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  • 1.
    af Malmborg, Solith
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Research: ROTHKO: - ett arbete om att lära känna sig själv genom någon annan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project examines both inner and outer circumstances of knowledge in an attempt to emphasize the importance of personal reflection. I search for answers on how to communicate feelings through colour and form by studying Mark Rothko and the abstract expressionism. A personal reflection is made parallelly to expand my own understanding of the subject and my own role in relation to it. I also explore painting as amethod of deepening my understanding of Rothko.

    Mark Rothko is both subject of study and tutor as I give myself the task of translating his art into my own design.

    The result offers thoughts and ideas on the significance of the work of hand, the use of colour and the meaning of intention, which I claim are important aspects when aiming for emotional results. However I also reflect upon the fact that the communication remains individual and that it is therefore problematic to confirm success in this matter.

  • 2.
    Ahlsell, Chandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knutsson, JohanLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.Knutsson, JohanLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.Sandin Bülow, KerstiLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carl Malmsten Furniture Studies: Josef Frank : studenter och lärare vid Carl Malmsten Furniture studies utforskar Josef Frank2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aesthetic Flexibility: Modularity of Visual Form in Product Portfolios and Branded Products2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in competition amongst companies that produce complex or large product portfolios has created a need to utilise modularity strategies not only to flexibly manage technical complexity in a costeffective manner but also for visual appearance. This research aims to understand how the visual appearance of products is affected by modular product development strategies. Specifically, the aim is to understand how such strategies induce constraints and generate possibilities for management of visual appearance in the design process.

    Five studies have been conducted during the course of this licentiate thesis. Two were conducted with professionals and students in design, while the remaining three are theoretical studies based on findings in the literature, theory building, and experimental research. The goal has been to investigate how designers work when they are put to the task of changing and developing the designs of complex products that are part of a portfolio. The challenge has been to study what suitable strategies exist that manage complex products and product brands, then investigate how these influence designers’ practices.

    The first study examined how coherence towards a product category influences the design of new products. The outcome of the study was a method to explore visual coherence and diversity in the appearance of a product category.

    The remaining four studies investigated how modularity, brand management and the redesign of product portfolios influence a design process. The second study described a design phenomenon known as aesthetic flexibility, which was further explored in studies three and five. The outcome from these studies was a proposal for four aesthetic flexibility strategies.

    The fourth study investigated in what way portfolio extension strategies found in brand management and design research are related, and how such strategies influence aesthetic flexibility. The results from study four were illustrated as a model.

    The main contribution of this work is the phenomenon of ‘aesthetic flexibility’, which helps understand the factors that influence designers when working with branded modular products. Understanding visual flexibility serves as a starting point in further investigations of how different development strategies affect the possibilities for visual product design.

    The findings of this work serve to illustrate and explain a complex and multi-facetted design phenomenon which many designers manage more or less intuitively today, thus advancing academics’, teachers’ and professional designers’ understanding of the field.

    List of papers
    1. Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding
    2015 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2191-2198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will investigate the strategic design decision-making of an in-house designer in a company with a large product portfolio, with respect to how designers plan for future visual alterations of the product. In-house designers have to think strategically about the creation of recognition and differentiation through design because they influence the company’s overall strategies. Therefore, while balancing aesthetic and semiotic qualities of the product, designers have to consider current as well as future needs for recognition and product differentiation. The ability to do so is affected by cost and brand positioning strategy. An exploratory study was setup to investigate what design strategies could be found in an industrial design team employed by a company. The study exposed how in-house designers could strategically incorporate aesthetic flexibility in product parts in order to create opportunities for faster facelifts or redesigns. The importance of managing carry-over details in larger product portfolios was also discovered. To carry over parts from different products is an important way for a company to save money, development time and at the same time increase brand recognition through repetition. Carry-over can be an aid to enhance visual recognition, but it can also be a hindrance when the designer needs to create differencing design values. Most products have a lifespan before they need to be updated or redesigned, which depends on the competition in a product segment. This makes it extra important for designers to have an understanding of when to incorporate carry-over details and when not to. A model was created to describe how carry-over details, design cues and aesthetic flexibility could be managed in a product portfolio. The model is based on Rune Monö’s works and brand management literature, with an emphasis on the brand positioning framework of Point of Difference, Point of Parity and brand extension by Keller et al.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Strategic Design Decisions, Brand extension, Visual recognition, Product management, In-house designers, Carry-over
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129547 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.360 (DOI)000383740302042 ()
    Conference
    6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015, 26–30 July 2015Las Vegas, United States
    Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2016-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Anjou Lagerström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Larsbergsserien: Om en designprocess av utomhusmöbler i ofentlig miljö från skiss till verklighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a project from the third course in furniture design at Carl almsten Furniture Studies I have got the opportunity to design outdoor furniture with integrated lightning for John Mattson Fastighets AB, property owners in Larsberg, Lidingö. My concept is to create a space for socializing and security. I have worked through a design process based on a specific specification and concept formulation. The furniture will be produced by the lighting company ateljé Lyktan. In this thesis I will describe the process of this product development.

    Parallel to the design process I have done an investigation of the market for my furnitures and outdoor furniture generally. My question is about how the process of the outdoor furniture looks from sketch to reality. Who decides about the furniture in the public space in the city of Stockholm? The result bifurcates into two different parts. The first touches the order John Mattson Fastighets AB did and will be presented in the form of pictures and drawings. The second result concerns my investigation. It is mainly landscape architects that distribute and decide about outdoor furniture in an outdoor environment, but depending on customer requirements vary on the furniture. Architect offices usually wins contracts through tenders or are hired by a private customer.

  • 5.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Service recovery i praktiken: En kvalitativ studie av användandet av service recovery-teorier i ett tjänsteföretag2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt den praktiska användbarheten av befintliga teoretiska ramverk inom service recovery-området som utgångspunkt för att utvärdera och utveckla recovery-arbetet i tjänsteföretag. En datainsamling på ett större svenskt tjänsteföretag har genomförts med ett fokus baserat på befintliga teorier om service recovery. Det insamlade materialet har sedan bearbetats av nyckelpersoner på företaget och funnits leda till en inte oansenlig mängd insikter och åtgärdsförslag relaterat till organisationens recovery-verksamhet. Detta leder till slutsatsen att de teoretiska ramverk som beskriver service recovery-processen framgångsrikt kan användas för att styra utvärdering och utveckling av en organisations recovery-verksamhet. Information som insamlats med befintliga teorier som lins har visats vara relevant för en organisations insikter om det egna recovery-arbetet samt bidragit till utveckling av recovery-verksamheten.

