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  • 1.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey2016In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the extent to which children are exposed to victimizing events is important to fully understand the effect of such exposure in shaping them as adults. The aim of this study was to use self-report by adolescents to measure the prevalence of victimizing events and of poly-victimization. A representative sample of 5,960 students (aged 17) from high schools in Sweden was given the self-administrated version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) along with questions concerning gender, birthplace, parents birthplace and employment, residence, educational program, and municipality size. The results show that 84.1% (83.0% young men and 85.2% young women) of the students had experienced victimization during their lifetime, and 10.3% were categorized as poly-victims (8.1% young men and 12.5% young women; OR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.35, 1.94]). Adolescents living with both parents were at lower risk of any form of victimization for both genders, while females were at higher risk of maltreatment, peer victimization, and, most significantly, sexual victimization. In conclusion, the vast majority of young people have been victimized during their lifetime. A greater awareness of the impact of these victimizing events on children and adolescents is important as a basis for providing a safer milieu and establishing better interventions, especially for those that have been victimized on multiple occasions. The high-exposure group was determined by using 10 events as a cutoff. Findings on this group corresponded with findings in other international studies regarding distribution, elevated risk for females, and the possibility of limiting the effects of victimization by modifying living conditions.

  • 2.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Individual Moral Disengagement and Bullying Among Swedish Fifth Graders: The Role of Collective Moral Disengagement and Pro-Bullying Behavior Within Classrooms2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, article id UNSP 0886260519860889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School bullying is a complex social and relational phenomenon with severe consequences for those involved. Most children view bullying as wrong and recognize its harmful consequences; nevertheless, it continues to be a persistent problem within schools. Previous research has shown that childrens engagement in bullying perpetration can be influenced by multiple factors (e.g., different forms of cognitive distortions) and at different ecological levels (e.g., child, peer-group, school, and society). However, the complexity of school bullying warrants further investigation of the interplay between factors, at different levels. Grounded in social cognitive theory, which focuses on both cognitive factors and social processes, this study examined whether childrens bullying perpetration was associated with moral disengagement at the child level and with collective moral disengagement and prevalence of pro-bullying behavior at the classroom level. Cross-level interactions were also tested to examine the effects of classroom-level variables on the association between childrens tendency to morally disengage and bullying perpetration. The studys analyses were based on cross-sectional self-report questionnaire data from 1,577 Swedish fifth-grade children from 105 classrooms (53.5% girls; M-age = 11.3, SD = 0.3). Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze the data. The results showed that bullying perpetration was positively associated with moral disengagement at the child level and with collective moral disengagement and pro-bullying behavior at the classroom level. Furthermore, the effect of individual moral disengagement on bullying was stronger for children in classrooms with higher levels of pro-bullying behaviors. These findings further support the argument that both moral processes and behaviors within classrooms, such as collective moral disengagement and pro-bullying behavior, need to be addressed in schools preventive work against bullying.

  • 3.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier..
    Wiebe, Douglas J
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Eshraghi, Bita
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Women’s Mobility and the Situational Conditions of Rape: Cases Reported to Hospitals2017In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A third of all rapes in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, take place in public outdoor places. Yet, little is known about the events that precede this type of sexual offence and less about the situational context of rape. This study aims to improve the understanding of the nature of situational conditions that immediately precede events of rape. Using medical records of 147 rape victims during 2012 and 2013, we constructed time- and place-specific records of the places women traveled through or spent time at, the activities they engaged in, and the people they interacted with sequentially over the course of the day when they were raped. The analysis uses visualization tools (VISUAL-TimePAcTS), Geographical Information Systems, and conditional logistic regression to identify place-, context-, and social interaction–related factors associated with the onset of rape. Results for this sample of cases reported to hospitals show that being outdoors was not necessarily riskier for women when compared with indoor public settings; some outdoor environments were actually protective, such as streets. Being in a risky social context and engaging in a risky activity before the event was associated with an increased risk of rape, and the risk escalated over the day. Among those women who never drank alcohol, the results were similar to what was observed in the overall sample, which suggests that risky social interaction and risky activity made independent contributions to the risk of rape. The article finishes with suggestions for rape prevention.

  • 4.
    Hildebrand Karlen, Malin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Inst Globally Distributed Open Res and Educ, Sweden; Natl Board Forens Med, Sweden.
    Green, Johan
    Inst Globally Distributed Open Res and Educ, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probat Serv, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Inst Globally Distributed Open Res and Educ, Sweden; Swedish Police Author, Sweden.
    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.
    Kings Coll London, England; Reykjavik Univ, Iceland.
    Time and Alcohol Do Not Change Everything: How Intoxicated Witnesses Perceive Aggression in Intimate Partner Violence2020In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, article id UNSP 0886260519900271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although alcohol-intoxicated witnesses to violent crimes are common, research on how alcohol affects witnesses perception of aggression is sparse. In the present study, it was investigated whether different levels of intoxication altered how severe witnesses perceived aggression displayed by involved parties in an intimate partner violence (IPV) scenario to be. An experimental mixed-groups design 3 (sober vs. moderate vs. high breath alcohol concentration [BAC]) x 2 (immediate vs. one week delayed interview) was used. Socially drinking men and women (n = 137; 67 and 70, respectively) were randomized to an alcohol condition (0.8 g/kg adjusted to 0.75 g/kg for women, divided into two intoxication groups: moderate amp;lt;= 0.08 and high amp;gt;= 0.08) or a control condition (juice). They were also randomized into a direct interview condition or a delayed interview condition. In a laboratory setting, they consumed drinks and viewed an IPV scenario on film. During their interview, the participants rated how severe they perceived the involved parties aggression to be. Inter alia, participants in the high BAC group perceived both parties physically aggressive behavior as comparatively less severe than the sober and moderately intoxicated witnesses did. The high BAC group also perceived the IPV scenario as less unpleasant than the other two groups, and they maintained this perception over time and repeated interviews. A BAC level of amp;gt;= 0.08 was required to significantly lower witnesses perceived severity of physical aggression, possibly caused by alcohols anxiety-dampening effect as well as its impairing effect on cognitive processing capacity over this level of intoxication. That alcohol intoxication at (or over) such a BAC level makes witnesses perceive physical aggression as less severe and less unpleasant, and also that such an altered perception holds over time and repeated interviews, is important for legal practitioners to be aware of when handling intoxicated witnesses to violence. Therefore, this issue warrants further investigation.

