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of global justice has mainly focused on global distributive justice. This article argues for global rectificatory justice, mainly by former colonial states in favor of former colonized peoples. The argument depends on the following premises: (1) there is a moral obligation to rectify the consequences of wrongful acts; (2) colonialism was on the whole harmful for the colonies; (3) the present unjust global structure was constituted by colonialism; and (4) the obligation of rectificatory justice is trans-generational so long as there are at present identifiable beneficiaries and victims of past injustice. Although it is too demanding to ask for full compensation for 450 years of colonialism, the former colonial powers can in different ways and to the best of their efforts contribute to change the present inequalities that are the legacy of history. A theory of global rectificatory justice is complementary to a theory of global distributive justice and enables us to develop a fuller understanding of the meaning of global justice.

  • 29.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social Justice: Perspectives from Uganda2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA

    John Barugahare

    Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in general and the trend seems to be worsening by day. Even though it is possible to borrow a leaf from the Western literature on how to design a good health policy, low income countries like Uganda have special features that render the extrapolation of the Western input good but not enough. In particular, these special features are the level of resource constraints, poverty and the financing mechanism of health care services. These three have very serious implications for equity in health. In general, there is a lot of injustice in the Uganda health care and this has been mainly due to poverty levels and the financing mechanism which the system relies on. Hence, there is an urgent need to concentrate on a discussion of injustice in health because health enhances people’s functionings and is a mandatory condition for people’s enjoyment of other life opportunities to the extent that if a section of a society is made to suffer injustice in health, this will translate into injustice in all the dimensions of their lives. This is something that fair‐minded people cannot afford to live with for long. Therefore, it is important in this work to illustrate how the above three special features play to cause and sustain inequity in Uganda health care system and to  suggest the starting point to overcoming this injustice, not only in Uganda but as a general trend in health policy analysis.

    THE POLITICS OF RESTORING ETHICS AND THE CHALLENGE OF PATRIOTISM IN SERVICE DELIVERY IN UGANDA’S PUBLIC SERVICE

    Dickson Kanakulya

    Reports indicate that there is an erosion of professionalism and ethics across most of the East African public service systems and this is limiting the efficient service delivery and negatively impacts on social justice. Because of this challenge many approaches are being applied to mitigate it, such as the institutional, legal, cultural and the political. This paper discusses the political approach and particularly problematizes the political push for patriotism in Uganda. Most of the critique and analysis was done while carrying out research and consultancy with Makerere Centre for Applied Ethics (MACAE) in selected districts in Uganda under the project “Pro‐poor Integrity” (PPI) funded by Tiri and DFID. The paper argues that the government’s policy of patriotism is more of politicking than real improvement of service delivery to the people. Political interference in public service has engendered a culture of impunity and increased unethical conduct among ‘politically‐connected’ civil servants right from the grass root service to the top administration, The paper argues that if ethics in Uganda’s public administration is to improve politicians ought  to be divorce party‐biased ideology from the patriotism discourse such that it can appeal to a wider spectrum of Ugandans.

    PERSISTENT COLONIAL COERCION IN CONTEMPORARY UGANDA: FOUNDATION OF SOCIAL INJUSTICES IN THE COUNTRY

    Gervase Tusabe

    Since 1962, all Uganda’s major centres of power i.e., political, economic and military have always been dominated by a chosen few, and the attendant wealth that goes with such powers has always been disproportionately enjoyed in favour of these chosen few when a considerable large number of people in the country are living under the weight of abject poverty.

    The major argument advanced in this paper is that the fundamental cause of this experience of injustice in Uganda is the persistent domestic colonial mode of political administration that is managed by a particular closed group of individuals who more or less conspired to work together to promote their self‐centred interests at the cost of deliberately ignoring the legitimate interests of the Ugandans who are outside their group.

