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  • 1.
    Ang, Siew
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Flynn Effect within subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, race, income, education, and urbanization differences in the NLSY-Children data2010In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn Effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations.

  • 2.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Identification of a flynn effect in the NLSY: Moving from the center to the boundaries2007In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Flynn Effect [Flynn, J.R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin 95, 29–51.] is an increase in IQ of around .33 points per year, observed in developed (and some developing) countries during the past century. It emerges from problem solving and other non-verbal components of IQ. The cause has been argued and theories proposed. Rodgers [Rodgers, J.L. (1998). A critique of the Flynn Effect: Massive IQ gains, methodological artifacts, or both? Intelligence 26, 337–356.] noted that the search for causes has preceded specification of the nature of the effect. Our study uses a national sample of U.S. children to test for the Flynn Effect in PIAT-Math, PIAT-Reading Recognition, PIAT-Reading Comprehension, Digit Span, and PPVT. An effect of the predicted magnitude was observed for PIAT-Math when maternal IQ was controlled. This finding in a large representative sample with thousands of variables supports more careful evaluation of the Flynn Effect, in demographic, geographic, environmental, and biological domains.

  • 3.
    Wänström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wegmann, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income: Some evidence from Swedish data2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effects of child sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income for a sample of Swedish school children (n = 1326). These children were measured in grade three in 1965 (age 10) and in grades six (age 13) and nine (age 16), and the women and men were later followed up in adulthood at ages 43 and 47, respectively. Using Bayesian varying-intercept modeling we account for differences between school classes in each of our three response variables: IQ-scores, school grades and adult income, and control for background variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, and maternal- and paternal age. Consistent with previous research, we find patterns of decreasing IQ scores for increasing sibship sizes, specifically for an increasing number of older siblings. No relationships between sibship size and childrens school grades are found. We find, however, patterns of decreasing adult income for an increasing number of younger siblings. In addition, considerable amounts of variations in intelligence scores as well as school grades are found between school classes. Some implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are provided. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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