  • 6.
    Ardi, Sonay
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quality of Life of Elderly People in Iran: With Sevice Design Approach2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aging world of today, more attentions are grabbed towards studies on elderly. New facilities and technologies are emerged to serve to the elderly, maketheir life easier, better and more useful. Having participated in a study on thequality of life of the elderly in Europe, it was aimed to run a similar project toresearch the quality of life of the elderly in a Non-EU country. This was donethrough the research questions “What is the quality of life for them?” and “Howa designer, focused on service design, can improve their quality of life?”The knowledge for the study was obtained from fields Quality of Life of ElderlyPeople, Service Design, Service Design Process, and Qualitative Research. As thekey country for this study, Iran was chosen. Study on the target group in thiscountry was done through Cultural Probes and in analyzing the probes, Processfor Empathy in Design was used. To visualize the results of the target group study,Affinity Diagrams and Personas were drawn.The result was designing a service for the target group, which is presented byConcept Scenario, Storyboards, System Maps and Blueprints. In this concept,called “Virtual Family”, the personas are encouraged to be members of a networkwhich is supported by an organization/community in terms of health, social life,leisure activities and educational programs. This network is forming a virtualfamily regarding the traditional values and ethics which are important for thisage group. Additionally it supports them with entertainment and educationalprograms. Later on, the service concept was evaluated by a number of people inthe same age and social group of the target group. Evaluators found the conceptan excellent complement for mentioned target group who are on the verge oflosing their family and social structure, but the organizational system of the contextcountry should be studied to know if it is planning is practical in that context.

  • 7.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pezone, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Service Walkthrough in Astrid Lindgren's Footsteps2012In: Proceedings from ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services, The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, 8-10 February, Espoo, Finland, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 21-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can service prototypes be created and evaluated? This paper describes how methods like bodystorming and experience prototyping can be used in combination with pluralistic walkthrough in an evaluation method we call ‘service walkthrough’. We put the method to test in the development of augmented tourism services at the author Astrid Lindgren's childhood home. After initial design work, a mock-up and roleplay of a treasure hunt in the garden of the childhood home was made. It was evaluated using the service walkthrough method. The most important lesson learned was that a service walkthrough can be used to evaluate service prototypes and that it reveals information about practical as well as experiential issues for users.

  • 8.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Design Ways to Value-In-Use2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 530-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do we mean if we say that a service design work is an example of good design? This paper presents a provisional typology for the ways in which a service design proposal can contribute to value-in-use. The typology covers instrumentality, technical excellence, usefulness, social significance, mutual advantage, collective welfare, and aesthetic values. Moral implications related to norms, power structures and tensions between stakeholders are also considered. It is argued that the typology can facilitate service designers and researchers in framing and re-framing a design effort and conceptualise a value proposition. 

  • 9.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linder, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Know thy users by interpretative phenomenological analysis2018In: Journal of Interaction Science, E-ISSN 2194-0827, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to getting to know a user and understanding the user experience (UX) is phenomenology. Currently, there is a lack of clearly defined methods for phenomenological analysis of user experience in design projects. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is an approach developed in psychology, and in this article, it is adapted to the case of a pro bono design project at a UX design agency supporting a disadvantaged group of people, newly arrived immigrants to Sweden. The design project involved research on how the immigrants experienced a service that introduced them to the job market. The adapted method, UX IPA, contributed to the pro bono project with a focus on both experience and meaning, which is important in design projects that relate to major events in users’ lives. The method was considered less appropriate in UX projects for specific products with highly instrumental use. The method can, in many cases, be too costly. However, costs can possibly be reduced by top-down approaches. In commercial UX projects, the method may be appropriate for the fuzzy front-end of design and innovation, but clients may be unimpressed by the small sample size. This can potentially be alleviated by mixed-methods approaches.

  • 10.
    Aunaas, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknadsföring: ur ett slöjd-, hantverk- och formgivningsperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förändring sker! Med en snabbt växande informationsspridning och teknikutveckling kommer vi möjligtvis behöva ändra vår syn på marknadsföring. Eller?

    Med detta arbete är syftet att undersöka hur marknadsföring går till idag och vilka marknadsföringskanaler som används. I arbetet läggs fokus på att tydliggöra en djupare uppfattning om marknadsförings-ämnet hos fyra informanter. Undersökningen genomförs med en teoribakgrund om viktiga delar inom marknadsföring, så som sociala medier och varumärkets roll i sammanhanget. Därefter utformas en enkät som skickas till de tillfrågade per mail. Informanterna delar med sig av deras uppfattningar kring deras egen marknadsföringsprofil.

    Med olika förutsättningar för verksamheten läggs det mer och mindre vikt vid olika delar i marknadsföringen hos de olika informanterna. Oberoende av examinationstid skiljer informanterna på hur de väljer att uttrycka sig i marknadsföringen. Fokus ligger på att framhäva ett tydligt bild- och formspråk, främja varumärket och förståelsen hos kunder, hitta rätt bärare och att skriva och visa bilder på egen tillverkning. Diskussionen förs i koppling till teoribakgrunden och om det finns samband med tidigare forskning och en bakomliggande anledning till val av marknadsföringskanaler. Finns det skillnader mellan att vara examinerad formgivare på 1900–talet kontra att vara examinerad som formgivare på 2000–talet. 

  • 11.
    Beijer, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En soffa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt mål har varit att skapa ett koncept för en modulsoffa för offentlig miljö som i så stor utsträckning som möjligt är ekologiskt hållbar. Jag har samarbetat med möbelproducenten Lammhults möbel AB. Utifrån min egen idé om vad som utmärker en ekologiskt hållbar möbel har jag lyssnat in mig på producentens önskemål och därefter fördjupat mig i kravspecifikationen genom att undersöka olika materialalternativ, funktion och form. Min metod för att lösa min uppgift har varit research genom intervjuer, nätbaserade källor och omvärldsanalys av befintliga soffor på marknaden. Resultatet är ett koncept till en modulsoffa för offentlig miljö som uppfyller kraven på en ekologiskt hållbar produkt samtidigt som den representerar min egen estetiska vision som formgivare. 