    STRUCTURAL INJUSTICES AND THE ETHICS OF ENGENDERING POVERTY ERADICATION POLICIES IN UGANDA

    Michael George Kizito

    Since time immemorial, poverty reduction interventions in Sub‐Saharan Africa like everywhere in the South, have focused on the individual as the basic ingredient of a moral society (ethical individualism). According to this perspective, in order to lift human persons out of poverty, it is imperative to integrate poor persons into poverty eradication interventions irrespective of sex, social status and gender. Scholars and institutions that subscribed to this conception of poverty thought that individuals were poor because of personal weaknesses (case poverty).This perspective has been greatly challenged due to the upsurge of gender and human rights scholarship in the 20th century. Gender scholars have painstakingly argued that in order to understand poverty, we need to look at society (ethical collectivism). They have rejected the Women in Development(WID) discourse that aims at integrating women into the development process in favour of the Gender and Development(GAD) approach to development and poverty reduction that aims at confronting power relations between men and women (empowerment).This GAD perspective looks at poverty in terms of the powerlessness speared head by prevailing structures in society (structural poverty) and hence the need to empower vulnerable persons such as women to challenge structures and strictures of oppression. The International Monetary fund (IMF) and World Bank as vehement promoters of economism in Sub‐Saharan Africa for decades have urged governments to include the perspectives of the poor in poverty polices through what they call participatory poverty assessments (PPAs). Despite its deceptive appearance, this PPAs stance of the IMF and World Bank tacitly looks at poverty as a case and not structural issue and that is why Uganda’s ambitious poverty reduction policy though greatly informed by Participatory Poverty Assessments greatly ignores structures and strictures that render women vulnerable to poverty. This paper critically assesses the obliviousness of Uganda’s Agricultural poverty policy to structures and how this has militated on the gender poverty production in Uganda. The paper contends that in order to realise engendered poverty eradication in Uganda, it is pertinent for the agricultural policy to ultimately make paradigm shift from focusing on the individual as the basic ingredient of a moral society (ethical individualism) to confronting structures and strictures that disempower and vulnerablelise individual moral agents (ethical collectivism).

  • 30.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Societas Ethica’s Annual Conference 2015: Globalisation and Global Justice, Lunnevads folkhögskola, Linköping, Sweden, August 20-23, 2015: Societas Ethica Jahretagung 2015, Globalisierung und globale Gerechtigkeit2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings from the Societas Ethica’s annual conference 2015 looks different than previous years. We do not publish the full papers this year. The reason for this change is that less and less papers have been submitted the last years due to the fact that most academic journals are hesitant to publish articles that already have been published in conference proceedings. So, in order to be able to mirror the conferences, the board of Societas Ethica decided that it is better that the conference proceedings contain the paper abstracts.

    The proceedings contain three parts; first, the thematic introduction by the President, then the key note speeches and the responses to the key notes and finally, the conference paper abstracts.

  • 31.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strangers in our Midst2017In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 638-640Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 32.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sverige har ansvar för slavhandeln2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I måndags rapporterade Dagens Eko att de karibiska staterna kräver gottgörelse från en rad europeiska länder, däribland Sverige, för det lidande deras befolkningar utsatts för genom slaveriet och slavhandeln.

    Bakgrunden är att 15 karibiska stater tillsatt en gemensam undersökningskommission ledd av historikern Hilary Beckles med syfte att undersöka slavhandelns effekter i Karibien. Beckles har i samband med denna undersökning också publicerat boken ”Britain’s Black Debt” (2013).

  • 33.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    The meaning of global rectificatory justice2013In: XXIII World Congress of Philosophy. Philosophy as Inquiry and Way of Life, abstracts, 2013, p. 125-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Manzeschke, ArneInstitut Technik-Theologie-Naturwissenschaften an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.
    Proceedings from the Societas Ethica Annual Conference 2011, The Quest for perfection. The Future of Medicine/Medicine of the future, August 25-28, 2011, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOCIETAS ETHICA (European Society for Research in Ethics) is an organisation for the exchange of scholarly work in ethics. SOCIETAS ETHICA is bilingual: English and German are the official languages for conferences and publications. Each year the SOCIETAS ETHICA organises a conference (usually at the end of August). Members and non-members are invited to give a lecture or prepare a paper on the theme of the year. The theme of the year reflects on a current subject of interest and debate in either applied ethics or fundamental ethics. The theme of the 2011 conference was: The Quest for perfection. The Future of Medicine/Medicine of the future.