  • 5.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychopathy and affect consciousness in young criminal offenders2008In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 209-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize and tolerate the feeling and describe how they believe it is expressed in their posture and verbal expressions). Psychopathy is assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, and affect consciousness is assessed with a semistructured interview. Additionally, risk for criminal behavior, moral reasoning, cognitive distortions, and attachment style in the participants was assessed. The participants are 47 adolescent boys who were treated at juvenile delinquency homes. The results indicate that boys with higher ratings of psychopathy had lower consciousness of shame feelings and lower empathy scores. The results in combination with qualitative analyses of the interview answers are interpreted as indicating that consciousness of shame is specifically problematic for psychopathic adolescents.

  • 6.
    Mauritzson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergendahl Odby, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Fog Is Lifting; Veils of Mist Come and Go: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experiences of Six Women Recovering From Pathological Dissociation2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of the process of recovering from pathological dissociation. The study used data from interviews with six female participants diagnosed with pathological dissociative disturbances. All the women had a history of having been sexually abused. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Two main themes emerged in the analysis: social and relational change and self in movement. The themes mirror the interplay in the recovery process that took place both intrapsychically and with regard to the relational interplay between self and other significant people. The recovery process was dependent on an incipient sense of security in relational interaction, and this process was hindered by insecurity and ambivalence in relationships. Each patient’s relationship with her therapist also played a crucial role for the participants.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Gustafsson, Per, E
    Umeå University.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances2012In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 27, no 13, p. 2645-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the normative population (n = 462) completed the questionnaire, the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), together with Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The lifetime accumulation of interpersonal, noninterpersonal, and AFC was independently related to trauma-related symptoms in both boys and girls. The number of AFCs moderated the mental health impact of both IPEs and nIPEs in boys but not in girls. Cumulative exposure to both interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic events is important for the mental health of adolescents, and, at least for boys, family circumstances seem to be relevant for the impact of trauma. Our results suggest that broader approaches to the study, prevention, and treatment of trauma, including consideration of cumulative exposure, different types of trauma, and additional social risk factors, could be fruitful.

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  • 8.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Vasternorrland County Council, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Vasternorrland County Council, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Higher Risk of Violence Exposure in Men and Women With Physical or Sensory Disabilities: Results From a Public Health Survey2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1671-1686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization has declared that violence is a global public health problem. The prevalence of violence exposure among adults with intellectual and unspecific disabilities has been demonstrated in several studies, whereas only a few articles on people with sensory disabilities have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk for exposure to physical violence, psychological offence, or threats of violence in people with physical and/or sensory disabilities, compared with people with no such disabilities, controlling for socioeconomic data. Data from a public health survey were analyzed. A nationally representative sample of women and men aged 16 to 84 years had answered a questionnaire. In the present study, the whole sample, comprised of 25,461 women and 21,545 men, was used. Women with auditory disabilities were generally more often violence exposed than non-disabled women, whereas men with physical disabilities were more often violence exposed than non-impaired men. Some age groups among both women and men with visual disabilities had higher prevalence rates than women and men without disabilities. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were significantly higher among the auditory impairment group for exposure to physical (OR = 1.4, confidence interval [CI] = [1.1, 1.9]) and psychological (OR = 1.4, CI = [1.1, 1.8]) violence among women. Men with physical disabilities had raised odds ratios for physical violence (OR = 1.7, CI = [1.2, 2.4]) and psychological violence (OR = 1.4, CI = [1.0, 2.0]) compared with the non-disabled group. Both men and women with a physical or sensory disability showed higher odds of being exposed to violence than men and women without a disability. The results indicated that socioeconomic situation, smoking, and hazardous drinking strengthened the association between impairment and violence.

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  • 9.
    Wijma, Klaas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Söderquist, J
    Björklund, I
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among gynecological patients with a history of sexual and physical abuse2000In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 944-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All patients who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Link÷ping, Sweden over a 2-week period were sent a questionnaire about experiences of sexual/physical abuse and the Traumatic Event Scale, assessing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Of 649 patients, 26.3% showed a history of sexual or physical abuse in childhood or adulthood. Childhood and adulthood sexual abuse were experienced by 11.6% and 6.5%, respectively, childhood and adulthood physical abuse by 16.9% and 7.9%, respectively. Twenty-nine of all participants (4.5%) met PTSD criteria, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. PTSD was associated with multiple experiences of abuse. The frequency of PTSD symptoms was positively related to the amount and recency of abuse. PTSD participants reported more visits to a physician than abused non-PTSD and nonabused participants. The PTSD group reported less satisfaction than the other two groups with (a) contact with the physician and (b) the help received during visits to the clinic.

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