  • 12.
    Berg, Ludwig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    K. Engberg, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kollektion X: En möbelkollektion baserad på möbelhistoriska parenteser2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The history of furniture is full of parentheses, furniture that appeared for short periods of time, was never a big hit, was forgotten or even disappeared. We were convinced that amongst all these more or less forgotten pieces of furniture there were examples worthy of rediscovery and renaissance. By examining these pieces of furniture, we have understood their history and context, found out and reflected upon why they where never more than a parenthesis in the history of furniture, and, last but not least, we have gained an understanding of the purpose of their creation and how they were used. Our ambition with this research - by creating a feeling and an understanding of the furniture - has been to find the pieces that are well suited to act as models for new concepts and products. By describing the furniture’s original purpose, functions and context, we saw opportunities for product updates and rearrangement of form and function. We have made a selection based on a story of a fictitious company, a small company planning to put on the market a coherent collection of exclusive furniture of high quality. The purpose of the collection is to inspire to use and to create stylish, restful places in your home. The concept of the collection guided the criteria and discussions that were the basis of the choices we made when particular pieces of furniture were selected to generate new concepts. The purpose of our work was to show a process of working where we, as cabinet-makers, by means of examining historic furniture, create a coherent collection based on historic models. Our work has resulted in a collection of four pieces of furniture that have been modeled in co-operation with external designers and architects.  

  • 13.
    Björnsdotter, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Tortoise: Hållbar design för Kinas möbelmarknad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Blomgren, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SOUNDSTAGE: Miljöförstärkt ljud i smartphone2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet syftar till att genom design av en telefonapplikation undersöka hur ljud kan förstärkas av den omgivande miljön. Arbetet visar på hur miljöförstärkt ljud skiljer sig från ljudförstärkt miljö samt vilka begränsningar det innebär att använda en vanlig smartphone som plattform. 

    Ett långsiktigt mål är att genom en produkt som låter oetablerade ljudproducenter distribuera sina alster i den offentliga miljön främja fri kultur och kreativitet.

    Arbetet har följt principen för RtD (research through design), där designprocessen utgör det fall som studeras och dokumentationen av den utgör den bas av data som analyseras och leder till slutsatser kring ämnet.

    Designprocessen i detta arbete innebär en mindre omfattande användarstudie i enkätform för att identifiera målgrupp, krav och mål. Följd av en andra studie där en prototyp framtagen med grund i resultaten från användarstudien utvärderas av deltagare genom observation, intervju och reaktionskort. 

    De största utmaningarna för designen grundar sig i att ta fram en applikation som inte stör upplevelsen, men samtidigt kan instruera användaren i hur man använder applikationen. Utifrån arbetet dras slutsatsen att användarinstruktioner, såväl visuella som auditiva, löper större risk att störa upplevelsen i miljöförstärkt ljud än i ljudförstärkt miljö. Vidare konstateras att den största bristen i en lösning som bygger på standardutrustning i jämförelse med en lösning som nyttjar dedikerad utrustning utgörs av begränsningar när det kommer till att ange riktning med hjälp av ljudets rumslighet.

  • 15.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway.
    Benefits of Service Level Prototyping2016In: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6965, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 545-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the impact ofservice design by zooming in on the case of serviceprototyping. It is suggested that prototyping servicesis different from prototyping in other disciplinesand shows how by discussing prototyping ondifferent levels. On the service level of prototyping,a technique called ‘service walkthrough’ can be away to understand whole service experiences. Theservice walkthrough was used in three cases. On anabstract level, what the service walkthrough addsis a technique for service design that allows explorationof the relationship between touchpoints suchas composition, continuity, and consistency. In thecases studied, the walkthroughs increased empathyfor different roles in the services while generating insightsabout e.g. technical requirements, transitionsbetween touchpoints, and expectations at variousmoments of the service. The paper ends with a discussionabout the relationship between touchpointsand the potential scope of the service walkthroughtechnique.

  • 16.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conceptualisations of Service Prototyping: Service Sketches, Walkthroughs and Live Service Prototypes2012In: Service Design with Theory: Discussions on Change, Value and Methods / [ed] Satu Miettinen and Anu Valtonen, Vantaa, Finland: Lapland university press, 2012, p. 175-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the area of serviceprototyping, which is considered by service designersto be one of the most important aspects oftheir work (Blomkvist & Holmlid, 2010). However, littleis known about what a service specific prototypingapproach is and how to best represent services in sucha way that makes it possible to understand whole serviceexperiences. Consequently, one way of conceptualisingservice prototypes is suggested here.By prototyping, an activity surrounding a prototypeis implied. It can be the activity of creating prototypes, oractivities made possible by or with the prototype. Theseactivities are ways to suggest changes to, and gain understandingabout how an existing situation can betransformed into a new one. Here, any representationof such a future state is referred to as a prototype. Differentprototyping approaches have been used withinvarious design disciplines for a long time. This chaptersuggests that service prototyping is a specific activitywith similarities to other prototyping approaches.Service prototyping is described as an activity that involvesthe representation of multiple service momentswhere customers interact with service providers.How such a service specific prototyping approachmight be utilised, to assist service development atvarious stages of the development process, will beaddressed. Representations that can be used at threedifferent stages of the design process will be used asexamples. These are: service sketches, service walkthroughs,and live service prototypes. The examplesillustrate how services can be understood as wholecoherent compositions, and how an embodied andsituated understanding of services can be achieved.

  • 17.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Understanding the Results ofConventional Qualitative ContentAnalysis for Design Research2015In: EAD 2015: The Value of Design Research, Paris, France, 2015, Vol. 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we look closer at content analysis as a tool in design research and question some of the, more or less explicit, assumptions about what can be achieved by such analyses. To do so, we applied a qualitative content analysis (QCA) on six interviews with service design practitioners.

    The topic of the interviews was service prototyping, inquiring the practitioners about their approaches and conceptions, but starting with some more general questions about their work process in the later stages of service design. The interviews were conducted over telephone (2) and Skype (4), most of the time not using video. So a large part of communication that can usually be accessed in physical interactions between people could not be used to enhance understanding of the material.