  • 35.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Verweij, Marcel
    Utrecht University.
    Editorial: Personal Health Monitoring and Human Interaction2012In: American Journal of Bioethics, ISSN 1526-5161, E-ISSN 1536-0075, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 47-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The Ethical Problems of Reserach: An empirical study of ethics in research practice2013Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral level in the fields of medicine, the humanities, education and social sciences, who devoted at least 50% of their working hours to research. They reported issues they face before, during, and after gathering data. Their range of issues is broader than generally discussed and point to the importance of researchers’ ethical sensitivity.

  • 37.
    Echeverria, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ReservationHop and the Effect of Unrestricted Marketization on Society2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct a case study examining the intrusion of marketplace ideals on various aspects of everyday life. In this thesis, I provide a case study of a new business in San Francisco, ReservationHop, that transforms the previously first come, first serve restaurant reservation service into an auction style scalping (resell at a higher price) system, thereby affecting the distribution of an economic service, or good.

    In order to investigate this phenomenon, this thesis is organized into six main sections. First, I will provide a brief introduction to the thesis, presenting my aim and purpose in writing and why I believe that this is an important topic. I then introduce ReservationHop and describe the site and its business model, the controversy that it has evoked, and the app's creator Brian Mayer's attempts to defend the app's legitimacy. Thirdly, I will provide considerations in support of the ethical permissibility of the ReservationHop business model, using two neoclassical economic arguments: consumer choice theory and the Pareto-efficiency argument. Fourthly, I will counter these arguments, claiming that this service is not a Pareto optimal improvement because it involves deception, which is incompatible with genuine Pareto optimality. In the fifth section, I will introduce my main argument against ReservationHop in which I introduce the idea that there is something inherently wrong with the service even if its deceptive characteristics were corrected for. I argue that there should be "things that money cannot buy" because unfettered marketization erodes the nonmarket value of community, or commonality.

    In conclusion, this thesis argues that the intrusion of marketplace values on all aspects of society should be resisted, and that we must rethink the increased influence of marketization for it crowds out other important non-market values, e.g., our sense of community solidarity.

  • 38.
    Grankvist, Hannah
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Can Risks be Offset by the Prospect of Benefit in Trial Design?2015In: American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 61-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Grankvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kimmelman, Jonathan
    Studies for Translation, Research Ethics, and Medicine (STREAM), Biomedical Ethics Unit/Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University.
    How do researchers decide early clinical trials?2016In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Launch of clinical investigation represents a substantial escalation in commitment to a particular clinical translation trajectory; it also exposes human subjects to poorly understood interventions. Despite these high stakes, there is little to guide decision-makers on the scientific and ethical evaluation of early phase trials. In this article, we review policies and consensus statements on human protections, drug regulation, and research design surrounding trial launch, and conclude that decision-making is largely left to the discretion of research teams and sponsors. We then review what is currently understood about how research teams exercise this discretion, and close by laying out a research agenda for characterizing the way investigators, sponsors, and reviewers approach decision-making in early phase research.

  • 40.
    Grooteman, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Integration – the Tool for a Better Future?: A Descriptive Ethical Analysis of the Dutch Integration Policy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis in applied ethics is a descriptive ethical analysis of the current integration policy in the Netherlands. The main purpose is to describe and critically discuss the Dutch integration policy. In the recent years there has been a major shift in the Dutch integration directive, from a liberal to a harsher integration policy. This thesis contributes with a characterization of integration by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, European Commission and within the Dutch context, particularly a characterization of values and ideals in integration policies. Also, an attempt is made to analyze what the underlying motives and core values are, and which values should be fostered. Moreover, an overview is given of the various dimensions of integration. The second part of this thesis explores the Dutch integration policy in light of the European Commission's eleven common basic principles for immigrant integration policy in the European Union. In addition, ethical implications concerning the Dutch integration policy will be stated. Finally, the consequences of failing integration will be identified and some practical recommendations for the Dutch integration policy will be provided.

