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  • 1.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rapp, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decline in lichen biodiversity on oak trunks due to urbanization2014In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 518-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suff ers from urbanization. In the present study, we focused on how the duration of urbanization aff ects therichness of 17 epiphytic lichen species and their cover on large oaks in urban environments in a city of 100 000 inhabitantsin southeast Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunkcircumference and surrounding oak density (within 300 m). Lichen richness and cover were lower on urban trees comparedto rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded byhouses. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a decline in occurrence with respect to the duration of housingdevelopment. Th e reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% ( Calicium viride , Evernia prunastri ), 80%( Chrysothrix candelaris ) to 90% ( Ramalina spp.) during the considered 160-year period of urbanization. Th erefore, even ifvaluable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen biota is likely to become depleted over time.

  • 2.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmer, Michael W
    Department of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn Univ., SE 181 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Changes in the distributions of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden using a new statistical method2009In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 413-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies on changes in species distribution have mainly been based on analysis of range boundaries. In contrast, the method used here evaluates shifts in species geographic centroids within a predefined area. We used presence/absence data on epiphytic lichens collected 1986 and 2003 from 64 sites in southern Sweden. A centroid was calculated each year, for each lichen species and substrate. The distance of centroid movement was evaluated in a permutation procedure. In total, 56 lichen species on 22 tree species were involved in the analyses, yielding 30 cases that had sufficient sample sizes both years to be evaluated. Out of these, three exhibited a significant movement of their centroid. The shift of lichen centroids of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson andamp; M. J. Lai on the tree species Juniperus communis L. was 50 and 151 km with the direction 27 degrees and 48 degrees, respectively. For Hypogymnia physodes on Pinus sylvestris L., corresponding values were 41 km and 30 degrees. The northnortheast shifts of these species in Sweden could be a response to a warming climate.

  • 3.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Annual burning of semi-natural grasslands for conservation favours tall-grown species with high nectar production2018In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 36, no 5, article id UNSP e01709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe are a main target for conservation efforts, and alternative methods to the traditional management of mowing or grazing would be welcome due to the difficulties in maintaining traditional management practices. One such method proposed is burning of grassland vegetation during late winter or spring. To evaluate the effects of annual spring burning vs annual mowing on semi-natural grassland vegetation, we compared the frequency of species in eleven field experiments in southern Sweden after ca 14 years. Out of the 88 species analyzed, five were more frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed plots (Vicia cracca, Cirsium arvense, Urtica dioica, Galium verum, Convallaria majalis). In contrast, 37 species were significantly less frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed ones, those with the largest differences being Ranunculus acris, Briza media, Veronica chamaedrys, Festuca ovina, Plantago lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Tall-grown species and those with preferences for N-rich soils increased in frequency under an annual spring-burn regime, compared with annual mowing, as did species producing larger amounts of nectar. Hence, although vegetation composition becomes more trivial with annual spring burns, there might be long-term benefits for nectar-feeding insects.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-12-20 12:13
  • 4.
    Tyler, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Biological Museums, Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Centre of Environmental and Climate Research, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    The Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa2015In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 300-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a north European context, identifying invasive species is far from trivial because the vegetation has been influenced by human activities for thousands of years. New species have immigrated continuously since the end of the last glaciation, both spontaneously and through direct or indirect help by man. Still, newly immigrated species may be problematic in a nature conservation context and may harm biodiversity, and cause changes in ecosystem services. In this study, all 721 presently established vascular plant and bryophyte taxa known to have been introduced to, or to have immigrated to, Sweden since the year 1700 are assessed for their invasive potential. The assessment is based on six components considered relevant for their invasiveness: 1) ability to compete in natural vegetation, 2) ability to form dense populations, 3) realized dispersal ability, 4) gene flow to native relatives, 5) time since immigration and 6) distance to their native range. Although the relative importance of these components is context dependent, a compound general index of invasive concern is proposed and calculated for all taxa. The index of invasive concern is validated by comparing it to assessments by a Bayesian Belief Network in which the influences of the same six components are assigned by expert opinions. In addition, rough estimates of the present-day abundance of each taxon in Sweden are presented. The origin, biology and possible impact of the 150 taxa with the highest index values are discussed. Based on the index of invasive concern, Campylopus introflexus, Epilobium adenocaulon, E. ciliatum, Rosa rugosa, Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. argentatum, Orthodontium lineare, Solidago canadensis, Calystegia sepium subsp. spectabilis, Rubus armeniacus and Prunus serotina are identified as the ten most problematic alien vascular plant and bryophyte taxa in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Tälle, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Dept of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The conservation benefit of mowing vs grazing for management ofspecies-rich grasslands: a multi-site, multi-year field experiment2015In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 761-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe are becoming more fragmented and many species that depend on thishabitat type are rare and threatened today. Management methods like mowing and grazing are needed to preserve remaininggrasslands. Because management is costly it is important to use the most cost-effective as well as the most beneficialmanagement method, but few studies have compared mowing and grazing. We investigated the effect of mowing andgrazing on grassland vegetation using data from 11 long-term field trials situated in southern Sweden. We calculated thechange in the odds of finding species belonging to three different groups of indicators at the start of the treatment and after8 and 14 years. The used indicator groups were indicators of good management, excess nitrogen and poor management.The results revealed an increase in the odds of finding indicators of good management in mowed plots and an increasein finding indicators of excess nitrogen in grazed plots. The odds of finding indicators of poor management remainedunchanged. Results from sub-analysis of the grazing intensity showed a more negative effect from grazing with low grazingintensity than normal/high grazing intensity. Therefore, mowing is the best long-term management method for seminaturalgrasslands in Sweden and grazing using a low grazing intensity should be avoided.

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