    Qualitative content analysis is used to create an abstract version of a larger data set. QCA is often understood as negotiating the weaknesses associated with qualitative approaches (Mayring, 2000). We discuss this understanding of QCA by looking at an instance where a conventional QCA was used. Conventional QCA is used when existing theory is limited (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005), and researchers are looking to understand a phenomenon by immersing themselves in data and letting categories emerge. This has also been called inductive category development (Mayring, 2000). Little is known about service prototyping practices, making this an appropriate approach.

    A paper by (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004) was used to decide what the approach should look like. In this study the analysis was divided into stages:

    -        Identifying meaning units

    -        Condensing the meaning units

    -        Coding

    -        Constructing Sub-categories

    -        Applying the Sub-categories to categories

    -        Generalising categories into themes

    In our approach we avoided using preconceived categories (Kondracki, Wellman, & Amundson, 2002) and instead let them emerge from the data, keeping an open attitude to the content. We see this approach as way to go from a straightforward condensation of manifest content, and then, in creating categories and themes, a shift is made to underlying meaning and thus towards the latent content of the material.

    Using this example we show the many subjective choices involved in data collection, choosing unit of analysis (and thereby excluding material), dividing the material into meaning units, and in how to understand the collected data. Unlike the idea that the result of such an approach is somehow more objective or “scientific” than other types of qualitative analysis, we argue that the strength of QCA lies in transparency of data and analysis. The bottom-up approach does not ensure that the result is a consequence of the material, but rather that choices have been made visible. The analysis becomes a rationale for the decisions made during analysis that can be accessed by external researchers. This opens up the analysis for critique but should still be seen as the consequence of subjective choices, perspectives and understanding.

  • 18.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Ways of Seeing Service: Surrogates for a Design Material2015In: NorDes 2015: Design Ecologies, 2015, Vol. 6, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

  • 19.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bode, Angela
    Huddle design pty ltd, level 6 90 William street, Melbourne 3000, Australia.
    Using Service Walkthroughs to Co-Create Whole Service Experiences2012In: ISIDC 2012, 2012, Vol. 3Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A process for prototyping whole services rather than individual parts in isolation is needed. Prototyping services is different from prototyping physical products, yet many designers still use traditional approaches to prototype services, focussing on specific parts rather than whole services. This is especially surprising considering the descriptions of service design as a holistic approach in research. In this paper we suggest and describe a service prototyping technique termed service walkthrough. The service walkthrough technique allows access to service experiences from a holistic point of view, representing not only specific parts (service moments or touchpoints) but also transitions and coherence of the service proposition. In this case, 25 walkthroughs were conducted by a service design agency in Australia. The approach was iterative in the sense that the customer journey was redesigned continuously, and it was enacted by designers supported by scripts for behaviours based on a previous research phase. The walkthroughs were conducted in a lab with actual customers of the client and used low-fidelity props and collateral. Errors were introduced during the walkthrough to gain a better understanding of what expectations the customers have on the service. The walkthrough technique allowed the designers to understand the service experience in an embodied and holistic way. The walkthrough also emphasised empathy for the experience of the intended customers and other stakeholders in the service. More time in between iterations and dynamic roles might improve the approach.

  • 20.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Existing Prototyping Perspectives: Considerations for Service Design2011In: Proceedings of the Nordes’11: The 4th Nordic Design Research Conference, Making Design Matter, 29-31 May Helsinki, Finland, Helsinki, Finland: School of Art & Design, Aalto University , 2011, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new design disciplines that challenge the borders of design practice and inquiry comes new possibilities for prototyping techniques and approaches. The basis for such an evolution is a firm understanding of the existing knowledge generated in design and the challenges posed by new design disciplines, such as service design. This study identifies a framework of perspectives for prototyping to reveal what the existing toolbox of prototyping contains based on a literature overview. Going through published literature from the early 1980s and onward, the framework is constructed using the following perspectives; purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, and representation. These perspectives make knowledge about prototyping explicit and summarise contemporary approaches. Based on current challenges and characteristic attributes of service design the framework is then reconstructed to better cater to design for services. The conclusions are that validity and author are two perspectives that complement the existing framework, and that prototyping so far does not support a holistic approach to prototyping services.

  • 21.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototype Evaluation in Service Design: A Case Study at an Emergency Ward2011In: Proceedings of 20th IASDR 2011, International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypes based on user research are embodiments of hypotheses about how behaviour and experiences will change. The purpose of prototypes has been discussed in academic literature but in the case of service design, some of that knowledge needs to be re-examined. In Service design, one of the problems is that the impact of prototypes is complex and difficult to predict. A way to counter this dilemma is to put more focus on making the hypotheses explicit and testable. This paper presents a practical process for using designers’ hypotheses to generate survey tools for evaluating the impact of prototypes in service systems. This is also a way for designers to verbalize the purpose of service prototypes in a contextual and situated way. The tool was designed to be quick, easy, and light-weight, to suit the needs of design consultants, and it focused on measuring the experiences of a waiting room from the perspective of the visitors. The process has been applied to a project where the waiting room of an emergency ward was redesigned. The three-step process started with building up the hypothesis structure, where the designers’ assumptions and intentions were used to make a representation of the hypothesis. The next step was formulating questions, where questions that tested the hypothesis were formulated. The last step – making the questionnaire – included the selection of what information to gather and iterative testing of the questions. It was found that the designers did not have a well-defined hypothesis. The suggested process can help designers identify a contextual and situated purpose for prototypes.

  • 22.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Designers on Including Stakeholders in Service Prototyping2011In: INCLUDE 11 Proceedings “The Role of Inclusive Design in Making Social Innovation Happen, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are by nature co-created. They are produced and consumed simultaneously through interactions between customers and service providers. The professional design of services is also highly associated with co-creation, which is evident in the sparse service design literature. This paper reveals what designers say they do to involve different stakeholders in the process of prototyping services. The main data source is interviews with designers from design agencies that work exclusively or partially with service design. The paper focuses on the questions of "who is involved in creating prototypes", "who evaluates the prototype" and how "the clients [of the design agencies] are involved". A distinction is made between different types of involvement based on previous literature that characterise different roles and perspectives on inclusion in design. Results show that most of the agencies involve others besides the design team in the creation and evaluation of prototypes. The primary stakeholder in co-creation is the client. End customers are involved also but for the most part, both clients and customers have the role of subjects or informants rather than partners in the creation of prototypes. The evaluation of prototypes follows the same pattern, and a key aspect to some of the agencies is that the client is involved, as a domain expert. The question of who authors prototypes, and implications thereof, is raised and further discussed.