  • 41.
    Guimarães Naso, Renata
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Gender Studies.
    Therapeutic Alliance between Psychologists and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Feminist Ethics of Care Interpretation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the construction of the therapist-client alliance in the therapeutic setting with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it explores the ways a Feminist Ethics of Care perspective could enhance the partnership between the actors. To fulfil such aims, the author conducted six in-depth semi-structured interviews with psychologists working at one of the most renowned institutions for perpetrators of IPV in Norway and Sweden. The analysis of the psychologists' discourses demonstrates that several factors are influential in the alliance construction. The most important aspects are: the clients' perspective towards the psychologists; the therapists' views towards the clients; the psychologists' engagement with moral sentiments; the power struggle between the actors; and the use of techniques for the professionals to enhance their connection with the clients. Besides that, the discourses also show that moral superiority seems to guide the psychologists when relating with the perpetrators. Their views are embedded in an individualistic ethics based on the principles of Kohlberg's Ethics of Justice. The thesis suggests that a collective ethics such as Gilligan's Feminist Ethics of Care would enhance the partnership between the actors. This theoretical framework allows the psychologists to change their superior moral views of the clients to a moral responsibility towards them. When such movement in perspective happens, the therapists begin to see the perpetrators as human beings with many different facets. Consequently, they truly deny a judgmental impression towards their identity.

  • 42.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Juth, Niklas
    LIME, Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis2017In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

  • 43.
    Gyllander, David
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Ethical Aspects of Norwegian Aquaculture2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian government has submitted a report to the Norwegian parliament, concluding that raw oil export can no longer sustain economic growth. Norway is therefore seeking other industries to minimize the economic loss this is causing. Norway is already the largest exporter of salmon and trout in the world. The report states that the government's goal is to increase production to five times today's production by 2050. The ability and desire to grow has its backing from a handful of large companies dominating the aquaculture business and a newly recognized right-wing government eager to make the playroom larger for the aquaculture industry. This paper analyzes the report, using an ethical matrix, looking for ethical arguments from the government as well as defining the stakeholders affected by the government's goal.

    This thesis' aim is to analyze and discuss the broad range of ethical concerns, based on an ethical matrix, so that a variety of ethical perspectives can be included in an evaluative discussion.

  • 44.
    Hammarström, Gunhild
    Prioriteringscentrum.
    Ekonomi och etik: Argumentering vid besparingar inom sjukvården i ljuset av Prioriteringsutredningen2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie har varit att studera om, och i så fall på vilket sätt Prioriteringsutredningens etiska riktlinjer har tillämpats i praktiken vid besparingar inom ett sjukhus. Studien utgörs av en fallstudie av en beslutsprocess år 1996 vid Akademiska sjukhuset i Uppsala läns landsting, där sjukhuset var ålagt ett besparingskrav från landstingets sida. Det empiriska material, som studien baseras på, består av den skriftliga dokumentation som föreligger från beslutsprocessens olika aktörer. De aktörer som deltagit i beslutsprocessen är sjukhusdirektören samt representanter för den medicinska professionen och landstingspolitiker på olika nivåer. De som jag ser som huvudaktörerna är, förutom sjukhusdirektören, en medicinskt-etiska arbetsgrupp tillsatt av sjukhusdirektören samt landstingets tre hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnder bestående av politiker.

    I samband med studien har jag kunnat konstatera att även om de olika aktörskategoriernas argumentering kan karakteriseras om rationell utifrån deras respektive mål och intentioner, har inte själva beslutsprocessen skett i enlighet ned den normativt rationalistiska beslutsmodell, som förutsätts inom traditionell organisationsteori.

    När det gäller frågan om i vilken mån Prioriteringsutredningens etiska riktlinjer har beaktats under själva beslutsprocessen, föreligger en viss skillnad mellan den argumentering, som förts i fråga om förslag till besparingar, och själva beslutet. Vid en jämförelse av politikerna i hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna och ledamöterna i den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppen framkommer, att i de besparingsförslag, som härrör från den medicinska professionen, har de etiska riktlinjerna beaktats. Jag har dock tolkat den medicinska professionens argumentation som relativt schablonmässig. Hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna har däremot i sitt gemensamma yttrande över huvudtaget inte nämnt Prioriteringsutredningen och dess riktlinjer.

    Hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna har främst argumenterat utifrån målet att uppnå en ”ekonomi i balans”, medan den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppen har utgått från ”patientens behov” och ”de medicinskt-etiska konsekvenserna” för patienterna. Min tolkning är att de båda aktörskategorierna har argumenterat utifrån olika normativa rationaliteter, genom att de har utgått från olika kulturella och normativa föreställningar och värderingar. De har därvid använt den argumentering som är accepterad inom respektive kultur, vilket ger ökad legitimitet till de föreslagna besparingarna inom den egna gruppen. Även om deras respektive argumentering kan fungera inkluderande i förhållande till den egna gruppen, kan den samtidigt fungera avskiljande och gränssättande gentemot den andra.

