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  • 1.
    Gremmen, Mariola
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    First selection, then influence: Developmental differences in friendship dynamics regarding academic achievement2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1356-1370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades (i.e., language, exact, and social cluster). Data were derived from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study, using 6 waves (N = 601; Mage = 12.66, 48.9% boys at first wave). Results showed developmental differences between the first and second year of secondary school (seventh and eighth grade). Whereas selection processes were found in the first year on students' cluster-specific grades, influence processes were found in the second year, on both students' average and cluster-specific grades. These results suggest that students initially tend to select friends on the basis of similar cluster-based grades (first year), showing that similarity in achievement is attractive for friendships. Especially for low-achieving students, similar-achieving students were highly attractive as friends, whereas they were mostly avoided by high-achieving students. Influence processes on academic achievement take place later on (second year), when students know each other better, indicating that students' grades become more similar over time in response to their connectedness. Concluding, this study shows the importance of developmental differences and specific school subjects for understanding peer selection and influence processes in adolescents' academic achievement.

  • 2.
    Kenward, Ben
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Oxford Brookes University, UK.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forssman, Linda
    School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Brehm, Julia
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tidemann, Ida
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hermansen, Tone Kristine
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Saccadic reaction times in infants and adults: Spatiotemporal factors, gender, and interlaboratory variation.2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 1750-1764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccade latency is widely used across infant psychology to investigate infants’ understanding of events. Interpreting particular latency values requires knowledge of standard saccadic RTs, but there is no consensus as to typical values. This study provides standard estimates of infants’ (n = 194, ages 9 to 15 months) saccadic RTs under a range of different spatiotemporal conditions. To investigate the reliability of such standard estimates, data is collected at 4 laboratories in 3 countries. Results indicate that reactions to the appearance of a new object are much faster than reactions to the deflection of a currently fixated moving object; upward saccades are slower than downward or horizontal saccades; reactions to more peripheral stimuli are much slower; and this slowdown is greater for boys than girls. There was little decrease in saccadic RTs between 9 and 15 months, indicating that the period of slow development which is protracted into adolescence begins in late infancy. Except for appearance and deflection differences, infant effects were weak or absent in adults (n = 40). Latency estimates and spatiotemporal effects on latency were generally consistent across laboratories, but a number of lab differences in factors such as individual variation were found. Some but not all differences were attributed to minor procedural differences, highlighting the importance of replication. Confidence intervals (95%) for infants’ median reaction latencies for appearance stimuli were 242 to 250 ms and for deflection stimuli 350 to 367 ms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 3.
    van Rijsewijk, Loes
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pattiselanno, Kim
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Who helps whom?: Investigating the development of adolescent prosocial relationships2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, p. 894-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question “Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?).” The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood, and peer status) on receiving help and giving help were examined, and we investigated the contribution of (dis)similarity between adolescents to the development of prosocial relations. Gender, structural network characteristics, and friendship relations were taken into account. Data were derived from the Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence (SNARE) study, and contained information on students in 40 secondary school classes across 3 waves (N 840, M age 13.4, 49.7% boys). Results from longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) revealed tendencies toward reciprocation of help and exchange of help within helping groups. Furthermore, boys were less often mentioned as helpers, particularly by girls. Depressed adolescents were less often mentioned as helpers, especially by low depressed peers. Moreover, lower academic achievers indicated that they received help from their higher achieving peers. Rejected adolescents received help more often, but they less often helped low-rejected peers. Last, low- and high-popular adolescents less often helped each other, and also high-popular adolescents less often helped each other. These findings show that (dis)similarity in these characteristics is an important driving factor underlying the emergence and development of prosocial relations in the peer context, and that prosocial behavior should be defined in terms of benefitting particular others.

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