  • 23.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Prototyping According to Service Design Practitioners2010In: Exchanging knowledge, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

  • 24.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University.
    Westerlund, Bo
    Konstfack.
    Workshop: exploring participatory prototyping of services2012In: PDC '12 Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases - Volume 2, 2012, p. 151-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This full day workshop intends to explore approaches, methods and techniques that can be used in participatory prototyping of services. The participants will contribute with their experiences of different ways of working with participatory prototyping. During the workshop the participants will share, explore and give feedback on the method or case that they present. By engaging in other methods there will also be a learning activity. Another aim of the workshop is to initiate research and development of knowledge within the emerging field of participatory prototyping of services and product service systems. One particular interest regards the relation between details and "the whole". The emphasis of the workshop is to have creative learning experiences.

  • 25.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping a Service Design Curriculum: Integrating Current Research in Teaching2011In: Touchpoint, ISSN 1868-6052, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 52-55Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Which direction do we want it to take? (workshop)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Yesterday, today and tomorrow2010In: This is Service Design Thinking: Basics - Tools - Cases / [ed] Stickdorn, M & Schneider, J, Amsterdam: BIS Publishers , 2010, 1, p. 308-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to design and market services to create outstanding customer experiences

    Service design thinking is the designing and marketing of services that improve the customer experience, and the interactions between the service providers and the customers. If you have two coffee shops right next to each other, and each sell the exact same coffee at the exact same price, service design is what makes you walk into one and not the other. Maybe one plays music and the other doesn't. Maybe one takes credit cards and the other is cash only. Maybe you like the layout of one over the other, or one has more comfortable seating. Maybe the staff at one is friendlier, or draws fun shapes on the top of their lattes. All of these nuances relate to service design.

    "This Is Service Design Thinking" combines the knowledge of twenty-three international authors and even more online contributors from the global service design community and is divided into three sections: Basics: outlines service design thinking along five basic principlesTools: describing a variety of tools and methods used in Service Design ThinkingCases: vivid examples for the introduced fundamentals with real-life case studies from 5 companies that did inspiring projects within the field of Service Design

    At the end, a one-page "Customer Journey Canvas" is included, which can be used to quickly sketch any service on a single sheet of paper--capturing different stakeholder concerns: e.g. customers, front-line staff and management.

  • 28.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barrier analysis as a design tool in complex safety critical systems2010In: Design and Complexity, Montreál, Canada, 2010, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When constructing or improving large complex systems, design activities help establish the needs and goals of users, deepen the understanding of the system and facilitate ideation of new solutions. When service systems are large, dynamic and complex, the need for thorough design work is especially evident. However, design methods usually strive to describe and design best case scenarios and we argue they lack the perspective of safety needed when working in safety critical systems. In order to gain knowledge on how a perspective of risk and safety can benefit design in a safety critical domain, two different perspectives were adopted through the use of two different methods. The methods were service blueprinting and barrier analysis, adopted from service design and cognitive systems engineering respectively. The methods were implemented during the research phase of a service design project in a home healthcare system in Sweden. Service blueprinting is a method used by service designers to visualise services. Barrier analysis is aimed at identifying and categorizing artefacts and functions that prevent unwanted events from taking place, or that lessen the impact of their consequences. A comparative analysis of the two methods was performed, concluding that barrier analysis has the potential to benefit design work performed in complex and safety critical systems. The potential for barrier analysis to be more tightly integrated into current service design methods is discussed, but more research is needed in order to clarify this matter.

  • 29.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    External Representations in Service Design: A Distributed Cognition Perspective2013In: EAD 2013: Crafting the Future, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013, Vol. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations which support the design process at various stages. Representations support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable, making external representations especially important in service design. External representations are used both to represent current and future states, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. Many techniques are available that support designers in making representations of services. A comparison was made between the purposes for, and techniques used, in making external representations for service design with theories from cognitive science about benefits of using external representations to think. A pattern emerged during the analysis, indicating that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups, one of interactive techniques and one group of static techniques. Interactive techniques allow designers to interact with a dynamically changing representation, while static representations are unaffected by actions. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly support designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how purposes for visualising and prototyping are related to general benefits of making external representations. It also provides insights about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.

  • 30.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating Prototyping Practices of Service Designers from a Service Logic Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of the nature of services has changed with the introduction of the service dominant logic. An important part of the logic is that services create value-in-use for customers. Customer-focused disciplines such as many design disciplines have a history of working with prototyping to understand the value-in-use. The service design discipline has a similar approach to the development of services. Based on previous research a framework of perspectives on service prototyping is presented which can be used to understand the prototyping approach utilised by designers. Then, using four of the suggested foundational premises of the service dominant logic this paper examines some of the ways prototyping can support the understanding and development of value propositions. The analysis shows that prototypes and the development and testing of them with customers and users can be seen as a tool for making sure that the value propositions offered by the companies are right, as well as exploring the customer’s role as a co-creator of value. The prototyping framework can be used to practically manifest the service-dominant logic in the development of service prototypes.

  • 31.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Walkthroughs to Support Service Development2012In: ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services; The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, Espoo, Finland, 2012, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service design is said to be a holistic design approach. This is evident in most service design literature and textbooks but still services are prototyped by focusing on separate parts rather than whole service journeys. In this paper we propose a technique called service walkthrough that can be used to represent whole services. We explore what information can be generated using the technique and how useful it is. We found that the technique helped identify the flow of information, problematic areas, and design opportunities. The prototype was generally well received by the participants. In addition to earning about information, the technique also revealed insights about time and interdependencies of the various parts of the service. Some remarks are also made about when the service walkthrough can be used in the service development process and considerations concerning the fidelity of service walkthroughs.

  • 32.
    Broberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teckensnitt: Hur svenska bokstavsformgivare har influerats av historiska snitt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att ge en introduktion till viktiga termer och uttryck inom bokstavsformgivningen samt att undersöka på vilket sätt den historiska bokstavsformgivningen influerat bokstavsformgivare som varit verksamma i Sverige under 1900–talet och fram till idag.

    Utöver syftet har två frågeställningar ställts upp;

    • Vilka termer och uttryck är av stor vikt inom bokstavsformgivningen?
    • På vilket sätt har den historiska bokstavsformgivningen influerat bokstavsformgivare som varit verksamma i Sverige under 1900–talet och fram till idag?

