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  • 1.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lif, Patrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    The Value of Spatial Cues in 3D Air Traffic Displays2007In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in implementing 3D pictorial displays for traffic information in aircraft has been prevalent for decades without any obvious implementation in the cockpit. Our research is focused on design issues for these displays. The purpose of the experiments discussed here was to investigate where and when additional spatial cues, e.g., drop-lines, could contribute to better performance and whether such additions could replace shifts between 2D and 3D presentation for different tasks. Our results show that drop-lines are beneficial in focused attention tasks but are not necessarily beneficial in more integrated tasks. This speaks to the need for an adaptive approach to the presentation of flight situation displays.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Caroline M.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden..
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations2006In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 263-275 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

  • 3.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    et al.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Ljungbyhed, Sweden.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency , Linköping, Sweden.
    Mental Workload in Aircraft and Simulator during Basic Civil Aviation Training2009In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 309-325Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated mental workload in basic civil aviation training. Heart rate, eye movement and subjective ratings from eleven students were collected during simulator and aircraft sessions. Results show high correspondence in psychophysiological reactions between the sessions. For some flight segments heart rate was consistently lower in the simulator, suggesting higher mental workload in the aircraft. Differences in heart rate during rejected take-off and engine failure indicate that the increase of workload starts in advance of an “unexpected“ event in the simulator and seem to be of preparatory nature, while more connected to management of the situation in the aircraft. Descriptors: psychophysiology, mental workload, aviation training, flight simulation, learning transfer

  • 4.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    et al.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Ljungbyhed, Sweden.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilson, Glenn F.
    Air Force Research Laboratory , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio, USA.
    Svensson, Erland
    Swedish Defence Research Agency , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recording of Psychophysiological Data during Aerobatic Training2011In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring pilot mental workload can be important for understanding cognitive demands during flight involving unusual movements and attitudes. Heart rate, eye movements, EEG and subjective ratings from seven flight instructors was collected for a flight including a repeated aerobatics sequence. Heart rate data and subjective ratings showed that aerobatic sequences produced the highest levels of mental workload and that heart rate can identify low-G flight segments with high mental workload. Blink rate and eye movement data did not support previous research regarding their relation to mental workload. EEG data was difficult to analyze due to muscle artifacts.

  • 5.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Human factors in certification.2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 89-93Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Illusions of explanation: A critical essay on error classification2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error classification methods are used throughout aviation to help understand and mitigate the causes of human error. However, many assumptions underlying error classification remain untested. For example, error is taken to mean different things, even within individual methods, and a close mapping is uncritically presumed between the quantity measured (errors) and the quality managed (safety). Further, error classifications can deepen investigative biases by merely relabeling error rather than explaining it. This article reviews such assumptions and proposes alternative solutions.

  • 7.
    Goteman, O.
    et al.
    Goteman, Ö., Scandinavian Airlines Stockholm, Sweden, Flight Operations Standards, STOPS, Scandinavian Airlines, S-195 87 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    HUD with a velocity (flight-path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility2007In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational community has assumed that using a head-up display (HUD) instead of conventional head-down displays will increase accuracy and safety during approach and landing. The putative mechanism for this increase in safety is that previously demonstrated improvements in lateral and vertical control of the aircraft in flight should carry over to the landing situation. Alternatively, it is possible that, during approach and landing, the HUD might affect the pilot's ability to assimilate outside cues at the decision height, thereby reducing the success ratio for landings using an HUD. This article reports a pair of experiments that test these competing hypotheses. Taking advantage of the opportunity when an air transport operator introduced HUD in an existing aircraft fleet, we were able to use a Boeing 737-700 full-motion simulator flown by commercial airline pilots. We explored the effects of (a) HUD use, (b) ambient visibility, and (c) length of approach lighting on the size and location of the touchdown footprint. We also explored the effects of HUD use on approach success ratio. HUD use reduced the width of the touchdown footprint in all tested visibility and lighting conditions, including visibility below the minimum allowed. HUD use had no effect on the length of the touchdown footprint. We could not detect any decrease in approach success rate for HUD approaches. Based on these empirical data, the minimum visibility for approaches using HUDs could be set lower than for approaches without an HUD. Copyright © 2007, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 8.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions between simulated and real air-to-ground missions2002In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the similarities and differences in psychophysiological reactions in simulated and real flight. Five fighter pilots from the Swedish Air Force participated in the study, flying the same type of mission in a simulator and in real flight. Each pilot flew the same mission 3 times in the simulator and later 3 times in real flight. The pilots' heart rate, heart rate variability, and eye movements were continuously measured. Analyses of these data indicate that the pilots' psychophysiological reactions are very analogous in the simulator and in real flight.

  • 9.
    Rigner, J
    et al.
    Linkoping Inst Technol, IKP, Ctr Human Factors Aviat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Sharing the burden of flight deck automation training2000In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight deck automation has generated new training requirements, most of which have been absorbed by in-house airline training, in particular, aircraft transition training. This leaves little room for learning about how human roles have shifted in automated cockpits or how the distinction between technical and nontechnical skills has become blurred when managing the flight path of an automated aircraft. This article explores how overall pilot training quality, efficiency, and effectiveness would benefit from pulling automation training forward into the pilot training curriculum, reducing the burden carried mainly by transition training today. This article examines various stages of pilot training (including ab initio, multicrew cooperation, and crew resource management training) and lays out the opportunities and obstacles they contain for the integration of flight deck automation. In conclusion, airlines themselves can play a constructive role by specifying what kinds of automation learning requirements earlier pilot training stages should cover, and by sharing their automation philosophies and actively taking part in the design of the preairline training. Such participation from an airline can help achieve appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward automation among its future pilots.

  • 10. Svensson, EAI
    et al.
    Wilson, GF
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Man Syst Internact, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden USAF, Res Lab, Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 USA.
    Psychological and psychophysiological models of pilot performance for systems development and mission evaluation2002In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our study was to analyze the effects of mission complexity on pilot mental workload, situational awareness, and pilot performance and to develop models by means of structural equation modeling. Earlier studies indicate that mission complexity affects mental workload and that mental workload affects situational awareness, which, in turn, affects pilot performance. In the first phase of this study, 20 fighter pilots performed 150 missions. In the second phase, 15 pilots performed 40 simulated missions. The pilots answered questionnaires on mission complexity, mental workload, mental capacity, situational awareness, and performance. During the simulated missions we measured eye fixation rate, heart rate, and blink rate. Model analyses show that mission complexity affects workload and that workload affects situational awareness and performance. Significant relationships occur between heart rate and rated workload, mental capacity, situational awareness, and performance. Model analyses show a workload factor combining psychological and physiological aspects and a performance factor combining situational awareness and pilot performance. Significant relationships occur among heart rate, eye fixation rate, and blink rate.

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