    Det slutliga beslutet om de faktiska besparingarna utgör i huvudsak en kompromiss mellan hälso- och sjukvårdsnämndernas kraftigare besparingskrav med sänkt omvårdnad och den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppens beaktande av konsekvenserna för patienterna. Eftersom beslutsprocessen varit interaktiv till sin karaktär, har jag tolkat kompromissen och överbryggandet av den gränssättande retoriken som ett resultat av både strategiskt och kommunikativt handlande från sjukhusdirektörens sida, d.v.s. ett handlande som är både framgångsorienterat och inriktat på inbördes förståelse.

    Frågan om i vilken mån Prioriteringsutredningens riktlinjer har inverkat på det faktiska beslutet är dock inte så lätt att besvara, eftersom även generella medicinskt-etiska principer har inverkat, och genom att det inte är möjligt att särskilja betydelsen av dessa generellt formulerade medicinskt-etiska principer i relation till Prioriteringsutredningens riktlinjer. En förklaring till detta kan också vara att de fastställda prioriteringsgrupperna kanske inte är helt praktiskt ”översättbara” till olika verksamheter inom ett sjukhus på den politiskt-administrativa nivån på det sätt som var tänkt.

  • 45.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    I’m his wife not his carer! - Dignity and couplehood in dementia.: dignity and couplehood in dementia2014In: Beyond Loss: dementia, identity, personhood / [ed] Lars-Christer Hydén, Hilde Lindemann, Jens Brockmeier, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry and Habilitation.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Living the Categorical Imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics2012In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'.

  • 47.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement2012In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 20-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on par with for example homosexuality. The broad version of the neurodiversity claim, covering low-functioning as well as high-functioning autism, is problematic. Only a narrow conception of neurodiversity, referring exclusively to high-functioning autists, is reasonable. We will discuss the effects of DSM categorization and the medical model for high functioning autists. After a discussion of autism as a culture we will analyze various possible strategies for the neurodiversity movement to claim extra resources for autists as members of an underprivileged culture without being labelled disabled or as having a disorder. We will discuss their vulnerable status as a group and what obligation that confers on the majority of neurotypicals.

  • 48.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection2013In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 817-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger’s disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a hypothetical in vitro fertilization (IVF) situation where preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed and compare this with a similar selection for congenital deafness. To do this we first discuss relevant human differences. We then introduce the principle of human capabilities (PC) and compare this principle with the principle of procreative beneficence (PB) introduced by Savulescu and Kahane. We apply the two principles to selection for mild autism and selection for congenital deafness. We argue that PC allows for the selection for mild autism but rules out selection for congenital deafness. PB will not give clear answers; the ruling of PB depends to a large extent on expected social, cultural and political developments. We will argue that PC is preferable to PB. We will discuss arguments for the value of mild autism for individuals who have this condition and argue that they are able to lead a life with human dignity provided autism-friendly social circumstances are present. Neither PC nor PB yields strong reasons for prospective parents to seek to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to mild autism spectrum disorder.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trollbridge: Order effects, and moral dilemmas with three choice alternatives2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research about morality heavily relies on using questionnaires and moral dilemmas when answering different research questions. Despite this very little focus has been put on how the order of presentation alters response frequencies. A test was put forth to test if there is any effect based on order of presentation, and despite that it has been found before, no such effects were found. Why no order effects were found here are not clear, but it shows that it is something that needs to be controlled for in research on moral dilemmas. Secondly, in moral research a lot of focus is put on moral principles to use as explanation for whole groups of respondents, such as deontology, utilitarianism and the DDE. To see if these are strong indicators of what humans will do in these moral dilemmas, two versions of the trolley and footbridge dilemma was put together, where all three response alternatives were presented at once, that is push the stranger, pull the switch or do nothing. In one of these conditions one person are on the side tracks in the switch condition, and in the second three workers are on the side tracks. It was found that although individuals motivate their actions in line with utility and the DDE, less people decide to act when three alternatives are presented. This shows that people are not consistent with their moral evaluation, and that it might be hard to predict what one will do in these situations.