    För att söka svar på syftet och frågeställningarna görs en litteraturbaserad studie. Innan resultatet presenteras behandlas bokstavsformens utveckling, under de senaste 3000 åren, kortfattat. Efter det följer resultatet som tar upp termer och uttryck inom bokstavsformgivningen som är av vikt att känna till för att förstå indelningen i de svenska teckensnittsfamiljer som behandlas i uppsatsen. Sist undersöks också på vilket sätt fem bokstavsformgivare som varit verksamma i Sverige under 1900–talet har influerats av den historiska bokstavsformgivningen. En del av bokstavsformgivarna menar att de söker inspiration i den historiska formgivningen och de menar även att det är viktigt att studera dessa teckensnitt för att kunna formge nya klassiska snitt.

  • 33.
    Cao, Linqi
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Developing an experiential design approach to gain understanding about foreign culture: challenges and solutions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s economy is growing. It has been said that “the question like ‘how to do business with Chinese people’ have occupied the minds of international business people who are planning to enter China.” (Fan & Zigang, 2004). Sweden as a country which listed China as its largest trading partner in Asia and a priority country in Sweden's export strategy, has a need to gain understanding about guanxi –an important concept in Chinese business culture. In this thesis, the author will present the development of three exercises inspired by design methods (role play, visualization and customer journey map) which aim to help Swedish business managers to learn guanxi in an experiential way. It includes the challenges the design team went through, how did they solve it and what are the latest version of the exercises looks like. The main challenges presented in this thesis are: how to embed specific knowledge smoothly into exercise; how to set up the role of facilitator(s); and how to increase the level of satisfaction for the users. Those challenges are not only specific to our project, but also could be inspirational for other people (e.g. designers, business culture scholars and so on) who want to create similar exercises or looking for new ways to deliver the knowledge about cross-cultural business communication.

  • 34.
    Colliander Rundberg, Julia Adrianne Martine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Estetik i det kommersiella rummet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a project revolving around the commercial room such as fashion stores with its focus on shop fittings and their way to present products in boutiques like installations. Where fashion and interior blend together, putting layer on layer combining different aesthetic expressions. A space where architecture, interior, furniture, fashion and body meet. An environment depicting beauty and aesthetics that concern intimacy, desire and sensuousness. How do one create commercial spaces that seduce, spaces that evoke desires and cravings?

     

    To find a deeper and wider understanding regarding this subject I wanted to look backwards in history to see how these environments came to be and what counts as the start of our consumption driven society that we live in today. The project resulted in a prototype of a design idé, a piece of furniture regarding storage and the display of clothing, accessories and other fashion related products. With it I wanted to explore certain elements and the way to present and elevate products. I looked at furniture that work as props/scenography which purpose is to enhance and market/sell other products. The furniture has its own tone and is charged with a value regarding quality.

    A few weeks into the project I decided to incorporate the company & Other Stories as a part of my project and target.

  • 35.
    Dahlqvist, Thea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Användargenererad data i tjänstedesignprocessen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the study is to find out how three different innovative techniques can be used to collect user experience in a service design process. This is carried out using a design case regarding the user experience of the Norrkoping’s Symphony Orchestras (SON) concerts. This is a symphony orchestra that has experienced increasing difficulty in attracting more visitors, and new methods are needed to tackle the problem. Therefore, in this study mobile ethnography and innovative methods will be used.

    There were 20 participants in the study, including a mix of people who regularly attend SON-concerts and those who do not. The participant’s task in this study was to attend two of SON-concerts and document their experience using three different innovative techniques: Probe, smartphone application and automatic camera.

    The result of the study shows that the probe gave a much more detailed look into the participants’ view of the concert experience, and contributed in widening the focus of the service design process. The application gave a more detailed information in real-time, on sight. The automatic camera gave a more detailed flow, automatically on sight, of the concert experience. That may show certain patterns and behaviors of the participants linked to the concert experience.

    The study shows that the three innovative techniques puts focus on the user throughout the entire service design process, which is the foundation for working user-centered. If the techniques are used in combination they become more effective as they complete each other in a service design process.

  • 36.
    Danngren, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    När skor blev till hantverk: En studie om skobranschen ur de verksammas ögon2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att studera hur personer verksamma inom olika områden i skobranschen upplever verksamhetsområdet samt på vilket sätt de ser på handgjorda och fabrikstillverkade skor.

    Utifrån syftet valdes tre frågeställningar ut: Vad anser de verksamma att det krävs för att ett par skor ska klassas som handgjorda respektive fabrikstillverkade? Hur upplever de hantverket i sig? Vad är de verksammas uppfattningar om den svenska skobranschens förändring?

    Metoden som användes var en kvalitativ studie med en semi-strukturerad intervju som metod. Metoden gjorde det möjligt att samla in material i informanternas naturliga miljö för att sedan tolka och bearbeta dem. På grund av arbetets omfång så gjordes det ett urval som resulterade i totalt sex informanter, tre som arbetade med handgjorda skor och tre som arbetade med fabrikstillverkade. Till hjälp användes en intervjuguide med nio huvudfrågor men utifrån dem fick informanterna tala fritt med öppna svarsalternativ.

    I analysen presenteras informanternas svar i tre olika teman, handgjorda respektive fabrikstillverkade skor, hantverket och importen samt skobranschens förändring och framtid. Svaren presenteras i form av blockcitat följt av mina tolkningar och i slutet på varje tema en sammanfattning. Analysen visar att informanterna anser att begreppet handgjorda skor enbart får användas när en maskin brukats och vid användning av flera bör skorna klassas som fabrikstillverkade. När det kommer till hantverket ser samtliga informanter sig själva som hantverkare även om den ena yrkesgruppen anses vara det lite mer än den andra. I det sista temat framkommer skilda åsikter om huruvida skoindustrins förändring är positiv eller negativ.

    I diskussionen resonerar jag kring mitt val av syfte och frågeställningar, mitt metodval samt tolkar och jämför informanternas svar med bakgrund- och teori avsnitten.

    Avslutningsvis presenteras vidare forskning följt av ett par avslutande ord gällande hela studien.

  • 37.
    Dell Uva, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    ”Lätt som en fjäder”: Ett arbete drivet av besattheten att formge en trästol lätt som en fjäder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Under my three years at Carl Malmsten – Furniture Studies I have developed a liking to process.

