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  • 1.
    Chang, WR
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Gronqvist, R
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Leclercq, S
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Brungraber, RJ
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Mattke, U
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Strandberg, Lennart
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Thorpe, SC
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Myung, R
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Makkonen, L
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Courtney, TK
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-060174 Norrkoping, Sweden Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 2: Survey of friction measurement devices2001In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 1233-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to address questions related to friction measurement such as how friction is related to human-centred assessment and actual slipping, and how repeatable friction measurements are. Commonly used devices for slipperiness measurement are surveyed and their characteristics compared with suggested test conditions from biomechanical observations summarized in Part 1. The issues of device validity, repeatability, reproducibility and usability are examined from the published literature. Friction assessment using the mechanical measurement devices described appears generally valid and reliable. However, the validity of most devices could be improved by bringing them within the range of human slipping conditions observed in biomechanical studies. Future studies should clearly describe the performance limitations of any device and its results and should consider whether the device conditions reflect these actual human slipping conditions. There is also a need for validation studies of more devices by walking experiments.

  • 2.
    Chang, WR
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Gronqvist, R
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Leclercq, S
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Myung, R
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Makkonen, L
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Strandberg, Lennart
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Brungraber, RJ
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Mattke, U
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    Thorpe, SC
    Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland French Natl Res & Safety Inst, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France Korea Univ, Dept Ind Engn & Informat Syst, Seoul, South Korea Tech Res Ctr Finland, VTT Bldg & Transport, Espoo 02044, Finland Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Bucknell Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Lewisburg, PA 17837 USA Univ Wuppertal, FB14, Dept Occupat Safety, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany Hlth & Safety Lab, Sheffield S3 7HQ, S Yorkshire, England.
    The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 1: Friction mechanisms and definition of test conditions2001In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 1217-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction has been widely used as a measure of slipperiness. However, controversies around friction measurements remain. The purposes of this paper are to summarize understanding about friction measurement related to slipperiness assessment of shoe and floor interface and to define test conditions based on biomechanical observations. In addition, friction mechanisms at shoe and floor interface on dry, liquid and solid contaminated, and on icy surfaces are discussed. It is concluded that static friction measurement, by the traditional use of a drag-type device, is only suitable for dry and clean surfaces, and dynamic and transition friction methods are needed to properly estimate the potential risk on contaminated surfaces. Furthermore, at least some of the conditions at the shoe/floor interface during actual slip accidents should be replicated as test conditions for friction measurements, such as sliding speed, contact pressure and normal force build-up rate.

  • 3.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Nyce, J.M.
    School of Library/Information Mgmt., Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801, United States.
    How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems2004In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 1624-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

  • 4.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception2006In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 5.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres – based on official statistics2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given.

    Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 6.
    Gronqvist, R
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Otolaryngol, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Bioengn, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Chang, WR
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Otolaryngol, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Bioengn, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Courtney, TK
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Otolaryngol, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Bioengn, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Leamon, TB
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Otolaryngol, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Bioengn, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Redfern, MS
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Phys, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland Liberty Mutual Res Ctr Safety & Hlth, Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Otolaryngol, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Bioengn, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Linkoping Univ, ITN Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Lennart
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Measurement of slipperiness: Fundamental concepts and definitions2001In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 1102-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of basic concepts and definitions of terms related to the 'measurement of slipperiness' from the onset of a foot slide to a gradual loss of balance and a fall. Other unforeseen events prior to falls (e.g. tripping) are sparingly dealt with. The measurement of slipperiness may simply comprise an estimation of slipping hazard exposures that initiate the chain of events ultimately causing an injury. However, there is also a need to consider the human capacity to anticipate slipperiness and adapt to unsafe environments for avoiding a loss of balance and an injury. Biomechanical and human-centred measurements may be utilized for such an approach, including an evaluation of relevant safety criteria for slip/fall avoidance and procedures for validation of slip test devices. Mechanical slip testing approaches have been readily utilized to measure slipperiness in terms of friction or slip resistance but with conflicting outcomes. An improved understanding of the measurement of slipperiness paradigm seems to involve an integration of the methodologies used in several disciplines, among others. injury epidemiology, psychophysics, biomechanics, motor control, materials science and tribology.