  • 50.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children at the Borders2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of a steady flow of child migrants attempting to cross borders and states’ efforts to restrict immigration, various public controversies have arisen about the rights of asylum-seeking children. The ‘moral gap’ between the outcome of democratically enacted laws and the aim of controlling immigration, on the one hand, and public calls to protect the universal rights of asylum seeking children, on the other, have created a political challenge for Western democracies. This thesis sets out to examine two particular settings in which norms about the rights of asylum-seeking children and immigration control have been established and contested over the years: the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal and Sweden’s largest morning paper, Dagens Nyheter. It combines empirically oriented analysis with theoretical enquiry, and it brings the issue of the rights of asylumseeking children into dialogue with the contemporary political-philosophical debate about membership, rights and borders.

    List of papers
    1. 'We beg you, let them stay!': Right claims of asylum-seeking children as a socio-political practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>'We beg you, let them stay!': Right claims of asylum-seeking children as a socio-political practice
    2017 (English)In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s rights to asylum have emerged as an urgent political challenge. This article uses a number of cases discussed in Sweden’s largest morning paper to analyse claims of asylum-seeking children and how these claims challenge the normative limits of contemporary asylum, concerning what and who ought to be recognized by law. Even though the universality of the child constitutes a running theme, the arguments and the conception of children underpinning the claims are diverse. The article suggests that the claiming of rights as a socio-political practice could be a vital analytical approach to studying children’s rights and offers a much needed alternative to the dominant mainstreaming paradigm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage Publications, 2017
    Keywords
    Asylum, children’s rights, citizenship, deportation, mainstreaming, right claims, socio-political practice
    National Category
    International Migration and Ethnic Relations Ethics Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133237 (URN)10.1177/0907568216674785 (DOI)000407128200004 ()
    Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Childrens Rights to Asylum and the Capability Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childrens Rights to Asylum and the Capability Approach
    2016 (English)In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 101-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The prospect of large populations of children migrating across national borders raises urgent political and ethical questions about childrens rights to asylum. In recent years, there has been an increase in scholarly interest in migrating children and childrens rights, but this interest has thus far been scant in political theory. The present article uses the Capability Approach to discuss childrens rights to asylum and to examine the prospects and limitations of the approach in this context. It underlines that, despite a global consensus on the rights of the child, the political and ethical challenges to childrens rights to asylum cannot be reduced to a question of the implementation of universal rights or capabilities of children a matter of technicalities or mainstreaming of legislation. Instead, the question of childrens rights to asylum is a highly political and ethical matter, characterized by ambivalent conceptualizations of children and conflicting interests that continue to pose a considerable challenge to the organisation of the international political and legal system. The Capability Approach has the potential to fill a theoretical gap with regard to childrens interests and the setting of threshold levels, although it continues to wrestle with questions of how to confront the asylum-seeking child as a political subject within well-functioning democracies and how to determine a specific list of capabilities and corresponding duties in deliberation between the right to self-determination of nation states and universal entitlements of children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PEETERS, 2016
    Keywords
    Children; migration; asylum; Capability Approach; childrens rights
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128971 (URN)10.2143/EP.23.1.3141836 (DOI)000375827100005 ()
    Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-08-28
    3. Children's Rights to Asylum in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's Rights to Asylum in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal
    2017 (English)In: International Journal of Children's Rights, ISSN 0927-5568, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 85-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s rights to asylum have led to political controversies in a number of countries in recent years. This article focuses on the translation of nearly universally recognised children’s rights principles into a domestic practice of immigration control, and explores how legal norms regarding children’s rights to asylum have developed in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal 2006–2013. Court decisions are analysed with a focus on the meanings given to the best interests of the child, how this is given weight against state interests of immigration control, and how children’s interests are given normative force. It is only in a small minority of cases in which the Best Interests Principle (BIP) in fact does have a decisive normative force in granting residence permits and the meanings and use of children’s interests in court argument makes evident that the BIP enables both the granting and denial of residence permits. The BIP is doing normative work in double directions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Brill Nijhoff, 2017
    Keywords
    children’s rights; law; decision-making; migration; best interests of the child; Migration Court of Appeal; asylum
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139972 (URN)10.1163/15718182-02501009 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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