    In my opinion design is about exploring and is, like all development, based on science and research. A clever design is therefore about the process rather than the result since my experience is that well made design give birth to new ideas that later on can become something sensational.

    In my degree work my intention is to shut down the creative ego inside of me and instead embrace the creative altruist who shares his work in progress with others.

    My chosen task during this project has been to construct a lightweight wooden chair. To be able to do so I have analysed existing data as well as getting new information through tests and research.

  • 38.
    Dimanche, Frédéric
    et al.
    SKEMA Business School.
    Keup, Mady
    SKEMA Business School.
    Prayag, Girish
    SKEMA Business School.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is service design2012In: Service Design and Tourism: Case studies of applied research projects on mobile ethnography for tourism destinations / [ed] Marc Stickdorn, Birgit Frischhut, Norderstedt: Books on Demand , 2012, p. 10-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism becomes more and more transparent through social media and tourism review websites. Nowadays, it’s the individual guest’s experience that makes or breaks the success of a tourism product. Thus, the focus in tourism shifts from mere marketing communications to meaningful experiences. Service design thinking can provide an in-depth and holistic understanding of customers required to co-create meaningful experiences with guests.The book provides an introduction into service design and tourism and presents seven case studies of European tourism destinations, which used the app myServiceFellow as a mobile ethnography research tool to gain genuine customer insights. The book reports lessons learned of these case studies, gives managerial implications and an outlook on future research fields for service design in tourism.

  • 39.
    Ekström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tankar om ett kök2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The kitchen is one of the most important rooms in our homes. It is a place for social engagements, meetings between people and activity. How the kitchen looks today is a concept sprung from the Swedish kitchen standard of 1952. Eventhou this standard no longer exists it is a model of how kitchens are designed today. The kitchens most often sold today come from one of four major kitchen manufacturers in Sweden.

    My thesis investiges an alternative kitchen concept. What I am suggesting encourages social situations and activitys and offers surfaces where we can come together. It displays rather than hides those personal objects that make a kitchen personal.

    Like the countryside kitchen of old times, in wich the fireplace were the core of the home, this concept and its surfaces create the same conditions for socialmeetings and activity.

    I have in this rapport focused on workspace, storage and where we sit and and eat.

    To me a kitchen is all about, personality and the joy of creating.Anders Ekström

  • 40.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nåbo, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklöf, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    CHALLENGING BRIEFS; LEARNING THROUGH CLIENT AND DESIGNER ROLES IN FRESHMEN DESIGN EDUCATION2017In: BUILDING COMMUNITY: DESIGN EDUCATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, DESIGN SOC , 2017, p. 400-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details an exploratory study of a design brief exchange method, using freshmen students in the beginner course Introduction to Design and Product Development at Linkoping University as a case. In design projects for clients, the design brief, irrespective of whether it is an explicit document or not, is generally seen as a critical step towards successful outcomes. From a design didactical perspective, it is a relevant question how to empower design students to engage with client-drafted briefs. In the proposed design brief exchange method, a student group drafts a design brief which they hand to a second group, while receiving a brief from a third. Every group thus performs both a client and designer role. A study was conducted on twelve student groups of 6-7 students each to investigate if and how the proposed method supports teaching students to cope with ambiguity. The students were, at several times during the course, prompted by staff to reflect on the brief they drafted in the role of clients as well as the brief received in their role as designers. Reflections were based on a set of questions and written in their project journal used for documentation in the course. Students and examiners reflections suggests that this is a promising approach to engage students in questioning client-drafted briefs and handle the ambiguity of design challenges.

  • 41.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ah, I see what you didnt mean2019In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 22, p. 1883-1897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that Computer Aided Design ( CAD) tools are unsuitable for design ideation as they are said to not support serendipitous interpretation, playfulness and creativity. However, this notion is based on anecdotal evidence and research that was done using CAD tools now considered obsolete. This study therefore aims to provide insights on the use of currently available CAD tools for design ideation. This was done by having three experts evaluate the use of pen- and- paper sketches and four different CAD tools for design ideation and discuss the results. The results from this study suggest that CAD tools have the potential to support serendipity and provide an environment for creativity and playfulness. There are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is notoriously hard to make sketches, such as in lighting design.

  • 42.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping university.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    “Ah, I see what you didn’t mean”: Exploring Computer Aided Design tools for design ideation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are unsuitable for design ideation as they are said to not support serendipitous interpretation, playfulness and creativity. However, this notion is based on anecdotal evidence and research that was done using CAD tools now considered obsolete. This study therefore aims to provide insights on the use of currently available CAD tools for design ideation. This was done by having three experts evaluate the use of pen-and-paper sketches and four different CAD tools for design ideation and discuss the results. The results from this study suggest that CAD tools have the potential to support serendipity and provide an environment for creativity and playfulness. There are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is notoriously hard to make sketches, such as in lighting design.

  • 43.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In search of lost materiality; the case for physical modelling in Industrial Design Engineering education2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August / [ed] Philip Ekströmer, Johan Ölvander and Simon Schütte, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent years, Industrial Design Engineering students at Linköping University have

    frequently been observed to go directly from sketches into CAD, without making simple sketch

    models for evaluation in the early stages of their design process. This workflow gives them less

    information in their decision-making process and they lose the materiality of physical models,

    which is an aspect that many designers and researchers consider crucial for the development of

    form. This discussion paper explores whether this is an increasing trend and if so how it affects

    the breadth of design space exploration. In total, 25 master theses, covering a period of nine

    years, on Design and Product Development from Linköping University have been analysed.

    The design representations used and the diversity of the ideas across the product development

    process were visualized in graphs. This mapping supports our preliminary observation that the

    use of physical models is declining and suggests this decline correlates to a narrower

    exploration of the design space.

  • 44.
    Eliasson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Stimulerande väntan: Att formge för barnens väntrum inom vårdmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After my three years as a student at Malmstens, I have grown an interest towards spatialities and its influence on people. It have subconsciously sought me into situations where furniture becomes something more than sitting, but being multifunctional, smart and having psychological values. In my work Stimulating Waiting I have investigated the situation of children in waiting rooms in health care.

    In one of my previous design projects I worked with children's storage furniture, something I thought was very fun and challenging, because children look at the world differently than adults. In my thesis project I want to gain more understanding and deeper knowledge of children's products, as well as the situation the child is in. I have also chosen to explore how a waiting room could look in its spatial design to stimulate the child. My question I have worked with is; How can I create a stimulating situation for children in the healthcare environment?