  • 7.
    Jonker, Dirk
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rolander, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Balogh, I
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Sandsjo, L
    University of Boras, Sweden .
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Winkel, J
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Rationalisation in public dental care - impact on clinical work tasks and mechanical exposure for dentists - a prospective study2013In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish dentistry has been exposed to frequent rationalisation initiatives during the last half century. Previous research has shown that rationalisation often results in increased risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders, thus reducing sustainability in the production system. In this prospective study, we assessed mechanical exposures among Swedish dentists in relation to specific rationalisations of clinical dental work during a six-year period. Body postures and movements of 12 dentists were assessed by inclinometry synchronised to video recordings of their work. No rationalisation effects could be shown in terms of a reduction in non-value-adding work (waste), and at job level, no major differences in mechanical exposure could be shown between baseline and follow-up. Conclusion: The present rationalisation measures in dentistry do not seem to result in rationalisation at job level, but may potentially be more successful at the overall dental system level. Practitioner summary: In contrast to many previous investigations of the mechanical exposure implications of rationalisation, the present rationalisation measures did not increase the level of risk for dentists. It is highlighted that all occupations involved in the production system should be investigated to assess production system sustainability.

  • 8.
    Jonker, Dirk
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rolander, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dept of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark/Department of Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mechanical exposure among general practice dentists in Sweden and possible implications of rationalization.2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 953-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates dental work in terms of time distribution and mechanical exposure in value-added and non-value-added tasks. Further rationalization of dental work would typically involve an increase in the proportion of value-added tasks. Information on mechanical exposure within classes of value-added and non-value-added tasks can be used to predict possible implications of rationalization.

    Twenty-four dentists were investigated. Using a data logger, postures and movements were continuously recorded for each subject during four hours of work, which included 45 minutes of video recording. Time distribution and mechanical exposure for each work activity were calculated from the video recordings, using a loss analysis technique. Value-added tasks, which comprised 57% of the total working time, generally implied significantly more constrained mechanical exposures as compared with non-value-added tasks.

    The results indicate that future rationalization of dental work, involving a reduction of nonvalue-added tasks, may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 9.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rethinking false alarms by automotive active safety systems2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I address the issue of false alarms as they relate to the development of automotive active safety systems. I argue that false alarms are not only unavoidable; they should be considered an integral part of the design of active safety systems that address potential accident situations. Accidents are rare. Hence the base rate of true alerts will also be rare. This fact has two undesirable consequences if designers strive to eliminate all false alarms. First, the few true alerts would be so rare that the driver’s reaction can not be expected to be efficient. Second, the few issued alerts would be insufficient in number to enable drivers to calibrate trust in the system. I suggest that it is more prudent to acknowledge that there will be false alarms and focus on achieving driver acceptance for the issued alerts. We can take advantage of the drivers’ subjective perception of potential accident situations to guide the specification of the system’s alerting criteria. Such systems are likely to achieve higher driver acceptance.

  • 10.
    Neumann, W P
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering , Ryerson University , Canada.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Royal Institute of Technology , Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hansson, B
    School of Business, Mälardalen University , Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindbeck, L
    Royal Institute of Technology , Huddinge, Sweden.
    Effect assessment in work environment interventions: A methodological reflection2010In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to quality criteria selection bias. Learning from failed interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable proof of effectiveness to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. Statement of Relevance: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and proofo. It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.

  • 11.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonker, Dirk
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Winkel, J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandsjo, L
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Balogh, I
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Erland
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Working conditions, health and productivity among dentists in Swedish public dental care - a prospective study during a 5-year period of rationalisation2013In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1376-1386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, comprehensive rationalisations have been implemented in public dentistry in Sweden. How rationalisations affect working conditions, health and production from a long-term perspective has been poorly investigated. This study aims to analyse changes and associations in dentists' working conditions, health and productivity during a 5-year period. In 2003 and 2008, 65 dentists responded to questionnaires measuring work conditions and health. Treatment times for patients and productivity were tracked in electronic registers. Paired t-tests showed that the number of treated adult patients per dentist increased, and perceived physical working conditions improved while perceived work control and leadership deteriorated. Structural equation modelling showed that physical factors were important for health and productivity. When assessing risks in the work environment, there is a need to understand the interaction of effects on working conditions and health due to rationalisations so as to increase the sustainability of production systems.

    Practioner Summary: Dentistry in Sweden has undergone considerable change. Questionnaire surveys with dentists, undertaken in 2003 and 2008, found that the present rationalisations resulted in improved perceived physical working conditions. Aspects of the psychosocial working environment had deteriorated, however. This is a concern as health and workability are important for workplace efficiency.

  • 12.
    Rybing, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.2016In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 423-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

  • 13.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Eklund, J
    A method for measuring the external CO2 dead space volume in facial visors and respiratory protective devices in human subjects1996In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. n, no nArticle in journal (Refereed)
1 - 13 of 13
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