    Through a learning stage where I investigate how children look at rooms, toys and fears, I have acquired experience in designing for children. In my world analysis I have gathered facts about waiting rooms in healthcare and how the requirements for furniture in healthcare looks in different parts of the process. I have also made study visits, conversations with competent people and a survey to gain an insight into how the waiting rooms are used. Based on my inquest, I present a room proposal as well as a furniture group that I designed for the children and their curiosity, where the imagination sets the definition of the objects.

  • 45.
    Erik, Lith
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Femmilsradie: Hållbar möbelproduktion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is about promoting prosperity now, and in the future, by taking into account ecological, social and economic factors. It is about meeting the demands of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs.

    Our thesis explores the conditions for sustainable furniture production through a flowchart, intended for use at the startup of sustainable manufacturing companies. The concept is based on the idea of raw materials being extracted and processed within a fifty kilometre radius.

    We hope to bring about a deeper relationship between user and object than that which comes with mere purchasing and ownership. We have chosen to make construction and structure apparent, while the design invites the mind to critical questioning of stability and sustainability, both in a literal and a wider sense. We want the object to be developed, personalised and tailored to the user, so that together they can live on in a society that we do not yet know

  • 46.
    Esperance Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discovering Service Variations through Service Prototyping2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S2247-S2257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing services require embracing the variability that makes it unique. This paper investigates how the use of a service prototyping technique enables participants to explore the variations inherent in services. The video data are analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the articulated variations are abstracted as categories. The resulting categories are then mapped across the service logic framework and the corresponding provider, joint and patient spheres. This paper aims to contribute to research on service prototyping by augmenting the use of prototyping methods to gain an understanding of the sources and possibly types of variations in a particular service. It clarifies how prototyping a service allows people untrained in design to diagnose variations that may occur in a future service and the decision-making process in accommodating variation. Further, the knowledge gained enables improved value co-creation opportunities in a service.

  • 47.
    Farhadi, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norin, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parkering i Norrköping: Processen att skapa ett mobilt användargränssnitt för att underlätta reseplanering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a series of prestigeous events such as the Bråvalla Music Festival and the European premiere of Harry Potter: The Exhibition, Norrköping will, during the summer of 2014, attract many tourists. As a visitor, it may be difficult to locate appropriate parking spots in situations like these. Norrköpings Municipality currently has a map on their website with an overview of parking spots in the central areas of the city. This map, however, is only suited for viewing on big screens. To search for the map on a mobile device, find an appropriate parking and then correctly navigate to its location may serve difficult for a user who is new to the town or pressed for time.

    The purpose of this study is to create a user-friendly interface design for a mobile application that aims to facilitate the parking process for drivers who live in, or are visiting, Norrköping. The study uses a sequential mixed method approach and the design process is based on a goal-directed and user-centered design. Surveys, interviews and usability testing have been employed to collect research in order to create an interface that meets the needs of the user.

    The study resulted in the creation of an interface for a parking application that can be used for planning purposes as well as navigation. Choices for design and interactivity are based on the users' goals and preferences. The study concludes that a stressful situation requires information to be clear, easily understood and call for minimum effort from the user's side. Redundant information should be removed and the steps it takes to obtain information should be reduced.

    Different users have different attitudes towards the use of mobile applications for planning and parking. The majority of interviewees would in a similar situation rely on a Google search for information. From this we can conclude that the easiest solution would be for Norrköping's Municipality to create a mobile website with information about parking in the city. However, in order to reach a broader target group and to incorporate certain complex functions and features, the creation of an application becomes necessary.

  • 48.
    Foglieni, Francesca
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Determining Service Value: Exploring the Link Between Value Creation and Service Evaluation2017In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the evolution of the service-dominant logic and critiques emerging from this, the purpose of this paper is to explore the link between value creation and service evaluation in order to understand what can be evaluated in a service, when and from which perspective, to ascertain its value.

    Even though in theory of service logic there is a quite clear understanding of service value creation dynamics, a reflection is missing on how to measure that value. The authors thus take on the concept of service evaluation as a further development of service logic, introducing a possible way to approach it.

    Bridging service logic studies and evaluation studies in the field of social sciences, this paper identifies temporal aspects of service evaluation, and possible evaluation objects and objectives that are meaningful for the service provider in value-facilitation activities and for the service user in value-creation activities. A framework is developed and some considerations are done upon shifting the reflection on value creation from theory to an evaluation practice.

  • 49.
    Folin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Bolin Åkerström, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Skapa nytt av nästan nytt: En undersökning i huruvida en möbeltapetserare kan arbeta med återbruk av modernt producerade möbler2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan en möbeltapetserare arbeta med återbruk av modernt producerade möbler?

    I vårt examensarbete har vi arbetat med återbruk av några utvalda produkter ur Ikeas sortiment. Vi har med vårt yrkeskunnande som möbeltapetserare och vår miljö som utgångspunkt velat skapa uppgraderade möbler av det människor tröttnat på.

    Resultatet av detta arbete är en liten kollektion redesignade möbler. Möbler att älska och att slita på under många år till.

  • 50.
    Forss, Ivar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En annan del av parken: En helhetssyn på möblering och planering av offentliga utrymmen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Parken är en relativt ny företeelse i staden men har spelat en vital roll i det sociala samhälle som Sverige har idag.  När Tessinparken mitt på Östermalm skulle renoveras valde staden att ersätta de befintliga parkbänkarna med ensits stolar utspridda med ett lång avstånd sinsemellan. Därigenom skapade Staden medvetet en osocial miljö. Bakom beslutet ligger ett konstnärligt förslag som blev avslaget i Stadsdelsnämnden och flera klagomål på personer som uppehåller sig i parken från boende i närheten . Efter att ha intervjuat personer i beslutsfattande positioner, inom möbelbranschen och hos trafikkontoret samt läst beslutsdokument, policy- och riktlinjedokumenten för stadens offentliga parkutrymmen sammanställdes en kriterielista. Denna lista låg sedan som grund för formgivningen av en bänk som ska underlätta möten emellan människor och få plats på begränsade ytor i stadens nya promenadstad. Den kan användas vid tillfälliga möbleringar eller för att skapa intressanta miljöer med en hög social och aktivitetsfaktor.

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